Category Archives: Publications

The Collier Prize in Ancient Numismatics

Self-Portrait after Hans Memling (2006)

The American Numismatic Society, with the support of Carole Anne Menzi Collier, is pleased to announce The Collier Prize in Ancient Numismatics, a new award that will be offered for the first time in 2021. This substantial monetary prize will be awarded biennially to the best single or multi-authored book, catalogue, or online digital work in the field of ancient numismatics (650 BCE–300 CE). The winner(s) will receive prize money of $20,000, to be split equally in the event of a multi-authored work. For the initial prize eligible publications will be limited to those works published in 2019 or 2020. A jury of five senior numismatists will be appointed biennially by the President of the American Numismatic Society, which will include a senior ANS curator. For the initial Prize the jury is expected to announce its selection in late 2021. The winner(s) will be invited to an award ceremony to be held—we hope—in person at the ANS’s headquarters in New York City. To apply for the Collier Prize, please fill out the application form, which can be found on this webpage and forwarded it to the Prize secretary, Dr. Peter van Alfen. The deadline for applications is January 15, 2021.

The artist in his studio in 2012. Image: Magpeye Photography.

Prof. James M. Collier

The Prize is named after the late Professor James M. Collier and commemorates the life of a remarkable man, an ardent lover of the history and culture of Europe and the Ancient world, and a passionate collector of ancient Greek and Roman coins. Prof. Collier was born on Halloween in 1943 in Bellingham, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest, where he pursued his early academic training, graduating from Pacific Lutheran University (PLU) (Tacoma, Washington) with a Bachelor of Arts in History in 1965. After graduating from PLU he worked for the Boeing Corporation as an engineer. He was seconded to Washington D.C. on the Minuteman project, where his office was located across from The National Gallery. For two years he spent every lunch hour at the Gallery and came to realize his real love for art and art history. Returning to Pacific Northwest he attended the University of Oregon and graduated with a Master of Arts in Art History in 1970. Thereafter, he moved to the Midwest to pursue a PhD in Art History at the University of Michigan, which he completed in 1975. He was appointed an Assistant Professor in the Art History Department at Auburn University (Auburn, Alabama), where he eventually was tenured and became department chair. Over the course of his academic career, he lectured widely and published on the Italian Renaissance and Early Netherlandish perspective, which had been the subject of his doctoral dissertation, entitled Linear Perspective in Flemish Painting and the Art of Petrus Christus and Dirk Bouts.

Giacomo (1999) and Carolina (1999)

While a PhD student he assisted Professor Marvin Eisenberg with the University of Michigan’s Sarah Lawrence Summer Program in Italy. It was in Florence that summer that he met his wife Carole Anne in the Sacristy of Sta Croce. Traveling the world was to remain an important part of his life. He visited over 84 countries. In 2012 he sailed with a crew of three on a 50-foot sailboat from Capetown, South Africa to Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, covering over 4,000 nautical miles across the South Atlantic. A motor racing enthusiast, his travels also included frequent trips to the Indy 500 and following the Formula One circuit.

Galleon (1995)

It was also during his time as a graduate student in Italy that his interest in ancient coins was fully reignited, as well as his love for Rome and the Classical World. His interest in coins had started when he was seven years old when his father returned from a business trip to New York City with six ancient coins that awaited him under the Christmas tree. He collected for the next 65 years; the last coin, an aureus of Nero, was logged into the collection a week before his death in 2015. Collecting ancient coins became the foundation of his broad fascination with art, history, and culture. His collection of almost 1,000 Greek and Roman coins gave him immense pleasure, continually inspiring him by their beauty and depictions of famous monuments and portraits of Hellenistic and Roman rulers. While the Collier Prize at the ANS commemorates his love of ancient coins, his love for Rome and the Classical World has also been commemorated by the Collier Scholarships at the American Academy in Rome, which allow students from Oregon, Michigan, and Alabama to attend the Classical Summer School thereby extending his passion for the Ancient World to future generations. He was a greatly admired and beloved teacher who brought dozens of students to Rome to share with them the wonders of the ancient world.

Reconstruction of Brunelleschi’s Baptistry Experiment (1980). Image: Museo Opera Del Duomo Florence.

