Happy 210th Birthday, Abe!

Fig. 7 - Canceled Lincoln - 1909.45.1.obv.1385
Lincoln Centennial Medal by Jules Édouard Roiné, 1909 (ANS 1909.45.1), King 310. The dies were ceremoniously canceled, donated to the ANS, and used to strike this medal.
Fig. 7 - Canceled Lincoln - 1909.45.1.rev.1385
Lincoln Centennial Medal reverse.

Two hundred and ten years isn’t a milestone we normally celebrate in a special way, but 100 years certainly is, and Lincoln’s 100th birthday in 1909 was a big deal. Cities like New York and Chicago tried to outdo each other with tributes, and big names like Teddy Roosevelt and William Jennings Bryan made appearances at his birthplace in Kentucky and at his home in Illinois. Numerous tangible and lasting tributes were issued: ribbons, badges, postcards, calendars. Numismatic items too, of course. There were tokens and medals—even a coin, Victor David Brenner’s iconic cent. Numismatic portrayals of Lincoln were nothing new. The first ones appeared with his presidential campaign of 1860, and they continued through his presidency, only to proliferate after his assassination. The first medal issued by the American Numismatic Society was, in fact, a memorial to him, issued in 1866.

Fig. 5 - Hewitt001 corrected
Robert Hewitt Jr., 1863.

The ANS played a small part in the observation of the centennial. One of the Society’s longest-serving members was Robert Hewitt Jr., who had been collecting presidential medals since at least the time Lincoln was president (his collection of Lincolnalia would go to the Smithsonian in 1918). Hewitt was the force behind a couple of Lincoln medals by the sculptor Jules Édouard Roiné, both of which were issued bound into books. Roiné, Hewitt, and two brothers, Henri and Felix Weil, were all ANS members who played a role in founding the Medallic Art Company (MACO), the private mint that struck the medals. (In 2018, the ANS acquired the medals, dies, galvanos, plaques, paper and digital archives, and other historical materials from the defunct MACO.)

Aluminum medal announcing the planned cancelation of the Lincoln Centennial Medal dies (ANS 1950.106.1), King 347.
The medal’s reverse indicates that the canceled dies were to be deposited at the American Numismatic Society.

The dies for one of the medals were ceremoniously canceled with a cut indicating the centennial date (February 12, 1909). One thousand aluminum medals were issued by MACO announcing the die cancelation and specifying that the dies would be deposited at the ANS on the day of the Lincoln Centennial.

For more on the Lincoln medals, see Robert King, Lincoln in Numismatics, Token and Medal Society, 1966.

For more on Roińe, see David Hill, “Jules Édouard Roiné, Medals in Books, and the Birth of the Medallic Art Company,” ANS Magazine, 2018, issue 4.

When the Moon Throws You a Curve….

Kenneth Holland and Mary Lannin with Lannin's struck $1 silver coin.
Kenneth Holland and Mary Lannin with Lannin’s struck $1 silver coin.

There are few universal memories that make each of us think back and say, “Ah, I remember…”. One of these took place on July 20, 1969, when all nations were held mesmerized watching Apollo 11 and humanity’s first steps on the moon.

My link to that day culminated in an opportunity, as a member of the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee, to attend the ceremonial strike for the Apollo 11 $1 silver coin at the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia on December 13. I was able to strike my own $1 coin, ably assisted by Coin Press Operator, Kenneth Holland. Other “temporary” press operators were the children of the Apollo 11 astronauts, Mark Armstrong, son of Neil Armstrong, Andy Aldrin, son of Buzz Aldrin, and Ann Starr, daughter of Michael Collins.

Ann Collins Starr (l.) and Sculptor-Engraver Phebe Hemphill (r.) holding photo of 'Buzz Aldrin on the Moon' taken July 20, 1969.
Ann Collins Starr (l.) and Sculptor-Engraver Phebe Hemphill (r.) holding photo of ‘Buzz Aldrin on the Moon’ taken July 20, 1969.

The Apollo 11 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coin Program had been passed two years earlier by Congress, with common obverses and reverses required for the four coins in the series: a curved $5 gold coin, a curved $1 silver coin, a curved half-dollar clad coin, and a curved 5-ounce 3-inch $1 silver proof coin, the largest curved coin ever struck by the U.S. Mint. Quantities struck from this series should enable collectors to add to their collections – 50,000 $5 gold half-eagles, 400,000 $1 silver coins, 750,000 clad half-dollars, and 100,000 5-ounce $1 silver proof coins. The coins will be available for sale on January 24, 2019, and can be obtained at www.usmint.gov.

