Money and Power in Hellenistic Bactria

(Numismatic Studies 40)

by Simon Glenn

List price: $150 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $105 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 0517-404X
ISBN 978-0-89722-361-4
Hardcover, xv + 386 text pages, b/w figs., b/w plates

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The coins produced by the kings of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom of the third and second centuries BC are the best and, in some cases only, primary source of evidence for the history of the period. The lack of context has, however, often led to highly speculative uses of the numismatic evidence in previous historical reconstructions. Money and Power in Hellenistic Bactria returns the focus to the coins themselves and presents the results of a full die study of the issues of Euthydemus I, Demetrius I, Euthydemus II, Pantaleon, Agathocles, and Antimachus I. In doing so it proposes a new, soundly based history of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom under these kings based on a thorough understanding and suggested reconstruction of these enigmatic coins.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Simon Glenn is Digital Curator of Early Modern European in the Heberden Coin Room at the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford. He was previously a research fellow of the same institution where he has worked on both Greek and Roman numismatics. He has been a member of the Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire, Roman Provincial Coinage, Ancient Coins as Related Cultural Heritage, and the Oxford-Paris Alexander projects. He is a graduate of the University of Edinburgh and completed his PhD at the University of Oxford (Wolfson College), the research of which provides the basis for this book. He is a fellow and council member of the Royal Numismatic Society, and is a member of the American Numismatic Society.

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The Tiflis Dirhams of Möngke Khān

nnm172cvr(Numismatic Notes and Monographs 172)

by Kirk Bennett

List price: $75 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $52.50 plus shipping & handling ISSN 0078-2718
ISBN 978-0-89722-362-5
Hardcover, 188 pages, color figures

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The dirhams of Möngke Khān represent the first major emission of silver coinage in Georgia following the Mongol conquest roughly a generation previously. Struck in the Georgian capital city of Tiflis (modern Tbilisi) from the middle of AH 652 to perhaps as late as the first month of AH 660 (AD 1254–1261), these coins circulated widely throughout the South Caucasus and adjacent areas.

This coin type was the first in Georgia to provide a date formula with both the month and year of the Islamic calendar. The placement of the date formula in the four marginal segments of the reverse of the coin means that parts of it are often struck off the flan or effaced on individual specimens. The problem is compounded by poor Arabic calligraphy on many coins, leading to much confusion in the literature about the extant dates. However, using secondary design features such as the varying central obverse and reverse decorative elements, this book creates a systematic framework for dating these dirhams, identifying previously unpublished dates and varieties in the process.

The first in-depth monograph on this popular and historically important coin series, this book will be a valuable resource for both scholars and collectors interested in Georgian, Mongol, and Islamic numismatics.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

An expert on Georgian numismatics, Kirk Bennett is the author of A Catalog of Georgian Coins. The only comprehensive compendium of Georgian coin types, dates, and varieties in any Western European language, the Catalog has become a standard reference for coins of Georgia across all time periods. Bennett has also authored or co-authored articles on Georgian numismatics for the Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society. He is a retired diplomat who served overseas in Istanbul, Moscow, Vienna, Warsaw, and Kyiv. A graduate of Georgetown and Indiana Universities where he majored in Slavic Studies, he currently lives in Vienna, Virginia.

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Hidden Power

ns42Late Cistophoric Production and the Organization of  Provincia Asia (128–89 BC)
(Numismatic Studies 42)

by Lucia Francesca Carbone

List price: $100 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $70 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 0517-404X
ISBN 978-0-89722-363-8
Hardcover, vii + 266 text pages, b/w figs., 142 b/w plates containing images of 1,737 coins.

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Using the production and circulation patterns of the Asian cistophorus as a case study, Hidden Power seeks to develop a better understanding of Roman monetary policy in the province of Asia between its establishment in the 120s BC and the beginning of the Mithraditic Wars.

