Obituary: Minor Myers, Jr. 1942-2003

Numismatics has lost a wide-ranging scholar and educator. ANS member Minor Myers, Jr., who led Illinois Wesleyan University, in Bloomington, Illinois, through a period of unparalleled achievement as its president, died of cancer July 22, at the age of 60.

Born in Akron, Ohio, Myers earned a bachelor’s degree in 1964 from Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. He went on to Princeton University, earning master’s (1967) and doctoral (1972) degrees in politics and political philosophy, beginning his academic career in 1968 as an instructor in government at Connecticut College, where he achieved the rank of full professor and department chair. In 1984, Myers was named provost and dean of faculty at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York, where he served for five years before becoming the 17th president of Illinois Wesleyan University in 1989.

Myers helped guide many educational organizations and institutions, serving on the boards of directors of the Foundation for Independent Higher Education, the Associated Colleges of Illinois, the Institute for the International Education of Students, and the Lyman Allyn Museum at Connecticut College. He was secretary general of the Society of the Cincinnati from 1986-1988, and although he was also a student of other areas of numismatics, his best known contribution to the field is represented by his interest in the decorations issued by this organization, resulting in the 1998 publication of his definitive work, The Insignia of the Society of the Cincinnati.

A scholar and a teacher whose varied personal interests besides numismatics included tennis, playing the piano and harpsichord, discussing music history, and collecting books and meteorites, in recent years Myers had been completing a survey of multi-talented individuals in Europe, the Americas and Japan since the Renaissance, with the working title Polymath: The World of the Multi-Talented (a company among whom he would have deserved his own place). Myers’ fascination with the 18th century led to his expertise in furniture, musical instruments, publishing, and higher education during the American colonial period, and carried this interest to the culture of Revolutionary France as well.

Myers was the author or co-author of eight books, including A Documentary History of American Interiors from the Colonial Era to 1915 (1980), and an original musical play, The College Inn Revisited (focusing on the 1920s jazz movement in Chicago and the role that city played as a launching ground for Broadway theatre in New York). In addition, He wrote numerous articles and papers on topics ranging from Roman imperial coinage to Baroque cuisine to American baseball.

During Myers’ tenure at Illinois Wesleyan, the University increased its student enrollment, selectivity, and academic profile; raised $137 million in a capital campaign; and completed $115 million of renovation and construction, including The Ames Library, the Center for Natural Science, the Hansen Student Center, and the Shirk Center for Athletics and Recreation. Under his leadership, the faculty established an annual student research conference; created semester-long programs in London and Madrid; added major or minor programs in American Studies, Anthropology, Biochemistry, Cognitive Science, Women’s Studies, Environmental Studies, Greek and Roman Studies, International Business, Russian, and Japanese Studies; and altered the calendar to develop May Term—a month-long semester during which innovative courses and off-campus study are emphasized. Also during this time, the University was granted a Phi Beta Kappa chapter, and developed exchange programs with Pembroke College of Oxford University and with Obirin and Keio universities in Tokyo.

“Minor was passionate about the value of a liberal arts education,” said Janet McNew, provost under Myers and acting president following his death. “He was the very model of a liberally educated person whose interests ranged far and wide, and who cherished learning as an end in itself…he taught us to dream and then showed us how to make those dreams a reality. “This is an enormous loss,” said Craig Hart, president of the Illinois Wesleyan Board of Trustees. “In countless ways, Minor Myers had become the heart and soul of Illinois Wesleyan. He had the highest aspirations for this University… His enthusiasm was infectious. He was a joy to be around.”

Myers is survived by his wife, Ellen, and their two sons, Minor III, and Joffre V.A.

Data provided courtesy of the Illinois Wesleyan University web-site,

—Robert Wilson Hoge

Obituary: Robert A. Weinman, 1915-2003

1987, for the Society of Medalists, AE, 69 mm (ANS 1987.159.1, gift of the Society of Medalists)

One of America’s leading 20th-century medallic artists, and a unique friend of the American Numismatic Society, has passed away at 88 years of age. Robert Alexander Weinman died of congestive heart failure at his home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, on Sunday, September 7, 2003. The younger son of the noted sculptor Adolph Alexander Weinman (1870-1952), Robert had followed in his father’s footsteps and opened his own studio in New York City in 1948. There, he worked until 1972, when he moved his studio to Bedford, New York. Weinman retired to Winston-Salem in 1998.

In addition to assisting in his father’s studio, Weinman studied at the Art Student’s League and the National Academy of Design under Paul Manship, C. Paul Jennewein, Edward McCartan, Walker Hancock and Lee Lawrie. A veteran of World War II, he served in the Army Air Corps from 1942 to 1945.

Weinman was a past president and honorary president of the National Sculpture Society, which awarded him its Gold Medal in 1997. He was also an Academician of the National Academy of Design and served on the executive board of this organization. Serving as the chairman of the five-member panel of judges, Robert Weinman supervised the selection of the designs for the nation’s three Bicentennial coins. The collection of his papers, from 1935-1971, is in the Archives of American Art, at the Smithsonian Institution.

“Bobbie”, nd, CU, 85 mm, by Adolf Alexander Weinman, (ANS 1976.263.73, gift of R.A. Weinman)

Like his father, Robert Weinman was a long-time friend and benefactor of the American Numismatic Society. He was a Life Fellow of the Society, as well as a major supporter and donor. The Society awarded him its highest honor, the J. Sanford Saltus Award Medal (which his father had also received, in 1920), for “outstanding achievement in the art of the medal” in 1964, and named him Sculptor of the Year in 1975. Later, he chaired the Saltus Medal Award Committee, which selects the most outstanding medallic sculptors to receive this prestigious recognition.

Among Weinman’s creative works are award medals for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Institute of Architects, the American Chemical Society, the Mount Sinai Medical Center, the National Science Foundation, the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers and Thiel College. For New York University, he designed the Albert Gallatin Medal as well as issues for the Hall of Fame of Great Americans. Some of Weinman’s other popular medals are issues honoring such athletes as Henry Aaron, Jack Nicklaus, “Babe” Ruth, Jim Thorpe and “Babe” Zaharias for the Hall of Champions series. His work is also represented in the series of the National Commemorative Society.

Many of Robert Weinman’s medals were minted by the Medallic Art Company, among them such corporate issues as those for Merck and Company, Studebaker Transportation, and Union Mutual Life Insurance. Much of his sculptural talent expressed itself in memorials to celebrated individuals; we find Presidents Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Harry Truman and George Washington among these, as well as other historical personages such as Amelia Earhart, William Penn and Roger Williams—not to mention fellow medallic sculptor Ralph Menconi.

William Penn Tricentenial Medal, 1982, AE, 76mm (ANS 1998.26.25, gift of R.A. Weinman)

Over a span of more than 20 years, Weinman presented important donations of material to the ANS cabinet, ranging from his own medallic works through those of others that he had collected himself. This panorama of accessions includes original sketches, galvanoes and plaster models. Some of the most cherished items are works by his father and by his brother Howard.

Robert Weinman’s survivors include his wife Jane M. Weinman of Winston-Salem; sons Paul of Advance, North Carolina, and Christopher of Norwich, Vermont; daughter-in-law Maribeth of Winston-Salem; and grandsons Mark, of Virginia Beach, Virginia, David, of Philadelphia, Stephen, of Chapel Hill, and Zachary, of Winston-Salem.

Obituary information provided by Christopher Weinman.

—Robert Wilson Hoge

Review: Arab-​Sasanian Copper Coinage

Rika Gyselen. Arab-Sasanian Copper Coinage. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. philosophisch-historische Klasse. Denkschriften, 284. Veröffentlichungen der numismatischen Kommission, Band 34. 208 pages. 15 plates (each plate = full page), notes, selected bibliography. Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2000. ATS 1390, DEM 190, CHF 169 (paper) ISBN 3-7001-2893-2.

This work represents the culmination of many years of work begun by the author in the 1970s and 1980s in conjunction with R. Curiel and later carried on by her alone. It gathers together in one place virtually all known material on the copper coinages of greater Iran for the first century and a half of Islam, with the exception of the regular all-epigraphic coins found in J. Walker’s A Catalogue of the Arab-Byzantine and Post-Reform Umaiyad Coins (London, 1956). The catalogue documents and describes coppers imitating late Sasanian types but has, in addition, coins with one or more faces in Byzantine style, with innovative figural designs or with epigraphy only. This includes most odd-ball copper types and unusual copper series of the early Muslim period as such types and series happened to be struck mainly in the East.

The work consists of a discussion of typologies followed by a catalogue, annex, indices and plates. The prefatory discussion surveys Sasanian and Byzantine prototypes as well as early Muslim types. A third chapter treats name legends, mint legends, dates and formulae. The catalogue lists 99 types. An illustrated conspectus at the beginning provides a quick overview of its organization. In general, types are arranged alphabetically by mint, and then chronologically or sequentially according to typology. Where the mint name is obscure or the type carries no mint legend, types are grouped according to the certainty of their provenance. Among the criteria are the predominant find sites of specimens. In total, there are six sections, though the first section comprising reliably identified mints is larger than the rest combined. All entries are illustrated with drawings in text followed by a short description of the iconography and legends, and references. The references cite all extant specimens published and unpublished in public and private collections. An annex documents an additional 10 types struck by either the Sasanians or Muslims. The iconography and legends of these types are insufficient for definitive attributions. Indices provide general references to Pahlavi and Arabic inscriptions, names and individual coins. The plates are superb considering the difficulty of photographing often poorly preserved coins.

This is a pioneering work which will be indispensable for many years to come. It is an impressive corpus of types previously generally neglected by collectors and scholars. Numerous fascinating minutiae will spur the interest of diverse groups of specialists. Economic historians will, for example, appreciate the extensive documentation of Iran’s small change, in one case inscribed with an exchange rate in dirhams. Art historians will find a rich source for figural motifs. These include representations of animals, both real and imagined, and humans. Scholars of religion will note a variant Qur’ānic verse on a coin of al-Hajjāj b. Yūsuf.

Infelicities in the terminology, content and organization are relatively minor and do not detract from its overall value. “Arab-Sasanian” is obviously a misnomer. “Iranian coppers of the early Muslim period” might have been preferable. No single term, however, adequately covers the disparate series of types in this work. The work fails to include the epigraphic types in Walker’s catalogue. Their inclusion would have established more complete mint chronologies. The different series overlap extensively. This deficiency, however, may be remedied with consultation of Walker’s work. No doubt, other scholars may wish to arrange the types according to different criteria. Yet, the conspectus, the numerous illustrations and the indices make the organization of the catalogue transparent.

