Reading List Roman


 Introductions and Surveys

  • Mommsen, Geschichte des römischen Münzwesens (Berlin, 1860); translated with additions and corrections by the Duc de Blacas, Histoire de la monnaie romaine (Paris, 1865-1870). The French edition is the one usually cited.
  • Bernhart, Handbuch zur Münzkunde der römischen Kaiserzeit (Halle, 1926).
  • Göbl, Einführung in die Münzkunde der römischen Kaiserzeit (2nd ed. Vienna, 1960).
  • Harl, Coinage in the Roman Economy (Baltimore, 1996)
  • Mattingly, Roman Coins from the Earliest Times to the Fall of the Western Empire (2nd ed. London, 1960).
  • Reece, Roman Coins (London, 1970).
  • P. C. Kent, B. Overbeck, and A. U. Stylow, Die römische Münze (Munich, 1973).
  • H. V. Sutherland, Roman Coins (London and New York, 1974).
  • P. C. Kent, Roman Coins (London and New York, 1978). English version, with different text and slightly different illustrations, of Kent/Overbeck/Stylow.
  • M. Burnett, Coinage in the Roman World (London, 1987). The most up-to-date and sensible of the lot, but unfortunately without bibliography of any kind.
  • A. G. Carson, Coins of the Roman Empire (London, 1990). A chronological account combined with good chapters on technical questions.
  • Melville Jones, A Dictionary of Roman Coins (London, 1990) provides useful short treatments of persons, terms, and types.



  • J. Haeberlin, Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens (Frankfurt, 1910).
  • A. Sydenham, Aes Grave (London, 1926). A reduction to handbook format of the preceding.
  • Babelon, Description historique et chronologique de monnaies de la république romaine (Paris, 1885). To be used with M. von Bahrfeldt, “Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik,” NZ 28 (1896) 1-170; 29 (1897) 1-150; 32 (1900) 1-116; 51 (1918) 73-180.
  • ––, Die römische Goldmünzenprägung während der Republik und unter Augustus (Halle, 1923).
  • A. Sydenham et al., Coinage of the Roman Republic (London, 1952). Minor supplements in C. A. Hersh, “Sydenham in Retrospect,” Mints, Dies and Currency: Essays in Memory of Albert Baldwin (London, 1971) 9-32.
  • H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (London, 1974). The only full-dress review to date is by C. A. Hersh in NC717 (1977) 19-36; see also H. B. Mattingly, “Coinage in the Roman State,” ibid. 199-215.


  1. Cohen, Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’empire romaine (2nd ed. Paris, 1880-1892). Teems with error, much of which has been subsumed into later literature. Has finally been completely superseded.
  2. Mattingly, E. A. Sydenham et al., Roman Imperial Coinage (10 vols. London, 1923-1994). The second edition of vol. 1 appeared in 1984, and further revisions are contemplated.
  3. Maurice, Numismatique constantinienne (Paris, 1908-1912). Largely replaced by RIC.
  4. Voetter, Die Münzen der römischen Kaiser, Kaiserinnen, und Caesaren von Diocletianus bis Romulus (Vienna, 1921). Often referred to as “Voetter-Gerin.”
  5. A. G. Carson, P. V. Hill, and J. P. C. Kent, Late Roman Bronze Coinage (London, 1960). Difficult to use, but indispensable for excavation purposes.

Moneta Imperii Romani. An ambitious (to say the least) effort to systematize Roman imperial coinage, narrowly defined. For a review see JRA 1 (1988) 170-175. Fascicules which have appeared to date include:

  1. Szaivert, Die Münzprägung der Kaiser Tiberius und Caius (Caligula) 14/41 (MIR 2-3 =Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historische Klasse 171, Vienna 1984).
  2. Szaivert, Die Münzprägung der Kaiser Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus und Commodus (161-192). MIR 18 = Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historisch Klasse 187, Vienna, 1986).
  3. Alram, Die Münzprägung des Kaisers Maximinus I. Thrax (235/238).
  4. Göbl, Die Münzprägung der Kaisers Aurelianus (270/275). (MIR 47 = Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historische Klasse 233, Vienna, 1993).