Hidden Power catalogues and illustrates some 1,737 cistophoric tetradrachms and fractions from the mints of Ephesus, Pergamum, Tralles, Laodicea, Apamea, Adramyteum, Nysa, and Smyrna. Most of the coins included in the study are late cistophori, issues between 134.3 BC and the 60s BC.

Appendix I provides a discussion of the late cistophori of Tralles struck after 89 BC, showing not only the direct correlation between cistophori and Roman military campaigns, but also Roman taxation.

In Appendix II, circulation data have been combined with data derived from the Tralles die study in order to calculate cistophoric production for the entirety of provincia Asia until the end of the late cistophori. This estimate provides a means to assess the financial impact of Roman taxation and exploitation by Roman imperatores over the course of the first half of the first century BC.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Lucia Carbone is an ancient historian and numismatist who holds BA and MA degrees from Università Sapienza (Rome) as well as MPhil and PhD degrees from Columbia University (New York). She is currently the Assistant Curator for Roman Coins at the American Numismatic Society. Her main research interest is the impact of Roman imperialism on the monetary and administrative systems of the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire between the second and first centuries BC.

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Old Regime France and its Jetons

ns41Pointillist History and Numismatics
(Numismatic Studies 41)

by James E. McClellan III

List price: $100 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $70 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 0517-404X
ISBN 978-0-89722-362-1
Hardcover, xiii + 268 text pages, b/w figs.

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Non-monetary tokens known as jetons originated as counters used on medieval counting tables. In certain parts of France, the Low Countries, and German lands, they continued as such into the nineteenth century. The historical and numismatic interest in jetons stems more from what else they became, particularly though the end of the eighteenth century under the Bourbon monarchs, as perks of office for office holders in the burgeoning nation state of France, New Year’s Day presents exchanged among certain segments of society, and lagniappe handed out for attendance at meetings in town halls, regional estates, and learned societies. Jetons figured in the rites and rituals of the guilds and faculties; they were swag for general meetings of the clergy, and they served as calling cards for noble families. Decoding hidden messages became a parlor game for cognoscenti, and as “petit monuments” some jetons are miniature works of high art produced by the world’s most talented artists/engravers at the world’s preeminent mint. In this book jetons serve as microdots in a pointillist, longue durée account that paints a grand portrait of early modern and Old Regime France leading up to the French Revolution.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

James E. McClellan III is professor emeritus of the history of science at Stevens Institute of Technology. He has published widely on eighteenth-century French science, scientific institutions, scientific publications, and science and colonial expansion. Decades ago, from his work on French academies, Jim learned of jetons de présence—little silver tokens handed out for attendance at academy meetings—and he began collecting jetons. Along the way he encountered an unexpected divide separating communities of historians and numismatists specializing in early modern and Old Regime France, and he decided to investigate. He came to see that through the lens of these tiny, almost trivial artifacts from the past, a vast panorama opens up on the whole of society and culture of France through to the French Revolution. This book is the result of that inquiry, proving once again just how contingent the course of historical research actually is.

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White Gold: Studies in Early Electrum Coinage

Edited by Peter van Alfen and Ute Wartenberg
with Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert, Haim Gitler, Koray Konuk, and Catharine C. Lorber

List price: $150 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $105 plus shipping & handling
ISBN 978-0-89722-349-2
Hardcover, x + 707 text pages, b/w and color figures, charts, maps, and tables

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This book collects the most complete, current scholarship on the history of known examples of ancient electrum coinage of the Greek world, with text, catalogues, and images. The volume’s contents and an excerpt from the Preface are below:

Contents

Preface
White Gold and the Beginnings of Coinage: An Introduction to the Current State of Research. Peter van Alfen and Ute Wartenberg.