While the image of the reverse was mandated by the law—the famous ‘‘Buzz Aldrin on the Moon’’ photograph taken July 20, 1969, that shows just the visor and part of the helmet of astronaut Buzz Aldrin, in which the mirrored visor reflects the image of the United States flag, the lunar lander, and the remainder of the helmet has a frosted finish—the obverse design was open to a juried competition, judged by selected members of both the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee and the Commission of Fine Arts, with the final selection made by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Obverse (l.) and reverse (r.) of the Apollo 11 $1 silver coin.
Obverse (l.) and reverse (r.) of the Apollo 11 $1 silver coin.

Gary Cooper had his design of the boot imprint on the lunar surface selected as the winning representation, sculpted by U.S. Mint Sculptor-Engraver Joseph Menna. U.S. Mint Sculptor-Engraver Phebe Hemphill sculpted the reverse.

A sell-out of these coins will result in surcharges of $14 million for the three designated beneficiaries—50% to the Smithsonian Institution’s Air and Space Museum’s Destination Moon exhibit, 25% to the Astronauts Memorial Foundation, and 25% to the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation.

—Mary Lannin, ANS Trustee

Apply for the ANS’s Eric P. Newman Graduate Summer Seminar

65th Annual Eric P. Newman

Graduate Summer Seminar in Numismatics

June 3 through July 26, 2019

Study at the Foremost Seminar in Numismatic Methods, Theory, and Data Science.

For over half a century, The American Numismatic Society, a scholarly organization and museum of coins, money, and economic history, has offered select graduate students and junior faculty the opportunity to work hands-on with its preeminent numismatic collections. With over three-quarters of a million objects, the collection is particularly strong in Greek, Roman, Islamic, Far Eastern, and US and Colonial coinages, as well as Medallic Art. Located in New York City’s SoHo district, the Society also houses the world’s most complete numismatic library.

The rigorous eight-week course, taught by ANS staff, guest lecturers, and a Visiting Scholar, introduces students to the methods, theories, and history of the discipline. In addition to the lecture program, students will select a numismatic research topic and, utilizing ANS resources, complete a paper while in residence. The Seminar is intended to provide students of History, Art History, Textual Studies, Archeology, and Data Science who have little or no numismatic background with a working knowledge of a body of evidence that is often overlooked and poorly understood. Successful applicants are typically doctoral candidates or junior faculty in a related discipline, but masters candidates are admitted as well. This year’s Eric P. Newman Visiting Scholar will be Dr. Evangeline Markou of the National Hellenic Research Foundation. Dr. Markou is a specialist in ancient Greek coinage, particularly the coinage of ancient Cyprus.

Applications are due no later than February 22, 2019. A limited number of stipends of up to $4000 are available to US citizens, and non-US citizens studying at US institutions under certain visas. For application forms and further information, please see the Summer Seminar page of our website: numismatics.org/seminar, or contact the Seminar Director, Dr. Peter van Alfen (212-571-4470, x153).

Download the Flyer.

Seleucid Coins Online v.2 is Live


The American Numismatic Society (ANS) is pleased to announce the release of version 2 (v.2) of the web-based research tool: Seleucid Coins Online (SCO). As a component of the National Endowment for the Humanities-funded Hellenistic Royal Coinages (HRC) project, SCO aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the coinages struck by the Seleucid kings between ca. 320 BC and 64 BC, from Seleucus I to Antiochus XIII.

In January 2018, the American Numismatic Society initially launched SCO. At the time it was announced that the development of SCO would take place in two parts in imitation of the print volumes, Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalogue by Arthur Houghton, Catharine Lorber, and Oliver Hoover, published in two parts in 2002 and 2008 by the American Numismatic Society and Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. The first part, by Houghton and Lorber, presented and interpreted all the numismatic material for Seleucus I to Antiochus III known up to 2002. The second part, by Houghton, Lorber, and Hoover, did the same for the Seleucid kings from Seleucus IV to Antiochus XIII. In total, more than 2,491 primary coin types were published in these volumes.

The newly unveiled version of SCO (v.2), launched in November, 2018, completes the type corpus incorporating material related to Seleucid Coins, Part I, covering the reigns from Seleucus I to Antiochus III (c. 320–187 BC), and the material in Part II covering the reigns from Seleucus IV to Antiochus XIII (187–64 BC) as well as the posthumous Roman imitations (63–14/13 BC).

