Correction: Agnes Baldwin Brett


Yilanlı Taş

Dr. Michael Ierardi, a professor of history at Bridgewater State College and an ANS member, drew our attention to two misidentified photos in the last issue of the ANS Magazine. Dr. Ierardi writes: “Aviva Gray’s article (‘Agnes Baldwin Brett: a pioneer numismatist and archaeologist at the ANS,’ ANS Magazine 4, no. 2 [Summer 2005], 36-44) was a welcome tribute to an admirable scholar, and the photographs were well worth seeing. Unfortunately, at least two of them are misidentified in the captions. On p. 38, the photo labeled ‘Athens, the Roman Agora’ is in fact a view of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma prior to its excavation. On p. 44, the collapsed relief of a lion labelled ‘Tiryns, 1900’ is in fact part of the Yilanlı Taş, a Persian-period tomb near Afyon in Phrygia. If these photos were taken by Ms. Baldwin Brett, they document that her travels extended farther than Ms. Gray indicates, to coastal and inland Asia Minor.” We thank Dr. Ierardi for his keen eye and impressive archaeological knowledge.


Temple of Apollo at Didyma

Review: The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus

Matthew Kreuzer. The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus. No Publisher, 2004. Sb., 131pp., color illus. throughout. US$60.00.

The present volume represents a bold new departure in the treatment of late Ptolemaic and Roman provincial coinage on the island of Cyprus. Thanks to a remarkable display of numismatic free-thinking, the author reveals a much more complex and varied Cypriot system of coinage than has previously been suspected by most numismatic scholars, the centrepiece of which is a vast reattribution of coins normally given to other mints and rulers.

To begin, Kreuzer argues that all Ptolemaic silver bearing a certain mark must have been struck at Paphos, although it is generally agreed by most Ptolemaic specialists, following the exhaustive hoard study by I. Nicolau and O. Morkholm (Paphos, vol. 1: A Ptolemaic Coin Hoard [Nicosia, 1976]), that much of it was really produced at Alexandria. Their evidence, which is hard to ignore, shows a clear stylistic break between the issues attributed to Paphos and those of Alexandria. In addition, if all of the issues were from Paphos, there would be virtually nothing remaining at the Alexandrian mint, which seems highly implausible. Kreuzer’s Paphian attribution is not helped by the patently false assertion that Egypt lacked the firewood necessary to support metalworking, or by his peculiar use of the modern U.S. Mint as a model for the placement of mint facilities away from capitals and major commercial centers.

It is also suggested that the diademed heads found on late tetradrachms, normally considered to be a type immobilisé of the dynastic founder Ptolemy I Soter, should actually be interpreted as differentiated portraits of living Ptolemaic kings. While it is true that the style of these portraits can vary considerably from reign to reign, the general features and the consistent use of the aegis as an attribute all seem to point to the first Ptolemy as the model, rather than his later descendants. All of the known coin portraits of Ptolemaic rulers are very distinct from those of Ptolemy I and only rarely include divine attributes. Ptolemy III was the only one to appear on the coinage wearing the aegis, and this in combination with emblems of Helios, Poseidon, and Aphrodite (J.N. Svoronos, Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion [Athens, 1904], 1117). To support his position, Kreuzer makes the unconvincing argument that the late Ptolemies would not have produced silver coins without their own portraits because almost all of the contemporary Hellenistic monarchs and Roman magistrates used their own portraits.

While it is true that many kings did employ their own portraits, there was also a standing tradition of employing the fixed images of earlier rulers, particularly in periods of crisis. Thus, the portrait of Philetaerus appeared on most Attalid coinage until the introduction of the cistophoric tetradrachm, which of course employed no clear royal iconography of any kind. Likewise, the portrait of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus became immobilized at the mint of Antioch after his death and continued to appear on the city’s tetradrachms until 17/16 BC (see A. Burnett et al., Roman Provincial Coinage, vol. 1 [London/Paris, 1992], 4124-4149). Tetradrachms bearing the portrait of the Seleucid king Antiochus VII even appear to have been struck by several Cappadocian monarchs, despite their using their own portraits on their drachms (see A. Houghton, C. Lorber, and O. Hoover, Seleucid Coins, part 2. Forthcoming). As for the Romans, prior to Julius Caesar no living individual had appeared on the coinage, only the effigies of illustrious ancestors. Because of the difficulties inherent in Kreuzer’s new portrait identifications, it is probably best to set them aside, lest they become the Ptolemaic equivalent of the old Alexander-as-Heracles theory. Although the latter came about as a product of early numismatic scholarship, the idea that Alexander the Great appears in the guise of Heracles on his well-known coinage was decisively overturned by Martin Price (The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus [Zurich/London, 1991], pp. 33-34) and others in the late twentieth century. Nevertheless, it still manages to live on as a virtual Nosferatu of popular ancient numismatics, unable to die a natural and well-deserved death and continuing to plague the living (for its most recent escape from the crypt, see M. Marotta and A. Zakelj, “Portraits and Representations of Alexander the Great,” The Celator [July 2000], pp. 6-20).

The main discussion of the Ptolemaic section revolves around a reconstruction of the bronze coinage system on Cyprus during the reign of Cleopatra VII. This includes the well-known bronze issues of the period, RPC I, 3901-3903, to which Kreuzer adds three additional bronze denominations of dubious connection to the last and most famous Ptolemaic queen.

The identification of an anepigraphic series of Zeus/Zeus Salaminios bronzes as issues of Cleopatra VII seems to be based on little beyond their association with Ptolemaic bronzes of the first-century BC in the Paphos excavations. While there is little reason to doubt a first century date, Kreuzer offers no evidence to connect the series with Cleopatra specifically or to Ptolemaic authority in general. No king or queen is named on the coins and the types borrow nothing from the standard repertoire of Ptolemaic iconography (i.e. Zeus-Ammon, eagles, cornucopiae, etc.). All things considered, these coins seem much more likely to be local civic issues than royal coins of Ptolemaic Cyprus.

The Ptolemaic origin of a bronze denomination (Svoronos 1160-1161) presented here as a fraction of the anepigraphic pieces is on much more certain footing since it bears the inscription, “of Ptolemy the King,” but the association with Cleopatra still seems quite fanciful. Kreuzer’s argument hinges entirely on a supposed resemblance between the female head (traditionally identified as Arsinoe III) on the obverse and the known portraits of Cleopatra on rare Cypriot bronze issues. The small module of the coins in question makes it difficult to argue either way from physiognomic traits. However, several features make Cleopatra VII an unlikely candidate for the woman depicted. The fabric and portrait style, which can be quite artistic, is radically different from the general crudeness of the known Cleopatra bronzes. They also lack the regular Cypriot mintmark that was standard for the island’s Ptolemaic bronzes in the later first century BC. Furthermore, the naming of Ptolemy in the reverse inscription, rather than Cleopatra, seems to tell against the author’s identification, for all of her other portrait coinages name her as the issuing authority. The total absence of any name identifying the woman makes one wonder whether she is not simply the representation of a goddess (Aphrodite?) rather than a queen. This view is also held by Catherine Lorber (personal correspondence, September 2005). Supporting this position is the fact that Ptolemaic queens were generally named either in the usual reverse legend or in a special obverse inscription when their images appeared on the coinage.

Likewise, the small bronze thunderbolt/eagle issue (Svoronos 1246), usually given to Ptolemy V, is here made an issue of Cleopatra on no real evidence other than the find of one example, “near a late Roman coin,” in the Paphos excavations and several others in connection with the Arsinoe III (Aphrodite?) type, which, as we have seen, is probably not a Cypriot issue of Cleopatra.

The largely baseless claims that underlie the reattribution of these fairly common bronze coins may tend to make readers suspicious that they have been made not so much as a result of questionable scholarship but as part of a marketing ploy. This feeling is perhaps strengthened by the large numbers of Svoronos 1160-1161 attributed to Cleopatra that are available for purchase on the author’s website. It probably does not need pointing out that the historical interest of a coin associated with Cleopatra VII makes it much more valuable on the market than one of the comparatively obscure Arsinoe III. Still, one must not hastily rush to judgment. Although the treatment of Ptolemaic Cyprus and the new identifications of certain coins as issues of Cleopatra VII are problematic to say the least, this disturbance of longstanding Hellenistic coin attributions is relatively minor in comparison with the riot of reattribution that follows in the discussion of Cyprus under the Romans. As many of these coins are already valued by collectors in their own right, and reattribution to Cyprus is not likely to enhance that value, it may be that the new attributions to Cleopatra are actually the work of a true believer.

An unusual denarius series of Marc Antony with the letter P secreted in the hair at the back of the triumvir’s neck (M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage [Cambridge, 1974], 542), and normally attributed to a mobile military mint, is associated by Kreuzer with the Cypriot mint of Paphos, on the grounds that the P served as a Paphian mintmark rather than the signature of a die engraver. This suggestion has very little to support it. While the author may be justified in disparaging the artistic quality of this series, poor workmanship does not preclude the desire of an artist to sign his work. Most problematic, however, is the fact that the letter is hidden within the obverse design, a common feature of engraver’s signatures (for example, see the signatures of the famous Syracusan engravers Euklidas and Euainetos), something almost unheard of for mintmarks. The whole purpose of mintmarks was to make the name of the issuing mint visible, either to advertise the status of the city responsible for the coinage, or in imperial situations, to control the currency in case of mint irregularities. Hiding a mintmark in the type would have been counterproductive.

Building further on this foundation of sand, the author invokes a supposed similarity of portrait style between several other mobile military mint issues of Antony (RRC 536 and 539) and this “Paphian” denarius as a means of reattributing them all to Cyprus. However, the stylistic argument is baseless. The chiseled portrait of Antony on RRC 542 is noticeably different from his fleshy and somewhat bulbous-nosed appearance on RRC 536 or his thinner aquiline-nosed visage on RRC 539. The claim that some of the latter “seem to have a P behind the ear” is unsubstantiated by the illustration on p. 65 and by the plates in RRC. Apparently as a bonus, the author throws in Antony’s Sol/augur denarius (RRC 533/2), also normally linked to a military mint, as another potential Cypriot issue, without providing any reason for the reattribution. The only vaguely plausible reattribution to Cyprus here is that of the “fleet coinage” of Antony’s lieutenant L. Bibulus, although not for the supposed stylistic associations that Kreuzer proffers. The Bibulan “fleet coinage” is regularly found in the east, including Cyprus, and therefore is likely to have been struck somewhere in the region, although Syria, the location preferred by RPC, may be a better candidate than Cyprus.

Similar bizarre associations and arguments characterize the discussion of Cypriot coinage under the emperor Augustus, many of which are based on dubious claims of stylistic relationship with a group of CA bronzes (possibly orichalcum), normally attributed to Syria but here given to Cyprus. This is done on the basis of coin finds at Curium and Paphos, but Kreuzer fails to mention the finds from Syria and the very close stylistic affinity between the CA series and Augustus’s SC and archieratic bronzes of Antioch, all of which point to a probable Antiochene origin (See RPC I, pp. 602-603, and K. Butcher, Coinage in Roman Syria [London, 2004], p. 321).

Readers will be amazed to learn that the famous AEGYPTO CAPTA gold and silver (C. H. V. Sutherland, The Roman Imperial Coinage I [London, 1984], 545-546) all actually originated at Cypriot Paphos. This again is based on an imperceptible (to this reviewer) stylistic association with the CA bronzes and the claim that the Capricorn symbol appearing below Octavian’s neck was a mintmark that could only have been used in an imperial province like Cyprus. It should be obvious that there is nothing exclusively Cypriot, let alone Paphian, about the use of Capricorn. This astrological creature was Octavian’s birth sign and a ubiquitous emblem on imperial and provincial coinage during his reign. However, the most serious problem with this reattribution is the fact that the titulature used for the AEGYPTO CAPTA series shows that it predates the settlement of 27 BC, by which Octavian became Augustus and the provinces were divided between the Emperor and the Senate. It also must predate the CA coinage, which regularly names Augustus.

A marginally better case is made for associating a group of denarii and a quinarius with the supposed CA bronzes of Cyprus, only because all of them do actually date to 27 BC or later. Still, the reattribution is heavily based on implausible associations. For example, the Victory quinarius (RIC 474) is determined to be Cypriot based on the belief that the typological model for the goddess alighting on a ship’s prow is that of tetradrachms struck by Demetrius Poliorcetes to commemorate his victory over the Ptolemaic fleet off Cyprus in 306 BC. Of course, this ignores all of the uses of Nike/Victory on a prow in a variety of non-Cypriot contexts, all of which tend to sap the specificity of Kreuzer’s interpretation. Examples include but are not limited to bronzes of Phoenician Tripolis (RPC 4512) and Sidon (RPC 4600-4601), the Bosporan king Asander (D. MacDonald, An Introduction to the History and Coinage of the Kingdom of the Bosporus [Lancaster, 2005], 195-216), and Roman Republican asses of L. Piso Frugi (RRC 340/4). We hope that the author would not imply that these coins should also be reattributed to Cyprus. The temple of Olympian Zeus and corona rostrata denarii normally associated with the quinarius and linked to each other by shared dies are made Cypriot issues based simply on the existence of a temple of Olympian Zeus in the Doric style at Salamis, which may or may not be identical to the temple of Zeus Salaminios. However, in the absence of any clear reference to Salamis on the coins, Sutherland’s preference for a Peloponnesian mint making reference to Olympia still seems most probable. An issue of Augustus’s Capricorn denarii (RIC 541) is also given to Cyprus because of its supposedly “somewhat similar style” to the other denarii discussed above.