—Stuart D. Sears

Review: Classical Deception: Counterfeits, Forgeries and Reproductions of Ancient Coins

Wayne G. Sayles, Classical Deception: Counterfeits, Forgeries and Reproductions of Ancient Coins. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2001. 196 pp., 200 b/w illus. Hb. ISBN 0-87341-968-5. US $24.95

Whether we are fully conscious of it, or not, we are faced with the issue of forgery almost every day. Lately, when we open the newspaper we find stories of forged documents or fake antiquities, both of which would have changed the way we look at the world and history if they had been authentic. When we go to some stores we are informed that we are unable to pay with certain denominations because of concerns over forgery, and when we do pay, the bills used to complete the transaction are filled with features designed to stop counterfeiters from copying them successfully. If such concerns about forgeries and counterfeits haunt the world at large, these same concerns are magnified many times over in the specialized world of the numismatist. For protection, organizations such as the International Bureau for the Suppression of Counterfeit Coins have been formed to report on known forgeries and public discussions of the problem, such as that recently held at the 13th International Numismatic Congress, have become commonplace. Indeed, if one were restricted to information coming from several well known numismatic internet groups one might get the impression that the numismatic community is simply neurotic concerning forgeries of ancient coins. Thus, Wayne Sayles’ Classical Deception is a very timely book that will be appreciated by a broad spectrum of numismatists as well as those interested in the history of art forgery.

The present work is best understood as a large-scale appendix to the author’s highly successful six volume series, Ancient Coin Collecting, which served to introduce readers to various coin series and the cultures that produced them. Classical Deception tempers the earlier works with the warning that that forgery is a very real danger to even seasoned numismatists. The organization of Classical Deception will be familiar to readers of Sayles’ earlier works, in that it is divided into major thematic sections within which specific topics. At the end of the larger sections, as well as many of the smaller topics that comprise them, important bibliography is also provided. As with Ancient Coin Collecting, Classical Deception is intended as an introduction and a point of departure for further study.

The new book will also be familiar in that it continues to employ some of the unorthodox terminology developed by the author elsewhere, although to Sayles’ credit he points out his peculiar usages in the preface to avoid causing undue confusion. For example, he perseveres in the belief that the term “obverse” should refer to the side of the coin that bears the “primary motif” and uses the term “Romaion” to refer to the Byzantine Empire. While it is admitted that these oddities appear only rarely in the pages of Classical Deception (very few forgeries of Byzantine coins are discussed, and the obverse/reverse controversy only comes into play regarding a few Corinthian and Sicilian pieces), their increasing use in popular numismatic circles makes it impossible to avoid making some comment on them here.

The argument that the “obverse” should refer to the side with a “primary motif” is groundless on several levels, not the least being that as post-moderns it is absolutely impossible for us to know what exactly a “primary motif” would have been to an ancient Greek or Roman. It is always worth remembering that our tastes cannot be projected back onto the ancient world. The white marble of the Acropolis that we admire in its present state would probably seem quite garish if we could see it in its original brightly painted glory. Even if our tastes and those of the ancients were the same, the Sayles interpretation of “obverse” would play havoc with numismatics as a science. Die studies and the statistics derived from them would cease to have much value if the definition of “obverse” were made entirely subjective. What is “primary” to one individual is not always “primary” to another.

The controversies over “Romaion” and “Byzantine” grow out an article by C.R. Fox, (“What, If Anything, Is a Byzantine?” The Celator 10.3, March, 1996), in which it is pointed out that the rulers and people of the Byzantine Empire saw themselves as the continuators of the old Roman Empire, and never called themselves “Byzantine.” Fox further claims that this use of the term was a pejorative invention of the 18th century. Taking the Fox article to heart and perhaps under the influence of the extreme political correctness that prevails in modern western culture, Sayles has made the replacement of “Byzantine” with “Romaion” his personal crusade. While there is no question that the term “Byzantine” was not used by the peoples of the empire, there is clear historical precedent for its use in western Europe as early as the sixteenth century, when Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) planned to write a Corpus byzantinae historiae. A much earlier use is implied by the development of the term “byzant” or “bezant” (i.e. “Byzantine”) to refer to certain gold coins of the early and high Middle Ages. Even without these precedents, the “Romaion” argument flounders on the fact that if “Byzantine” should be changed because it was never used by the people that it describes, we must then change many other long-standing terms. We had better replace the term “Greek” with “Hellenic” when we speak of coinage produced by the cities of Greece and its colonies. No self-respecting ancient Greek ever called himself “Greek,” except for the Graikoi of Epirus, from whom the Romans derived the term “Graeci.” Similarly, we should never refer to the inhabitants of Phoenicia and Etruria as “Phoenicians” and “Etruscans,” but rather we should call them “Canaanites” and “Rasna,” the names by which these peoples referred to themselves. Otherwise, one might have to explain why the Byzantines are deserving of special treatment, but others are not. Surely there should be better grounds for purging the history books of well-established terminology.

Nevertheless, despite the occasional appeal to questionable points of terminology, Sayles provides us with an excellent and entertaining overview of the technology and history of numismatic forgery, while offering advice on detection and further study. In the first major thematic section (pp. 5-31) Classical Deception presents the methods used to produce both legitimate and counterfeit coins in antiquity and forgeries of ancient coins in modern times, with discussion ranging from the casting and plating techniques used by ancient forgers and some of their modern counterparts, to the more recent technologies involved in high pressure stamping and the creation of pressed as well as spark and chemical erosion dies.

The second section (pp. 32-68) is a concise history of forgery, beginning with the Paduan imitations of the sixteenth century that were produced in response to the Renaissance love affair with all things Roman. Here, the work of Giovanni Cavino, the most easily distinguished of the Paduans, is particularly emphasized. Leaving the Renaissance the author treats us to brief accounts of the lives and works of various infamous and obscure forgers from the eithteenth century to the present. As if leading us through some numismatic wax museum, Sayles brings us face to face with some of the nightmare figures of ancient coin forgery and provides bibliography for further research. Becker and Caprara are here, as well as the likes of Christodoulou, Orphanides, and Sazanov. Thinking that these were not sufficient to make the blood of numismatists run cold, the work of many nameless forgers, including those behind the Utmanzai and Geneva forgeries as well as the Black Sea Hoard, are also discussed. The section concludes with brief remarks on forgeries of Alexandrine coinage, perhaps one of the most widely faked series of all ancient coins, as well as on authentic coins that have been altered with a view towards increasing their value.

Having been thoroughly frightened by this gallery of forgers, the reader is permitted to catch his breath and slow his pulse in the somewhat less disturbing section that follows on replicas and reproductions (pp. 69-89). However, while reproductions lack the sinister character of forgeries, in that they are not produced with the intention of deceiving, some are of extremely high quality and might be passed off as authentic coins if they fell into unscrupulous or ignorant hands. The distinction between outright forgery and innocent reproduction is an important one to make, but the line between the two is easily blurred. What might be one person’s replica today is quite likely to become another’s forgery tomorrow, if we consider the accounts given of Robert Ready’s British Museum electrotypes and the works of Slavey Petrov and Peter Rosa. While the first two named individuals are generally well known to numismatists, the latter, a New York jeweller who created a host of reproductions between 1955 and the 1980s, is somewhat more obscure. In order to remedy this situation, the author provides an extended overview of Rosa’s work, including replicas of ancient coins struck and cast in a variety of metals, none of which were ever marked as modern copies. According to Rosa, marking, such as that required in the United States by the Hobby Protection Act of 1969, is tantamount to defacing works of art and therefore something to be avoided at all costs. In the interests of guarding against Rosa reproductions being passed as authentic, an important illustrated catalogue of some 404 Greek, Roman and Judaic preliminary die strikes made in lead, copper and pewter appears in an appendix. Many of these strikes and the Rosa dies used to create them and other replicas can now be studied in the ANS collection, thanks to the generosity of Mr. Sayles.

The author also includes tourist fakes in the replica section because they are easily dismissed as items “not made to fool a collector, but rather to add a personal touch to some tourist’s visit.” However, this stance tends to underestimate the damage that these poorly made coins can cause. This reviewer has never yet seen tourist fakes being sold in their countries of origin as anything other than authentic and the vast number of returned vacationers who come to the ANS seeking confirmation of the authenticity of their recently purchased Athenian decadrachms or other rarities also strongly suggests that they were never told that their coins were intended as mere souvenirs. It cannot be overstressed that tourist fakes are not only dangerous to the wallets of the unwary traveller, but they have the additional potential to pose a threat to personal liberty. Customs personnel almost never have numismatic or archaeological training and therefore may not easily distinguish between a tourist fake and an authentic coin. Thus there is a real risk of being detained (at least until someone can verify that the coin is modern) if one is caught trying to take even a tourist fake out of many countries.

The excellent historical sketches of forgery and reproduction are followed by a thorough overview of the various means used to detect forgeries (pp. 90-107), ranging from the study of artistic style to specific gravity tests, to X-ray and neutron activation analysis. Throughout this section, the author underlines the fact that often many methods must be brought to bear before some of the most dangerous forgeries are fully revealed for what they are. Indeed, it is pointed out that on occasion the failure to use multiple techniques may contribute to the continued survival of forgeries, citing the case of the famous Steuart Colosseum sestertius, whose impressive pedigree and tooling allowed it to go unquestioned for over a century, despite other problems that might otherwise have raised warning signs. Even with the wide variety of tools and methods available to aid in the detection of fakes, it is very clear that uncovering forgeries is still much more of an art than a science. Ultimately the decision to condemn or exonerate a questionable coin depends heavily on the individual’s ability to interpret various clues offered by the object. Even when advanced scientific tools are available, the data that they provide must still be interpreted by their fallible human users, a fact highlighted in the author’s account of the Black Sea Hoard. Thus, in the end the only real defence against the forgery of ancient coins, a defence that can only ever be incomplete, lies in education. The need for education, and self-education in particular, is further underlined by the general absence of controls on the making and selling of reproductions of ancient coins in most countries. Even when attempts are made to curtail the forgery of ancient coins, as in the case of the US Hobby Protection Act, the legal provisions are difficult to enforce and often overlooked. The only true source of protection lies in knowledge and experience. Bearing this in mind, the book concludes with a section (pp. 108-121) aimed at promoting the use of different types of resources for forgery detection, including the workshops and lectures offered by several organizations and a variety of internet sites.