Part I: The Great Transformation

1. Kristin Kleber. As Skillful as Croesus: Evidence for the Parting of Gold and Silver by Cementation from Second and First Millennium Mesopotamia
2. Haim Gitler and Oren Tal. A View from the Near East: The Transition from Metal to Coin Economy in the Southern Levant
3. John H. Kroll. The Inscribed Account on Lead from the Ephesian Artemisium

Part II: The Earliest Electrum: The Evidence

4. Selene E. Psoma. White Gold and Electrum in Literary Sources and Inscriptions
5. Michael Kerschner and Koray Konuk. Electrum Coins and Their Archaeological Context: The Case of the Artemision of Ephesus
6. Michael Kerschner. The Archaic Temples in the Artemision of the “Central Basis”
7. Bernhard Weisser. An Archaic Striated Electrum Coin from the Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Miletus
8. Kenneth Sheedy. The Question of Archaic Athenian Electrum
9. Nicholas Cahill, Jill Hari, Bülent Önay, Esra Dokumaci. Depletion Gilding of Lydian Electrum Coins and the Sources of Lydian Gold
10. Maryse Blet-Lemarquand and Frédérique Duyrat. Elemental Analysis of the Lydo-Milesian Electrum Coins of the Bibliotèque Nationale de France Using LA-ICP-MS
11. Haim Gitler, Yuval Goren, Koray Konuk, Oren Tal, Peter van Alfen, David
Weisburd. XRF Analysis of Several Groups of Electrum Coins
12. Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert. Phanes: A Die Study

Part III: The Earliest Electrum: Interpretations—Why Coinage?

13. Alain Bresson. The Choice of Electrum Monometallism: When and Why
14. François R. Velde. A Quantitative Approach to the Beginnings of Coinage
15. Donald W. Jones. Mechanism Design Approach to Lydian Coinage
16. John H. Kroll. Issue Identification, Dynastai, and the Plethora of Types in Early Electrum Coinage
17. Peter van Alfen. The Role of “The State” in Early Electrum Coinage

Part IV: Electrum Continuation

18. Ute Wartenberg. Was there an Ionian Revolt Coinage? Monetary Patterns in the Late Archaic Period
19. François de Callataÿ. Prolegomena to a Die Study of the Electrum Coinage of Cyzicus
20. Mariusz Mielczarek. Cyzicene Electrum Coinage and the Black Sea Grain Trade 665
21. Selene E. Psoma. “ Ἥδε Κύζικος πλέα στατήρων”: How to Explain the Electrum Coinage of Cyzicus

Index of Coin Hoards
Index

FROM THE PREFACE

The genesis of this volume took place in 2011 when then Numismatic Curator, Haim Gitler, conceived of a unique exhibition to be held at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem that would showcase the earliest coins in the Western tradition, those struck in electrum. Five hundred coins, all from the collections of Dr. Thomas S. Kaplan, Baron Lorne Thyssen-Bornemisza, and several from the Israel Museum, were displayed in a spectacular exhibition, the first of its kind anywhere that looked at electrum coinage from the seventh to the fourth centuries BCE. Catharine Lorber soon joined Gitler in curating the exhibition, White Gold: Revealing the World’s Earliest Coins, a name suggested by Lorber, which opened in June 2012, with an exhibition catalogue of the same name written by Koray Konuk, Lorber, and edited by Gitler.

Meanwhile, Gitler organized a conference on electrum coinage that was held at the Israel Museum the week the exhibit opened. Tom Kaplan and Lorne Thyssen-Bornemisza, who have been keenly interested in this area of numismatic research, both actively participated in the conference. We are also most grateful for their most generous support, which funded the exhibition and conference, as well as this volume, and also for their help and enthusiasm for this project.  Initially, Gitler, Lorber, and Konuk planned to publish the conference proceedings with the Israel Museum’s imprimatur, but as many of the conference participants felt a follow-up meeting would be beneficial to address some of the outstanding problematic aspects of early electrum raised in Jerusalem, a second White Gold conference was held in November 2013 at the American Numismatic Society (ANS) in New York City. In 2016, it was decided that publication of the proceedings of the two conferences would be undertaken by the ANS with Ute Wartenberg and Peter van Alfen serving as the volume’s editors, who received considerable editorial and other assistance on several of the chapters from Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert. Since 2013, the scope of the volume grew. Scholars, notably Kristin Kleber and Donald Jones, who had not participated in the two original conferences were invited to contribute chapters, and others who had participated offered additional contributions. While the expanded scope of the volume delayed publication, nonetheless we can now offer a fuller and more detailed picture of the evidence at hand for understanding the various contexts in which early electrum coins were produced and used.