  1. Major Collections




  1. A. Grueber, Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum (London, 1910; reprinted with minor additions and corrections, 1970).
  2. G. Belloni, Le monete romane dell’età repubblicana (Catalogo delle raccolte numismatiche, Commune di Milano) (Milan, 1960).
  3. Berger, Die Münzen der römischen Republik im Kestner-Museum Hannover (Hannover, 1989). A major collection, built around that of Bahrfeldt.




  1. Mattingly and R. A. G. Carson, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum (London, 1923- ). Volumes 1-6 (31 B.C.-A.D. 238) have appeared to date. The starting point for all research into the imperial coinage.
  2. L. Cesano, Catalogo della collezione numismatica di Carlo Piancastelli (Città di Forli, 1957).
  3. Mazzini, Monete imperiali romane (Milan, 1957-1958).
  4. S. Robertson, Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet (Oxford, 1962-1982). The only complete catalogue of a small but distinguished collection (in the University of Glasgow); useful for its ongoing bibliographies and analytical tables.
  5. G. Belloni, Le monete di Traiano. Catalogo del civico gabinetto numismatico, Museo archeologico di Milano (Milan, 1973).
  6. H. V. Sutherland and C. M. Kraay, Coins of the Roman Empire in the Ashmolean Museum I (Oxford, 1975). An attempt at syllogizing the Roman coinage, broadly defined.

J.-B. Giard, Bibliothèque Nationale. Catalogue des monnaies de l’empire romaine.

  1. Auguste (Paris, 1976). The most extensive collection of Augustan coinage yet published.
  2. De Tibère à Néron (Paris, 1988).

III. Du soulèvement de 68 après J.-C. à Nerva (Paris, 1998)

  1. Grierson and M. Mays, Catalogue of Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection. From Arcadius and Honorius to the Accession of Anastasius (Washington, 1992). 955 coins of the period, with extensive introduction.
  2. Martini, Sylloge Nummorum Romanorum Italia. Milano: Civiche raccolte numismatiche I. Giulio-Claudii (Milan, 1990). Four fascicules have appeared to date, covering Augustus-Vitellius.


Medallions, etc.


  1. Gnecchi, I medaglioni romani (Milan, 1912).
  2. A. Grueber, Roman Medallions in the British Museum (London, 1874).
  3. Michelini Tocci, I medaglioni romani e i contorniati del medagliere Vaticano (Vatican City, 1965).
  4. Dressel, Die römische Medaillone des Münzkabinetts der staatlichen Museen zu Berlin (Dublin and Zurich, 1972).
  5. C. Vermeule, Roman Medallions (sc. in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts) (Boston, 1975).
  6. and E. Alföldi et al., Die Kontorniat-Medaillons. (AMUGS 6, Berlin, 1976 and 1989).


Roman Alexandria


  1. S. Poole, Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins in the British Museum (London, 1892).
  2. Dattari, Numi Augg. Alexandrini (Cairo, 1901).
  3. G. Milne, Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins. Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, 1933, reprinted with addenda, 1971).

Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Copenhagen 41, Alexandria-Cyrenaica (Copenhagen, 1974).

  1. Geissen, Katalog alexandrinischer Kaisermünzen der Sammlung des Instituts für Altertumskunde der Universität zu Köln (Papyrologia Coloniensia 5, Cologne, 1974-1983). Some 5600 coins from Augustus through Domitius Domitianus are published with full illustration.
  2. Förschner, Die Münzen der römischen Kaiser in Alexandrien. Die Bestände des Münzkabinetts, Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main (Frankfurt, [1988]). 1400 objects, including lead and glass.
  3. Savio, Katalog der alexandrinischen Münzen der Sammlung Dr. Christian Friedrich August Schledehaus im Kulturgeschichtlichen Museum Osnabrück III. Die Münzen des 3. Jahrhunderts (Septimius Severus - Domitius Domitianus) (Bramsche, 1997). 723 coins of the period, about 1/3 of the whole collection, lavishly presented.
  4. Emmet, Alexandrian Coins (Lodi, 2001).