Classical Deception is an interesting and very readable introduction to the dark side of numismatics and the tools that can be used to combat it. Sayles has provided us with a basic drill manual, but it remains for us, as members of our special community, to take care to arm ourselves for the seemingly endless struggle in which we are engaged. The line has been drawn and we are all called to serve in the front ranks.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Roman Bronze Coins: From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D.

Victor Failmezger, Roman Bronze Coins: From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. Washington, D.C.: Ross & Perry, Inc., 2002. Hb. 156 pp., 42 color pls. ISBN 1-932109-41-2. US $49.99

Anyone who has ever had the good fortune to spend much time in the serious study of late Roman bronze coinage knows that it is virtually impossible to keep track of the complex minutiae of type variety as well as mint and officina marks without resorting to the organization of data into a multitude of lists and tables. This perennial need for tabular information in the quest to properly identify and understand the coinage of the late Roman world, has led to the publication of such important supplements to Roman Imperial Coins (RIC) VI-VIII as Late Roman Bronze Coinage (LRBC) and G. Bruck’s Die spätrömische Kupferprägung. With the publication of Roman Bronze Coins: From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D., Victor Failmezger follows in the tradition of these late Roman tabular studies, but at the same time attempts to break new ground by turning the focus away from individual mints to the larger historical picture and by extending the period of coverage from the rule of the house of Constantine back to the establishment of the first Tetrarchy.

The first chapter (pp. 1-15) introduces the reader to the turbulent history of the decades between AD 293 and AD 364 by means of an extended chronological table. Here the author provides a year-by-year history of the period that includes not only the main political and military events, such as the retirement of Diocletian and the battle of the Milvian Bridge, but also important economic developments like the Edict of Maximum Prices. Whenever connections between coin series and specific events are known or suspected, as in the case of various consular, VOTA, and commemorative issues, they are also discussed.

Chapter two (pp. 16-45), devoted to the various reverse types employed on fourth century coinage, is probably the most important and innovative section included in the book, as it consciously eschews the traditional arrangement by mint used by Roman Imperial Coinage and LRBC. Instead, Failmezger has grouped the material into 26 discrete historical and thematic units, such as “Diocletian and Monetary Reform (AD 294-300/1),” “The Three Sons of Constantine I (AD 337-340),” and “The Festival of Isis Coinage (AD 313-364).” This form of organization places emphasis on the larger political and economic history of the period, rather than on the history of individual mints, thereby making the material more easily accessible to those unfamiliar with late Roman mint organization. While this approach will certainly appeal to many students of this period, and no doubt even to those long used to the older arrangement by mint, it also makes Roman Bronze Coins a potentially useful tool for field numismatists at archaeological sites. For archaeologists, the historical context of the coins is paramount in order to use them to date excavation strata. The coinage tables within the historical and thematic divisions list a total of 476 individual types, but readers should be warned that the encoding of certain information is not intuitive and that it will take some practice before the tables can be used with ease. It is also somewhat unfortunate that the author has chosen to use a new numbering system that does not allow for easy comparison between coins listed in the present volume and those in RIC and LRBC.

The following chapter (pp. 46-79), entitled “Dating and Controlling the Coins: The Roman Way,” is a very thorough overview of the letters and symbols used on late Roman coins as a means of identifying the originating mint and workshop, as well as the place of individual issues in the minting sequence. The chapter begins with an excellent introduction to mintmarks, honorifics and officina numbers commonly found in the exergue and includes quick reference tables for their easy interpretation. A set of mint charts, essentially distilled from those found in RIC VI and LRBC, also shows the usage of marks and symbols at all twenty late Roman bronze mints over time.

The great usefulness of this chapter is somewhat marred by excessively speculative interpretations of field marks, although we should point out that Failmezger is very forthright and warns innocent readers that his views do not represent those of the majority. Despite the fairly obvious use of individual letters as sequence marks (note the alphabetic sequence in the tables on pp. 53-54), some are considered to be abbreviations. For example, C is said to stand for CONCORDIA, while H and I represent HERCVLI and IOVI, respectively, referring to the divine patrons of the Augusti and Caesares of the Tetrarchic system. Multiple letter field marks, less clearly related to mint sequencing, are given even more peculiar meanings. KP is said to be a value mark (20 PONDVS) while RXF is expanded to the rather unlikely ROMA DECIENS FELIX (“Rome is happy 10 times over”).

The fourth chapter (pp. 80-94) will be of interest to specialists in individual late Roman bronze series, for it is in the course of these pages that we are treated to tables listing the known varieties of major reverse types. However, the tables are not always complete and sometimes fail to include all issuing mints. For example, the mints of Nicomedia and Cyzicus have fallen out of the listings for the GLORIVS EXERCITVS series, while the reader is left to guess which mints were responsible for a number of types listed for GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, IOVI CONSERVATORI, MARTI CONSERVATORI, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, and SOLI INVICTO COMITI. To uncover the missing information it is necessary to consult the pages of RIC VI and VII.

Chapter five (pp. 95-119) opens with a descriptive catalogue of reverse types, including commentary on their political and religious symbolism. While this section provides a good introduction to late Roman numismatic iconography, we should probably doubt the author’s alternative interpretation of the famous Constantinian type of a snake pierced by the Labarum (Failmezger 359; RIC VII, 19 and 26 (Constantinople). Rather than the usual understanding of the type as a symbol of victory over Licinius I, he suggests that it “could be a promotion of Christianity bringing good health” on the grounds that in traditional Roman religion snakes often symbolize health. While there is no question that snakes are associated with Salus, the Roman personification of good health and safety, the snake looks singularly unhealthy, if not actually dead, on the coins in question and seems to have much more in common with the serpent crushed by the elephant on the denarii of Julius Caesar (M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage [1974], no. 443).

The typological catalogue is followed by several sections devoted to some of the most well known and heavily studied reverse types, including the VOTA types, commemorative series, “camp gate” types, anepigraphic types, and the FEL TEMP REPARATIO series.

The popular “camp gate” series is dealt with in some detail, although the author sidesteps the old controversy over what the “camp gate” is actually intended to represent. Instead of noting the various schools of thought, which have suggested the turreted gates of legionary camps or walled cities, Failmezger baldly asserts that the “camp gate” is really a type of watchtower and that the “turrets” are really beacons for relaying fire signals. He even goes on to reconstruct possible signal codes based on the letters of the Greek and Latin alphabets and groups of two, three, and four fire beacons. Quoting Julius Africanus, who indicates a system of three signalers for sending messages in Greek, the author suggests that the watchtower with three “beacons” should be connected to the Greek speaking eastern Empire, while those with two or four should be linked to the Latin west. However, a close look at the listings in RIC shows that the three “beacon” type is found at mints as far west as Rome, Ticinum, Aquileia, Siscia, and Serdica, thus making the theory of eastern and western signaling systems hard to accept. The present reviewer also finds the basic premise of the “camp gate” as a watchtower equipped for fire signaling somewhat problematic because of the existence of certain aurei of Rome (RIC VI, 5-8) and Ticinum (RIC VI, 8-10) that depict the building in perspective. On these there are a total of five “beacons” (more than required for any of the proposed signaling systems) and all look suspiciously like turrets with conical roofs (see also issues of Treveri (RIC VI, 635-638). In any case, whether one subscribes to a camp gate, city gate, or watchtower theory, the table for the PROVIDENTIAE AVGG/CAESS “camp gate” issues will no doubt be of interest to specialists.

By far the most thoroughly discussed series in chapter five is the ubiquitous FEL TEMP REPARATIO coinage and especially the issues with falling horseman type. It is obvious from the care lavished on this section that the author has spent much time studying this series and holds it very dear to his heart. Here tables list not only the major typological varieties, but also almost three hundred mint sequence varieties as well. While there is enough to delight any enthusiast of this popular series, the lists are not exhaustive and Failmezger himself admits that there are still many mint sequence varieties that remain to be discovered.

The concluding chapter (pp. 120-133), entitled “Roman Rulers, Relatives and Usurpers” gives an overview of the individuals who issued coinage in the Tetrarchic and Constantinian periods through the use of various quick reference tables, including charts listing the full names and dates of each ruler, their consular dates, their common titulature on the coins, as well as a summary of the six Tetrarchies. These are followed by a very brief treatment of imperial portrait types in which individual features of iconography, such as headgear, clothing and other objects, are discussed. Unfortunately, the attention to detail and interest in variants that is evident throughout the book with respect to reverse types is for the most part lacking as far as obverse types are concerned. While the author admits to the interest of imperial portrait varieties and touches on minute details like laurel wreath tie knots and armorial decoration, only the Constantinian BEATA TRANQVILLITAS series (those of Licinius I and II are left out on the grounds that they are very rare) receives any specific attention in the form of a table, and this is far from complete. The total absence of discussion concerning the association of obverse and reverse types, or even obverse inscriptions and legend breaks with obverse portraits tends to minimize the usefulness of this chapter for serious students of late Roman coinage, or anyone attempting to identify a coin with a well preserved obverse but an incomplete reverse. In general, the cursory treatment of the subject and its somewhat peculiar placement at the end of the book, when we might have expected it at the beginning, suggest that it may have been an afterthought. There can be little doubt that the author’s true passion is the reverse type.

In addition to the author’s tables and text, brief commentaries by Warren Esty on such topics as contemporary Roman counterfeits and the family of Constantine the Great are also included in Roman Bronze Coins. Those interested in contemporary forgeries are well advised to visit Esty’s website on the subject, which can be found at: Unfortunately this address has dropped out of the text on p. 20.