In addition, Kreuzer reattributes the highly artistic young bull denarii of Augustus (RIC 475) to Cyprus based on stylistic grounds, the history of the use of bulls on the Archaic and Classical coinages of Paphos, and flan cracks, a feature that was also pointed out for the supposed Cypriot denarii of Antony. While there is nothing obviously Paphian or even Cypriot about the cracks, and the stylistic association is elusive as usual, the appeal to older taurine iconography is at least reasonable, although the form of the animal on the early coins is hardly identical. A similar iconographic argument can be made for the mint of Samos, often identified as the most likely candidate for these denarii, since Samian coinage of the Classical and Hellenistic periods also regularly featured the forepart of a bull. In truth, neither attribution seems especially solid.

The final section is devoted to Cypriot coinage under the Julio-Claudian dynasty and later, at last bringing the parade of incoherent reattributions to its final stunning conclusion. Although there are some indisputably genuine issues of Cyprus here depicting Zeus Salaminios and the temple of Paphian Aphrodite, the author makes the sweeping claim that cast bevelled flans were indicative of Cypriot manufacture and that therefore the problematic “Commagenean” dupondii and asses of Tiberius as well as a host of Antiochene SC bronzes should be reattributed to Cyprus. This is a rather remarkable view to take when we consider that very few of the coins that can be reliably attributed to Cyprus in this period actually seem to have bevelled edges. The reattribution of provincial SC issues spirals well out of control when Kreuzer even connects imperial sestertii to the island, apparently based on nothing more than the wreathed SC type and the fact that brass was sometimes struck, probably at Rome, for use on Cyprus.

It is difficult to know what to say about the many full-color coin illustrations that fill the book. Although the images that have been reproduced from the websites of major dealers are generally good, though often a little grainy as the result of enlargement, many of the others are quite poor, bordering at times on the appalling. The latter are often very dark and have been treated so barbarously in Photoshop that round-edged coins look like serrati, thanks to the extreme pixellation left at the edges of the coins when the background was removed from the images. Perhaps worst of all is the image of the silver fineness table taken from p. 52 of R. Hazzard, Ptolemaic Coins: An Introduction for Collectors (Toronto, 1995), which is not even a proper scan of Hazzard’s original table, but merely an out-of-focus photograph.

The extensive use of fallacious argument and the low standard of presentation are very disappointing, but these are, unfortunately, common problems that frequently afflict privately produced numismatic publications. However, while the quality of the present volume is not entirely surprising, its assumption of the status of a legitimate reference work among some coin dealers is nothing short of shocking. As we have seen, The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus is no proper reference for coin identification. Still, it may have a purpose in standing as a stark warning to readers, authors, and dealers. Regardless of the true original intent, which the present reviewer cannot know, books like this can only serve to harm the already much besieged numismatic community, in that they simultaneously deceive the ignorant while providing a powder magazine’s worth of ammunition for those who would argue that the publication of unprovenanced coins inflates their value and therefore encourages illegal excavation in the source countries. Thankfully, the small print run and the absence of a large distributor make it unlikely that The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus will be widely read by either the friends or enemies of ancient numismatics. Still, we hope that it will soon disappear from the reference lines of sale catalogues and assume its more proper role as an obscure curiosity of numismatic wishful thinking.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Les Messéniens de 370/369 au 1er siècle de notre ère

Catherine Grandjean. Les Messéniens de 370/369 au 1er siècle de notre ère. Monnayages et histoire. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique Supplément 44. Athens: École française d’Athènes, 2003. Sb. 332 pp., 28 b/w pls. ISBN 2-86958-193-9. €100.

With the possible exception of seven-gated Thebes, it is difficult to think of a mainland Greek state more familiar to tragic events and terrible reversals than Messenia. Having been defeated at the hands of her eastern neighbour Sparta in the late eighth century BC, much of her population was virtually enslaved as helots and constantly repressed for over three hundred years. However, unlike the tragic protagonists of Sophocles or Euripides, the Messenians, some of whom escaped to form a Messenian diaspora at Naupactus in the fifth century, were not entirely crushed by the heavy weight of their misfortunes. As the tide turned against Spartan hegemony in the early fourth century and Thebes became the dominant power in mainland Greece, Messenia was released from bondage and given the opportunity to become a free state. Catherine Grandjean’s new book picks up the tale of Messenia at this remarkable turning point, and through the lens of the coinage subsequently struck at Messene as well as the cities of Korone and Thouria, skillfully reconstructs the history of the young autonomous state and its often difficult relationships with its neighbours.

Through die studies and commentary, chapter 1 (pp. 21-48) introduces the silver staters, triobols, and obols (Séries I-III) as well as several bronze issues (Séries IV-VII), interpreted as chalkoi, trichalkia, and hemiobols, struck at Messene from the city’s foundation at ancient Ithome in 370/69 BC to the second half of the third century BC. These are convincingly dated, largely through the evidence provided by excavation coins and an episode of countermarking thought to have taken place around the time of the Spartan king Cleomenes III (226/5-222 BC).

In chapter 2 (pp. 49-89), Grandjean contextualizes these issues within the larger framework of Messenian political and economic history, which, in the fourth and third centuries BC, was heavily influenced by the need to find powerful allies who could protect Messenia against Sparta and other enemies. It is argued that because coins in both metals were not produced on a scale suitable for monetizing the largely agrarian economy of Messenia, it is likely that the coinage was struck for propagandistic rather than economic purposes. She points out that the types featuring Demeter, Zeus Ithomatas, and the tripod associated with the latter were all designed to present a pseudohistorical continuity between the new Messenian state and an archaic Messenia in part constructed and embroidered by the Theban engineers of Messenian autonomy. The theme of continuity with the distant past was extremely important in the fourth century, as a rebuttal to the several Greek poleis who doubted the legitimacy of an autonomous Messenian state.

Although there can be little doubt that the use of the ancestral gods of Messenia, Demeter and Zeus Ithomatas, on the coinage of the new foundation of Messene/Ithome was a reflection of Messenian civic pride in its reconstructed past, the strong emphasis on the propaganda motive should probably be softened somewhat. The same limited production and limited area of circulation that made the coinage a poor tool for commerce also made it a poor vehicle for advertising the legitimacy of the new Messenia, either to the local population or to other Greek states like Athens and Elis (not to mention the perpetual Spartan nemesis), which questioned the legitimacy of the reborn Messenian state. Grandjean uses the modern parallels of Revolutionary France and the Democratic Republic of Croatia as examples of new states employing symbols of the ancient and medieval past in order to invoke legitimacy. However, it should be noted that in the Greek world, even old and well-established cities whose rights to exist were not in question regularly presented their patron deities (i.e. Athena at Athens, Apollo at Miletus, etc.) or the mythic past on their coins. Since both Demeter and Zeus Ithomatas were traditional Messenian gods, their presence on the coinage is expected and seems to follow a common pattern for Greek coinage rather than serve as a special propaganda tool. Of course, one could argue that by the very act of producing the coins following the standard pattern of a Greek polis, the Messenians expressed the legitimacy of their state in defiance of those who still saw them as natural slaves incapable of full inclusion within the Greek oikumene. The idea that these deities and attributes, like Zeus’s tripod, served as propaganda types in the early period of Messenian coinage also tends to be undermined by their almost continuous appearance well into the first century AD, by which time the new Messenian identity had certainly solidified and the right of Messenia to exist was generally recognized. Sparta, however, continued to make attempts to reclaim the Messenian Dentheliatis well into the Roman period.

Because of the difficulties inherent in the propaganda hypothesis, it is tempting to suggest that Messenian coinage in the fourth and third centuries was not produced so much for its ability to disseminate messages about the new state but rather as an economic expedient aimed at supplementing the sparse local circulating medium, composed largely of foreign coins (especially issues of Corinth and Sicyon). Such an interpretation would be more in keeping with the growing trend among scholars to reassess the idea of propaganda and the advertisement of freedom as major motivating factors in the production of Greek coinage (see, for examples, A. Kushner-Stein, “Was Late Hellenistic Silver Coinage Minted for Propaganda Purposes?” NC 161 [2001], pp. 41-52, and A. Meadows, “Money, Freedom, and Empire in the Hellenistic World,” in A. Meadows and K. Shipton, eds., Money and Its Uses in the Ancient Greek World [Oxford, 2004], pp. 53-63).

The problems of identifying the type of state represented by Messenia in the late fourth and third centuries BC form the main subject of chapter 3 (pp. 91-105). It is often thought that a federal organization bound Messene and the other cities of Messenia together. While Grandjean leaves this possibility open for the last decades of the fourth century, she strongly argues that by the third century, the cities of Messenia were really dependencies of Messene, based on the absence of coinage from the other cities in this period and the use of the term “Messenian” in inscribed documents.

Chapter 4 (pp. 109-155) is a die study with commentary on the silver coinages produced by Messene in the second and first centuries BC (Attic weight posthumous Alexanders and civic tetradrachms as well as symmachic [Aeginetic] weight triobols). While the posthumous Alexanders of Messene (Série VIII) and other Peloponnesian cities are fairly well dated to c. 191-c.188 BC through hoard evidence and the probability that they served as the initial coinage of the Achaean League, the Demeter/Zeus Ithomatas civic issues (Série IX) are more difficult to date because of their absence from hoards and from datable archaeological contexts. Nevertheless, the author suggests that the autonomous tetradrachms, struck to a slightly reduced Attic standard equal to that of the late posthumous Alexander tetradrachms of Argos, might be linked to the Messenian revolt against the Achaean League in 183-182 BC. This dating is highly convincing, not only because of the historical circumstances and numismatic parallels cited by Grandjean, but also because of the α-ρ monogram placed between Zeus’s feet on emissions γ-δ, which appears on emission β of bronze Série XI as well, an issue simultaneously linked to the Messenian posthumous Alexanders (emissions α-β of Série VIII) through its χ-ε monogram. Thus, on the basis of shared control links, it is very unlikely that the civic tetradrachms could have postdated the Alexandrine issues by very many years.

The centerpiece of this chapter is the author’s detailed discussion of the Série X civic triobols, which can be shown by die linkage to have followed directly after the end of the triobols struck by Messene during its less than happy incorporation into the Achaean League. Using hoard evidence, as well as that of artistic style and epigraphical forms, Grandjean shows that the Messenian triobols of emissions δ-μ are likely to have been produced in the first century until about 31 BC. However, she breaks with the low chronology for Achaean League issues, first championed by C. Boehringer and later modified by J. Warren, in placing the earlier emissions α-γ in the period between c. 150 and 82 BC. The author notes that the low chronology is problematic because of its assumption of a revived Achaean League before the first third of the first century BC and its tendency to make the second half of the second century BC a period without coinage in the Peloponnesus. She also convincingly refutes the idea that the Romans were responsible for financing the Peloponnesian civic silver coinage in the first century BC, based on the absence of any coin legend identifying their authority as well as the oktobolos eisphora inscription (IG V1, 1432-1433), which indicates that in first-century Messene, wealth was still concentrated in the hands of the local Messenian elite rather than in those of the city’s Roman community. Thus the coinage was most likely underwritten by Messenian liturgists.

The arrangement of the triobols is founded partly on hoard evidence and a few control links to other Séries, as well as the standard view that controls on Hellenistic coins generally followed a pattern of progression from no controls to simple letters and monograms to full or abbreviated names. While controls usually do develop in this order, it may be that this rule of thumb has been applied too rigorously to the case of anonymous emission γ (laureate Zeus/tripod flanked by Μ-Ε), which is stylistically related to the final emission μ (Artemis[?] wearing stephane/tripod flanked by ΜΕ-Σ) of Menandros. The main types for Messenian triobols after the initial emission a (laureate Zeus/ ΜΕΣ in olive wreath) were a diademed head of Zeus and a tripod flanked by the ethnic ΜΕ-Σ in an olive wreath, but emission g bears a laureate Zeus and a tripod flanked only by Μ-Ε and surrounded by what appears to be a diadem or taenia(?) border. Grandjean describes the latter simply as “un anneau,” but it is clear that a diadem or taenia is intended, as the knot and tie ends are visible at the bottom. Indeed, the reverse border seems to represent the same peculiar form of diadem, with its triangular front protrusion, worn by the obverse head of Zeus on the more common emissions of Série X.