Essentially a self-taught painter, Prof. Collier took up painting full time in 1987, when he joined Carole Anne in New York City to improve his skills at the National Academy of Design, where he attended the Program in Painting from 1988 to 1989. Already by that point he had published and exhibited his work in a number of venues. His interest in perspective and its application in the visual arts has deep roots. Even as a child in kindergarten his teacher noted that he had “an unusual awareness of perspective compared to his peers.” In 1980, for example, he began to combine his academic interest in perspective with painting by reconstructing the first painting in single point perspective: Filippo Brunelleschi’s lost painting of the Florentine Baptistry. The painting was exhibited in the Biennale in Venice in 1986 in the Italian pavilion and now is in the permanent collection of the Museo del Opera del Duomo in Florence where the original experiment was conducted in 1425. His series of paintings “Eccentric Views of Italian Architecture” reflect that lifelong interest in perspective.

Florence Cathedral (2008)

In 1990, Prof. Collier and Carole Anne moved to the Netherlands, where he had been an American Field Service exchange student, eventually taking up residence and establishing a studio in a seventeenth-century canal house on Amsterdam’s famous Keizergracht. Although Prof. Collier continued on occasion to lecture on art history and to work as an academic, including a stint in 1993 as a Smithsonian Institution Art Historian in Florence, he was until the end of life a self-sufficient artist. His work was shown in solo and group exhibits in various parts of the U.S., the Netherlands, and Italy, and is represented in private collections in the U.S., as well as in the Netherlands, Italy, England, Norway, and Thailand.

Twelve Houses (2008)

His paintings, a selection of which are illustrated here, cover a range of topics, including portraits, dogs, views of Amsterdam, Italian architecture, ships, and fantasies (more of his paintings can be seen on a website devoted to his work). Prof. Collier was inspired by the world of visual reality. He strove to reflect a selective view of things based upon careful empirical observation, which was never the result of artificial non-observational means such as photographic projection. As Prof. Eisenberg noted on Collier’s solo exhibition of Italian architectural paintings at the Italian Cultural Institute in Amsterdam in 1992, “James Collier’s eye is both lens and filter. He grasps both the large and the small, the essential shape and the minute inflection of light, color, and texture. His power to see is what the American poetess Marianne Moore calls ‘piercing glances into the life of things.’” His work displays not just his acute attention to detail and the play of light and shadow, but also the joy he took in the medium of painting and its long history, most apparent in the portraits he did of himself and Carole Anne.  

White Gold: Studies in Early Electrum Coinage


The White Gold volume is finally in-hand, all 707 pages and eight pounds (4 kg) of it. Just a little over a month ago, Ute Wartenberg, Andrew Reinhard, and I made the final corrections, took one long, last look, and sent the typeset manuscript to our printer in Canada. We celebrated a bit, but frankly were too exhausted by the final push to celebrate much more than that. The book launch at the ANS we had scheduled for April 23 has, of course, been cancelled because of the current pandemic. We hope we can reschedule it for some time later this year. And we hope when we do, we’ll see you there.

The genesis of this volume took place nearly a decade ago, in 2011, when then Numismatic Curator (now Chief Curator) of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, Haim Gitler, conceived of a unique exhibition to be held there that would showcase the earliest coins in the Western tradition, those struck in electrum. Five hundred coins, all from the collections of Dr. Thomas S. Kaplan, Baron Lorne Thyssen-Bornemisza, and several from the Israel Museum, were displayed in a spectacular exhibition, the first of its kind anywhere that looked at electrum coinage from the seventh to the fourth centuries BCE. Catharine Lorber soon joined Gitler in curating the exhibition, White Gold: Revealing the World’s Earliest Coins a name suggested by Lorber, which opened in June 2012, with an exhibition catalogue of the same name written by Koray Konuk, Lorber, and edited by Gitler.

Meanwhile, Gitler organized a conference on electrum coinage that was held at the Israel Museum the week the exhibit opened. Tom Kaplan and Lorne Thyssen-Bornemisza, both keenly interested in this area of numismatic research, actively participated in the conference. We are most grateful for their generous support, which funded not just the exhibition and conference, but also the White Gold volume with its many full-color plates, maps, and figures. Initially, Gitler, Lorber, and Konuk planned to publish the conference proceedings with the Israel Museum’s imprimatur, but as many of the conference participants felt a follow-up meeting would be beneficial to address some of the outstanding problematic aspects of early electrum raised in Jerusalem, a second White Gold conference was held in November 2013 at the American Numismatic Society’s headquarters in New York City. In 2016, it was decided that publication of the proceedings of the two conferences would be undertaken by the ANS with Ute Wartenberg and myself serving as the volume’s editors, who received considerable editorial and other assistance on several of the chapters from Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert. Since 2013, the scope of the volume grew. Other scholars, notably Kristin Kleber and Donald Jones, who had not participated in the two original conferences were invited to contribute chapters, and others who had participated offered additional contributions, such as Michael Kerschner’s monumental chapter on the archaeology and our current understanding of the successive temples of Artemis (Artemision) at Ephesus, where some of the most important concentrations of early electrum coinage have been found. While the expanded scope of the volume delayed publication, nonetheless we can now offer a fuller and more detailed picture of the evidence at hand for understanding the various contexts in which early electrum coins were produced and used.