  1. Hoards and Excavations


Publications of individual hoards are scattered, mostly in periodical literature; for the Republic Crawford’s RRCH is now becoming dated, and there has never been a systematic bibliography of imperial hoards. The appendix to Duncan-Jones’s Money and Government in the Roman Empire lists hoards through A.D. 235 with a minimum value of 400 HS, but provides only limited bibliography and does not distinguish between those hoards that are published in detail and those that are not. Coin Hoards, which appeared in eight volumes, has been succeeded by an annual listing in the Numismatic Chronicle. Two series are worth consulting: Coin Hoards from Roman Britain (British Museum Press; irregular, now with 40-60 hoards per volume; some of these have separate titles and are listed below) and Trésors Monétaires (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, annual, up to 15 hoards per volume, often with detailed treatment of comparanda).




  1. Bolin, Fynden av romerska mynt i det fria Germanien (Lund, 1926).
  2. H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coin Hoards (RNS Special Publication 4, London, 1970). Abbreviated RRCH.
  3. Dembski, “Die antiken Münzschätzfunde aus Oesterreich,” NZ 91 (1977) 364.
  4. V. Kropotkin, Kladi rimskikh monet na territorii SSSR (Moscow, 1961).
  5. Kunisz, Znaleziska monet rzymskich z Malopo»ski [Finds of Roman coins in Little Poland] (Warsaw, 1985).
  6. Mih|ilescu-Bîrliba, La monnaie romaine ches les Daces orientaux (Bibliotheca Historica Romaniae 23, Bucharest, 1980).
  7. Regling, “Der Schatz römischer Goldmünzen von Diarbekir,” Blätter für Münzfreunde 66 (1931) 375-381. Includes a listing of finds of Roman gold up to that date.
  8. Thirion, Les trésors monétaires gaulois et romaines trouvés en Belgique (Brussels, 1967).

––, Le trésor de Liberchies (Brussels, 1972). Pp. 77-83 include a bibliography of hoards of Roman gold reported after 1931; pp. 86-102 a list of finds in Belgium.

  1. M. Turner, Roman Coins from India (RNS Special Publication 22, London, 1989).
  2. Loriot, D. Nony, et al., Corpus des trésors monétaires antiques de la France (Paris, 1982- ). A bibliography arranged by department; six fascicules have appeared to date. Abbreviated CMTAF.




  1. W. Bell, Sardis IX: Coins 1910-1914 (Leiden, 1916).
  2. R. Bellinger, The Excavations at Dura Europus. Final Report VI. The Coins (New Haven, 1949).
  3. V. Buttrey, A. Johnston, K. M. MacKenzie, and M. L. Bates, Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Monograph 7 (Cambridge, Mass., 1981).
  4. V. Buttrey, K. Erim, K. T. Groves, and R. R. Holloway, Morgantina Studies II: The Coins (Princeton, 1989).
  5. M. Edwards, Corinth VI. Coins 1896-1929 (Cambridge, Mass., 1933).
  6. M. Kraay, Die Münzfunde von Vindonissa (Basel, 1962).
  7. Overbeck, Geschichte des Alpenrheintals in römischer Zeit auf Grund der archäologischen Zeugnisse II. Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Alpenrheintal und Umgebung (Munich, 1973).
  8. Pereira, J.-P. Bost, and J. Hiernard, Fouilles de Conimbriga III. Les monnaies (Paris, 1974).
  9. Thompson, The Athenian Agora II: Coins from the Roman through the Venetian Period (Princeton, 1954). Now accompanied by
  10. H. Kroll with A. S. Walker, The Athenian Agora XXVI: The Greek Coins (Princeton, 1993) which includes a great many local coins of the Roman period.
  11. B. Waage, Antioch-on-the-Orontes IV part 2: Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Crusaders’ Coins (Princeton, 1952).
  12. R. Walker, Roman Coins from the Sacred Spring at Bath. Part 6 of Barry Cunliffe, ed., The Temple of Sulis at Bath, II: Finds from the Sacred Spring (Oxford Committee for Archaeology Monograph 16.2, Oxford, 1988) pp. 281-358 [but published separately].