The apparent absence of an obverse border of dots on emission γ is a characteristic also known from the late emissions κ-λ (they are described in the catalogue as having a “tour en grénetis,” but this feature is entirely invisible in plate VII), but unheard of among the earlier emissions. Emission μ employs the same unusual reverse border and a similar type of tripod to that of emission γ, but replaces the head of Zeus with that of an uncertain female head (Artemis?) surrounded by a border of dots, uses the standard ME-S ethnic and names a magistrate. Based on the sharing of the same special reverse border, it seems somewhat more likely that these two emissions were struck closer together in time at the end of the main triobol series, probably with g following m. If this suggestion is correct, then perhaps the absence of the expected name of a mint magistrate on emission γ may be attributed to the fact that this rare emission (known in only two specimens from a single obverse and reverse die) served as an experimental issue for a new series, while emission μ, sharing characteristics with the earlier triobols as well as the diadem/taenia border of emission γ, ended the preceding group.

The chapter concludes with a brief excursus on the contemporary triobols of the Messenian city of Korone.

Chapter 5 (pp. 157-224) catalogues and discusses the remaining six Séries (XI-XIV) of bronze coins struck by Messene from c. 191 BC to the first century AD. The issues of Série XI (Demeter/Zeus Ithomatas), thought to be hemiobols, are divided chronologically between early emissions employing control monograms and later emissions which give the full names of mint magistrates. Within the later series, the author notes a stylistic shift under the magistrate Damion (emission λ) from the usual obverse depiction of Demeter with a wreath of grain to that of a goddess wearing a stephane (Artemis?). However, close inspection of the plates shows that this development had already taken place on the emission φ issues of the magistrate Dion. As Dion was also responsible for an issue depicting grain-wreathed Demeter (emission ι), but the coinages of the succeeding magistrates Nikomachos and Damion only employed the goddess-wearing-stephane obverse type, it seems more likely that Dion’s emission ι preceded his emission φ. The latter emission appears to have signaled a major change in the coinage, for not only does it introduce the goddess with stephane in place of Demeter, but she faces left rather than the usual right, and on the reverse, the schematic wreath first appears, which would become a standard feature of most of the Messenian bronze coinage that followed. This wreath probably derives from that encircling the ethnic on Dion’s emission ι. The bronzes (tetartemoria?) of Série XII are thought to be contemporary with those of Série X, based on the involvement of some of the same magistrates (DI in wreath and Nikarchos).

Grandjean connects the laureate Zeus/tripod flanked by Μ-Ε issues of Série XIII, tentatively identified as chalkoi, with the silver triobol emission γ of Série X, which bears almost identical obverse and reverse types. Based on this association, she dates Série XIII to the early period of the triobols (c. 150-the beginning of the first century BC), having placed triobol emission γ early in the series. While the typological link is indisputable, a better case might be made for the production of Série XIII in tandem with the late triobols (c. 90-30 BC), since, as we have noted above, triobol emission γ also shares the peculiar diadem/taenia (“anneau”) reverse border with the late emission μ of Série X, and therefore both it and the bronzes of Série XIII are likely to be late.

The small bronze issues (chalkoi or fractions?) of Série XIV, featuring the types of a female bust and tripod flanked by Μ-Ε, are tentatively dated to the second half of the second century BC, because of iconographic similarity of the head to that of Demeter on the first issues of bronze Série XII. However, under magnification, none of the small issues of Série XIV illustrated in plate XXIV show any evidence of a grain wreath worn by the female bust, a feature that is rather prominent in emissions α-ζ of Série XII. Indeed, there is little indication of any special headgear at all, although we admit that all of the specimens are quite worn. It is tempting to suggest that Série XIV may be related to the Damion (emission λ) bronzes of Série XI, which depict a goddess with a similar hairstyle and an unusually small stephane, sometimes made almost invisible through wear. If this association is correct, then Série XIV should probably be dated to the first half of the first century BC, since Damion’s issues are the last of Série XI, the entirety of which is dated from c. 190-first half of the first century BC.

The brief Série XV, identified by Grandjean as composed of trichalkia and departing dramatically from traditional Messenian iconography by depicting Heracles and his club, is convincingly attributed to the city during its domination by the Spartan dynast Eurycles in the period 31-7(?) BC. The ME monogram accompanied by a wreath strongly supports the identity of the mint as Messene, while the typology is a close match for that later employed in Sparta by Eurycles’ son, C. Iulius Laco (see A. Burnett, M. Amandry, and O. Ripollës, Roman Provincial Coinage, vol. 1 [London/Paris, 1992], no. 1109). The publication of this probable Messenian issue here is especially important, as it does not appear in RPC.

Série XVI, the last struck in the name of the Messenians, features the turreted bust of Messene on the obverse, paired with Asclepius, Artemis, or one of several longstanding forms of Zeus Ithomatas on the reverse. These coins have usually been dated to the long period from the late first century BC to the second century AD, but here the author makes a very good case for a Julio-Claudian date, based on the reverse iconography, letter forms, and use of the koine form of the ethnic rather than the usual Doric form.

The chapter concludes with a note on the autonomous bronze coinage of the Messenian city of Thouria, which is dated to the second half of the second or the beginning of the first century BC, based on stylistic resemblance to the Série XI (Demeter/Zeus Ithomatas) issues of Messene.

In the final chapter (pp. 225-262), the author takes the complex silver and bronze coin series presented and organized in the preceding two sections and discusses them in the historical and economic context of the decline of the Achaean League and the increase of Roman influence in the Peloponnesus down to the first century AD. Particularly interesting are the detailed analyses of coin production. With respect to bronze coinage, Grandjean suggests that the vast increase in the number of dies used and the related increase in output is indicative of the monetization of the Messenian economy, although Sicyon and Corinth still continued to be major suppliers of bronze coinage to the region. Using metallurgical and stylistic evidence, she also suggests that during its forced adhesion to the Achaean League, Messene served as an important regional workshop for the production of Achaean-type triobols, possibly even producing issues for Megalopolis, the League capital. Furthermore, because of the large number of dies known for Achaean League issues, the author strongly argues that this coinage served not only to cover the costs of the League’s frequent wars, but as money for everyday use within the confines of League territory. That is, the League coinage was produced as a means to create a closed economy in the Peloponnesus.

For the later first century BC and the Julio-Claudian period, Grandjean notes that although the documentary and literary evidence all seems to point to Messene as an important and heavily Romanized center in southern Greece, the city’s cosmopolitan character was not advertised on the bronze coinage. This was preserved for honouring traditional Messenian deities like Zeus Ithomatas, Asclepius, and Artemis, as well as the personification of the city. Thus, Messenian bronze coinage remained an extremely local affair and, just as was suggested for the initial issues of the fourth century BC, continued to be used as a means of recreating the past for use in the present.

Three annexes are also included in Les Messéniens. The first lists the excavated coin finds from the site of Mavromati (ancient Messene), while the second briefly discusses examples of modern forgeries of Messenian silver coins and the difficulty of attributing a bronze coin with tripod reverse type (pl. XXVI, 12). The third annex provides important comparative metallurgical data on Peloponnesian silver coinages of the fourth to third centuries BC obtained through analyses done by the Centre E. Babelon-CNRS (UMR 5050) at Orléans.

The twenty-eight photographic plates are of very high quality and depict all the specimens described in the die studies as well as countermarks and coins issued by other states mentioned in the text as comparanda.

Despite our minor quibbling over the relative and absolute chronology for some emissions of the Hellenistic period, Catherine Grandjean’s close analysis of Messene’s coins, the small monuments to the struggle and ultimate success of a young state founded by oppressed men made free, represents an important advance in the reconstruction and interpretation of Messenian political and economic history. Les Messéniens will no doubt be a major starting point for much future work on Messenian numismatics, and the complex but often obscure history of the larger Peloponnesus from the late Classical to the early Roman periods.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Small Change in Ancient Beirut

Kevin Butcher. “Small Change in Ancient Beirut.” Berytus 45-46 (2001-2002). Sb. 304 pp., 23 b/w pls. US $30.00.

Although it is not usual practice to review individual issues of academic journals, we make an exception here for the American University of Beirut’s latest double volume of Berytus, which is really a numismatic and archaeological monograph disguised as a journal. In its pages, Kevin Butcher describes and discusses some 7,000 Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine period coins (almost exclusively bronze) found during rescue excavations in two areas (BEY 006 and BEY 045) of the Souks section of ancient Beirut (Berytus). The coins and other materials found during excavation are especially important, because, as Dominic Perring relates in his brief introduction to the history of the excavations (pp. 11-19), they represent a store of material for study snatched from almost certain destruction at the hands of overzealous developers. Faced with sudden plans to build an underground parking garage in the Souks area as part of the ongoing redevelopment of the Beirut Central District, which was heavily damaged during the civil war of 1975-1991, in 1993, an international archaeological team was formed to conduct rescue excavations in the area. The dig went forward between 1994 and 1996, with the noise and debris of demolition work going on only meters away from the site. Adding an almost surreal quality to the sense of urgency already provided by the steady encroachment of trucks and construction workers was the occasional Israeli air strike. It is our hope that recent political changes in the region will make it possible for those involved in the next major archaeological project undertaken by the American University of Beirut to give their full attention to the ground and its treasures without the burden of having to watch the sky as well. The present monograph represents the important first fruits of the Souks excavations, and will be followed in short order by a study of vessel glass finds by Sarah Jennings in Berytus 48 (2004) (forthcoming). Other reports on a variety of topics, including ceramic lamps and finds of Islamic, Crusader, and modern coins, are projected for future volumes of Berytus.

The introduction (pp. 21-41), which largely focuses on the problems of interpreting coin finds, is extremely sobering, almost bordering on the Socratic in its relentless revelation of our inability to know what has long been the received wisdom of find analysis. The challenge put to the ubiquitous belief that stray coin finds are the result of accidental loss in antiquity and therefore accurately represent circulation patterns seems particularly well founded. The author points out that there is really no way for us to know the face values of the coins and if their values were too low for people to expend energy looking for them when dropped, as is commonly supposed. Instead, it is just as likely that some bronze coins (essentially token coinages) were purposely discarded as a result of devaluation, demonetization, or loss of public trust. To this list of reasons for purposeful discard we might also add the same potential motivation of low face value (if they were indeed low) used to underpin the theory of unretrieved loss. In the modern United States and Canada, the small cent denomination is not infrequently discarded by its owners because of its low value, and one suspects that the accumulations of these coins that appear on sidewalks and in parking lots from time to time will eventually become the subject of a similar loss/discard controversy for archaeologists of the very distant future. Of course, it is possible that this sort of discard may be a feature peculiar to affluent and often wasteful North American culture in the twenty-first century and therefore may be less applicable to coin deposits of the ancient world, which had much greater affinities to the modern Third World and whose people may have taken somewhat greater care of personal wealth even in the form of bronze coins. Nevertheless, our additional modern example further underlines the validity of the author’s important argument that largely unknowable social factors probably have a much greater impact on patterns of coin deposition than is usually acknowledged. Butcher here is a true gadfly for sometimes complacent archaeological numismatic thought, and the discipline should be grateful to be so well bitten.

Having introduced the methodology and problems of interpreting site finds, the author offers individual commentaries on the coin finds of each of the five major chronological periods covered by the catalogue (Persian, Hellenistic, Early Roman, Late Roman, and Byzantine). An additional brief commentary (p. 101) also deals with a small number of largely imitative issues that may have been produced within the borders of the Roman and Byzantine empires or under Vandal or Ostrogothic authorities.

The Persian period (p. 43) is represented in BEY 006 and BEY 045 by only four Sidonian bronze issues, tentatively attributed to the reigns of Ba’alshillem II or ‘Abd’Ashtart I. Butcher also includes five Sidetan issues in this period, while admitting that they may in fact be of Hellenistic date. As he points out, the odd presence of these Pamphylian bronzes in Near Eastern sites like Jerusalem, Sebaste, and Caesarea continues to be a source of perplexity. However, it seems more likely that these coins should be dated to the late third or early second century BC than to the period of Persian rule, based on the finds in a short-lived site at Korazim, containing datable coins no later than Antiochus III (See D. T. Ariel, “Coins from the Synagogue at Korazim,” in Z. Yeivin, ed., The Synagogue at Korazim: The 1962-1964, 1980-1987 Excavations, IAA Reports 10 [Jerusalem, 2000], pp. 33-49). It may be no accident that this is also roughly the same period that Sidetan tetradrachms appear in Syrian hoards. Such a date would coincide with and perhaps solidify the proposed ceramic phase date of 200-150 BC for pit fill context 10138 of BEY 006, where the only securely stratified Sidetan specimen was recovered.