Many readers will be pleased to learn that Roman Bronze Coins keeps up with the increasing trend of publishing plates in full color. Examples of many of the coin types and variants included in the tables have been digitally photographed by Doug Smith and appear in 42 plates. The quality of the photography is excellent and there are no problems with excessive pixellation, always a concern when printing digital photos. However, while it is nice to see some of the attractively patinated coins in all their full color glory (i.e. Failmezger 223, a gorgeous Maximinus II anepigraphic AE 3 of Antioch with desert patina, and Failmezger 360 a nice green Cyzicene AE 3 of Helena), one cannot help wondering whether a traditional black and white format might have allowed for the inclusion of photographs of better preserved specimens taken from sale catalogues or other sources. All of the plate images, as well as some bonus material, is available on an inexpensive CD-ROM (Windows and Macintosh OS compatible) that can be ordered from the author through

Despite its problems, Roman Bronze Coins can be a helpful resource if one keeps its limitations in mind. The time has not yet come when RIC VI-VIII has been superseded. But until that distant day arrives, Victor Failmezger has provided a much needed, if not entirely complete, synthesis of the data in these volumes and created an ancillary tool to be used alongside the classic scholarly works. It is hoped that the popular and introductory character of Roman Bronze Coins will open up the world of late Roman coinage to new students and instill in them the desire to pursue deeper study.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Development News (Winter 2003)

by Pamala Plummer-Wright

In this issue, we will state a new format for the report of the Development Department. As you might have read, the ANS is in the inital stages of an endowment campaign, and we would like to regulary report to the membership about our results. Over the last five years the ANS has engaged in a major campaign to raise sufficient funds to relocate to a new location. In this process we have raised over $10 million. This first part of the campaign has been completed, and we are now trying to raise funds for the exhibition hall and an education center at 140 William Street and a number of endowment funds. Our plans are very ambitious but we are confident that our newly strengthened board of trustees, our loyal members, and other friends will make donations towards this campaign. Although we are still reviewing the overall target of this campaign, we hope that we can double the amount raised in the last five years.

Major Donation Towards The Renovation Costs

Presently our main donations are still focused on the completion of our renovation work. In the last quarter we have recieved $500,000 towards our outstanding balance of the renovation cost. We are expecting a similar donation in January, which is meant to cover all expenses of this renovation phase. Our costs on the product have been very much in line with our projections. This is largely due to the tireless efforts of Vice-President John Whitney Walter, who has been working hard towards keeping this difficult project on schedule and within our budge guidelines.

$400,000 From the Harry Bass Jr. Foundation

We are very fortunate to receive the final and full payment of a pledge from the Harry W. Bass Jr. Foundation, which contributed $400,000 towards the moving costs of this project. Harry Bass Jr. had made a pledge of $500,000 before his death in 1998, which the Foundation and its Trustees honored. An initial payment of $100,000 had been received in 1998. According to the estimates from our moving company, the donation of half a million dollars will cover the costs for moving the books, coins and remaining sundries to 140 William Street. The donations from the late Harry Bass and his Foundation have thus reached a total of over $4 million, which makes the former Counciler and President one of the biggest donors in the history of the American Numismatic Society. As a fitting tribute to his contributions to the ANS, we dedicated the new library in his name. We were very grateful to his widow, Doris Bass and her sons for having made the long journey from Texas to be with us at the dedication ceremony on December 2 (see also the report on the event on page 42-43).

Brochure Printing Funded by R. M. Smyth and Stack’s

As in previous years, our exhibition brochure has been generously supported by R.M. Smyth and Stack’s. Stack’s and John and Diana Herzog of R.M. Smyth contributed each $7,500 towards the printing of our brochures for Full Circle: The Olympic Heritage in Coins and Medals and our main exhibition Drachmas, Doubloons and Dollars at the Federal Reserve Bank.

Roger Siboni to Spearhead New Exhibition Project

Newly appointed board member Roger Siboni has donated $250,000 towards the development of an exhibition hall. He hopes that the ANS will work towards an exhibition of great collections in the United States, covering all areas from the ancient world to the present day. “I hope that we can recreate the famous exhibition from 1914 at which so many famous coins were shown at the American Numismatic Society,” Siboni said at the Annual Meeting on October 18th. The 1914 exhibition and its publication remains a milestone in the history of collections, in particular in the US field. The ANS is planning to open the exhibition hall by 2008, the 150th anniversary of the Society.

Mid-Year Appeal Raises Record Sum

This year’s mid-year appeal chaired by Board Member David Simpson raised $50,000, a record breaking amount for a mid-year appeal. The appeal was in honor of John Whitney Walter and his efforts towards the new building.

Onassis Foundation Helps With Exhibition Costs

The Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation donated $10,000 for the underwriting of the exhibition Full Circle: The Olympic Heritage in Coins and Medals. This gift significantly helped to pay for this costs of this exhibition, in particular the printing of the attractive labels and panels designed by Suzanne Doig. A special thank is due to our Trustee Dr. James Schwartz for making such an important contact for the ANS.

RPC Receives Support From Harl Family

For years the American Numismatic Society has been a supporter of an important research project. Roman Provincial Coinage collects all coinages of the many thousand cities in the Roman Empire. Photographic data is essential for these publications, and it is in this area that the ANS has recieved a grant of $10,000 from Sidney Harl and his son, Trustee Kenneth Harl. This money allows the ANS to continue contributing almost 1,000 digital images to this important project.

New York City Funding For ANS Continues

The American Numismatic Society continues to be included in the budget of the City of New York and the Manhattan Borough President’s office. For this year, the ANS received a $40,000 Capital grant to secure new cabinet and trays in the Curatorial Vault. This is the second of two grants that the ANS has received from the City. In 2002 the ANS was awarded $80,000 for library shelving. We are in the process of applying for further money for 2004. These grants are great news, in particular in the light of continuously smaller arts budgets in New York City. The ANS’ move to lower Manhattan and the area adjacent to the former World Trade Center site has helped to secure such funding.

Stack Family Endowing COAC

The Stack Family of Stack’s Coin Galleries has made a $50,000 pledge to underwrite expenses of the ANS’ popular program on American coins. This longstanding conference series has produced some of the most important publications in the field of US and other American numismatics. “We are delighted to be supporting such an important program in the field of US coins. The American Numismatic Society has been moving in the right direction, and we are happy to do our bit,” Larry Stack said. Stack’s continue to be one of the major advertisers of the ANS Magazine and supporters of other projects.

Library News (Winter 2003)

by Francis Campbell

Library Plans Facsimile — A Positive Start For Funding the Francis D. Campbell Library Chair

The Nichols/Watkins Sale (June 12, 1828)

“To a gentleman of this city [i.e., New York], well known to numismatists and bibliophiles, as well for the extent as for the select quality of his collections, both of coins and medals, as also of books, but whose modesty will not permit the use of his name, am I indebted for his courteous generosity in giving the use of his copy of the extremely rare, broadside sheet catalogue of the above described sale. Through this favor I have been enabled by the recently invented process of Photo-Litography (sic), to present as a frontispiece, a facsimile of the catalogue on a reduced scale. A very few copies have also been made of the same size as the original, which is 18 inches in height.”

The “extremely rare” broadside referred to above by E. J. Attinelli is the first item listed in his 1876 bibliography entitled “Numisgraphics, or a List of Catalogues, in which occur Coins or Medals, which have been sold by auction in the United States.” It is also the first American numismatic auction in which coins are separately listed. As noted, the broadside is of an auction held in 1828, consisting of the Estate of Benjamin Watkins and conducted by George Nichols. The reduced version of the broadside used as the frontispiece for Attinelli’s work is illustrated here. If the broadside was “extremely rare” in 1876, one can certainly imagine its rarity in 2003. For that matter, the copies of the original 1828 edition produced by Attinelli in 1876, are also considered extremely rare today.

Emmanuel J. Attinelli

Attinelli’s descriptions of Mr. Watkins and Mr. Nichols’ son, which follow, capture some of the flavor of the period and the personalities involved.

Mr. Benjamin H. Watkins, like many other citizens of Salem of his day, followed the sea in his earlier years, subsequently quitting that avocation, he married, and settling down applied himself to the Dry Goods business in his native city, gratifying in his leisure hours his antiquarian predelictions (sic) by his search for and collection in a quiet modest way, such rarities of antiquity in the form of coins, books, engravings and other articles of curiosity or vertú, as came in his way. He was a man also noted for his extremely economical habits. His family, having all preceeded (sic) him to “that bourne from whence no traveler returns,” he became himself, in January, 1828, at the ripe old age of 75 years a prize to that insatiable Old collector of all, “Father Time.”

Mr. John H. Nichols, then a youth of seventeen, made the catalogue, and, as a clerk assisted his father at the sale of the collection which, he informs me, that he is positive to the best of his recollection, did not bring a sum to exceed $1000. Mr. Nichols, who is now a resident of this city, purchased some of the coins for himself and became a numismatist, having a collection of his own at the present time.

In order to provide bibliophiles and collectors with the opportunity to study and enjoy such historic items, which in this case might necessitate a trip to our Library, the Society’s Trustees and the Library Committee have approved the production of a facsimile edition of an original in the Library’s collection. Committee member, Dan Hamelberg, who has one of the finest private collections of American auction literature, has offered to fund the project and is overseeing its production. Good progress has been made in working out the details, with two versions of the facsimile envisioned, one selling for approximately $1000.00 and the other for $500.00. The proceeds will go to the Library, and in this instance, will be applied to funding of the Francis D. Campbell Library Chair.

Current Cabinet Activities (Winter 2003)

by Robert Wilson Hoge

A great deal of the American Numismatic Society’s routine curatorial work consists of answering questions from members and the public. We are contacted daily by individuals who have encountered various coins, medals, paper money and related items, and who want information. What are they? Where and when were they made? Are they genuine? Do they have value? What do certain markings mean? Where can we go to learn more?

A quick survey of relevant sections in the ANS cabinet, our data-base catalog, or the ANS Library can normally enable us to answer questions which require more information than we may already have at hand. The Society is a private non-profit organization, but it offers a great deal of public service at all levels. For planning purposes, it can be instructive to review a few of the many questions that have arisen. And to be sure, some members have informed me that they enjoy reading about numismatic by-ways that have occupied much of the staff’s time. Let’s have a look at several areas of recent activities.

William Safire’s research assistant for the The New York Times magazine’s “On Language” column, Kathleen E. Miller, asked for help with a special issue on money. Specifically, she wanted background on colloquial terms or phrases like “greenbacks” and “the color of money.” Well, we could go on at some length about the history represented by words like these. Many numismatists—but perhaps few others—know that the U.S. “greenback” got its name from the first federal issue of paper money, during the Civil War. These “demand notes” were elaborately printed on the back in green ink, a novelty at the time. This was primarily an anti-counterfeiting measure. Most notes (private chartered bank notes) of the pre-Civil War era had no printing on their backs or, if they did, it was usually in ordinary black ink, or sometimes red. Green ink became an established tradition for the back of most United States government notes.