Area surveys


(The following works, all more or less similar in format, provide as much detail as possible regarding finds in the areas specified; sometimes the information is of strictly antiquarian interest, sometimes it amounts to initial publication.)


  1. Gebhart, K. Kraft, et al., Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Deutschland (Berlin, 1960). Abbreviated FMRD.
  2. Göbl, ed., Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Oesterreich (Vienna, 1976- ). Abbreviated FMRO.
  3. Fitz, Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Ungarn (Bonn/Budapest, 1990- ). Abbreviated FMRU.
  4. Gorini, ed., Ritrovamenti monetali di età romana nel Veneto (Padua, 1993- ). Abbreviated RMR Ve.
  5. Kos, Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Slowenien I-III (Berlin, 1988-95). FMRS.
  6. P. A. van der Vin, Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in den Niederlanden (Berlin, 1992- ). FMRN.
  7. Weiller, Die Fundmünzen der römischen Zeit in Grossherzogtum Luxemburg (Berlin, 1972- ). Abbreviated FMRL. Four volumes have appeared to date.


  1. Selected Special Studies


11. Republic


A. Alföldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr. I. Studien zur Caesars Monarchie und ihrer Wurzeln (Antiquitas 3rd ser. vol. 16, Bonn, 1986); II.  Das Zeugnis der Münzen (Antiquitas 3rd series vol. 17, Bonn, 1974).

  1. Backendorff, Römische Münzschätze der zweiten und ersten Jahrhunderts v. Chr. vom italienischen Festland. Studien zur Fundmünzen der Antike 13, Berlin, 1998.

A. M. Burnett, “The Authority to Coin in the Late Republic and Early Empire,” NC7 17 (1977) 37-63.

––, “The Coinages of Rome and Magna Graecia in the Late Fourth and Third Centuries B.C,” RSN 56 (1977) 92-121.

––, “The First Roman Silver Coins,” QT 7 (1978) 121-142.

––, “The Second Issue of  Roman Didrachms,” QT 9 (1980) 169-174.

––, “The Iconography of  Roman Coin Types in the Third Century BC,” NC 146 (1986) 67-75.

––, “The Beginnings of Roman Coinage,” AIIN 36 (1989) 33-64.

T. V. Buttrey, “The Morgantina Excavations and the Date of the Roman Denarius” Congresso Internazionale di Numismatica Roma 1961 II. Atti (Rome, 1965) pp. 261-267.

––, The Triumviral Portrait Gold of the Quattuorviri Monetales of 42 B.C. (ANSNNM 137, New York, 1956). A model of method.

––, “The Denarii of P. Crepusius and Roman Republican Mint Organization,” ANSMN 21 (1976) 67-108.

M. H. Crawford, “Plated Coins––False Coins,” NC7 8 (1968) 55-59.

––, Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic. Italy and the Mediterranean Economy (Berkeley/Los Angeles, 1985).

––,  “Unofficial imitations and small change under the Roman Republic, AIIN 29 (1982) 139-163, with “discussione” by L. Villaronga ibid. pp. 222-226.

G. Fuchs, Architekturdarstellungen auf römischen Münzen der Republik und der frühen Kaiserzeit (AMUGS 1, Berlin, 1969).

C. A. Hersh, “Sequence Marks on the Denarii of Publius Crepusius,” NC6 12 (1952) 52-66.

––, “Overstrikes as Evidence for the History of Roman Republican Coinage,” NC6 13 (1953) 33-68.

W. Hollstein, Die stadtrömische Münzprägung der Jahre 78-50 v. Chr. Zwischen politischer Aktualität und Familienthematik (Munich, 1993).