Ultimately, SCO will provide wide access to the coins listed in the print volumes of Seleucid Coins. While the Seleucid coins in the ANS collection (some 5,129 pieces) serve as the core of the searchable catalogue, ultimately links to coins (many of which are unique) in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, the British Museum, the Münzkabinett der Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, and many other public and private collections currently are and will be included. More than 1,000 types are linked to at least one coin that has been photographed.SCO will also stand at the cutting edge of the discipline through the inclusion of new coin types and varieties that have been recorded since 2008. SCO will be the only place where researchers can keep track of such new coins comprehensively and the expanding picture of Seleucid economic, political, and art history that they reveal. Frequent updates to the website will permit users to find and learn about new material almost at the rate at which it is discovered, thereby making SCO the most up-to-date catalogue available to students of Seleucid coinage.

“A Handheld History”—An Exhibit of Medallic Art at Bowdoin College Museum of Art

Curators of "A Handheld History" (l. to r.), Benjamin Wu, Amber Orosco, and Stephen Pastoriza.
Curators of “A Handheld History” (l. to r.), Benjamin Wu, Amber Orosco, and Stephen Pastoriza.

Before Thanksgiving I had the great pleasure of participating in “Holding History in the Palm of One’s Hand: Contemporary Perspectives on Medals and Coins from Antiquity to the Recent Past,” an event at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art in Brunswick, Maine, celebrating the exhibit “A Handheld History: Five Centuries of Medals from the Molinari Collection at Bowdoin College.” Three speakers, myself, Dr. Stephen K. Scher, and Prof. Susan Wegner, presented different aspects of medallic art and its history from its inception in the Italian Renaissance to the twenty-first century. We were then joined on stage by the curators of the exhibit, Amber Orosco, Stephen Pastoriza, and Benjamin Wu, for a panel discussion. Significantly, all three of the curators are currently undergraduate students at Bowdoin, which makes their achievement in curating this exhibit all the more remarkable.

In 1966, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art received from Amanda Marchesa Molinari a gift of a collection of approximately 1,500 art medals and 200 related books—including numerous rare volumes from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries— that she and her late husband, Cesare Molinari d’Incisa, had assembled over the course of several decades. The collection is rather astonishing for the large number of important medals of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries from Italy and Northern Europe especially, some of which, in fact, are lacking in the ANS’s collection, such as the John VIII Palaeologos medal by Pisanello. Curators at Bowdoin in the 1960s were certainly aware of the importance of this collection; a partial catalogue of the collection by Andrea Norris and Ingrid Weber was soon published and an exhibit of some of the highlights was put on display. In the decades since, however, this collection had not received the attention it rightly deserves.

Case containing medals pictured in the accompanying folio volume, the Histoire Métallique.
Case containing medals pictured in the accompanying folio volume, the Histoire Métallique.

In the summer of 2017, Museum Co-Director Dr. Anne Collins Goodyear and the student curators paid me a visit at the ANS and also spoke with Stephen Scher at The Frick Collection. Dr. Scher introduced them to highlights from the collection he had recently donated to the museum, then on view in the exhibition “The Pursuit of Immortality: Masterpieces from the Scher Collection of Portrait Medals.” Their purpose was to discuss the history of the medal, the Molinari collection, and their intent to put on a new exhibit of this outstanding collection. The results of their efforts, “A Handheld History,” are truly impressive. In eight cases, the exhibit not only displays some of the most important pieces from the Molinari collection, but also focuses on various aspects of medal production, metallurgical analysis in the study of medals, and the evolution of medallic art over the centuries. Two of the cases are particularly noteworthy. One includes a 1723 edition of the folio volume accompanying the Histoire Métallique documenting the reign of Louis XIV of France along with a selection of the medals illustrated in the volume; another includes a volume of Gerard van Loon’s 1732 folio Beschryving der Nederlandsche historipenningen along with medals depicting the ill-fated de Witt brothers, Johan and Cornelis. Rarely indeed are these two important early volumes exhibited side-by-side along with some of the actual medals illustrated on their pages.

Case containing medals of the de Witt brothers and the folio Beschryving der Nederlandsche historipenningen.
Case containing medals of the de Witt brothers and the folio Beschryving der Nederlandsche historipenningen.

The exhibit will be on display at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art through January 20, 2019. A video of the panel discussion will be made available on the Museum’s website.