But now, what color is money really? For us, maybe green (we’ve got the “greenbacks,” and look at our comic strips!), but the color of certain metals or other valuables has typically characterized names for money of other times and places. In German, money (geld) is cognate to gold; in French, money is silver (argent). You may remember “a pocket full of tin,” or brass, or copper. To the ancient Romans, money (pecunia) meant having to do with cattle, and members of the bovid family come in quite a few hues. In the Middle Ages, there was “white money” and “black money” depending upon the quality of silver (coins of base billon would darken through tarnishing in a fairly short time). Ah, to ramble pleasantly through numismatic nomenclature…

Noticing Numismatics in America

Providing data on American coins and paper money is an important part of our activity, since perhaps most inquiries fall into this wide-ranging category. Francisco Becerra wondered about a series of miscellaneous pieces including what turned out to be modern counterfeits (from China) of such coins as the United States dollars of 1804 and 1799, the Trade dollar and the Morgan dollar. Tourists beware! Linda Womack asked the reason for the large “P” on the back of a 1942 five-cent piece—the familiar “war nickel” which today many numismatists take for granted, but which represents the first instance in our history when the Philadelphia Mint signed its product. Sometimes people are surprised to learn that the change in mint marks was to indicate the emergency composition of the coins: the normal 25% nickel and 75% copper mixture was replaced by one of 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese, so that the 1942-45 “nickels” are really a billon coinage!

The Learning Channel broadcast my participation in a segment of the “Hunt for Amazing Treasures” on May 1, 2003, having to do with the fabulous 1933 $20 gold piece, now on display in our exhibition “Drachmas, Doubloons and Dollars” at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. K. Miyagawa, of the publishing company Shoshinkan (which issues a magazine for numismatic collectors), contacted us to introduce information about this coin to Japanese readers. It and its auction price are now famous in Japan, too, it appears. Miyagawa described the record sale, “759 man dollars” (man is the number “10,000” in Japan), as “beyond unique…as if supreme alchemy turns $20 into $7.59 million.” Graciela Matteo, from the Superintendencia de Seguros y Reaseguros of the Banco Central del Uruguay, had a reference question regarding the 1907 (Arabic numerals) version of the Saint-Gaudens double eagle coin.

Gerald C. Morris inquired about a gold-colored token of Theodor Bollenhagen & Co. that he had acquired. This firm was a 19th century New York importer and vender of numismatic miscellany, whose pieces (like Morris’ example) feature on the obverse a head of Liberty Head and the words THEODOR BOLLENHAGEN & COM. 49 MAIDEN LANE (or M. LANE). It was located near where the Federal Reserve Bank, with the major ANS exhibit, resides today! On the reverse is an office building with the sun shining above and the words CITY HALL/ NEW YORK in the exergue. This firm marketed its brass tokens in the 1850s, in four sizes to correspond with the contemporary $20, $10, $5 and $2 1/2 U.S. gold coins. They were “store card” advertisements but are also considered game counters or spielmarken (the German name for such counters), used like modern-day “poker chips.” According to Russell Rulau’s Standard Catalog of United States Tokens, (p. 205, Miller nos. 69 to 72A):

Bollenhagen was a toy and fancy goods dealer who imported his gaming counters from Germany. Lyman H. Low said Bollenhagen packed counters in the boxes in which his playing cards were sold. Bollenhagen is also believed to have been responsible for the general Liberty Head/Eagle spiel marken in the country, according to Low and also Bushnell, and for the generalized City Hall New York counters.

(U.S.A., New York, T. Bollenhagen, Brass counter, ca. 1855: ANS 1864.34.22, gift of George B. Mason) 19mm

Some other questions involving numismatic Americana came from Neo Kiangyi, who wanted to know about an 1895-dated U.S. $10 gold piece; from another correspondent, who asked about an 1882 example of this issue; from Mathivannan Narasiah, inquiring about the 1875 U.S. Trade dollar; and from Elizabeth Ann Arey, who wanted to know about an 1855 gold dollar and dime of 1842. Several individuals, including Jewel Huffman and David Sharpes, sought information about the 1776 Massachusetts Pine Tree Copper (indeed, we are frequently asked about the recent, common replicas of this equivocal issue). Kyle M. Stephenson asked about the 1792 Washington pattern half dollar.

The Virginia Historical Society sought images, for exhibition and publication, of a variety of Early American items from the cabinet. These included a Georgia 20 dollar bill of 1776, a New York 1776 five dollar note, a Massachusetts shilling note of 1779, a 1776 Continental Currency Six dollar note, a “Pine Tree” shilling (ca. 1667-1675), a 1793 Chain cent, a half dollar of 1796, and the Libertas Americana (ca. 1782) medal.

(U.S.A., North Carolina, 20-dollar currency note, 1779: ANS 0000.999.29308) 106 x 70mm

Another example of current research involving American holdings came from R. Neil Fulghum, the Keeper of the North Carolina Collection Gallery at the Louis Round Wilson Library, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. To prepare a survey of the locations of surviving specimens, Fulgham requested a listing of the ANS’ 1779 North Carolina currency, printed by Hugh Walker in Wilmington. Unfortunately, all of the notes (listed below) are in rather sad condition, having been backed with tape or old card stock. Accession data is lacking for all of them, but they can be found in our on-line data-base (Nos. 0000.999.29304 through 0000.999.29311):

  • $5, The “BE FREEDOM…” type, No.2230; with the signatures of Taylor (in red ink) and of Hunt.
  • $5, The “GOOD GOV….” type, No.1436; sigs. Hunt (red), Taylor.
  • $10, The “AMERICAN…” type, No. 2076; sigs. Taylor (red), Hunt.
  • $10, The “VIRTUE EXC…” type, No. 8319; sigs. Taylor (red), Hunt.
  • $20, No. 9519; sigs. Hunt, Taylor (red).
  • $25, The “A FREE COMM…” type, No. 1964; sigs. Hunt, Taylor (red).
  • $25, The “AMERICAN…” type, No. 6623; sigs. Taylor, Hunt (red). N.B. this serial no. is higher than the number actually printed, according to Eric P. Newman’s The Early Paper Money of America.
  • $50, No. 2486; sigs. Taylor (red), Hunt.

When famed researcher and ANS benefactor Eric P. Newman inquired about the 19th century Camden and Trenton, New Jersey, State Bank notes, I found that we have only three identical $3 bills from Camden (January 2, 1862, issue, plate letter G, serial nos. 296, 962 and 1467-late counterfeits), but 17 of the Trenton notes, ranging in date from 1812 to 1825. A couple have the printed date 181- with the second ‘1’ overwritten with a ‘2’ of ’20s date. Eric Newman noted that the State Bank at Trenton failed in 1825-6 and some of its notes, being worthless, were altered into State Bank at Camden counterparts because there was so little to change.

J. R. Landress was curious about the $500 and $1000 notes seldom seen today but still occasionally encountered in circulation by the lucky few. Jonathan Oaks asked about Confederate States of America notes in various denominations, while Len Sadowski inquired about the Confederate States half dollar and its common modern replicas. Emily Marra and Bob Lessard asked about the “five cent” coins dating from the turn of the 19th century; the 1883-1912 “Liberty Head Nickel” has not been commonly seen in circulation now for years, so people other than numismatists are generally unfamiliar with them. John L. Guerriero ran across a copper specimen of a copy of an 1852 California fractional souvenir dollar about which he wanted to know more. Amy Kurlander, Curator of the New York Transit Museum, in Brooklyn, contacted us looking for typical early 20th century coins; earlier, they had been looking for specific transit tokens.

Ancient and Medieval Inquiries

I do not always learn of our inquiries about ancient coins—these are often handled quickly by other staff members—but sometimes I help with these areas too, as with Herbert F. Klug’s communication regarding ancient Persian silver sigloi and James A Papapanu’s about two ancient bronze coins reportedly found in the area of Kavala, in Greece. One of these was an issue of Thessalonica, in Macedonia, from ca. 158-149 BC, featuring a head of the god Dionysus on the obverse and a goat on the reverse; the other, possibly an eroded issue of Thurii, in Lucania—part of Magna Graecia, in southern Italy—dating between about 400 and 300 B.C.

In the ANS cabinet, the Medieval Department category includes handstruck (and contemporary cast and machine-made) coins and other items ranging from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West to the adoption of minting machinery by European states, whenever that occurred. It encompasses European-style coins of this period from Asia and Africa as well, such as the issues associated with the Crusades. So, for instance, Louie T. Joo, who inquired about how to obtain information concerning early examples of AD-dated (pre-1501) European coins was tapping the resources of the Medieval department (although what he needed primarily was help to access the ANS’ collection data-base catalog). Another question concerned a French demi teston of 1606, struck during the era between the introduction of machine minting and its thorough-going implementation some years later.

Dr. Charles M. Rosenberg, of the Department of Art, Art History and Design at the University of Notre Dame, contacted us to order for publication a photo of a handsome Ferrarese coin struck in 1546 under Ercole II d’Este (1534-59), a medallic silver mezzo scudo by the important 16th-century artist Pastorino de Pastorini. It bears an armored, bust-length youthful image of Ercole facing left on its obverse, and on its reverse, an image of Hercules wearing the Nemean lion-skin (his club raised in his right hand and holding on to the cloak of a fleeing soldier with his left). The reverse legend reads MIHI VINDICTAM ET EGO RETRIBVAM.

(Italy, Ferrara, Ercole d’Este, AR medallic half scudo, by Pastorino, 1546: ANS 1937.146.53, bequest of Herbert Scoville) 35mm

We received an unusual inquiry concerning four Frankish deniers of Greece which were purchased for the cabinet from the Sotheby’s, March 6-7, 1997, auction of the John J. Slocum Collection. This was a notice from the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, regarding the settlement of International Auction Case Litigation in connection with this sale. Happily, the society is due to receive a slight adjustment on the price paid. The late ANS Council Member Slocum had formed a fine collection of coins of the Crusades which was broken up following his death. These four rarities from the Pylia Hoard, published by Michael Metcalf in our American Numismatic Society Museum Notes, Vol. 17 (1971), represented varieties absent from our cabinet. They now at least perpetuate in small measure Slocum’s connection with this area of collecting and scholarship. The acquisition was reported in the Society’s 1997 Annual Report (p. 27).