But, even after two conferences and 707 pages of printed text, there are still many questions that perplex us about early electrum coinage. As François de Callataÿ summed it up at the end of our initial conference in Jerusalem, “We are still confused, but at a higher level.” Much of this, in fact, has to do with the two very basic questions: 1) why coinage?, and 2) why electrum? In other words, why at that particular moment (ca. 650 BCE) in that particular place (western Asia Minor) did a group of people decide to strike coins for the first time? What do coins do that other types of monetary instruments don’t? Most perplexing of all, however, is the choice to strike the first coins in electrum, which we now know was an entirely invented alloy of gold and silver. Alloying two precious metals of very different values into a single monetary object was something that later coin producers avoided since it was subsequently hard to maintain stable exchange and value rates for the alloyed coins in circulation. So, why did these same early producers opt for electrum, and continued to do so for generations until the first separate silver and gold coins (the croesids) were introduced around 550 BCE?

In coming weeks Ute Wartenberg and I will be discussing some of these issues in the ANS’s newly launched podcast, The Planchet. So, as we all hunker down, stay tuned! And should you need some light reading (!) in the meantime, have a copy of White Gold delivered to your doorstep. The volume can be ordered here.

NLG Awards Recognize Two ANS Publications

IMG-2422On August 16, 2018, the Numismatic Literary Guild recognized two American Numismatic Society publications at its annual bash and awards ceremony.

A Monetary History of Central America by Brian Stickney won the award for best book on world coinage (1500–present).

ANS Deputy Director Gilles Bransbourg won the award for best article or story of the year for his piece in ANS Magazine, “U.S. Money Doctors in Latin America: Between War and Depression, the Short-Lived Reinstatement of the Gold Standard,” which appeared in issue 2017.4.

ANS Members receive ANS Magazine four times a year as part of their membership, as well as a 30% discount on books. To become a Member of the ANS, call Emma Pratte at 212.571.4470 x117.

American Journal of Numismatics Guidelines Updated for 2018

The American Journal of Numismatics is an international, peer-reviewed journal that annually publishes original research in all areas of numismatics, in the form of articles, review articles, and short notes. Interdisciplinary contributions that relate numismatic research to broader questions of archaeology, anthropology, art history, economic history, cultural or social history, and related disciplines are particularly welcome. Questions and submissions should be emailed to Nathan T. Elkins (Greek, Roman, pre-Islamic Persian, Celtic, and other ancient topics) or David Yoon (medieval, modern, Asian, American, and other non-ancient topics).

The AJN is published once a year. The annual deadline for submissions is May 1. The journal’s guidelines have been updated for 2018.

Manuscript Preparation

Prior to submission, manuscripts should be complete and formatted according to AJN guidelines. If you have questions about the preparation of the manuscript that are not answered here, please email the editors. After manuscripts are complete, submit them by email to Nathan T. Elkins (Greek, Roman, pre-Islamic Persian, Celtic, and other ancient topics) or David Yoon (medieval, modern, Asian, American, and other non-ancient topics).

Articles may range from brief research notes (minimum of 1,000 words) to lengthy articles exceeding 10,000 words. Authors should contact the editors before submitting an article in excess of 15,000 words (including footnotes and bibliography); these can usually be accommodated, but space may become limited close to the annual deadline for submissions. Articles that are under review elsewhere will not be considered, and articles that have been previously published will not be considered unless there are no legal restrictions on the author’s right to republish and the information is not available in any widely known language of international scholarship.

For anonymity during the peer-review process, authors may wish to omit overt references to their own work, or acknowledgements that would relay their identity. Any special characters or non-Latin writing systems should use Unicode fonts where possible; if this is not possible, authors should use a font that is distributed under a non-restrictive, free-of-charge license and send the font to the editors with the manuscript.