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Jacques Wiener’s Most Remarkable Edifices of Europe

RossCoverThe Man, Monuments, and Medals
(Studies in Medallic Art 4)

by Michael Ross

List price: $100 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $70 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 2166-4757
ISBN 978-0-89722-359-1
Hardcover, xiv + 366 text pages, color figs.

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The nineteenth-century medal series, The Most Remarkable Edifices of Europe, by Belgian engraver-medalist Jacques Wiener is examined in detail by author and collector Michael Ross. The work begins by providing a biographical background for Wiener, integrating two primary, existing sources, supplemented by information from Wiener family descendants. The overall medal series is then addressed starting with its inception as defined in Wiener’s original 1853 prospectus through its quietly incomplete conclusion. The scope of the series, its range of issue dates, and elements and characteristics of its production are presented. For each edifice commemorated, the associated medals, including new and unpublished varieties, are presented, legends translated, die characteristics examined, contemporary supporting documentation cited, issue dates revised, and source images used by the artist are identified in limited cases. Where applicable, instances of divergence between the state of the actual monument and Wiener’s renderings are noted as well. The intent of the work is to provide a greater understanding of the medal series through a contextual approach, supplemented by extraordinary, full-color photographs of the medals and the archival images of the architecture that inspired their creation.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Michael Ross is a life-long collector, numismatic exhibitor, and writer with a multi-decade interest in the medals of Jacques Wiener. He displayed an innate numismatic passion early in life, starting like many young collectors filling holes in his various blue coin folders for a number of years. A high school trip to Europe sparked a lasting fondness for ancient and medieval history and their associated architectural legacy and coinage. As a young adult, Mr. Ross was introduced to these mid-nineteenth century gems from the hand of Mr. Wiener—the medals exquisitely reflecting and uniting these interests. Although Mr. Ross has written articles focused on specific Wiener medals and on other topics, this is his first book. Mr. Ross is a member of the American Numismatic Society, American Numismatic Association, Texas Numismatic Association, Medal Collectors of America, Promotion de la Médaille, and various local numismatic clubs.

ERRATA

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Connections, Communities, and Coinage

WatsonCoverThe System of Coin Production in Southern Asia Minor, AD 218–276
(Numismatic Studies 39)

by George Watson

List price: $100 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $70 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 0517-404-x
ISBN 978-0-89722-358-4
Hardcover, 588 text pages, b/w plates

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The chief aim of the book is to address the system of coin production in the regions of Pamphylia, Pisidia and Cilicia during the third century AD. As in much of the Roman East, cities in these regions produced their own bronze coinage, but that this was in some respects collaboratively achieved is shown by the use of the same obverse dies by two or more cities, as well as the appearance of the same engraving style in multiple cities. The most comprehensive study of these phenomena to date is the work of Konrad Kraft, Das System der kaiserzeitlichen Münzprägung in Kleinasien, which was published posthumously in 1972. The book not only examines these questions in an area which was not explored in detail by Kraft, but also radically reappraises his conclusions and opens up new avenues of investigation.