E. LoCascio, “State and Coinage in the Late Republic and Early Empire,” JRS 71 (1981) 76-86.

A. Santini, Saggio di catalogo generale delle monete consolari anonime con simboli (Milan, 1939).

A. Serena Fava, I simboli nelle monete argentee repubblicane e la vita dei romani (Turin, 1969).

R. Thomsen, Early Roman Coinage (Copenhagen, 1957-1961).  If there were a Nobel Prize in Numismatics, this book would have won it.

H. Zehnacker, Moneta.  Recherches sur l’organisation et l’art des émissions monétaires de la république romaine (BEFAR 222, Rome, 1973).


22. Empire––General


S. Bolin, State and Currency in the Roman Empire to 300 A.D. (Stockholm, 1958).

  1. Bastien, Le buste monétaire des empereurs romains (Numismatique Romaine 19, 3 vols. Wetteren, 1992-1994).

C. L. Clay, “Roman Imperial Medallions: The Date and Purpose of their Issue,” Actes du 8ème congrès international de numismatique (New York/Washington 1973) (Paris/Bâle 1975) 253-265.

R. P. Duncan-Jones, Money and Government in the Roman Empire (Cambridge, 1994). Includes many of the author’s earlier studies. Reviewed at length by W. E. Metcalf in RSN 74 (1995) 145-159.

P. V. Hill, Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types (London, 1989).

C. J. Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks. Studies in the Provincial Coinage of the Roman Empire (RNS Special Publication 17, London, 1985).

B. Levick, “Propaganda and the Imperial Coinage,” Antichthon 16 (1982) 104-116.

G. Mickwitz, Geld und Wirtschaft im römischen Reich (Helsinki, 1941).

A. S. Robertson, “The Romans in North Britain.  The Coin Evidence,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.3 (1975) 364-476.

C. H. V. Sutherland, “The Intelligibility of Roman Coin Types,” JRS 49 (1959) 46-55.

J. M. C. Toynbee, Roman Medallions (ANSNS 5, New York, 1944, reprinted with corrections and a bibliographical introduction by W. E. Metcalf, New  York, 1986).

D. R. Walker, The Metrology of the Roman Silver Coinage Part I: from Augustus to Domitian (BAR Supplementary Series 5, Oxford, 1976); Part II: from Nerva to Commodus (ibid. 22, Oxford, 1977); Part III: from Pertinax to Aemilian (ibid. 40, Oxford, 1978).  The most extensive series of metrological analyses yet published.

A. Wallace-Hadrill, “The Emperor and his Virtues,” Historia 30 (1981) pp. 298-323.

L. C. West, Gold and Silver Standards in the Roman Empire (ANSNNM 94, New York, 1941). Rather outdated, and for the silver replaced by Walker; but the only work of its kind to discuss gold.


33. Augustus


M. Grant, From Imperium to Auctoritas (Cambridge, 1946).  Like most of his work, to be used with caution, but fundamental.

––, The Six Main Aes Coinages of Augustus.  Controversial Studies (Edinburgh, 1953).  Indeed.

K. Kraft, Zur Münzprägung des Augustus (Wiesbaden, 1969).

A. Wallace Hadrill, “Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus,” JRS 76 (1986) 66-87. Important for the reading of coin types. See also above under “Empire-General.”

C. H. V. Sutherland, The Cistophori of Augustus (RNS Special Publication 5, London, 1970).


44. Julio-Claudians


A. M. Burnett, M. Amandry, and P. P. Ripollès, Roman Provincial Coinage I. From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (2 vols. London and Paris, 1992). A major work which describes and attempts to place in order all coinages not struck on the Roman system. Abbreviated RPC.

J.-B. Giard, Le monnayage de l’atelier de Lyon. Des origines au regne de Caligula (43 av. J.-C. - 41 ap. J.-C.) (Wetteren, 1983).

H.-M. von Kaenel, Münzprägung und Münzbildnis des Claudius. AMUGS 9 (Berlin, 1986).