 When a manuscript is accepted for publication, the author will be asked to provide the final artwork, copies of any necessary permissions, and a revised version of the manuscript that incorporates all changes specified in the acceptance letter and conforms to the guidelines described below. A manuscript will not be scheduled for production until all requested revisions, illustrations, and permissions have been received. Once the revised manuscript has been submitted, no major changes to the text will be allowed unless extraordinary circumstances warrant them. For the preparation of the final manuscript and accompanying illustrations, it is essential for authors to refer to the ANS Author Guidelines.

The AJN largely follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (CMS), and enforces American English spelling. All publishers encourage the practice of following a consistent style, and authors in numismatic studies should find it helpful to follow these guidelines from the beginning of the writing process, even if their manuscript ultimately is published elsewhere. The Chicago Manual of Style prescribes two citation formats; in general, AJN articles aimed at a humanities audience may prefer to use the first (“Notes and Bibliography”) format.

Example 1

Text: …in the direction of Jerusalem via Diospolis in 614 ce.156 The written sources do…


  1. J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture, rev. ed. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 42; C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD),” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003): 152–53.


Foss, C. “The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD).” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003): 149–170.

Haldon, J. F. Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture. Rev. ed. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

However, recognizing that numismatics is a cross-disciplinary specialization, authors writing more for a science or social science audience may prefer to use the second (“Author-Date References”) format.

Example 2

Text: …20–25% silver (Baker et al. 2017; Crusafont 1982, 237), compared to perhaps 2–4%…

References List:

Baker, J., V. Kantarelou, A. G. Karydas, R. E. Jones, P. Siozos, D. Anglos, and B. Denham. 2017. “The Height of Denier Tournois Minting in Greece (1289–1313) According to New Archaeometric Data.” Annual of the British School at Athens.

Crusafont i Sabater, M. 1982. Numismática de la corona catalano-aragonesa medieval (785–1516). Madrid: Editorial Vico.

Digital Data

ANS print publications are integrated with digital publication. All authors are requested to provide their ORCID identifier so that their article can be correctly attributed to them online. Authors who do not yet have an ORCID identifier can easily create one at; the editors can advise on this process if necessary.

Articles that present large amounts of quantitative information (e.g., metrological analyses of large groups of coins) are encouraged to provide the quantitative data as a digital file that the ANS can make available to other researchers online, rather than putting the raw data in print. This digital AJN data repository can also be used to make available supplementary material that supports an article without being integral to it.

Publication of Previously Unpublished Material

The AJN supports laws designed to discourage fraudulent collectibles and the illicit trade in antiquities. Objects originating before ca. 1500 whose history cannot be traced before the adoption of the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illegal Import, Export, and Transfer of Cultural Property of November 14, 1970, are subject to certain limitations for publication in AJN, if they have not previously been published in a scholarly (non-commercial) publication. If the object is in an institutional collection, has been reported to an official finds recording system (e.g., the Portable Antiquities Scheme), or has entered the marketplace legally (e.g., after review under the Treasure Act in the United Kingdom), there are no restrictions. Otherwise, if the information has a verifiable source such as a prior publication, a published sale catalogue, or a named owner, it may be used in publication as part of a larger discussion (e.g., a die study, a typological study, etc.) but not as the sole focus of the article. If no such source can be cited, the object is not suitable for publication. AJN reserves the option to reject any contribution that appears to publish recently looted or stolen material, especially from recent conflict zones, even if it otherwise meets these conditions.

Images and Sources of Images

 Images, charts, and graphs should not be embedded in the final text. Refer to the ANS Author Guidelines for the preparation of images. It is the author’s responsibility to secure and provide written permission for the use of any illustrations taken from other publications, the Internet, or other sources (in general, authors should assume that any image created after 1922 is restricted by copyright unless there is evidence to the contrary). All illustrations should have an attribution to source unless created by the author(s).

For ancient material, authors should give preference to illustrations of objects held by institutional collections over unprovenanced material from the trade or in private collections. Many institutions allow images of their holdings to be used free of charge for academic publications such as the AJN; if uncertain whether this applies, please discuss image sources with the editors. Illustrations of objects from the trade or in private collections may be used where necessary for completeness, if they can be cited to a verifiable source (as described in the previous section); however, objects with a verifiable pre-1970 provenance or in institutional collections should be used wherever possible. In general, articles that deal with types and iconography should always use institutional images, unless dealing with a type that is unknown in such collections. If contributors are unclear as to the guidelines or expectations, please contact the appropriate editor.