Finds of the Hellenistic period (pp. 44-58) are largely dominated by the royal coinages of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid dynasties. The bulk of the Ptolemaic material is made up of almost equal quantities of coins of Ptolemy II (285-246 BC) from the mints of Alexandria and Tyre. However, Butcher notes that the Alexandrian finds were mainly of two of the smaller denominations while a broader range of Tyrian issues were found, suggesting that Tyre was the main supplier of Ptolemaic coinage to Berytus. He also uses several site contexts dated by ceramic phase to the third and early second centuries BC to further support the generally accepted view that Phoenicia was disconnected from the Ptolemaic currency system almost immediately after the Seleucid conquest (202-198 BC). However, Butcher’s argument for an early aggressive policy to create a Seleucid identity for the conquered territory in part through the large-scale import of small denomination Apollo/Apollo standing bronzes (nos. 74-163) of Antiochus III from Antioch and perhaps Ake-Ptolemaïs seems a little less solid. While this is a reasonable enough impression to take from the coin finds in isolation, it does not take into account the larger numismatic picture of Phoenicia under Antiochus III, which saw an almost complete failure to impose Seleucid-style Attic-weight silver coinage on the region and the introduction of a new bronze coinage at Tyre featuring strictly local reverse types, both of which tend to undercut the idea of a serious “Seleucidizing” policy. The important role later played by Seleucid quasi-municipal coinages at Berytus and other Phoenician cities, as well as the resurrection of a Ptolemaic-style silver coinage with the portrait and name of the Seleucid king, both point to a somewhat more cautious policy of dealing with Phoenicia in primarily regional rather than imperial terms (see G. Le Rider, “La politique monétaire des Séleucides en Coelé Syrie et Phénice après 200”, BCH 119 [1995], pp. 391-404 and O. Hoover, “Ceci n’est pas l’autonomie: The Coinage of Seleucid Phoenicia as Royal and Civic Power Discourse,” Topoi Supplement 6 [2004], pp. 485-507). The new Seleucid coinage of Tyre may not have circulated at Berytus because it was really a nascent form of the later quasi-municipal coinages, which, as Butcher shows, rarely circulated far from their cities of issue. In light of the larger picture, it seems somewhat more likely that the many Apollo coins were injected into the circulation pool at Berytus during the course of campaigning in the region. Several coins of Antiochus III attributed to a military mint traveling with the Seleucid army (nos. 164-168) are also known from the excavations. For the later Seleucid period at Berytus, the author compares the Souks finds with other sites, coming to the important conclusion that a two-tiered system of coinage circulation developed, involving issues intended for local circulation (i.e. quasi-municipal coins of Berytus, Tyre, Sidon, etc.) and the widely circulating issues of major centers like Antioch and Ake-Ptolemaïs. It may be worth adding that this propensity for circulation dualism in the coinage of Seleucid Phoenicia can also be seen at work in the local silver mints as well, which produced coins on a Phoenician (Ptolemaic) standard mainly for regional use as well as regular Attic-weight issues.

With the collapse of Seleucid power in the first century BC, the number of coin finds decreases, but the material that is known is dominated by civic issues of Berytus, as one might expect, with a few specimens struck by the rulers of Chalcis and Judaea as well as nearby Phoenician and Coele Syrian cities. Although the Berytus coins are classified and arranged by Rouvier number in the catalogue, the author suggests that the order of issue should be rearranged so that coins marked ΛΑ-ΦΟ (a carryover from the Seleucid period) precede those bearing the ethnic ΒΗ or ΒΗΡΥΤΙΩΝ. This rearrangement has also been endorsed recently by Z. Sawaya, “Le monnayage municipal séleucide de Bérytos (169/8-114/3? av. J.-C.),” NC (2004), pp. 130-131 with n. 132. Several isolated issues of Asia Minor (Pergamum, Ephesus[?], Miletus, Cnidus, Cos, Rhodes, Perge, Etenna) and even Italian Rhegium are also present, but Butcher rightly cautions against using them as evidence for international trade relations. Indeed, because these coins are so far out of their usual areas of circulation they seem to be prime candidates for the theory of purposeful discard.

The commentary on Early Roman finds (pp. 59-80) is divided into two sections, the first of which is devoted to the provincial bronze issues and the second to imperial issues, primarily the radiate coinages of the third century AD. In the first and second centuries, the pattern of provincial finds essentially reproduces that of the Seleucid period, with the bulk of the circulating medium composed of local Berytus issues and the much wider ranging SC coinage of Antioch; however, by the third century the coinage of Berytus completely dominates the material and the SC series appears no more important than the ephemeral site finds of other Near Eastern city coins. Comparison with other sites in the region shows that Berytus was somewhat unusual in the numbers of SC coins and Judaean issues found in its environs, prompting Butcher to suggest that for some reason, these coins were deliberately injected into local circulation.

In addition to the more well-known provincial series discussed in this section, several unusual pieces are worthy of special note. An interesting find is a small anepigraphic Tyche/caduceus between crossed cornucopiae type (no. 630) that has been attributed at different times to Palmyra or Commagene, neither of which seem very satisfactory as the originating mints. The attention of readers should be drawn to nos. 632 and 634, two provincial bronzes that continue to defy full attribution, despite the reasonable preservation of their types. Also of uncertain date and mintage is a group of so-called minute coins (nos. 635-654) of 9-12mm diameter and bearing various types including a griffin (nos. 636-637), a serpent entwined on a staff (no. 635), a palm tree (nos. 650-651), and a crude star (no. 654). The latter may not be a true “minute” issue, but rather a coin of the Hasmonaean priest-king Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), whose star/anchor coinage at times could reach truly spectacular levels of crudity. See Y. Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins (Jerusalem/Nyack, 2001), nos. L8-L11, for examples of Jannaeus coins of comparable size and style to that of no. 654. Likewise, it is not entirely clear why the special “minute” classification has been given to no. 648, a 12mm bronze that seems most likely to be a less than perfectly preserved civic issue of Ascalon like the one known from excavations in BEY 006 (no. 284).

Butcher compares the remaining “minute” coins with a collection of similar pieces, including griffin and palm tree types, reportedly from the environs of Caesarea Maritima and now in the Ashmolean Museum. Leaving all chronological possibilities open, he points out that the palm tree type “minute” coins have been variously identified as imitations of civic issues of Tyre (second-first century BC) as well as Byzantine or Vandalic (fifth-sixth century AD). We would argue that the Ashmolean palm tree type AM6, which has very close stylistic similarities to the smaller BEY 006 coin no. 651, is most likely an imitation of Tyre. Under magnification it is possible to just make out the head of Tyche as the obverse type. For what it’s worth, in 2002, a coin possibly struck from the same reverse die as AM6 was seen in American trade as part of a group from northern Israel that included many regular Tyrian small bronzes. Frustratingly, a cross in wreath issue of the Vandal king Hunneric (AD 477-484) and a few nummi of the emperors Leo I (AD 457-474) and Zeno (AD 474-491) were also present, thereby muddying the potential chronological implication. (See also A. Houghton and A. Spaer, Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Israel I: The Arnold Spaer Collection of Seleucid Coins [London, 1998], no. 1551 for a Tyrian palm tree imitation apparently produced under the Seleucid king Alexander I Balas.) The palm tree type no. 650 is of a very different style.

Based on the use of pagan types, Butcher reasonably suggests that the “minute” coins probably date no later than the third century AD, yet their production on cast flans and their apparent circulation alongside similar unstruck blanks (nos. 642-647) makes the fifth century seem like a very good possibility (see G. Bijovsky, “The Currency of the Fifth Century C.E. in Palestine-Some Reflections in Light of the Numismatic Evidence,” INJ 14 [2000-2002], pp. 202-204). We note that the portrait obverses of the griffin issue AM2 and the Hermes coin AM4 appear to wear late Roman-style diadems (rather than laurel wreaths) with the usual short tie ends fluttering behind the heads. The portrait bust on the latter coin also seems to be draped and cuirassed in the late Roman fashion.

Outside of two sestertii of Philip I and Trajan Decius, respectively, all imperial coinages found on the site up to the reforms of Diocletian are radiate issues which came to replace the provincial bronze coinages at Berytus in the 250s. Comparison of the Souks finds with those of radiates at other sites in the Near East, Anatolia, and mainland Greece confirms the pattern of regional variation in deposition and mint supply originally outlined by D. MacDonald, “Aphrodisias and Currency in the East, AD 259-305,” AJA 78 (1974), pp. 279-286. However, Berytus and other Near Eastern sites seem to have a much more even distribution of radiates on either side of Aurelian’s reform of c. AD 274 than in Anatolia and Greece, where pre-reform radiates are generally more common as single finds. Notable are the finds of five TR mint aurelianiani (nos. 756, 767-768, 772, and 777) variously attributed to Tripolis or Tyre. Similar finds of these coins at other north Phoenician and Syrian sites and in the Nahr Ibrahim hoard leads Butcher to tentatively suggest that Tripolis may be the more likely of the two cities as the mint of origin.

An important issue raised with respect to these provincial and imperial finds is that of continued circulation of these coins in later contexts, well after they would have been expected to disappear from circulation as a result of demonetization. Several sequences from the site seem to place quantities of provincial and radiate issues of the first to third centuries in contexts datable by ceramic phase and other numismatic material to the mid-fourth century, suggesting that the early coins were still in use in this period. Supporting this possibility is the well-known reuse of old small denomination coinage of appropriate size in the fifth and sixth centuries (p. 97). Of course, accepting the continued circulation of such coinage tends to leave us in limbo regarding the proper quantitative interpretation of the Early Roman material, since some of it may potentially reflect patterns of circulation much later than the original period of issue.

Despite the generally chaotic nature of the coinage, with its frequent demonetization and reissue, the Late Roman coin finds (pp. 81-100) follow a relatively easily understandable pattern of deposition at Berytus. For most issues of the later fourth and fifth centuries the nearby mint of Antioch was the major source of the coinage found on the site, with the exception of the Tetrarchic post-reform radiates, the emperor on horseback GLORIA ROMANORVM type of AD 393-395, and the two emperor GLORIA ROMANORVM types of AD 408-423, which appear to have been largely supplied by Cyzicus, Alexandria, and Constantinople, respectively. Both Antioch and Cyzicus seem to share the duty of supplying Berytus in the later fifth century. As we might expect, when more than one emperor was in power, those most commonly found on the site are those of eastern rulers like Licinius I, Licinius II, Valens, and Honorius. Several good site contexts are used to illustrate the continued importance of the issues of the later fourth century as late as the early sixth century at Berytus.

For the Byzantine period (pp. 102-112), Butcher again finds a two-tiered system of circulation at work, in which large denominations were regulated, but small denominations were not carefully controlled, thereby allowing older (sometimes very much older) coins of the proper diameter to circulate alongside the official small coins of the Byzantine state. The Souks finds are remarkable for their domination by issues of Anastasius (AD 491-518), which account for 71 percent of the material, and for the relative scarcity of coins of coins of Justinian (AD 527-565) and Justin II (AD 565-578). The Anastasius pieces are also notable in that they were extensively supplied by the mint of Constantinople, rather than a regional mint like Antioch. In the second half of the reign of Maurice Tiberius (AD 582-602) the issues of more distant mints disappear, leaving Antioch as sole supplier to Berytus. A wider sampling of mints from Antioch to Constantinople returns under Phocas (AD 602-610), but the issues of Heraclius (AD 610-641) come from Constantinople, Thessalonica, and Nicomedia as we would expect, considering the closure of the Antioch mint after its capture by the Sasanian Persians in 611. Byzantine coinage in the Souks excavations ceases with a follis of AD 629/30, roughly coinciding with the conclusion of the Byzantine reconquest of the region. Imported Byzantine coinage generally fell into sharp decline throughout the region after much of the Near East was lost to the Islamic Arabs in 636. It would be interesting to know what the site finds look like for the pseudo-Byzantine and Umayyad imperial image coinages that filled the coinage vacuum of the early Islamic period, and whether the somewhat early end of Byzantine coinage at Berytus may have meant an early replacement with pseudo-Byzantine issues copying the types of Heraclius, currently dated to the 650s (see S. Album and T. Goodwin, Sylloge of Islamic Coins in the Ashmolean I: The Pre-Reform Coinage of the Early Islamic Period [Oxford, 2002], pp. 104-106).

The text concludes with two appendices by Penelope Walton Rogers and Paul Reynolds, respectively. The first (pp. 291-292) looks at what can be learned about textile and basket manufacture in Romano-Byzantine Beirut from the mineralised remains of linen and plaited grass/rush fused to four of the excavation coins, while the second (pp. 293-296) discusses the methodology of and difficulties in the development of ceramic phase dates for the Souks site. A provisional list of the ceramic phasing sequence is also given.

The catalogue (pp. 119-290) lists and identifies all of the finds from BEY 006 and BEY 045 by site code, context number, and small find number. Details of diameter, typological descriptions, numismatic references, and indication of whether the coin is whole or broken are provided in the find tables. Seven of the “minute” coins from the Ashmolean Museum are also included. The eleven hoard assemblages of Late Roman and Byzantine coins found in the course of excavation are listed separately.

Many of the coins discussed in the text and listed in the catalogue are illustrated in twenty-three black and white plates. These are generally of good quality, although a few pieces are a little darker than we might like. However, any minor photographic imperfections must be easily forgiven considering the legion of lighting difficulties posed by excavation coins, each with its own peculiarities of patina, wear, and corrosion. In addition to the individual finds that make up the bulk of the illustrated material, four hoards (three late Roman and one Byzantine) from BEY 006 and one late Roman hoard from BEY 045 also appear in the plates, as well as the Ashmolean “minute” pieces.