F. S. Kleiner, The Arch of Nero in Rome.  A Study of the Roman Honorary Arch before and under Nero (Rome, 1985).

C. M. Kraay, The Aes Coinage of Galba (ANSNNM 133, New York, 1956).

D. W. MacDowall, The Western Coinages of Nero, (ANSNNM 161, New York, 1979).

P.-H. Martin, Die anonymen Münzen des Jahres 68 nach Christus (Mainz, 1974).

W. E. Metcalf, “Rome and Lugdunum Again,” AJN 1 (1989) 51-70.

C. Rodewald, Money in the Age of Tiberius (Manchester, 1976).

C. H. V. Sutherland, Coinage in Roman Imperial Policy 31 B.C.-A.D. 68 (London, 1951).

--, The Emperor and the Coinage––Julio-Claudian Studies (London, 1976). A re-employment of the methods and restatement of most of the conclusions of the preceding.


55. Flavians


I. Carradice, Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian A.D. 81-96. BAR International Series 178 (Oxford, 1983).

W. E. Metcalf, “The Flavians in the East,” Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Numismatics, Berne, September 1979 (Louvain-la-Neuve/Luxembourg, 1982) 321-339. See also the discussion in RPCII.


66. Nerva-Commodus


P. V. Hill, The Undated Coins of Rome (London, 1970).

W. E. Metcalf, “The Tell Kalak Hoard and Trajan’s Arabian Mint,” ANSMN 20 (1975) 39-108.

––, The Cistophori of Hadrian (ANSNS 15, New York, 1980).

P. L. Strack, Untersuchungen zur römischen Reichsprägung des zweiten Jahrhunderts (3 vol. Stuttgart, 1931-1937). Although difficult to use, this remains the most fully-documented source for this period.


77. 193-284


H. R. Baldus, Uranius Antoninus. Münzprägung und Geschichte (Bonn, 1971).

––, MON(eta) VRB(is) ANTIOXIA. Rom und Antiochia als Prägestätten syrischer Tetradrachmen des Philippus Arabs (Frankfurt, 1969).

P. Bastien, Le monnayage de bronze de Postume (Wetteren, 1967).

E. Besly, “A System for the Description of Obverse Busts on antoniniani,” Coin Hoards from Roman Britain 4 (1984) 1-5.

E. Besly and R. Bland, with contributions by I. Carradice and C. Gingell, The Cunetio Treasure. Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD (London, 1983). Cunetio and Normanby (the next item) are fundamental to understanding of the coinage of the 260s and 270s, and the relation of the “Central Empire” to the “Gallic Empire.”

R. Bland and A. Burnett, The Normanby Hoard and other Roman Coin Hoards (Coin Hoards from Roman Britain 8, London, 1988).

T. V. Buttrey, “A Hoard of Sestertii from Bordeaux and the Problem of Bronze Circulation in the Third Century A.D.,” ANSMN 18 (1972) 33-58.

––, “The Denarii of Pescennius Niger,” NC 152 (1992) iv-xxii.

J.-P. Callu, La politique monétaire des empereurs romaines de 238 à 311 (BEFAR 214, Paris, 1969). An extremely important work, as much for the access to bibliography as for the thesis.

R. A. G. Carson, “The Reform of Aurelian,” RN6 7 (1965) 225-235.

--, “The Hamâ Hoard and the Eastern Mints of Valerian and Gallienus,” Berytus 17 (1968) 123-142.

M. H. Crawford, “Finance, Coinage and Money from the Severans to Constantine,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.2 (1975) 560-593.

S. K. Eddy, The Minting of Antoniniani A.D. 238-249 and the Smyrna Hoard (ANSNNM 156, New York, 1967).

G. Elmer, “Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser in Köln, Trier und Mailand,” BJ 146 (1941) 1-106.

J. Fitz, Der Geldumlauf der römischen Provinzen im Donaugebiet Mitte der 3. Jahrhunderts (Bonn/Budapest, 1978).

K. W. Harl, Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East A.D. 180-275 (“The Transformation of the Classical Heritage 12, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1987). Not, technically, on Roman coins as traditionally defined, but a solid discussion of provincial issues, especially for Asia Minor.