(Frankish Greece, Achaia, William I de Villehardouin, Billon denier tournois, Clarentza mint, 1245-1278: ANS 1997.78.1) 19mm

Maureen Collins, a picture researcher for Loyola Press, a Catholic not-for-profit book publisher, got in touch with us regarding preparation of a new religion textbook series for grade-school children. A Fourth Grade section will feature a portrayal of St. Louis (King Louis IX of France; known in Spanish as San Luis Rey), for which we were able to provide a fanciful effigy from a latter-day French medal. No actual contemporary issues bear portraits of the saintly monarch well-known to numismatists for having introduced the first high-valued coin into the Medieval French monetary tradition (the gros tournois, first struck in 1266, which was valued at 12 deniers tournois; its English equivalent, introduced a few years later by Edward I, was the 4-penny “groat”).

Modern, Oriental, and Latin American Requests

As a result of seeing it mentioned on our website, Anders Frosell inquired about the Society’s Robert Robertson Collection of Swedish coins, an important part of our holdings of material from the Middle Ages as well as more recent times. Researchers do need special help with named collections because the donors and vendors are not usually included in the part of our data-base that is searchable on-line by the public. This purchase has been almost entirely catalogued onto our database, however, so the descriptions of individual coins are available for consultation on-line at although these records would not indicate the pedigree.

(Sweden, Gustav Vasa, AR riksdaler, 1543: ANS 1929.103.2109) 33mm

The main part of Robertson’s collection (2382 pieces; ANS Accession no. 1929.103), consisted mostly of “modern” Swedish issues, but included several hundred medieval coins. He specialized in coins of Sweden and the Swedish Possessions, although he also collected other kinds of material (for instance, German Medieval bracteates—perhaps as a complement to his holdings of Swedish bracteates). Robertson made a series of smaller gifts and sales to the Society in the 1920s and ’30s. These too are nearly all entered onto our database catalog (Accessions 1928.83, 1928.124, 1928.153, 1929.14 and 1934.95).

(Sweden, Interregnum, AR ortug, 1465-1467: ANS 1929.103.1984) 20mm

Betty C. Buschette inquired about an example of a “shooting Thaler” of Aalen, in Swabia, dating from 1894 (one of the numerous awards presented as prizes in shooting contests held in the wilder, mountainous and forested areas of central Europe). A. Bernard Olij, from Indonesia, sought help with the means for authenticating traditional cast Chinese coins, and Teresa Reading wanted to know about soapstone lithography plates for national bank bonds (something rather outside the normal realm of numismatics!). Dr. Robert Grynszpan, Director of Research at the Laboratoire de Chemie Metallurgique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, in France, contacted us in the course of conducting a survey for analysis of the 1786 Strasbourg mint “horned bust” louis d’or of King Louis XVI, of which fewer than 30 specimens are known (sadly, the Society’s holdings of French gold from this era are not strong; there is no example of this peculiar anomaly in the cabinet).

One correspondent wanted help with identification of a gold piece found in California. It turned out to be a relatively common Medieval Islamic piece, an issue of the Fatimid (Shiite) Caliph of Egypt Al-‘Aziz Abu al-Mansur Nazar, who ruled from AD 975-996 (AH 365-387). The coin was a standard gold dinar of this dynasty, with legends written in typical Medieval Arabic “unpointed Kufic” script. Marc Pelletier wanted to know about a Moroccan Essai 1/2 Dirham Essai of Fez, dated AH1311. Hans E. Lee sent images of a wedding ensemble (pieces of ornamental bridal apparel consisting of traditional Chinese “cash” coins) from East Asia, brought to Canada in the 1920s by a missionary.

A referral from the Smithsonian Institution brought an inquiry from Thierry Depaulis, of Paris, France, who is researching George B. Glover and his collection of “Far Eastern” numismatic items. This was an acquisition—the most important in this category at our national museum—donated to the Smithsonian by his widow, Lucy H. Glover, arriving May 5, 1897. We were at least able to help Depaulis by providing the notice in Bruce Smith’s East Asia Journal, Vol. 1 (1982), No. 1, p.42-3, in which this Chinese numismatics expert stated that “Glover was an American who, as early as 1861 was commissioner of the Imperial Maritime Customs at Canton.” This would have been before the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service was set up by Robert Hart in Shanghai, in 1863, according to Depaulis, who also states that “We have good reasons to believe…[Glover] was living in Shanghai in 1875.” In 1895, Glover’s collection was cataloged and published posthumously by James H. Stewart Lockhart under the title Currency of the Farther East. It listed nearly 2000 pieces, including quite a few rarities (among them, two of the ten known T’ai P’ing silver cash). The Glover collection helps put into perspective the vastly greater holdings in the cabinet of the ANS, largely consisting of the great John Reilly, Jr., collection of some 37,000 items.

Another individual contacted us after having purchased part of a hoard of milled Spanish silver two-reales pieces from the second and third decades of the 18th century, said to have been found near Cap Haitien, Haiti. Other visitors came to the ANS to learn about some late 17th century “cob” coins from the mint of Potosí, in what is now Bolivia (small-denomination pieces reportedly found on a beach on the coast of Ecuador) which seemingly came from a sunken treasure. Alina Sokol, of Dartmouth College, needed a photo of a gold escudo clearly showing the Habsburg arms of Philip III; we provided a Segovia Mint milled example of 1607. Raúl Ramírez Peña, from Cuba, asked about an 1807 gold two escudos of the Madrid Mint. James Hearn contacted us while researching the 1835 Peruvian eight reales of the Cuzco mint (unfortunately, the ANS has an example of neither the 1835 nor 1836 issues—in spite of holding an outstanding general collection of coinage from Peru).

(Spain, Philip III, AV escudo, Segovia mint, 1607: 1001.1.16843, Hispanic Society of America) 19mm

Researches on Medals

The Society is renowned for its cabinet of medallic works, but when I hunted on researcher Marvin Lessen’s behalf, I learned of one, unfortunately of which we hold no example—the issue of British monarch Charles II (1660-1685) commonly known as the IAM FLORESCIT medal (Medallic Illustrations, p. 475-6, no.83). However, Anthony Bongiovanni, Jr., had a question about the identification and references for an historical medal of the Netherlands of which we do have a fine specimen. This is a piece by Christoph Adolfzoon commemorating Admiral Michael de Ruyter, who was mortally wounded in battle with the French off the coast of Sicily near Messina, on April 22, 1676. This issue referred to an occasion when the Dutch Republic had allied with Habsburg Spain to oppose Sicilian rebels who were supported by France. The fight was one of the bloodiest naval engagements recorded up to that time. The Society is fortunate to have an example of this piece in the cabinet (Van Loon, Histoire metallique, No.176).

(Netherlands, AR de Ruyter memorial medal, by Christoph Adolfzoon, 1676: ANS 1908.277.6, Gift of Daniel Parish, Jr.) 70mm

As usual, several inquiries concerned the famous American Indian Peace medals. For reference purposes, the Society’s holdings and data-base often prove helpful for many areas of study of this kind. One sought the rare British issue of George III from New York, the “Happy While United” medal of 1766 by D. C. Fueter. Timothy Shannon, of the History Department, Gettysburg College, requested photography of the James Madison Indian Peace Medal of 1809 for inclusion in a forthcoming article entitled “Queequeg’s Tomahawk: A Cultural Biography,” to be published in the in the academic journal, Ethnohistory. Mary C. Porter contacted the resource center at the National Museum of the American Indian’s George Gustav Heye Center, in New York City, and was referred to us for help with an historic photograph. This was an image of her great grandfather, the famed Chief Joseph, of the Nez Percé, wearing a medal that appears to be a decoration consisting of a floriated cross on a pendant ribbon with a pin-back bar. Regrettably, so far we have not been able to “pin it down.”

(U.S.A., James Madison, AR Indian Peace Medal, by John Reich, 1809 (ANS 1915.144.1) 62mm

W. Lancaster inquired about a souvenir item from a set of medalets representing the US Presidents acquired, oddly enough, during a visit to Singapore in 1969. This one was a piece featuring the 12th President, Zachary Taylor. Often people think such items may have value because when they see “1849” or “War of 1812” they suppose the token to be an antique. Another souvenir of this kind about which we had an inquiry was an “1801” Thomas Jefferson token with the familiar designs of the Jefferson Indian Peace medal.

Debby Friedman made an inquiry regarding the Erie Canal medal of 1826. This work was designed by Archibald Robinson, engraved by the outstanding die-cutter Charles Cushing Wright and struck by Maltby Pedetreau. Those struck in silver are quite rare; the “white metal” (pewter or similar alloy) examples much less so. The Erie canal medals are often found with their original turned and fitted wooden cases. These can pose a serious conservation problem today due to shrinkage of the wood. Large “copies,” in white metal and bronze, were made nearly contemporaneously by Edward Thomason, in Great Britain.

The early ANS Member’s Medal, long a feature of the Society, was manufactured to order by George Hampden Lovett of New York, a noted engraver and die sinker known for his Washington medals beginning in the 1860s. (He was the brother of Robert Lovett, Jr., of Philadelphia, who is possibly best remembered today as the minter of the famous cent intended for the Confederate States of America. See ANS Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 43). The Lovetts were among the leading medallic minters from the 1860s through the ’80s. Gar Travis inquired about this issue after finding one issued to Alfred Rowell in 1884. A number of these handsome pieces are today in the Society’s cabinet.

(U.S.A., New York, ANS AR membership medal of Benjamin Betts, 1868, by G. H. Lovett, ca. 1875: ANS 0000.999.3345) 42mm

George V. Huse, Jr. wanted background regarding Adolph Alexander Weinman’s designs for the medals presented at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair-Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Fortuitously, these beautiful pieces, by this illustrious American master-sculptor, figure in our exhibition “Full Circle: The Olympic Heritage in Coins and Medals,” presently on display at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, since St. Louis at that time was also the venue for the games of the third modern Olympiad. The cabinet is fortunate to have received gifts of the awards won by Dr. George F. Kunz, among other examples.