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The Early Antigonids

AntigonidsCoverCoinage, Money, and the Economy
(Numismatic Studies 37)

by Katerina Panagopoulou

List price: $150 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $105 plus shipping & handling
ISSN 0517-404-x
ISBN 978-0-89722-355-3
Hardcover, xlv + 388 text pages, b/w figures and 64 plates

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This systematic analysis of the gold and silver coinages of “King Antigonos” is intended to explore the nature of the Antigonid cash economy during the second and the third quarter of the third century BC. The author’s principal aim in reconstructing the precious metal coinage of “King Antigonos” is to comprehend the way in which the mints concerned functioned and to identify the major issues of the period. This helps us to answer questions such as, whether or not production was continuous; on which occasions/for which purposes the mints operated; where and why the coins produced circulated and what their value at the time was; finally, whether these issues outlasted their initiator, Antigonos Gonatas. The macroeconomic profile of Antigonid Makedonia during this period is completed by an attempt to quantify and to contextualize these Antigonid silver issues. Explanations other than military for the production of this coinage are explored and the chronology and the role of those silver coins issued posthumously in the name of Alexander that are currently assigned to the early reign of Gonatas are reconsidered. Finally, the geographical distribution of these Antigonid issues is reassessed.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Katerina Panagopoulou (BA Athens, 1993, PhD London, 2000) is Assistant Professor in Ancient History at the University of Crete / Greece, holding currently a 2019–2020 Harvard University CCS-CHS Fellowship in Comparative Cultural Studies in Greece and having previously held fellowships at the Universities of Princeton and Oxford. She has also worked at the Hellenic Open University, (as a Research Assistant) at the Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity / Hellenic Research Foundation (1993–1994) and at the Foundation of the Hellenic World. Her research interests encompass ancient numismatics, the economic behavior of precious metals (Hellenistic and Roman), Macedonian demography, politics and economy, Social Network Analysis and economic history, Hellenistic and Roman social history. Publications include: “Between Federal and Ethnic: The Koinon Makedonon and the Makedones Revisited,” in H. Beck, K. Buraselis and Alex McAuley (eds.), Ethnos and Koinon, Studies in Ancient Greek Ethnicity and Federalism (Stuttgart, 2019), 363–383; (ed., with Prof. I. Malkin and Dr. Christy Constantakopoulou), Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean (London, 2009).

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The Nablus 1968 Hoard

GitlerCoverA Study of Monetary Circulation in the Late Fourth and Early Third Centuries BCE Southern Levant

(Numismatic Notes and Monographs 171)

by Haim Gitler and Oren Tal
with contributions by
Arnold Spaer, Sylvia Hurter, Dana Ashkenazi, and Adin Stern

List price: $75 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $52.50 plus shipping & handling ISSN 0078-2718
ISBN 978-0-89722-360-7 Hardcover, 256 pages, incl. 32 b/w figures and 42 b/w plates

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The Nablus 1968 Hoard is the largest late Persian/early Hellenistic period coin and jewelry hoard recorded from the southern Levant and the largest known hoarded assemblage of Samarian coins. This study provides a detailed catalogue of all the coins and pieces of jewelry the authors managed to record. In addition, the authors discuss the hoard and its context, its burial date, a synopsis of the history and archaeology of the Persian period province of Samaria, a discussion on the hoard’s Phoenician, Samarian, Athenian-styled, Philistian, and Yehud coins, Athenian tetradrachms and the few overseas Greek and Cypriot issues belonging to the hoard. The commentary chapter is followed by detailed archaeometallurgical studies on selected Samarian and Athenian-style coins and selected pieces of jewelry. There are also two appendixes, one presenting a method for determining dies links and the second offering a glossary of relevant terms. The hoard’s composition reflects the monetary circulation of the late fourth and early third centuries BCE southern Levant.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Haim Gitler, born in Mexico City in 1962, received his Ph.D. in numismatics from Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun in 2011. He has worked in the Israel Museum (since 1987), where he is currently the Tamar and Teddy Kollek Chief Curator of Archaeology (since 2013), as well as Curator of Numismatics (since 1994). Gitler taught numismatics at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1996–1998) and Tel Aviv University (2010–2014). He is the President of the Israel Numismatic Society and founder of the journal Israel Numismatic Research in 2006. His research interests focus mainly on Palestinian issues and mints of the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods, as well as on their metal composition and quantification.