P. V. Hill, The Coinage of Septimius Severus and his Family of the Mint of Rome (London, 1964).

H. Mattingly, “The Great Dorchester Hoard of 1936,” NC5 19 (1939) 21-61. One of the most important imperial hoards ever discovered.

W. E. Metcalf, “The Antioch Hoard of Antoniniani and the Eastern Coinage of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian,” ANSMN 22 (1977) 71-94.

K. Pink, “Der Aufbau der römischen Münzprägung in der Kaiserzeit,” NZ 66-69 (1933-36); 73-75 (1949-1951); and 80 (1963) 5-68.

--, “Die Goldprägung des Diocletianus und seiner Mitregenten,” NZ 64 (1931) 1-59.

B. Schulte, Die Goldprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus (Typos 6, Aarau, 1983).

Commune di Verona Musei e Gallerie d’Arte. Ripostiglio di Venèra Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato.  A huge western hoard, the basis for the modern arrangement of the coinage of Aurelian and Tacitus and no doubt will be for the early tetrarchy as well.

Volume I. Gordiano III-Quintillo, ed. J.-B. Giard (Rome, 1995).

Volume II/1. Aureliano, ed. S. Estiot (Rome,  1995)

Volume III. Tacito, ed. S. Estiot (Verona, 1988).

A. M. Woodward, “The Coinage of Pertinax,” NC6 17 (1957) 84-96.

––, “The Coinage of Didius Julianus and his Family,” NC7 1 (1961) 71-90.


88. 284-491


A. Alföldi, Die Kontorniaten.  Ein verkanntes Propagandamittel der stadtrömischen heidnischen Aristokratie in ihrem Kampf gegen das christliche Kaisertum (Budapest, 1943).

M. R. Alföldi, Die constantinische Goldprägung (Mainz, 1963).

P. Bastien, Le monnayage de l’atelier de Lyon

––Dioclétien et ses corégents avant la réforme monétaire (285-294) (Wetteren, 1972).

––De la réouverture de l’atelier par Aurélien à la mort de Carin (fin 274-mi-285) (Wetteren, 1976).

––De la réforme monétaire de Dioclétien à la fermeture temporaire de l’atelier en 316 (294-316) (Wetteren, 1980).

––De la réouverture de l’atelier en 318 à la mort de Constantin (318-337) (Wetteren, 1982).

––De la mort de Constantin à la mort de Julien (337-363) (Wetteren, 1985)

––Du règne  de Jovien à la mort de Jovin (Wetteren, 1987).

––(with M. Amandry and G. Gautier) Supplément (Wetteren, 1989).

--, Le monnayage de Magnence (Wetteren, 1964; 2nd ed. Wetteren, 1983).

-- and C. Metzger, Le trésor de Beaurains (dit d’Arras) (Wetteren, 1977).

P. Bruun, Studies in Constantinian Chronology (ANSNNM 146, New York, 1961).

A. M. Burnett, “The Coinage of Allectus. Chronology and Interpretation,” BNJ 54 (1984) 21-40.

R. A. G. Carson and J. P. C. Kent, “Constantinian Hoards and other Studies,” NC6 16 (1956) 83-161.

G. Depeyrot, Le numéraire gaulois du IVe siècle: aspects quantitatifs (BAR International Series 127 (i) and (ii), Oxford, 1982).

––, Le Bas-empire romain: économie et numismatique (Paris, [1987]).

P. Grierson, “Coins monétaires et officines à l’epoque du bas-empire,” SM 11 (1961) 1-7.

W. Hahn, Moneta Imperii Romani-Byzantini, Die Ostprägung des römischen Reiches im 5. Jahrhundert (408-491) (Denkschriften der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse 199, Vienna, 1989).