Kevin Butcher’s important and exhaustive study of the coin finds from the Beirut Souks excavations will obviously be of very great interest to students of numismatics and archaeology at Near Eastern sites, but its reassessment of what can be learned from numismatic site finds and to some degree how it should be learned also make it required reading for anyone working with excavation coins, even those from more westerly sites. It is a necessary volume for the library of every dig house, and thanks to the extremely modest selling price, none but the most poorly funded of excavations has any excuse not to own a copy.

—Oliver D. Hoover

From the Collections Manager (Winter 2005)

by Elena Stolyarik

New Acquisitions

During the fall of 2005, the ANS Coin Cabinet received several notable additions through generous gifts of our Trustees and other members, and through a number of purchases. One of the ANS Trustees, Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss, donated a group of five items from Egypt, composing a hoard of the mid-fifth century BC. This is part of the find purchased in the 1950s from a private collection in Valais, Switzerland. It consists of one of the largest known intact massive cake-type silver ingots, weighing 1,462.98 grams (Fig. 1); an intact silver ingot of 330.05 grams; a cleaned thick disc-like ingot of 24.35 grams; and two Athenian tetradrachms, one of which is partially melted. With this gift also came two unique silver fifth-century BC coins from Boeotia and Thrace.


Fig. 1: Egypt. AR cake ingot. (ANS 2006.1.1, gift of Arnold-Peter C. Weiss), 142.98 g., 115 mm.

The ANS collection of Roman provincial coinage acquired eighteen new examples of the bronze coins of Philip I, Otacilia Severa, Trajan Decius (Fig. 2), Herennia Etruscilla, Volusianus, Aemilianus, Valerian I, and Gallienus from the Provincia Dacia.


Fig. 2: Dacia, Trajan Decius, AE, AD 249-250. (ANS 2005.45.4, anonymous gift), 28 mm.

Among the most important 2005 acquisitions was the collection of mostly late eighteenth-century Connecticut coppers formed by Edward R. Barnsley (Fig. 3; Fig. 4). These 1,241 objects received under the terms of our contractual agreement with the Colonial Newsletter Foundation (CNLF) were safely delivered from Huntsville, Alabama. They were checked against the CNLF inventory, counted, and individually weighed. Then the coins were placed in archival storage boxes with their respective accession numbers (ANS 2005.37.1-1238) and catalogued into the curatorial database, with appropriate cross-reference numbers added. It is now widely believed that the Society holds not only the most complete collection of the surviving varieties of Connecticut “coppers” but the largest as well.


Fig. 3: USA, Connecticut. 1787, Miller 33.14-Z.2, Unique. (ANS 2005.37.780, CNLF-5292 ex Barnsley), 28.1 mm.


Fig. 4: USA, New Jersey. 1787, Maris.73-aa (overstruck on Connecticut Copper, Miller.33.29-gg.1, Breen.828). (ANS 2005.37.268, CNLF # 2191 ex Barnsley), 29.4 mm.

Among the items from the Barnsley collection is a beautifully struck medal commemorating Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), designed by James Mudie (Fig. 5), along with the reverse steel hub punch for this medal, with the engraver’s name “J.P.DROZ” stamped to the left of the goddess’s image (Fig. 6). The medal is a part of the British National medals series, which commemorated heroes, events, and victories of the Napoleonic wars.


Fig. 5: United Kingdom. AE commemorative mdeal, Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), 1820 (ANS 2005.37.1240), 40.7mm.


Fig. 6: United Kingdom. Reverse steel hub punch for Vice-Admiral Nelson commemorative medal, signed by engraver J.P.DROZ, 1820 (ANS 2005.37.1239), 73 mm.

A significant donation to our collection of American coins and medals came from Board member Stanley DeForest Scott. It includes a fine group of U.S. uncirculated Carson City mint silver dollars of the 1880s (Fig. 7) and a series of beautiful and rare platinum proof medals of the “Sons of the Revolution” bicentennial commemoration: the Fraunces Tavern Museum issue (Fig. 8) and George Washington’s Farewell medals in platinum, gold, bronze, and silver (Fig. 9).


Fig. 7: USA. Uncirculated Silver Dollar, Carson City Mint, 1884 (ANS 2005.48.15, gift of Stanley DeForest Scott).


Fig. 8: USA. Platinum (proof) The Fraunces Tavern Museum “Sons of the Revolution” commemorative medal, Medallic Art Company, 1976 (ANS 2005.48.23, gift of Stanley DeForest Scott).


Fig. 9: USA. AE medal. George Washington’s Farewell/Sons of the Revolution commemorative bicentennial, Medallic Art Company, 1976 (ANS 2005.48.27, gift of Stanley DeForest Scott).

Three uncirculated specimens of the Morgan dollar (1901-O, 1902-O, 1904-O) were donated by ANS member Dr. Michael S. Fey, to upgrade our holdings in this area. The nickel of new design issued in 2005 (Fig. 10) entered our collection of modern American money. For the first time in sixty-seven years, new images of Thomas Jefferson—based on his marble bust by the French sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon (1789)—appeared on our coins. The reverse features a scene of the Pacific Ocean and an inscription reflecting an excited entry in the journal of Captain William Clark on November 7, 1805. Joe Fitzgerald, of Silver Spring, Maryland, the United States Mint Artistic Infusion Program artist, created the designs for both the obverse and reverse. This summer, Mr. and Mrs. Fitzgerald visited the ANS and donated the new nickel to our collection.


Fig. 10: USA. CN 5 cent, Denver Mint, 2005 (ANS 2005.51.1, gift of Mr. & Ms. Joe Fitzgerald), 21.1 mm.

A noteworthy gift of a U.S. Mint steel coin die came from an anonymous donor. This proof obverse (Fig. 11) was used in the West Point mint for the $10 gold commemorative coin of the XXIII Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles in 1984.


Fig. 11: USA. Steel obverse die for AV $10 Olympic commemorative coin proof, West Point mint, 1984 (ANS 2005.41.1, anonymous gift).

An important addition to our collection of modern coinage came from Dr. David Menchell. He donated a great selection of the current issues, including new euro coins, from Andorra, Austria, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, and Switzerland, as well as a mint set of the European Union candidate countries’ circulation coins (from Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Slovakia, and Slovenia). Three commemorative mint sets of the Romanian National Bank of 2004 and 2005 were a gift from ANS member from Germany Mr. Erwin Schaeffer.

ANS fellow Dr. Jay M. Galst donated a modern proof coin from Ukraine (2 grivna) (Fig. 12). This commemorative issue was dedicated to the outstanding ophthalmologist, clinician, scientist, and academician Vladimir Filatov (1875-1956). Born into a doctors’ family in Russia, Filatov completed his medical education at Moscow University in 1897 and moved to Odessa, where he became the head of the eye clinic in the department of medicine of the Novorossiiskii (Odessa) University. From 1936 until his death in 1956, he was the director of the Experimental Research Institute of Ophthalmology that now carries his name. One of Filatov’s most important scientific achievements was the introduction of the tube flap method of plastic surgery, which he developed around the time of World War I. Another scientific contribution of Filatov-corneal transplantation-takes a special place in the history of modern science.


Fig. 12: Ukraine. 2 grivna, 2005 (ANS 2005.39.1, gift of Dr. Jay M. Galst).

A fine group of modern Cuban notes, issued by the Banco Nacional de Cuba, was generously donated by Dr. Ute Wartenberg Kagan. The national currency of Cuba bears portraits of politicians-the founders of the Cuban National Revolutionary Movement of the Nineteenth century-Jose Marti (Fig. 13), Maximo Gomez (Fig. 14), and Antonio Maceo. They also show images of the Marxist revolutionary leaders of the 1950s and 1960s—the Castro brothers, Camilo Cienfuegos, and Ernesto “Che” Guevara (Fig. 15)—and reflect important political events in the recent history of the Cuban state.



Fig. 13: Cuba. 1 Peso, 1986 (Jose Marti), Banco Nacional de Cuba (ANS 2006.5.1, gift of Dr. Ute Wartenberg Kagan), 150 x 70 mm.



Fig. 14: Cuba. 10 Peso, 1989 (Maximo Gomez), Banco Nacional de Cuba (ANS 2006.5.4, gift of Dr. Ute Wartenberg Kagan), 150 x 70 mm.



Fig. 15: Cuba. 3 Peso, 1995 (Ernesto “Che” Guevara), Banco Nacional de Cuba (ANS 2006.5.7, gift of Dr. Ute Wartenberg Kagan), 150 x 70 mm.

One of the most engaging purchases of this year is a collection of forty-one aviation medals of the pre-WWII period. These handsome artifacts bear the images of aviators from Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, and the United States. They serve both as witnesses and commemorations of the tumultuous and heroic history of early modern aviation (Fig. 16).


Fig. 16: France. AE medal commemorating the world flight of Captain Dieudonne Costes and Lieutenant Commander Le Brix, October 1927 by Anie Mouroux (ANS 2005.42.26, purchase), 68 mm.

The award medal “There is light behind the shadows” of the Canadian Institute for the Blind, with the image of a blind eye on the obverse and an open eye in the shape of a foliate tree against a background of a rising sun and water on the reverse, is a gift of Canadian artist Dora de Pedery-Hunt, the 2003 recipient of the J. Sanford Saltus Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Art of the Medal (Fig. 17). She also donated a uniface plaque dedicated to one of the greatest ballet dancers of the twentieth century, Rudolf Nureyev (Fig. 18). Brilliant and eccentric, Nureyev started his vertiginous career as a fifteen-year-old boy in Ufa (Bashkortostan) and ended his magnificent “flying step” in Paris, where he served as artistic director of the Opera Garnier until his untimely death from AIDS in 1993. The Netherlandish sculptor Theo van de Vathorst (the 2005 J. Sanford Saltus Award recipient) donated one of his medals from the “Theatre” series (Fig. 19).


Fig. 17: Canada. AE award medal of the Canadian Institute for the Blind by Dora de Pedery-Hunt (ANS 2005.49.1, gift of Dora de Pedery-Hunt), 92.7 mm.


Fig. 18: Canada. AE uniface plaque “Rudolf Nureyev,” by Dora de Pedery-Hunt (ANS 2005.49.2, gift of Dora de Pedery-Hunt), 93.6 x 120.6 mm.


Fig. 19: Netherlands. AE medal “Theater,” 1981, by Theo van de Vathorst (ANS 2005.50.1, gift of Theo van de Vathorst), 77 mm.

In September, the officers of the Naval Command College (founded in 1956) visited the ANS exhibition “Drachmas, Doubloons, and Dollars: The History of Money,” which is on display at the Federal Reserve. The students expressed their great interest in the exhibition and donated a commemorative medal of their college as a token of appreciation for an interesting tour led by one of our former staff members.

Longtime ANS member Roger DeWardt Lane selected several recent acquisitions for donation to the cabinet. His most recent gift consists of satirical items, simulating numismatic specimens, ridiculing contemporaneous U.S. government leaders and aspiring “wannabes,” which include several “Promissory Notes” of 1972 Presidential candidate George McGovern ($1,000) and Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton large-size satirical “dollars.” Mr. DeWardt Lane also donated two food coupons issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (series 1978B, 1990A).

Another group selected for the ANS by Mr. DeWardt Lane consists of several travelers check specimens from Citicorp and the Bank of Tokyo. These checks were issued for Japanese tourists who visited Hawaii and California, and with the opening of Disney World in Orlando, Florida, they also appeared on the east coast of the United States. The design of these items is usually connected to Japanese cultural and religious traditions. Several specimens bear the image of the Buddhist statue of a “Good Omen” on one side and a three-storied pagoda of the famous “Joruri-Ji” temple in Kyoto on the other side (Fig. 20).



Fig. 20: Japan. 10,000 yen specimen of the Bank of Tokyo travelers check, Bank of Tokyo, Ltd. (ANS 2006.3.2, gift of Roger deWardt Lane), 160 x 71 mm.

Mr. DeWardt Lane also donated a group of three other “exonumia” items. One is a Belgian Congo fifty-franc lottery ticket of December 1936 (Fig. 21), with the image of an African female with an infant within a star-shaped cartouche, surrounded by palm trees. Its inscriptions are in both French and Flemish. The odds of winning are printed on the reverse. Usually, the majority of these lottery tickets would have been sold in Belgium. The instructions on the reverse explain how the winner could collect the prize in Brussels as well as in the Congo.

Fig. 21: Belgian Congo. Colonial Lottery ticket, 29 May 1934 (ANS 2006.3.7, gift of Roger deWardt Lane).

Another curious item from this group is a $1 receipt issued by the Original Louisiana Lottery Company (Fig. 22). Opened for business in 1868 in New Orleans, the company eventually became the largest in the country, but because of corruption charges, it was shut down twenty-two years later and subsequently moved to Santiago, Honduras. In 1892, the United States legislation prohibited such lottery operations, but the company continued its illegal activities, as indicated by our new item, dated 1926.



Fig. 22: United States. 1 dollar Original Louisiana Lottery Ticket, 1926 (ANS 2006.3.9, gift of Roger deWardt Lane), 152 x 50 mm.