Oren Tal, born in Tel Aviv in 1968, received his Ph.D. in archaeology from Tel Aviv University in 2002. He has worked in Tel Aviv University (since 2007) where he is currently full professor (since 2013) researching and teaching classical and medieval Near Eastern archaeology in the Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. Tal is the current Director of the Apollonia-Arsuf Excavation Project (since 2007) and co-director of the Tell Iẓṭabba (Scythopolis) Excavation Project (since 2019). His research interests concern the material culture of the classical- and medieval-period Near East and its social, political, and economic implications, from the mid-first millennium BCE to the early second millennium CE.

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Concordia Disciplinarum

Essays on Ancient Coinage, History, and Archaeology
in Honor of William E. Metcalf
Concordia-Cover

(Numismatic Studies 38)

Edited by Nathan T. Elkins and Jane DeRose Evans

List price: $75 plus shipping & handling
Member price: $52.50 plus shipping & handling

ISSN 051-7404-x
ISBN 978-0-89722-357-7
Hardcover, 283 pages, b/w images, color frontispiece

CONTENTS

Editors’ Preface, by Nathan T. Elkins and Jane DeRose Evans

Bibliography of William E. Metcalf

List of Abbreviations

Scythian-Greek Relations in the North and Northwestern Black Sea Area (6th–5th centuries BC): Numismatic Evidence, by Elena Stolyarik

The Process of Monetization from Athens to Egypt: Evidence and Models, by Andrew Hogan

The Thrace (?) ca. 1955 Hoard (IGCH 738), by Peter van Alfen

Numismatic Evidence for Compound Numbers Written in Greek Alphabetic Numerals, by Paul Keyser

The Asia Minor 1949 Hoard (IGCH 1450) at the American Numismatic Society, by Constantin A. Marinescu

Seeing Caesar’s Symbols: Religious Implements on the Coins of Julius Caesar and his Successors, by Roberta Stewart

A New Revival of an Old Coin Type: Sardis in the Augustan Era, by Jane DeRose Evans

Earthquakes in Asia Minor, the cura provinciae of Tiberius and the Cities, by Bernhard Weisser

A Neronian Overstrike at the Harvard Art Museums, by Carmen Arnold-Biucchi and Rebecca A. Katz

The Flavian Colosseum Sestertii and Imperial Praise, by Nathan T. Elkins

The Forum of Domitian on his Coins, by Ben Lee Damsky

Roma at Corinth: The Coins and the Monument, by Mary Hoskins Walbank

Le monnayage émis à Silandos de Lydie sous Septime Sévère, by Michel Amandry

The Coinage of Septimius Severus and the Battle of Lugdunum, by Gary Reger

Imperial Representation and Distributional Politics under Severus Alexander, by Carlos F. Noreña

Quantifying the Size of a Coinage: Die Studies or Coin Finds, by Roger Bland

An Aureus of Allectus with a Remarkable Pedigree, by Andrew Burnett

Interaction with Coins in the Liberalitas Relief on the Arch of Constantine, by Martin Beckmann

A Double-Obverse Bronze of the Constantinian Period from the Antioch Excavations, by Alan M. Stahl and Rafail Zoulis

The Ascension of Julian: Ammianus Marcellinus 20.4, by Sarah E. Cox

Index

FROM THE PREFACE

William E. Metcalf is a prominent name in numismatics, but is also universally recognized among those who study Roman history and archaeology. Known especially for his many contributions to Roman and Byzantine coinage, it is difficult to find a book or article that does not cite his work. A generous scholar, one can see his name in the acknowledgements in works by numismatists and scholars in adjacent disciplines who incorporate numismatic evidence. It is thus appropriate— and overdue—that his former students and colleagues present this Festschrift in recognition of Metcalf ’s impact on our discipline. It would be impossible to incorporate contributions from all of his colleagues and friends; the contributors herein represent but a fraction of those who would honor him.