M. F. Hendy, The Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300-1450 (Cambridge, 1985).

O. Ulrich-Bansa, Moneta Mediolanensis (352-498) (Venice,  1949).



F.  Bibliographies


C. Morrisson, B. Kluge et al., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1990-1995 (Berlin, 1997) including

W. Hollstein, “Die römische Republik,” pp. 165-184.

J. van Heesch, “Rome from the death of Caesar to Commodus,” pp. 185-202.

C. E. A. Cheesman, “The Roman empire from the death of Pertinax to the monetary reform of Diocletian,” pp. 203-218.

H.-D. Schultz, “Römische Provinzialprung,” pp. 219-240.

D. Wigg, “Rome from Diocletian’s reform to Anastasius,” pp. 241-258.

A. Kunisz, “La diffusion de la monnaie romaine et protobyzantine hors de l’Empire en Europe et en Orient,” pp. 259-272.

T. Hackens, P. Naster et al., eds., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1985-1990 (Brussels, 1991), including

P. Marchetti and A.-L. Vignaux, “La république romaine: de début du monnayage à 44 avant J.-C.” (pp. 176-203).

M. Amandry, “De la mort de César à Domitien” (pp. 204-213).

J. van Heesch, “From Nerva to Commodus” (pp. 214-218).

J.-M. Doyen, “L’empire romain de Pertinax à le réforme monétaire de Dioclétien (193-284 après J.-C.)” (pp. 219-231).

G. Depeyrot, “Le Bas-Empire” (pp. 232-241).

Amandry, Depeyrot, Doyen, and van Heesch, “Liste des sites archéologiques avec trouvailles de monaiies romaines” (pp. 242-248). A most useful innovation.

M. Price, E. Besly, D. MacDowall, M. Jones, and A. Oddy, eds., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1978-1984 (London, 1986), including

A. M. Burnett, “The Roman Republic” (pp. 20-42).

J.-B. Giard, “L’empire romain d’Auguste à 294 après J.-C.” (pp. 233-252).

C. Howgego, “The Roman Empire: Greek and Provincial Issues” (pp. 253-265).

J. P. Callu, “Le Bas Empire” (pp. 266-293).

R. Carson, P. Berghaus and N. Lowick, eds., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1972-1977 (Berne, 1979), including

M. H. Crawford, “The Roman Republic” (pp. 161-176).

W. E. Metcalf, “The Roman Empire from Augustus to 284” (pp. 177-191).

P. Bastien, “Le Bas-Empire” (pp. 192-211).

P. Naster, J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu and J. M. Fagerlie, eds., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1966-1971 I (New York, 1973), including

M. H. Crawford, “Roman Republican Numismatics” (pp. 293-302).

J.-B. Giard, “L’empire romain d’Auguste à 284 apres J.-C.” (pp. 303-336).

J. P. C. Kent, “The Later Roman Empire” (pp. 337-357).

O. Mørkholm, ed., A Survey of Numismatic Research 1960-1965 I (Copenhagen, 1967), including

M. H. Crawford, “Roman Republican Coinage” (pp. 153-161).

A. S. Robertson, “The Roman Empire from Augustus to 284” (pp. 162-187).

M. R. Alföldi, “Die Zeit des Dominats: 284-491” (pp. 188-229).


Earlier such surveys, less comprehensive and less useful now because the significant material has been absorbed into the current literature, include:


Congresso internazionale di numismatica Roma 11-16 settembre 1961 I. Relazioni (Rome, 1961), including

H. and H. B. Mattingly, “The Republic and Early Empire” (pp. 147-157).

J. P. C. Kent, “The Late Roman Empire 284-491” (pp. 159-177).


Congrès international de numismatique Paris 6-11 juillet 1953 I. Rapports (Paris, 1953):

R. A. G. Carson, “A Report on Research in Roman Numismatics 1936-1952” (pp. 31-54).



William E. Metcalf                                                                                                                                                     October 1999

Last updated by Sebastian Heath                                                                                                                                April 2003