Conflict of Interest

Authors should disclose any potential conflict of interest at the time of submission. For instance, if the article describes or illustrates objects that the author owns or seeks to sell, this should be declared in a footnote.

Open Access

There is no embargo period for authors wishing to share their work online or through their institutional repository. The editors do ask that authors wait to share their work until the formal publication of the volume.

First Digital Object Identifiers Minted for ANS Digital Library Items


Several weeks ago, the ANS migrated an older, circa 2002 TEI ebook on the Taranto 1911 hoard, authored by John Kroll and Sebastian Heath, into our Digital Library. The original TEI file and subsequent updates have been loaded into our TEI Github repository. The updates follow transcription precedents that we have set in older ANS-published printed monographs as part of the Mellon-funded Open Humanities Book Program: relevant places, objects, people, etc. have been linked to entities in LOD systems, such as All of the objects within this hoard (itself linked to IGCH 1864) are in the British Museum and linked to their URIs. Upon publication into the ANS Digital Library, the document parts are now accessible from the IGCH 1864 record and in (eventually) in Pelagios, connected to relevant ancient places.

Since Sebastian is an active scholar, with an ORCID, this document served as a proof of concept for the next iteration of ANS digital publication: that our current and future monographs and journal articles, once issued openly online, should be connected to ORCIDs for their authors, and publication metadata should be submitted to Crossref to mint a DOI and enhance accessibility. Furthermore, since there’s a direct connection between ORCID and Crossref submissions, this new digital publication workflow would automatically populate an author’s scholarly profile with ANS publications. This is a vast improvement over the likes of, which requires manual submission. The broad vision is this:

Regardless of whether an author submits works through the American Numismatic Society Digital Library,, Humanities Commons, their own institutional repository, or an Open Access journal system, their ORCID profile is the central, canonical aggregation of the entirety of their intellectual output (which includes datasets, software, etc.).

This aggregation system between DOIs and ORCIDs, following Linked Open Data principles, is the future of academic publication. Ideally, it should be expanded beyond citations to modern works with DOIs and ORCIDs to include more historic works defined by Worldcat and linked to historic scholars with ISNI identifiers. It would take a tremendous amount of work, but in theory, it would be possible to create a network graph of citations across all disciplines, going back in history to the advent of the printed book, charting the evolution of how knowledge is generated and disseminated. Therefore, Crossref, ISNI, and ORCID would perhaps play a greater role than providing simple (and superficial) citation metrics in enabling us to develop a broader historiography and analysis of scholarship itself. We plan to mint DOIs for our historical publications eventually, if Crossref extends its XML schema to support ISNI identifiers.

Under the Hood

Some extensions were implemented in ETDPub, the TEI/MODS publication framework that underlies the ANS Digital library. First, I authored XSLT stylesheets that would crosswalk TEI or MODS into the appropriate Crossref XML model according to their schema version 4.4.0. You can see an example of my MA thesis here:


If the author/editor URI matches an ORCID URI in the TEI, then the Admin panel in ETDPub will enable the publication of the metadata to Crossref. Similarly, within the MODS ETD editing interface (in XForms), a user can insert a mods:nameIdentifier[@type=’orcid’] under the mods:name for an author/editor in order to capture the ORCID. So far, only TEI or MODS records with ORCIDs attached to people are available for submission into Crossref to mint a DOI.

Submission Workflow

In the admin panel, if a document is eligible for submission to Crossref, a checkbox is available. Clicking on this will fire off a series of actions in the XForms engine:

  1. The TEI/MODS-to-Crossref XML transformation is executed and loaded into an XForms instance
  2. The Crossref XML is serialized to /tmp because it must be attached via multipart/form-data
  3. Still having difficulty getting multipart/form-data to execute correctly in the XForms engine, the XForms engine instead interacts with a PHP script in CGI
  4. After the PHP script responds with a successful HTTP code, the MODS/TEI document is loaded in the XForms engine in order to insert the DOI in the proper location within the document
  5. The TEI/MODS file is saved back to eXist, and the standard publication workflow is executed (a chain of XForms submissions), updating the Solr search index and the triplestore/SPARQL endpoint

So far two documents in the Digital Library have DOIs connected to ORCIDs:

Taranto 1911:
My thesis (Recent Advancements in Roman Numismatics):

NOTE: This post was originally published by Ethan Gruber in his blog, XForms for Archives. It is re-posted here with permission by the author.