His articles and reviews number in the hundreds, and he is author and editor of several books. Some of his best-known research centers on the cistophori. In 1980, he published his doctoral dissertation as his first monograph: The Cistophori of Hadrian (New York: American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Studies 15). Continuing this work is his recent The Later Republican Cistophori (New York: American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Notes and Monographs 170, 2017). A mark of his place in the entire field of numismatics is his editorship of The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). Although retired from teaching and curating, he continues his research, and is currently completing Roman Provincial Coinage X (Valerian to Diocletian).

Bill, as he is called by friends and colleagues, received his degrees from the University of Michigan. He was awarded his A.B. in Latin, with distinction and highest honors, in 1969, his A.M. in Classical Studies in 1970, and his Ph.D. in Classical Studies in 1973. That same year, he came to New York to begin his long association with the American Numismatic Society, where he would work until 2000. From 1973 to 1975, he served as Assistant Curator of Roman and Byzantine Coins; in 1975, he was promoted to Associate Curator, and in 1978, to Deputy Chief Curator. He succeeded Margaret Thompson as Chief Curator in 1979, and remained in this position until his departure in 2000. Presently, he is Honorary Curator and Life Fellow at the ANS. While serving at the ANS, Bill was appointed Visiting Professor or Adjunct Professor at several institutions, including Columbia University, Princeton University, Università degli Studi di Padova, Bryn Mawr College, Rutgers University, and New York University. In 2002, he was hired as the Curator of Coins and Medals at the Yale University Art Gallery and as Professor of Classics (adj.) at Yale University. In 2007, with the endowment of his curatorial position, he was named Ben Lee Damsky Curator of Coins and Medals, a title that he held until his retirement from Yale in 2014. Prof. Metcalf holds many distinguished honors and awards that recognize his research. Some key highlights are his membership at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1988–1989, his election as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1998, and his receipt of the Jeton de Vermeil of the Société Française de Numismatique in 2008. He is also the honorand of the annual William E. Metcalf Lecture Series of the Archaeological Institute of America, established in 2000 by Anna Maguerite McCann.

Among the people who influenced Bill’s professional development, two stand out. The first is Theodore “Ted” V. Buttrey (1929–2018), his mentor and advisor for his Ph.D. It was Ted who introduced him to the discipline of numismatics, involving him in the publication of the coins from the University of Michigan’s excavations at Carthage. These initial studies led to Bill’s interest and expertise in Roman Provincial coins (see also Metcalf 1977, 1979a, 1982b, 1987a, 1989, 2000, 2002a, 2007, 2008a, 2014, 2017) and the publication of hoards and excavation coins (Metcalf 1974a, 1974b 1975a, 1975b, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979b, 1979c, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, 1982a, 1987b, 1988, 19912, 1994, 1995/6, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002b). Ted’s ability to question received knowledge is clearly reflected in Bill’s careful arguments and fresh insights.

At the American Numismatic Society, he met his supervisor, mentor, and friend, the redoubtable Margaret Thompson (1911–1992). She exemplified for him unstinting work on behalf of the American Numismatic Society, the conduct of scholarly discourse, and the interest in bodies of material beyond the cataloging of particular coin types.

Teaching the next generation of numismatic scholars has been part of Bill’s life, as the two editors of this volume can attest. He has promoted the work of numismatics by introducing younger scholars to established scholars and collectors, and to dig directors who need numismatists for their excavations. His careful reading of forthcoming manuscripts has saved many an error or half-baked idea from going to readers or editors. His service to the field is reflected in his reviews of manuscripts and books, and service on the editorial boards for Lexicon Mythologiae Classicae, American Journal of Archaeology, Journal of Roman Archaeology, American Journal of Numismatics, Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau, and Bryn Mawr Classical Review, and on various committees for the American Philological Association (now the Society for Classical Studies) and the Archaeological Institute of America.

We offer this book in gratitude, as a reflection of Bill’s interests and deep scholarship, and an homage to his friendship and teaching.

Nathan T. Elkins and Jane DeRose Evans, May 2018