(U.S.A., Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Gilt AE Prize Medal, by A. A. Weinman, 1904: ANS 1933.64.2, gift of the estate of Dr. George F. Kunz) 65 x 74mm

James O. Sweeny contacted us several times as he wrapped up the revised edition of his catalog of British calendar medals. One question was regarding clarification of two Kempson calendar medals, of 1821 and 1822. Both had been inaccurately described in our inventory as “square calendar in center, at top LEAP date YEAR / A CALENDAR.” In neither case was there truly a reference to a “leap year.” Another question concerned the reading “Jas. Davies” on that individual’s issue of 1800. The Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery had inventoried an example reading “James Davis (sic) – 1800,” and we had recorded “James (sic) Davies” for one in our data-base. (ANS 0000.999.4574). Yet another question concerned details of our rare W. Foster calendar medal of 1685. Thus do our correspondents continue to help with the ongoing project of updating and expanding the catalog of our collection.

The Society of Beaux Arts Architects medal by the French sculptor Jules Edouard Roiné (1857-1916) interested Mike Lahey, whose uncle had won this prize in 1931. Roiné emigrated to the US in 1886 and had a successful career as a sculptor both with medals and architectural ornament. He taught modeling at the Trade Mechanical School and is known for his commemorative medals and portraits, particularly those with “industrial” themes. His beaux-arts style owes much to the French master Louis Oscar Roty (1846-1911). Roiné won a gold medal for his work at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 (another Olympic venue, featured in the new ANS Olympic exhibition at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York).

(U.S.A., Society of Beaux-Arts Architects, AE Award Medal, by J. E. Roiné, 1913: ANS 1940.100.1961, Bequest of Robert J. Eidlitz) 56mm

Cabinet Activities, Considered and Reconsidered

In conclusion, I would like to digress from our current cabinet activities to mention an inquiry of another nature—one which looks more at our past. Ken Biele contacted us for information relating to a business formerly run by his family, which brings up an interesting perspective on the move to our new location (at 140 William Street, on the corner of Fulton Street). In many ways, the kinds of functions that museums perform do not change. The imperative to preserve and interpret collections has always necessitated consideration of appropriate environments and hardware.

From an old envelope, Mr. Biele knew that there had been contact between his family’s business, known as C.F.& E. Biele and later as Charles F. Biele and Sons, and the Society in 1893. This firm specialized in custom showcases and cabinets for museums and private collections in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, providing contract work of the sort that is still of paramount interest to us in the new facilities. Did they do this for the ANS? Searches through our archival records after the move to William Street might tell us. A December 31, 1938, article from the New York Sun, provided by Biele, describes the company shortly before it folded, a casualty of the Great Depression:

Biele Company Since 1867 Has Served Both Collec-tors and Museums

The Charles F. Biele & Sons Co., calling itself simply “artisans in metal, glass and wood” and usually referred casually as makers of show cases and vitrines, is far from being as humdrum as it sounds. A going concern since 1867, at 33-39 Bethune Street for the last twelve years, it has been in the Greenwich Village neighborhood for forty years.

Museums from Massachusetts to California use Biele show cases. Important private collectors, such as Benjamin Altman, Charles L. Freer, E. S. Harkness, Childs Frick, Michael Friedsam, John Gellatly, have called upon Biele for special cases; President Roosevelt for his ship model collection; Theodore Roosevelt for his Japanese art objects, and the present John D. Rockefeller.

Mr. Biele is a registered architect, and personal supervision of individual orders seems to have been the keynote of his success. From the raw materials, every step of the work progresses under one roof—with 40,000 square feet of space devoted to metal working, woodworking, glass polishing, grinding and finishing equipment.

Biele has made cases for the Metropolitan for more than thirty five years and for the Morgan Library going back to the elder J. P. Morgan. The dealers in paintings, sculpture and antiques bring their special show-case problems to the old firm. Special orders may call for anything, insetting a carved stone sculptured fragment in a wood background and building a case around it, for an art gallery; a pair of doors (just finished) for Chinese porcelain cabinets for Mr. Rockefeller’s Park avenue home; a recently made glass cabinet for the Bell Telephone Laboratories to house a piece of railroad track, so mounted that when one breathes upon it a pointer turns and marks the deflection of the steel; a bronze and glass casket for the cathedral at Santo Domingo.

The last, delivered in 1937, was made to fit over the ancient lead casket which Santo Domingo claims contains the bones of Christopher Columbus. Visitors at the Cunard office, at 25 Broadway, gaze at a one-ton model of the S.S. Majestic, housed in a bronze and glass show case made by Biele, about twenty two feet long, and itself weighing about a ton, with a chassis of structural steel and teakwood sliding platform.

Moldings in all commercial metals, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, chromium, nickel-silver and stainless steel, used in everything from baby carriages to hearses; special glass and metal shower-bath doors for ocean liners; and elaborate mirror and shelf arraignments for dressing rooms are among their manifold products.

It’s entertaining to try to envision these fine, old-fashioned storage and display fixtures whose enduring purpose still defines the seriousness of curation today. As they are developed, we invite all members to visit the new headquarters facilities and to see how our modern conservation and exhibition counterparts continue to perform the vital functions of an active museum. Meanwhile, we’re always ready to help fulfill numismatic requests of all kinds as best we can.

Current Exhibitions (Winter 2003)

by Elena Stolyarik

The ANS continues to be the principal lender of numismatic objects to other Museums and related institutions. A silver coin with an image of the infant Heracles strangling snakes was lent for an exhibit entitled “Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past.” This is the first major exhibition to explore the images of childhood from ancient Greece. Over 120 art objects present the images and stories of children in mythology and their participation in religious rituals, and chronicle the emotional and familial environment in which children were raised. This touring exhibition will be on view at the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (August 23-December 5, 2003); the Onassis Foundation, New York City (January 20-April 15, 2004); the Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio (May 21-August 1, 2004), and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California (September 14- December 16, 2004).

Silver stater from Bruttium, Croton with an image of the infant Heracles strangling snakes, ca. 404 B.C. Gift of Mrs. G.P. Cammann (ANS 1955.54.42)

A Thomas Jefferson Indian Peace Medal and a US mint $10 gold of 1803 were incorporated into the traveling exhibit “Beyond Lewis and Clark: The Army Explores the West.” The exhibition was opened in July, 2003, at the Virginia Historical Society in Richmond. In early 2004, it will move to the Washington State Historical Society in Tacoma. Then it opens at the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka in 2005.

”Thomas Jefferson Indian Peace Silver Medal of 1801; 54.5 mm; (ANS 0000.999.32994).

US mint $10 gold of 1803; Gift of the American Museum of Natural History; the John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., Collection. (ANS 1908.93.54)

ANS artifacts play a valuable role in a special show, entitled “Russia Engages the World 1453-1825,” which was opened in October, 2003, at the New York Public Library. The exhibition examines Russia’s transformation from insular Muscovy to a global, secularized Empire and its multifaceted interrelationships with contemporary cultures and empires in Asia, the Middle East, Europe and the Americas during this period. Organized in conjunction with the tercentenary of the founding of St. Petersburg (1703), the exhibition demonstrates the global, cultural and political impact of the Empire and its ruler, Peter the Great, as well as the role of St. Petersburg as a prism through which the cultures and peoples of other lands came to Russia. The exhibition features more than 160 items from the Library’s holdings and other institutions. Among the diversity of artifacts is a “Wire kopek,” from the ANS collection. So-called wire money was a standard form during the 15th-17th centuries made by striking a thick wire between a hammer and punch. Peter the Great introduced European minting practices for Russian coinage and replaced wire money. A two-rouble gold piece from the ANS’ holdings vividly indicates the development of coinage during Peter’s reign.

Russian Silver “Wire Kopek” made by striking a thick wire between a hammer and punch, ca. 1689-1725. Gift of Edward T. Newell. (ANS 1914.265.47).

Two-rouble Russian gold coin of 1725 vividly indicates the development of minting practices during Peter’s the Great reign. Gift of Daniel Parish, Jr. (ANS 1893.14.1099)

Another curious example on display in the New York Public Library is the Beard-tax token. During the reign of the Peter the Great, many of his measures sped up Russia’s acculturation to western norms; among these measures was the decree requiring men to shave their beards. Eventually, the law was somewhat relaxed, allowing men to pay a tax to keep their beards. A special token was given as proof that the tax had been paid. Another of the interesting materials from the Society’s loan to the New York Public Library is a medal commemorating Peter the Great’s visit to the French Mint on a journey to the west in 1716-1717. This medal was the product of the combined efforts of the Liège-born artist Jean Duvivier (1687-1761), who created the image of the Tsar, and the Danish engraver Michel (or Martin) Røg, who designed an allegorical image of fame for the reverse. Duvivier hastily created this portrait of the tsar only days before the visit so that the medal could be struck on the spot, in the Tsar’s presence. The event made such an impression on Peter that he kept his personal example of the medal as a memento throughout his lifetime. The ANS also contributed to the Library exhibit an unusual and valuable decoration: the Russian Order of St. Anne, of the First Class, Civil Rank. This order was established by Duke Frederick Karl X of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp on February 14, 1735, in memory of his deceased wife Anna Petrovna (1708-1728), daughter of Peter the Great. On April 15, 1797, it was reestablished as a Russian Order and divided into four classes by the Emperor Paul I (1796-1801). The criteria for the award were a distinguished career in civil service or military bravery. The exhibit at the New York Public Library will remain on view until late May, 2004.

Russian Beard-tax bronze token of 1710; (ANS 1914.265.55) Gift of Edward T. Newell.

Bronze Medal Commemorating the visit of Peter the Great of Russia to French Mint on a journey to the west in 1716-1717, by Jean Duvivier and Michael (or Martin) Røg; 59.65 mm, Gift of S.V. Glad. (ANS 1951.109.1)

Russian Order of St. Anne, First Class, Civil Rank. Gold, Enamel, Jewels. This Order was established by Duke Frederick Karl X of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp on February 14, 1735, in memory of his deceased wife Anna Petrovna (1708-1728), daughter of Peter the Great. On April 15, 1797, it was reestablished as a Russian Order by the Emperor Paul I (1796-1801) and divided into four classes. Gift of Foster Stearns. (ANS 1924.206.1)

Exhibit Links

News (Winter 2003)

Conference of the High Caliphate

The American Numismatic Society announces “The Heritage of the High Caliphate: Dinars, Dirhams and Coppers of the Late Umayyad and Early ‘Abbasid Periods, ca. 700-950 CE”, a conference to be held at the American Numismatic Society, 140 William Street, Thursday and Friday, June 24-25, 2004. Late Umayyad and early ‘Abbasid dinars, dirhams and coppers were not only the first distinctly Muslim coins but formed for many years a vast monetary system stretching from North Africa to Central Asia.