A Chinese $1 dog-race coupon of 1930, issued in Shanghai, is the third piece in this group from DeWardt Lane (Fig. 23). It shows three racing greyhounds within an oval cartouche at the upper center and bears an inscription which promises to pay “the sum of $1 in presentation of the note within one year from date of issue (April 1, 1930) to the holder at the Shanghai courses on racing day at the company’s office.” Although dog racing was not allowed by international resolution, it was very popular in the French Concession of Shanghai where, in 1928, a greyhound racetrack (a Canidrome) opened its doors for 50,000 visitors and quickly became a popular local pastime.



Fig. 23: China. 1 dollar dog-race coupon, Shanghai, 1930 (ANS 2006.3.6, gift of Roger deWardt Lane), 140 x 80 mm.

Exhibitions

The ANS’s famous set of “Washington Seasons Medals” and a Thomas Jefferson Indian Peace Medal have continued to travel around the country with the “National Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Exhibition,” organized by the Missouri Historical Society. From November 2005 to March 2006, the ANS objects will be on view at the Oregon Historical Society, in Portland.

Masterworks from the ANS collection—the Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural bronze medal of 1905 and a silver Cornish Masque Plaquette of 1905—along with two examples of the gold US$20 of 1907 (high and low relief) and two US$10 gold pieces of 1907 (one in standard low relief and the other, a proof strike with the knife rim), were included in the traveling exhibit dedicated to the work of sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and organized by the Trust for Museum Exhibitions. During the fall season, the visitors at the Munson-Williams Proctor Museum of Art, in Utica, New York, saw these famous items in the exhibition entitled “August Saint-Gaudens: Master of American Sculpture.”

Three ancient silver coins—an Athenian tetradrachm, an imitation Athenian drachm (from Arabia Felix), and a Phoenician 1/4th shekel—are on display at the Peabody Essex Museum of Salem, Massachusetts, in an exhibit entitled “Owls in Art and Nature.” This presentation explores the connection between people and owls in different parts of the world. The ANS’s ancient Greek coins are intended to serve as a partial illustration of this relationship, based on ancient cults and myths from early stages of humankind’s development. The exhibition will be on view from September 2005 to November 2006.

A selection of fourteen ANS medals and plaquettes with images of the historic and charismatic French heroine Joan of Arc is now on display at the Walsh Library Gallery, at Seton Hall University. Entitled “Joan of Arc in the Modern Imagination,” the exhibit is accompanied by a conference and a handsome catalogue; it will remain on view until December 16, 2006.

Additional Links

Volunteer Impressions (Winter 2005)

by Rick Witschonke

One of the important functions of the ANS is to support numismatic scholars worldwide in pursuit of their research. Even though the contents of the ANS collections and library are available on the web, there are many inquiries which require access to the actual object. And since many scholars are unable to visit the Society in person, we do our best to respond to their requests by mail and e-mail. This aspect of the ANS’s charter was brought home to me beginning in August, when requests for information from three scholars were passed along to me.


Rick checking coins for Alan DeShazo

In mid-July, we received a letter from Alan S. DeShazo, of Metairie, Louisiana, regarding an analysis of certain tetradrachms of Alexander the Great (one of the largest and most complex coinages of antiquity) which he was engaged in. Mr. DeShazo is not a professional scholar, but has written several important numismatic studies, including a joint article with Michael Bates on Islamic coinages. He has the rare ability to detect previously unnoticed patterns in a variety of coinages, and his current project involves the Alexander tetradrachms of Amphipolis with lambda control marks. He has devised a scheme of categorizing these issues, which he believes will enable us to date them much more precisely. In order to test his theory, he needs to populate a 9×11 matrix of issues based on subsidiary control marks and other characteristics.

The coinage of Alexander was a specialty of former ANS Chief Curator Edward T. Newell and, as a result, the ANS trays contain one of the largest collections of this coinage in the world, approximately 5,500 pieces, making the ANS an essential resource for anyone studying the coinage of Alexander. Upon reading Mr. DeShazo’s request, I thought that it would involve examining each of our specimens (a massive undertaking), so I suggested that he plan a visit to the Society to view the trays in person. He responded cordially, and requested that I just examine ten coins (for which he provided accession numbers from our database) from the mint of Amphipolis, and place them into his categories. I examined the coins and sent him the information he had requested, along with some data on related issues that I discovered. The categorization of one coin surprised him, so I sent him a scan of the coin to confirm. He then asked for categorizations of seven additional coins, which I sent on September 9. At that point, Hurricane Katrina intervened, and I heard nothing for several weeks. I e-mailed him again, inquiring as to his safety. Finally, in mid-October, I received word that he was OK, but that his house had been partially flooded and had to be gutted due to mildew and mold. He is living in Shreveport for the interim, but expects to get back to his research eventually.

Prof. Alberto Simonetta of Florence has published extensively on Parthian and Indo-Parthian coinages. In late July, he contacted the ANS, requesting assistance on the pre-Roman coinage of Cappadocia. He is working with the British Museum and the Cabinet des Medailles (Paris) to publish their collections of Cappadocian coins, along with his own. Prof. Simonetta requested scans of the ANS holdings, so that he could confirm his attributions, and note any unusual pieces in the ANS trays.

Upon checking, I determined that the ANS has approximately 220 pre-Roman Cappadocian coins, primarily regal silver drachms and civic bronze. I first scanned twenty-four of the coins and e-mailed them to Prof. Simonetta, to make sure the quality was adequate for his needs. I then scanned the entire group, and sent a CD with the images in early August. Inevitably, there was some confusion in matching the images with the ANS database entries and interpreting the legends on specific coins, so in late August and early September, we exchanged e-mails in order to resolve these issues. As of late September, the work is nearly complete, awaiting responses from a few more institutions. Several of the ANS’s specimens will probably be illustrated.

Also in July, Dr. Karsten Dahmen of the Berlin Muenzkabinett requested images of five ANS Roman Provincial coins of Pellene in Achaia. Dr. Dahmen is working with Dr. Achim Lictenberger of Muenster University on an article regarding these coins for the next issue of Boreas, the Muenster University Archaeological Journal. In early August, I sent Dr. Dahmen images of the five coins, along with comments on the reverse types. As it turns out, one of the ANS specimens is otherwise unknown, so Dr. Dahmen requested a digital photograph to include in the article, which I sent on September 22.

For me, responding to these inquiries was a very enjoyable experience. I was able to help three numismatic scholars and demonstrate once again the importance of providing access to the wonderful holdings of the ANS.

Archivist’s News (Winter 2005)

by Joseph Ciccone

As we continue to make progress overall with our archival program, two projects in particular—our grant-funded conservation assessment and oral history project—have achieved notable results.

Conservation Assessment Conducted

Readers may recall that in my previous column I reported that the ANS had received funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) to have a consultant assess our collections and make recommendations for their conservation. This assessment is a prerequisite for the more substantial conservation grants available from the IMLS.

I am happy to report that the IMLS-recommended conservator, Barbara Appelbaum, visited the ANS in September. Ms. Appelbaum has been advising museums and historical societies since the early 1970s. Her clients have included the American Museum of Natural History, the Brooklyn Museum, the Newark Museum, and both the New-York and New Jersey Historical Societies.

During her visit, Ms. Appelbaum met with staff to familiarize herself with their respective collections and discuss relevant conservation issues. Based on this visit, Ms. Appelbaum will provide us with a written report containing both short- and long-term recommendations for the care of our collections. With this report in hand, we plan to seek additional funding to treat the archival collections and ensure their proper preservation.

Oral History Project Continues

We have continued to make further progress in our oral history project. As readers may recall, we have been interviewing former staff members, Councillors, and others about their contact with the Society. So far I interviewed fourteen people and recorded more than thirty-five hours of recollections. I anticipate conducting another six to eight interviews by the end of the first quarter of 2006.

As always, if you have any suggestions for people we should interview, please contact me either by e-mail at ciccone@numismatics.org or by telephone at 212-571-4470, x1312. Candidates interviewed have been chosen both on the length of their tenure with the ANS, as well as the position they held while with the ANS. For instance, would they have participated in key decision making? Would they have interacted with significant figures? We are especially interested in speaking with individuals who have vivid recollections of some of the Society’s older luminaries, such as Edward Newell, Sydney Noe, or Louis West.

Portrait Needs Identification

When we were working to clear archival records out of the sub-basement in Audubon Terrace, we discovered a number of unexpected items, such as the Soviet era posters described by Peter van Alfen in the last issue of the ANS Magazine (“Long Live Our Glorious Motherland! Posters and Medals from the Birth of the Cold War, 1945-49.”) In addition to the posters, we also found several paintings. We easily recognized ones of individuals like Newell and West. Others were more difficult, but were identified eventually. One portrait, however, continues to evade us. It features a distinguished older gentleman with pince-nez spectacles and goatee, reclining in a chair. A photograph of the portrait is included in this column. If you think you know who this figure is, please contact me at the e-mail address or telephone number above.


Portrait of an Unknown Individual

Library News (Winter 2005)

by Francis Campbell

I am happy to bring to our readers’ attention several recent donations that round out some existing holdings and also enhance the reference value of those holdings. The first of these, donated by Arturo Anievas, consists of the six original glass negatives for Ebenezer Gilbert’s “The United States Half Cents, From the First Year of Issue, 1793, to the Year When Discontinued, 1857” (Fig. 1). The negatives are an especially exciting acquisition because of the many associations they hold, and because they provide a guide to determining the print generation to which a particular copy of Gilbert’s work belongs. This can be determined by noting the deterioration of the numeral “0” under obverse 10 on plate II (Fig. 2). These glass negatives were produced by Samuel Hudson Chapman, who pioneered the application of this process in numismatic photography in sales published by him and his brother Henry during the early part of the twentieth century. While the Library does not possess any of the glass negatives used for the Chapman sales, we have, in the newly acquired negatives, a complete series of plates illustrating this photographic method. First published in 1916 by Thomas Elder, Gilbert’s work later saw copies produced by Paul Seitz, who is reported to have been Elder’s son-in-law. This rather thin volume, with its involved printing history and despite some shortcomings, remained a standard guide for some time, eventually being replaced as a reference by Roger S. Cohen’s “American Half Cents: the ‘Little Half Sisters,'” which was first published in 1971. A detailed account of the various printings of Gilbert’s work is presented by P. Scott Rubin in an article entitled “The Printing History of the Gilbert Half Cent Book.” The article appeared in the spring 1992 issue of The Asylum, and is the source of some of the information presented here.


Fig. 1. Gilbert’s “The United States Half Cents …”


Fig. 2: Glass negative of Plate II, produced by Samuel H. Chapman.

John W. Adams, Chairman of the Library Committee, has donated a number of items that he acquired at the recent sale of the John J. Ford, Jr. Library. Among these is a unique manuscript, which Ford prepared and which was contemplated as sale No. 61 in the New Netherlands auction series. The typescript catalogue is entitled “Extraordinary Collection of United States Paper Currency, Featuring notes from the Albert A. Grinnell, James M. Wade, Wayte Raymond, and Robert F. Schermerhorn collections” (Fig. 3). For reasons unknown, the notes were not included in the sixty-first sale. Nevertheless, George Kolbe describes this “sale that never was” as “an excellently written and researched manuscript, cataloguing … a notable collection.” In the late 1980s, Mrs. Ivri Wormser, wife of New Netherlands president Charles Wormser, sold the collection privately.


Fig. 3: “The Sale That Never Was” Contemplated New Netherlands sale 61.

From John Adams we have also received the original cardstock plates, with mounted photographs, used for a number of New Netherlands Coin Company auction sales. Nineteen of the twenty-six sales held by the firm between the years 1952 and 1970 are represented. Among the plates and photographs received are those for the 43rd sale, containing Crosswhite’s collection of Confederate Currency; sale 41, including Hillyer Ryder’s collection of large cents; and sale 44, containing his collection of half cents and colonials. Also received were sale 47, containing T. James Clarke’s silver and Pioneer gold; sale 49, featuring Eliasberg duplicates; and sale 60, including Pioneer gold from the Virgil Brand collection, which according to John Adams is “a strong candidate for best executed catalogue ever” (Fig. 4). When these items are added to the New Netherlands Coin Company Archive, already held by the Library, our source materials on that firm’s business history and catalogue production will be greatly enriched.


Fig. 4: Original paste-up plate, New Netherlands sale 60.

Development News (Winter 2005)

by Geoff Giglierano

To a great extent, fundraising for museums and scholarly organizations is built upon the principle of “choosing your battles.” Resources—particularly time—are always limited, and must be applied in the situations where they will do the most good, and where efforts stand a reasonably good chance of success. To this end, the development team of the ANS has embarked on a process of researching prospects, with an initial focus on foundations, and seeking likely sources of support for the society’s mission. Fortunately, one of the strengths of the ANS is that, as an organization, it has a very good sense of its own institutional identity, which helps keep development efforts from going in too many directions at once. Best of all, the society is blessed with a Development Committee that is enthusiastic, creative, and committed.