NLG Awards Recognize Two ANS Publications

IMG-2422On August 16, 2018, the Numismatic Literary Guild recognized two American Numismatic Society publications at its annual bash and awards ceremony.

A Monetary History of Central America by Brian Stickney won the award for best book on world coinage (1500–present).

ANS Deputy Director Gilles Bransbourg won the award for best article or story of the year for his piece in ANS Magazine, “U.S. Money Doctors in Latin America: Between War and Depression, the Short-Lived Reinstatement of the Gold Standard,” which appeared in issue 2017.4.

ANS Members receive ANS Magazine four times a year as part of their membership, as well as a 30% discount on books. To become a Member of the ANS, call Emma Pratte at 212.571.4470 x117.

Antonine Pyres and Consecratio Coins

Fig_0_PortraitSteven Burges is a PhD candidate in the Department of History of Art & Architecture at Boston University. He is currently writing a dissertation that examines the representation of Roman imperial funerary pyres on the coinage of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius and the commemorative significance of these representations within the ideology of antiquity and beyond. He was a participant in the 2018 Eric P. Newman Graduate Seminar.

In March of the year 161 CE, the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius died at the age of 74 at his villa near Rome after reportedly “eating Alpine cheese at dinner rather greedily” (Historia Augusta, M. Ant. 12.4). His death marked a turning point in Roman imperial history, since, for the first time, a deceased emperor was succeeded by a set of official co-regents, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Hadrian had organized their joint adoption by Antoninus 23 years earlier.

Fig. 1. ANS 1966.62.10.
Fig. 1. ANS 1966.62.10.

The co-rulers issued coinage – bearing the obverse legend Divus Antoninus, or the divine Antoninus—to commemorate their father’s passing and subsequent deification, and it reflected the unprecedented transition of power and the continuation of the familial piety that had earned Antoninus the title “Pius.” An unparalleled type from the series contained the first images of a funerary pyre on which the emperor was cremated to appear on gold denominations of the Roman mint (fig. 1). In fact, the pyre became the exclusive reverse type of the aurei struck for Divus Antoninus in addition to becoming the most prevalent type of the silver and bronze issues. All included the legend consecratio, which likely referred to the funereal process of deification itself.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

In an effort to discover why the innovative iconography of the pyre came to dominate the commemorative coinages of Antoninus, I conducted a die study and hoard analysis of the aurei honoring Divus Antoninus. I then compared the results to studies of aurei minted after the death of his wife, the empress Faustina the Elder. She died and achieved godhood in 140 CE, at the beginning of her husband’s reign. While Antoninus produced a massive series of aurei for Diva Faustina with 24 different reverse types over a period of nearly twenty years, only one uncommon type from the early issues bore the consecratio inscription (fig. 2). It depicts the empress and a female driver in a quadriga – perhaps the celestial vehicle that bore her to the heavens. Although absent from her aurei, contemporary bronzes announcing her apotheosis were the first of any denomination to carry images of a funerary pyre.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In the years to follow pyres continued to adorn currency honoring deceased empresses and emperors, but primarily, they were found on the silver and bronze coins. The numerous tiers and ornate decorative sculptures, garlands, and tapestries align with the descriptions of ancient eyewitnesses (Cassius Dio, Historia Romana 75.4-5). Between the years 310 and 313 CE, the emperor Constantine would strike the last pyre coin, a rare gold solidus, to honor his deified father, Divus Constantius (fig. 3).

My analysis of the original Divus Antoninus aurei has enabled the identification of 30 obverse and reverse dies from 70 coins all with the same reverse type. In contrast, the earlier aurei of Diva Faustina survive in over 900 examples with nearly two dozen reverses, reflecting both the extraordinary scale and longevity of their production (Martin Beckmann, Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces, 2012). Despite the limited run of the Antoninus coins, the ratio of dies observed to the number of coin examples is nearly equivalent. Hoard evidence from Italy, France, and Portugal also suggests that the two coinages circulated within similar regions.

Fig. 4. ANS 1965.66.10.
Fig. 4. ANS 1965.66.10.

The difference lies in the significant expansion of the novel consecratio reverse with the pyre to the aurei under the adopted Marcus and Lucius. This suggests that they intended the pyre to serve as a specifically Antonine advertisement of dynastic continuity for the elite users of gold coinage. Further, it was a memento of the cremation and deification ceremony itself, which the co-rulers jointly oversaw, as the inscription on the pedestal of the column of Antoninus Pius indicates. The dynastic uncertainty of the time had been likewise countered in some of the last coins struck during Antoninus’s life. They depict the fecundity of his daughter Faustina the Younger surrounded by her four daughters: Lucilla, Cornificia, Fadilla, and Annia Faustina (fig. 4).