Augustus B. Sage Society

One of the most significant initiatives generated by committee is the establishment of the new Augustus B. Sage Society level of membership for the ANS. The development team has been concentrating in recent weeks on bringing this concept to fruition. The size of this group will be limited to 200 members, and an initial core group of individuals has already been recruited and assigned their Sage Society membership numbers. However, if you like the idea of having an especially low member number, you can still do so, as a small batch of the lowest numbers have been reserved and will be auctioned off at the ANS Gala Dinner on January 12, 2006. The Sage Society will be an important source of regular income for the ANS, but please also keep in mind that the intention for this group is that it will be fun for its members. Activities are already being planned, including a reception and talk by author David Enders Tripp before the Gala Dinner, and an excursion to the Washington D.C. area in the spring, for a special tour of private and public coin collections. If you would like more information about the Augustus B. Sage Society, please contact the development office at 212-571-4470, extension 1304.

2006 ANS Gala

Speaking of the Gala Dinner, the 2006 edition of this event promises to be more exciting and enjoyable than ever. The dinner will honor author David Bowers for his contributions to the field of numismatics, and the activities for the evening will include cocktails, a exquisite sit-down dinner, and dancing with the Lester Lanin Orchestra. Furthermore, the dinner will be preceded by a separate numismatic book and manuscript auction, to benefit the Frank Campbell Librarian Chair.

Those thinking of attending should note that the location for the dinner has changed since the original announcement regarding the event. We had originally planned to use the Sky Club as the venue for the dinner, but that space will be closed after January 1. The good news is that the Waldorf-Astoria had space available on the planned date, January 12. The bad news is that the Waldorf will be more expensive than the Sky Club, which necessitated an increase in the price to $350 per ticket. Even so, ANS is still not making a substantial profit on the tickets at those prices. Fortunately, this year the ANS Gala will have two major dinner co-sponsors, as well as sponsors for other elements of the evening including the printed program, so that the Gala will generate income that will help the organization continue fulfilling its mission and improving its facilities and services.

Grants and Donations

Since the last issue of the American Numismatic Society Magazine, the ANS has received donations and grants from over forty different sources, including individuals and foundations. These gifts included $10,000 for the general fund from Charles C. Anderson, $6,400 for the general fund from Kenneth Edlow, $20,000 for the museum exhibition fund from Emilio Ortiz, and $10,000 for the Newell Publication Fund from the Koret Foundation. The ANS sincerely appreciates the generosity of all its donors and members, without whom the Society could not fulfill its mission.

American Numismatic Rarities and Whitman Publishing: The Principal ANS 2006 Gala Dinner Co-sponsors

It is a fact of life in the non-profit world that ticket sales for events like the ANS Gala usually do not generate significant income for the host organizations. Sponsorships are the key to a successful fundraising event such as our Gala, and the ANS has been very fortunate that American Numismatic Rarities and Whitman Publishing are making substantial contributions and serving as the principal co-sponsors of the dinner. The Trustees and officers, volunteers, staff and members of the ANS are deeply grateful to ANR and Whitman, for their generous support of the ANS and its mission.

News (Winter 2005)

Van Alfen Attends Conferences

In late October, Associate Curator Peter van Alfen attended the Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms (CCK) conference in Beirut, Lebanon. Organized by German diplomat and numismatist Martin Huth and hosted by the Oriental Institute in Beirut (OIB), the conference brought together specialists in ancient Arabian epigraphy, archaeology, and numismatics for three days of intense and fruitful discussion on the coinage and economies of the Arabian peninsula from the fourth century BC to the sixth century AD. The proceedings from the conference will be published jointly by the ANS and OIB, with an expected publication date of late 2007.


CCK participants Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert and Peter van Alfen with conference organizer Martin Huth at Baalbek in Lebanon

In mid-November, van Alfen attended the American Schools of Oriental Research’s annual meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he delivered a paper on the Athenian imitation phenomenon, in a special session devoted to the Persian-period Levant in transition.

At the 2006 annual meeting of the American Institute of Archaeology, to be held in January in Montreal, Canada, van Alfen will serve as a respondent in a session on Roman coinage, which was organized by ANS Summer Seminar alumni Lea Cline and Nathan Elkins.

Workshops, Teaching, and Field Work for Sebastian Heath

Sebastian Heath, who now works at the Society as a Research Scientist, attended two workshops this fall that explored new directions in internet-based collaboration and publication. In September, the Center for Hellenic Studies in Washington, D.C. sponsored a workshop organized by Dr. Neel Smith of the College of the Holy Cross. With Dr. Smith’s assistance, the Center is developing data-sharing standards for both Classical texts and archaeological material. It is hoped that this work will promote the use of web-based search engines that include material from multiple collections, such as the ANS’s large database of ancient coins. In November, Dr. John Bodel of Brown University and Charlotte Roueché of the University of London organized the workshop “Markup for Museums” in Providence, RI. “Markup” refers to the process of encoding digital information so that it is easily published to the internet or shared by scholars working with different computing systems and on multiple research questions. Drs. Bodel and Roueché have worked extensively on the digital publication of ancient inscriptions, and are interested in the overlap between their work and the field of numismatics, especially given the fact that most ancient coins also bear written legends. The ANS already makes its curatorial database of over 500,000 records available on its website, and Dr. Heath’s participation in these workshops will increase the utility of this important resource to scholars and collectors around the world.

In other news, Dr. Heath will again be teaching an undergraduate course at The New School in New York. “Uncovering the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology” will begin in January and is open to degree students as well as noncredit students. The course presents archaeology as an essential contributor to the narrative of human societies. It ranges chronologically from Palaeolithic Europe to the archaeology of antebellum slavery and of nineteenth-century industry in the United States, while also encouraging students to think about such topics as the archaeology of language, and of gender.

Prof. Kenneth Harl at ANS

ANS Trustee and Tulane University history professor Kenneth Harl has been using the ANS as his academic base since September, having been driven from his post in New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina. Prof. Harl has been making the most of his time at the ANS, revising an article to be published in AJN 18, and working on digital photography of coins for the excavation reports of work at Stratonicea and Gordion in Turkey. Prof. Harl plans to return to New Orleans in January 2006, when Tulane reopens.


Kenneth Harl

New ANS Director of Development

Geoff Giglierano joined the staff of the ANS in October as Director of Development. Geoff has a master’s degree in American Urban History, and has worked in museums of varying sizes for almost three decades. If there is a theme running through his career, it would be diversity, as he has been involved in curatorial, education, publication, exhibition, administration, and development work at institutions such as the Cincinnati Historical Society, the Cincinnati History Museum, the New York City Fire Museum, the New York State Military Museum, and Timexpo: the Timex Museum. His particular interests include living history and World War I.


Geoff Giglierano

Most recently, Geoff has been a freelance historian and museum consultant, working for a clientele that ranged from Sideshow Collectibles—a company that makes historically themed action figures—to the National Museum of the United States Army, which is scheduled to open to the public at Ft. Belvoir, Virginia, in 2011. One of the things that attracted him to the ANS was the opportunity to be a part of yet another new museum project (this will be his sixth), as well as the chance to work with a dedicated and passionate community of scholars and collectors.

Van Alfen to Teach Course Through NYU

Spring semester 2006, Dr. Peter van Alfen will be teaching an undergraduate course entitled “Greek and Roman Coins and Economies” through New York University, as part of NYU’s Collegiate Honors Seminar program. The course is designed to introduce students to ancient coinages and economies, as well as to the resources of the ANS. The class will meet at the ANS on Friday afternoons.

1,400 ANS Coins to Appear in Roman Provincial Coinage

Liv Yarrow, who in September started as an assistant professor in the Classics Department at Brooklyn College, spent three afternoons in the coin vault with Sebastian Heath, pulling coins for the upcoming fourth volume of Roman Provincial Coinage. Dr. Yarrow received her D.Phil from Oxford University, where she worked closely with Chris Howgego, Acting Keeper of the Heberden Coin Room at the Ashmolean Museum. Along with Volker Heuchert, Dr. Howgego is the editor of RPC IV, which covers the Antonine period. Over 1,400 ANS coins will be included in this volume, and the photography of the coins has been generously underwritten by the Paley Foundation, in conjunction with ANS members.


Sebastian Heath and Liv Yarrow

Hermitage Museum Numismatist at ANS

Olga Chizhevskaya, Research Associate in the Numismatics Department of the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, visited the ANS as part of her research trip, sponsored by the joint Hermitage/Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) exchange program. Her three-week stay in the United States encompasses library and collections research at three major American museums: MMA, ANS, and the Smithsonian. Olga’s scientific interests mainly lie in the field of European, particularly Dutch, medals. She spent several days in November at the ANS examining our holdings of sixteenth- to eighteenth-century Dutch medals and consulting recent publications relevant to her research topics. As a token of appreciation for the hospitality extended to her during the visit, Olga donated to the ANS ten commemorative Russian coins, both Soviet and post-Soviet.

New Schwartz Fellow

Luca Grillo, a native of Milan, Italy, has been made the new ANS 2005-2006 Schwartz Fellow. Luca received an M.A. in Classical and Near Eastern Studies from the University of Minnesota, and is currently a third-year graduate student in Classsics at Princeton University. His areas of academic interest are in the Greek language and Homer, Latin Augustan poetry, Latin historians (especially Sallustius, Caesar, and Tacitus), and coins of the late Roman republican period.


Luca Grillo

ANS Awards Huntington Medals to Amandry and Mossman

Dr. Wartenberg Kagan announced at the Annual meeting that the Trustees of the American Numismatic Society unanimously approved awarding the Huntington Medal Award to two distinguished numismatists. Dr. Michel Amandry, Director of the Cabinet des Médailles at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, France, was awarded the 2004 Medal for his exemplary work in the field of ancient numismatics. Dr. Philip Mossman was given the 2005 medal in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the field of colonial numismatics. The committee’s Chairman, Professor Jere L. Bacharach, commented on both medalists’ outstanding records: “Michel Amandry is one of the most distinguished numismatists, who, as coauthor of Roman Provincial Coinage, has produced some of the most important numismatic scholarship on Roman provincial coinage. Dr. Mossman’s book on Money of the American Colonies and Confederation, A Numismatic, Economic, and Historical Correlation is without a doubt one of the best books on colonial numismatics, which is praised by historians and numismatists alike.” The ANS will announce the dates for the two award ceremonies, which will be held in 2006.


Dr. Michel Amandry

Dr. Amandry was born in 1949 in Greece. From an early age he was exposed through his father Pierre Amandry, one of France’s best-known archaeologists, to the study of antiquity. After his baccalauréat in Strasbourg, Alsace, he studied at the university, where he received his Licence and Maîtrise in Classics. For his doctorate he chose a numismatic topic, the coinage of the duovirs at Corinth. He has spent his academic career as curator of the coin cabinet of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, which he has been leading as Director since 1991. In addition he has held various teaching appointments in Paris. As editor of the Revue Numismatique and many other publications, he is involved in many other numismatic organizations and societies. In his research he has been instrumental in bringing the so-called Roman Provincial coinage to the attention of numismatists and historians. With Andrew Burnett, he embarked on a ten-volume cataloguing project of all coinages of the Roman provinces, one of the most ambitious numismatics projects undertaken in recent decades. Other areas of important work are the coinages of Cyprus, coin hoards from France, and many general overviews.


Dr. Philip Mossman

Dr. Philip Mossman, 2005 Huntington Medalist, has been a collector and numismatic researcher since he was a child. Born in 1933 in Worcester, MA, he received his A.B. from Dartmouth College, where he also attended medical school. After obtaining his M.A. and M.D. from Harvard Medical School, he served as Lieutenant on active duty in the U.S. Naval Reserve. His professional career as Director of Rehabilitation at the Eastern Maine Medical Center in Bangor, ME, was largely devoted to the rehabilitation of stroke victims, an area in which Dr. Mossman has published the standard work A Problem-Oriented Approach to Stroke Rehabilitation. Dr. Mossman’s numismatic career has been concerned with the early colonial period. His book on Money of the American Colonies and Confederation, A Numismatic, Economic, and Historical Correlation is justly regarded as one of the finest works on the numismatic and economic history of the colonial period. His work focuses on setting the numismatic evidence into a historic context by researching archival documents. More recently he has been trying to compile a census of coin finds from early sites, where he uses both the results of professional archaeologists and metal detectorists. He has worked on counterfeit coinages, Connecticut coppers, and many other early coinages. As a fluent French speaker, he has been of much help as an editor of other researchers’ books, which owe much to his knowledge. From 1995 to 2000, he served as editor of the Colonial Newsletter. His fascination with the coinages of Nova Scotia has a strong personal dimension. His father’s family traces its roots to Nova Scotia in the mid-eighteenth century, which prompted him to write a book about his own family history, In Search of David, The Saga of a Pioneer to Nova Scotia in 1750.

ANS Annual Meeting

The 148th Annual Meeting of The American Numismatic Society was held at the Society at 140 William Street, New York, NY, on Saturday, October 23, 2004, with Donald G. Partrick, President, presiding. Approximately fifty-five members, including most of the Trustees, attended the meeting, which was followed by a reception in the ground floor Hall. The President, Treasurer, Executive Director, and ANS staff reported on the activities of the past year.


ANS annual meeting

Trustees and Fellows Elected

On behalf of Douglass F. Rohrman, Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee, the names were read of those nominated for the consideration and election by the Fellows, of the following Trustees and others, all of whom, in the opinion of the Committee exhibited the characteristics set forth in Article III, Section 1 of the ANS By-Laws to serve as Trustees in varying classes (2006-2008). The fellows of the Society unanimously elected to confirm the nomination of nine incumbent and two new candidates to the Board of Trustees. The Fellows present at the meeting raised their hands in favor of the nominations, and eighty-two proxies by mail were counted:

Class of 2008:

Mr. John W. Adams, of Boston, MA, was first elected to the ANS Board in 2000. An ANS donor and Chairman of the Library Committee, Mr. Adams has been a successful fundraiser for the library. He is the author of Indian Peace Medals of George III and U.S. Numismatic Literature (Vols. 1-2), and has written numerous monographs and articles. His book The Medals Concerning John Law and the Mississippi System (NNM #167) will be published this year by the American Numismatic Society. Mr. Adams is Chairman of Adams Harkness Inc. an investment bank specializing in emerging growth companies. He received his B.A. from Princeton in 1957, and his MBA from Harvard Business School in 1960.

Mr. Daniel Hamelberg, of Champaign, IL, has been a member since 1986, a Life Fellow since 2002, and was first elected to the Board in 2004. An aficionado of rare American numismatic auction catalogues and literature, Mr. Hamelberg serves on the Library Committee, and is a major donor to the Francis D. Campbell Library Chair.

Mr. Robert A. Kandel, of New Rochelle, NY, has been on the ANS Board since 2000. As counsel to the firm of Kaye, Scholer, LLP in New York City, his areas of experience include legislative and regulatory matters, real estate, real estate litigation, and general business matters. Having served as Commissioner of Economic Development for the City of New York, and other governmental posts, he is knowledgeable about governmental affairs. Mr. Kandel has counseled and represented many not-for-profit institutions, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, the Cooper Union for Arts and Science, the Sisters of Charity-Bayley Seton Hospital, the Hospital for Joint Diseases, Yale University, and St. John’s University, among others. An ANS donor, his numismatic interests include U.S. coins, particularly the Lincoln cent. Mr. Kandel received his B.A. degree, with honors in history, from Williams College (1969), and his law degree from Columbia University School of Law (1972).

Mr. Clifford L. Mishler, of Iola, WI, has been an ANS member since 1958, a Fellow since 1968, a Life Fellow since 1978, and was first elected to the Board in 1997. Mr. Mishler is a donor to the Society, and co-sponsor with Chet Krause, of the Krause-Mishler Forum. A former Chairman of Krause Publications, in Iola, WI, Cliff Mishler was with the company, founded by Chet Krause, since 1963. He served in positions of increased responsibility prior to assuming the role of chairman (2000-2002), including: staff, editor of Numismatic News, corporate V.P. positions, and president. He is a life member of ANA (received the Farran Zerbe Award in 1984) and various other numismatic clubs and organizations. Cliff Mishler is co-author of several Krause catalogues, including World Coins and Commemorative Medals and Tokens.

Mr. Emilio M. Ortiz, of San Juan, Puerto Rico, has been an ANS Member since 1983, Life Associate Member since 1997, and Fellow and Trustee since 2002. He is a collector of coins of the Spanish Empire and specializes in Cuba. He is a regular visitor to the ANS and has participated as a speaker in a past COAC. Since joining the ANS, he has been a regular donor to the Society. Mr. Ortiz is a very popular member of the large community of collectors of Latin American coins. He has been a Life Member of the ANA since 1985, as well as a Life Member of FUN (Florida United Numismatists), and is a cofounder and boardmember of the Cuban Numismatic Association. Mr. Ortiz is president of Servimetal, Inc., a Puerto Rican company specializing in rolled steel products.

Mr. Douglass F. Rohrman, of Kenilworth, IL, is a Senior Partner in the Chicago law firm of Lord, Bissell & Brook, LLP, where he practices environmental law. He received an A.B. degree from Duke University in history and comparative literature and a J.D. from Northwestern University in 1966. He has co-authored two books involving environmental regulation of lending institutions and commercial risk management, has authored numerous legal articles on environmental regulation and food and drug law, and was a former Commissioner of the Illinois Food and Drug Commission in the 1970s. He was a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service and Counsel to the U.S. Surgeon General at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1966 through 1969. Doug has a long-time interest in primitive art and American antiques, and has avid interests in Roman imperial and provincial coins. A Life Associate, he became a Fellow in 2001, and was elected to the Board in 2003. He has sat as Chairman of the ANS Advisory Committee from 2000 to 2003. Currently, Doug serves as Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee.

Mr. Peter K. Tompa, of Washington D.C., received a B.S.F.S. from Georgetown University and a law degree from American University. A partner at Dillingham & Murphy, LLP, his practice includes providing advice and lobbying services to clients related to the trade in cultural artifacts. He has represented numismatic associations and trade groups before the State Department’s Cultural Property Advisory Committee. This body advises the President on whether to impose import restrictions on ancient artifacts. He also has written extensively on the subject. Peter became a member in 1993, a life fellow in 2001, elected to the Board in 1999, and is a past chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee. He collects ancient coins and specializes in the coins of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Peter is also a past “First Consul” or president of the Ancient Numismatic Society of Washington, D.C.

Ms. Susan Gerwe Tripp, of Stuyvesant, NY, is a member of Board of Trustees of the Columbia County Historical Society. Having served as President for five years she is currently the Board Secretary. The Society owns and administers three historic structures, including one National Landmark building. From 1974 to 1991, Ms. Tripp was Curator, Keeper of the Coins, and Director of University Collections at Johns Hopkins University. She worked closely with the Garrett Collections (publishing their extensive collections of Japanese Works of Art [Dauphin Press, London, 1993]); spearheaded and oversaw the remarkable twelve-year restoration of the National Landmark building, Homewood (built by Declaration of Independence signer Charles Carroll of Carrollton), which opened to international accolades in 1987; and later directed the restoration of the Garrett mansion Evergreen House. After leaving the University, Mrs. Tripp was Executive Director of Old Westbury Gardens. She has taught, lectured, and written extensively on historic restoration. Susan Tripp is a strong supporter of the ANS and, with her husband, David, was instrumental in arranging the donation of the Garrett numismatic archives to the Society. She has served on the Standing Library Committee for three years, was elected as a Fellow of the Society in 2002, and to the ANS Board in 2004.

Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss, of Barrington, RI, is an orthopaedic surgeon who also holds appointments as Professor as well as Dean of Admissions at the Brown University School of Medicine. Dr. Weiss received his B.A. in Human Biology and Engineering Physics and his Doctorate of Medicine from Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Weiss has authored extensively, holds several patents, and has received many fellowships in his specialty of hand surgery. A collector of ancient coins, Dr. Weiss joined the ANS in 1989, became a life fellow, and was elected to the Board 1995. A donor to the Society, he currently serves as Chairman of the Finance Committee.

Class of 2007:

Mr. Charles Paul Karukstis, of Claremont, CA, has been a member since 1978, a Life Associate since 1994, and a fellow since 2003. Charles is the Director of the Project Management Office for Aramark Uniform Services Inc., in Burbank, CA. He earned a B.A. (1977) and M.A. (1978) from Duke University. He co-chaired the ANS Arab-Byzantine Forums from 1995 to 2000, has served on the Advisory Committee since 2002, currently as chairman, and is at present the North American Secretary for the Oriental Numismatic Society. For some twenty years his research has been the imitative or “Arab-Byzantine” coinages of greater Syria in the first century of the Islamic Empire, with special interest in die studies and circulation patterns. He is presently preparing a corpus of this material from major public and private collections.

Class of 2006:

Mr. Sydney Martin, of Doylestown, PA, has been a member since 1997, and a life associate since 2000. He is president of the SYTEX Group, Inc. (TSGI), a nationally recognized group of information technology companies. A speaker at the 2003 COAC: Our Nation’s Coinage, Varied Origins, on the subject of “The ‘Georgius Triumpho’/Danish West Indies Mule,” he has authored and coauthored articles on colonial coinage in the CNL and C-4 newsletters.

A full list of the ANS Board of Trustees is located at the ANS website (http://www.numismatics.org).

Election of Fellows

Mr. Rohrman reported that pursuant to Article III Section 1 of the ANS By-Laws, the Nominating and Governance Committee nominated for the Board of Trustees’ consideration and election the following persons, having the personal and professional characteristics required by the ANS By-Laws, to become ANS Fellows. At their meeting on October 22, 2005, the Trustees elected the following 9 new Fellows:

Dr. Murray Gell-Mann, of Santa Fe, NM, has been an ANS member since 1974, and is a collector. Dr. Gell-Mann received the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

Mr. Michael J. Hodder, of Wolfeboro, NH, has been a member since 1978, and was a member of our Graduate Seminar program. He is a frequent contributor to ANS publications.

Mr. Louis E. Jordan, of South Bend, IN, has been a member since 2000, is a member of the CNL editorial team, and is a frequent contributor to the ANS.

Mr. Herbert L. Kreindler, of Melville, NY, has been a member since 1973, is a dealer, contributor to ANS collections, and helps frequently with appraisals of collections donated to the Society.

Dr. Joel Orosz, of Kalamazoo, MI, joined in 1987, is a frequent contributor to the AJN on early American numismatic issues, and does research on ANS materials.

Mr. Neil Rothschild, of Owings Mills, MD, has been a member of the ANS since 1995. A collector of colonial coins, he is a strong supporter of the Society’s curatorial department.

Mr. Donald Scarinci, of Waldwick, NJ, joined the ANS in 1991, is a member of the Saltus Committee and an ANS contributor. He is one of five founding officers of the Colonial Coin Collectors Club (C-4), founded in 1992. In 2005, Mr. Scarinci was appointed to the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC).

Dr. Jeffrey Spier, of Tucson, AZ, is a well-known academic, and currently Adjunct Professor in the Classics Department, College of Humanities, at the University of Arizona, Tucson. A long-time member (1985), Dr. Spier has authored and co-authored several articles on Greek coins and gems.

Mr. Raymond J. Williams, of Trenton, NJ, is President of C4, and an ANS member since 1995. Specializing in colonial American coinage, Ray contributed to the recent ANS publication: The Copper Coinage of the State of New Jersey: Annotated Manuscript of Damon G. Douglas, and has written often on the subject of New Jersey Coppers.

A full list of the ANS Fellows can be found on the ANS website (http://www.numismatics.org).

Election of New Officers

Pursuant to Article VI Sections 1 and 2, and upon the personal recommendation of the President and Executive Director, Mr. Rohrman announced the names of the newly elected Officers of the Board of Trustees:

Mr. Donald G. Partrick, President; Mr. Roger Siboni, First Vice President; Prof. John H. Kroll, Second Vice President, Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss, Treasurer.

Committees

Pursuant to Article V Section 11, Mr. Rohrman stated the names of the newly organized Standing Committees of the Board:

Executive Committee: Mr. Donald Partrick, Chairman, Mr. John W. Adams, Mr. Arthur Houghton III, Mr. Robert Kandel, Mr. Douglass F. Rohrman, Mr. Roger Siboni, Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss, and Dr. Ute Wartenberg, Ex-Officio; Nominating and Governance Committee: Mr. Robert Kandel, Mr. Clifford Mishler, Mr. Donald Partrick, Mr. Douglass F. Rohrman, Chairman, Mr. Peter K. Tompa, Dr. Ute Wartenberg, Ex-Officio.

William S. Paley Foundation

During 2005, the ANS has received significant support from the William S. Paley Foundation. Earlier in the year, this came in the form of a $5,000 contribution to the general fund and $2,500 to fund photography work.

Just recently, the foundation committed to make additional gifts of $10,000 to the endowment for the curatorial chair in the Islamic Department, and $4,500 to underwrite photography of the Society’s collection of Roman gold coins.

With the donation from the Paley Foundation, the Islamic Chair fund will total $100,000, making that endowment an important source of funding for that portion of our curatorial activities.

Support for the ANS by the Paley Foundation has been facilitated by Sidney Harl, who is the father of ANS trustee Prof. Ken Harl. Since the mid-1990s, the foundation has regularly made major gifts to the Society for a variety of purposes, including the general fund. Mr. Harl’s ongoing efforts on the Society’s behalf are very much appreciated, especially considering that he was displaced from his home in New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina. Under the circumstances, it would have been understandable for Mr. Harl to have focused his attention on matters other than ensuring that the donations were made to the ANS, but he very kindly has continued to look after the Society’s interests. And the story does have a happy ending for the Harls. As their home, which is located in a historic part of New Orleans, was not severely damaged by the storm and flooding, they will be able to return to it soon. We wish them well and again thank Mr. Harl for his ongoing assistance to the ANS.

We also would like to note that Professor Harl himself has made another gift to the ANS of $1,000, by purchasing a tray in the Roman collection in honor of his mother Virginia Harl, and he has asked us to mention that he calls upon all alumni to match his example.

An excellent opportunity to do so will be during the upcoming ANS’s annual End of Year Appeal. Members and friends of the Society soon will be receiving notice about the appeal in the mail, and we hope that our supporters will again come through in making it possible for the ANS to carry out its mission.