As I continue this research, I will expand the scope to the pyre reverses found in other denominations struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus along with other contemporary consecratio types, in order to continue unveiling the significance they held for the citizens, soldiers, and senators who used the coins.

NEW BOOK! Ancient Engraved Gems in the National Museum in Krakow


The ANS is pleased to have contributed to the publication of a new book on engraved gems from antiquity, which is now available for purchase. Ancient Engraved Gems in the National Museum in Krakow, by Paweł Gołyźniak (in English), is considerable in size and top in quality. It consists mostly of the specimens assembled by the extraordinary collector and art dealer Constantine Schmidt-Ciążyński (1818–1889). Almost 780 cameos, intaglios, scarabs, and finger rings are presented in this beautifully designed volume. This book will be useful not only to scholars interested in gems, but also to those who study the history of the art market and collecting, as well as to enthusiasts of Classical art and archaeology.

Part I: History and Character of the Collections (includes a brief biography of Constantine Schmidt-Ciążyński and the history and original structure of the collection).

Part II: Catalogue (includes hundreds of entries featuring a Babylonian cylinder seal, Egyptian plaque, Mycenaean seal, Archaic Greek gems, Classical Greek finger rings, Hellenistic Gems and Finger Rings, Etruscan scarabs and ring stones, Italic and Roman Republican gems, Augustan gems, Roman Imperial gems, Cameos, Early Christian gems, and appendixes on magical and Sassanian gems). Indexed by collectors and collections, subjects, and materials, with a concordance and bibliography.

ISBN: 978-3-95490-243-9
Publisher: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag
Hardcover, 318 pages, 30 b/w figures, 112 b/w plates
8.5″ x 12″, lay-flat binding

$150 plus shipping, no Member discount

Order directly from the ANS by contacting Emma Pratte at membership@numismatics.org or 212-571-4470, ext. 117, or order online with PayPal.

American Journal of Numismatics Guidelines Updated for 2018

The American Journal of Numismatics is an international, peer-reviewed journal that annually publishes original research in all areas of numismatics, in the form of articles, review articles, and short notes. Interdisciplinary contributions that relate numismatic research to broader questions of archaeology, anthropology, art history, economic history, cultural or social history, and related disciplines are particularly welcome. Questions and submissions should be emailed to Nathan T. Elkins (Greek, Roman, pre-Islamic Persian, Celtic, and other ancient topics) or David Yoon (medieval, modern, Asian, American, and other non-ancient topics).

The AJN is published once a year. The annual deadline for submissions is May 1. The journal’s guidelines have been updated for 2018.

Manuscript Preparation

Prior to submission, manuscripts should be complete and formatted according to AJN guidelines. If you have questions about the preparation of the manuscript that are not answered here, please email the editors. After manuscripts are complete, submit them by email to Nathan T. Elkins (Greek, Roman, pre-Islamic Persian, Celtic, and other ancient topics) or David Yoon (medieval, modern, Asian, American, and other non-ancient topics).

Articles may range from brief research notes (minimum of 1,000 words) to lengthy articles exceeding 10,000 words. Authors should contact the editors before submitting an article in excess of 15,000 words (including footnotes and bibliography); these can usually be accommodated, but space may become limited close to the annual deadline for submissions. Articles that are under review elsewhere will not be considered, and articles that have been previously published will not be considered unless there are no legal restrictions on the author’s right to republish and the information is not available in any widely known language of international scholarship.

For anonymity during the peer-review process, authors may wish to omit overt references to their own work, or acknowledgements that would relay their identity. Any special characters or non-Latin writing systems should use Unicode fonts where possible; if this is not possible, authors should use a font that is distributed under a non-restrictive, free-of-charge license and send the font to the editors with the manuscript.

 When a manuscript is accepted for publication, the author will be asked to provide the final artwork, copies of any necessary permissions, and a revised version of the manuscript that incorporates all changes specified in the acceptance letter and conforms to the guidelines described below. A manuscript will not be scheduled for production until all requested revisions, illustrations, and permissions have been received. Once the revised manuscript has been submitted, no major changes to the text will be allowed unless extraordinary circumstances warrant them. For the preparation of the final manuscript and accompanying illustrations, it is essential for authors to refer to the ANS Author Guidelines.

The AJN largely follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (CMS), and enforces American English spelling. All publishers encourage the practice of following a consistent style, and authors in numismatic studies should find it helpful to follow these guidelines from the beginning of the writing process, even if their manuscript ultimately is published elsewhere. The Chicago Manual of Style prescribes two citation formats; in general, AJN articles aimed at a humanities audience may prefer to use the first (“Notes and Bibliography”) format.

Example 1

Text: …in the direction of Jerusalem via Diospolis in 614 ce.156 The written sources do…


  1. J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture, rev. ed. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 42; C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD),” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003): 152–53.


Foss, C. “The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD).” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003): 149–170.

Haldon, J. F. Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture. Rev. ed. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

However, recognizing that numismatics is a cross-disciplinary specialization, authors writing more for a science or social science audience may prefer to use the second (“Author-Date References”) format.

Example 2

Text: …20–25% silver (Baker et al. 2017; Crusafont 1982, 237), compared to perhaps 2–4%…

References List:

Baker, J., V. Kantarelou, A. G. Karydas, R. E. Jones, P. Siozos, D. Anglos, and B. Denham. 2017. “The Height of Denier Tournois Minting in Greece (1289–1313) According to New Archaeometric Data.” Annual of the British School at Athens. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068245416000113.

Crusafont i Sabater, M. 1982. Numismática de la corona catalano-aragonesa medieval (785–1516). Madrid: Editorial Vico.

Digital Data

ANS print publications are integrated with digital publication. All authors are requested to provide their ORCID identifier so that their article can be correctly attributed to them online. Authors who do not yet have an ORCID identifier can easily create one at orcid.org; the editors can advise on this process if necessary.

Articles that present large amounts of quantitative information (e.g., metrological analyses of large groups of coins) are encouraged to provide the quantitative data as a digital file that the ANS can make available to other researchers online, rather than putting the raw data in print. This digital AJN data repository can also be used to make available supplementary material that supports an article without being integral to it.

Publication of Previously Unpublished Material

The AJN supports laws designed to discourage fraudulent collectibles and the illicit trade in antiquities. Objects originating before ca. 1500 whose history cannot be traced before the adoption of the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illegal Import, Export, and Transfer of Cultural Property of November 14, 1970, are subject to certain limitations for publication in AJN, if they have not previously been published in a scholarly (non-commercial) publication. If the object is in an institutional collection, has been reported to an official finds recording system (e.g., the Portable Antiquities Scheme), or has entered the marketplace legally (e.g., after review under the Treasure Act in the United Kingdom), there are no restrictions. Otherwise, if the information has a verifiable source such as a prior publication, a published sale catalogue, or a named owner, it may be used in publication as part of a larger discussion (e.g., a die study, a typological study, etc.) but not as the sole focus of the article. If no such source can be cited, the object is not suitable for publication. AJN reserves the option to reject any contribution that appears to publish recently looted or stolen material, especially from recent conflict zones, even if it otherwise meets these conditions.

Images and Sources of Images

 Images, charts, and graphs should not be embedded in the final text. Refer to the ANS Author Guidelines for the preparation of images. It is the author’s responsibility to secure and provide written permission for the use of any illustrations taken from other publications, the Internet, or other sources (in general, authors should assume that any image created after 1922 is restricted by copyright unless there is evidence to the contrary). All illustrations should have an attribution to source unless created by the author(s).

For ancient material, authors should give preference to illustrations of objects held by institutional collections over unprovenanced material from the trade or in private collections. Many institutions allow images of their holdings to be used free of charge for academic publications such as the AJN; if uncertain whether this applies, please discuss image sources with the editors. Illustrations of objects from the trade or in private collections may be used where necessary for completeness, if they can be cited to a verifiable source (as described in the previous section); however, objects with a verifiable pre-1970 provenance or in institutional collections should be used wherever possible. In general, articles that deal with types and iconography should always use institutional images, unless dealing with a type that is unknown in such collections. If contributors are unclear as to the guidelines or expectations, please contact the appropriate editor.

Conflict of Interest

Authors should disclose any potential conflict of interest at the time of submission. For instance, if the article describes or illustrates objects that the author owns or seeks to sell, this should be declared in a footnote.

Open Access

There is no embargo period for authors wishing to share their work online or through their institutional repository. The editors do ask that authors wait to share their work until the formal publication of the volume.

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