The all-epigraphic Arabic coins introduced by the caliph ‘Abd al Malik presented a symbolic statement of the essential principles of Islam and its caliphs. They also proved to be unrivaled engine for commerce. They were minted in prodigious quantities replacing previous Sasanian and Byzantine style coinages, and circulated extensively throughout most of Europe, the Near East and Asia reaching as far as Scandinavia and China. Today, the coins represent documents of social, political and economic life at a time of great cultural efflorescence as well as social and political change.

The conference invites papers treating any aspect of coins of the late Umayyad and early ‘Abbasid periods as artifacts of civilization and culture. The topics of papers may be numismatic, historical or art historcal. They may examine problems in the reading and interpretation of the Arabic legends or the iconography, the representation of Islam and sovereignty, or the production, use and regulation of these coinages. This includes problems in the introduction of these coins and later transition from one series to another.

The conference will also feature a workshop in reading the Arabic legends on these coins and a roundtable for the discussion of issues of common interest and coins.

Queries and abstracts should be sent by e-mail to Dr. Stuart D. Sears at sdsears( or Dr. Michael L. Bates at bates( Abstracts should be submitted by March 1st, 2003.

American Numismatic Association “World’s Fair of Money,” in Baltimore

The Society welcomed members and newcomers to its table at the American Numismatic Association’s “World’s Fair of Money” Convention in Baltimore, July 30 to August 3. Librarian Frank Campbell, Curator of American Coins and Currency Robert Hoge and Executive Director Ute Wartenberg Kagan were all in attendance, along with a team of volunteers who generously donated their time. The ANS acknowledges and thanks Alan Anthony, Bob Julian, Bob Leonard, Phil Carrigan and Tom Sheehan, as well as curatorial assistant Alexandra Halidisz, for their participation. Our table was ably managed by Ian Stevens, of the David Brown Book Company—the exclusive vendor of all ANS publications (as well as those of the British Museum and other institutions)—which made available a fine assortment of references.

At the annual meeting of the Numismatic Literary Guild, held in connection with the ANA show, the American Numismatic Society Magazine received two first-place awards from this group, both in the category of Non-profit and Club Publications. The NLG’s “Best Column” award went to Robert Wilson Hoge, for “Current Cabinet Activities” and the “Best Issue” award was earned by Volume 1, Number 2 (Summer, 2002).

Van Alfen Lectures at Wesleyan University

On October 28, the Margaret Thompson Assistant Curator of Greek Coins, Peter van Alfen, was invited to present two lectures at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Speaking to a class studying the conquests and symbolic afterlife of Alexander the Great taught by Emily Mackil, a graduate of the ANS Summer Seminar (2001), Dr. van Alfen presented an overview of the coinages of Alexander, his father Philip II, and the Successors. Later that evening Dr. van Alfen gave a talk entitled “The Midas Touch: Problems of the Earliest Coinage in the Ancient Mediterranean ” to a public audience.

The Conclusion of the 50th Graduate Summer Seminar

The ANS Summer Graduate Seminar celebrated the conclusion of its 50th year on July 25th. An exceptionally cheerful and hardworking class (see the last issue of the Magazine, p. 10 for a photograph of the class), this summer’s students took it upon themselves to mark the 50th anniversary by designing special commemorative T-shirts and presenting the staff with “medals,” large homemade cookies with numismatic designs in frosting. The papers presented during the final week were: Melissa Haynes of Harvard University, “A Study of the Syro-Cilician Reverse Type of the Tyche of Antioch;” Jeffery Johnson of Princeton University, “Propaganda and Continuity in the Roman Denarius of the 130s BC; “Philip Kiernan of the University of Cincinnati, “The Bronze Coinage of Postumus;” Peter Lewis, of Brisbane College of Theology (Australia), “The Significance of the Coins and Medallions of Constantine, Fausta, Helena, and Theodora for Christian Iconography;” Rachel Meyers of Duke University, “The Unique and Innovative Coinage of Faustina II;” Fred Naiden of Tulane University, “The Arab of M. Aemilius M.f. Scaurus” and Dagmar Riedel of Indiana University-Bloomington, “Dinars minted in 12th- and 13th-century Mosul.”

2003-2004 Schwartz Fellow

Victoria Gyori, who recently finished her M.A. in Classics at Columbia University, is this year’s Frances M. Schwartz Fellow. Ms. Gyori plans to begin a Ph.D. program in Classics in the fall of 2004. In the meantime she hopes to spend 2-3 days per week at the ANS, time well above her responsibilities as the Schwartz Fellow, to assist in the Greek and Roman vaults and to pursue her research interests in Roman Republican and Classical Greek coinages.

Victoria Gyori

ANS Advisory Committee Seeks New Members

The American Numismatic Society, is seeking applicants for the advisory committee, which serves as a focus group for the Society. ANS fellow Charlie Karukstis, was recently voted in as Chairman of the Advisory Committee. Members of the committee serve as liaisons with the ANS membership, and assist the Society in evaluating its own performance. All candidates should demonstrate a commitment to the Society and will be chosen to reflect and balance the interests of collectors, academic, and professional numismatists.

Serving as a member of the Advisory Committee may entail a substantial time commitment. Also group members may be expected to bear most of the monetary costs of communicating within the group or to the Council. If you are interested in serving as a member of the Advisory Committee please contact Charlie Karukstis at Charlie( or write to Charlie at P.O. Box 1528 Clairmont, CA 91711.

Photography for Roman Provincial Coinage, Volume IV: The Antonine Emperors

It’s not every day that the ANS receives an order for images of 1,400 coins but this just what happened earlier this year when Dr. Chris Howgego and Dr. Volker Heuchert of the Ashmolean Museum submitted the list of coins they want to illustrate in volume IV of the series Roman Provincial Coinage. The ANS is a participant in this international effort to publish a comprehensive type series of the coins issued by the cities of the Roman empire from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century AD, and many of our images have appeared in the two volumes that have been published to date.

(ANS 1944.100.60255, bequest of E.T. Newell)

(ANS 1944.100.61639, bequest of E.T. Newell)

There was never any question as to whether or not the ANS would fill the order, just exactly how it would be done. The Society’s general policy is to use our digital camera to fill all orders and then to make sure that the resulting images are available on our web-site. But a 1,400 coin order would overwhelm the full-time staff of the Society, especially since it comes as we are preparing for the move. The answer was to arrange to have Alan Roche, a free-lance photographer who often works at the Society, undertake the job. The generosity of Sidney and Kenneth Harl has made this possible and their ongoing support of this effort is greatly appreciated. Hundreds of coins have been shot to date, all are available on the web-site, and they will shortly be delivered to the Ashmolean for publication.

Report on the ANS Annual Meeting

The 146th Annual Meeting of the American Numismatic Society was held on October 18, 2003 at the new building — 140 William Street. Approximately 40 members attended the meeting, which was followed by a reception in the ground floor Hall. The President, Treasurer and ANS staff were present and reported on the activities of the past year.

Donald Partrick, ANS President, opens 2003 annual meeting

Donald Partrick, President of the Society, opened the meeting. He reported on the progress of the new building — evidencing that the meeting was held in the newly renovated ground floor — answered questions put forth by members, briefly described plans for the Library and Curatorial floors and exalted the hard work of John Whitney Walter, First Vice-President and Building Committee Chairman.

The ANS Treasurer, Kenneth Edlow reported a successful year of activities at the Society and gave an account of the financial situation of the ANS over the last year. As the audited statement for 2003 will not be ready until next year, Mr. Edlow gave an overview of the finances of the year 2001/2 as presented in the most recent audited statement. He reported that the portfolio continues to be primarily invested with Wyper Capital Management, who is holding c. $10 million, which produced a return of 33.4% against 24.4% of the S&P. A second fixed income account at Bear Stearns had c. $3 million during the year, which had a return of 8%. Mr. Edlow talked of the pleasing returns and the reason for continuing to invest a relatively high proportion in equities is mainly due to the outstanding record of Trustee George Wyper’s performance. Since December 1998, when Mr. Wyper was first engaged, the ANS portfolio in his hands has increased by 87.3% against 5.3% of the S&P. Mr. Edlow thanked George Wyper for his outstanding work that has helped the Society in very difficult times. Mr. Edlow then turned to the other sources of income, stating that the ANS has been very fortunate during the last year to have donations of $735,336, which were allocated primarily to the general fund and a few restricted funds, including the newly created Francis D. Campbell Library Chair, which received about $60,000 in FY 2003. He reported that an initial review of the finances show that expenditure stayed within the approved guidelines of the 2003 budget. Due to some changes among key staff members, ANS salary costs appear to be even lower than anticipated. FY 2002, for which we have our last available figures for expenditure, show a total of $1,666.948. The cost cutting measure introduced by the Council in 1999, which led to some significant changes in the Society’s staff, have begun to pay off. “Comparing the expenditure of FY 2002 to the $2,400,000 of FY 1999, we see a saving of almost $700,000,” Mr. Edlow said, stating the significance of this achievement and adding that we are striving to cut operations further and increase our income. The move to the new building is going to bring savings of over $120,000, primarily in the areas of security staffing. We also hope to be able to raise enough money to endow several key positions such as the US Curator, the Islamic Curator, the Librarian and other key positions. Mr. Edlow expressed his pleasure with the progress that we have made, and thanked all donors who have so generously given to the Society. He briefly talked about the finances of the new building, reporting that the costs of this project, which will total over $4 million. have been all financed through generous donations. Mr. Edlow mentioned that the costs are low in comparison to comparable projects in the city, stating that this is due to the extraordinary efforts of Vice President John Whitney Walter. The full audited statements will appear on the ANS website as soon as they become available.

Mr. Wyper, equity manager of the ANS portfolio, and Trustee, then talked briefly about the finances, looking back at the past 5 years and described the current portfolio.

Mr. Douglass Rohrman reported for the Advisory Committee, calling for the Fellows to ratify the proposed amended ANS Constitution and By-Laws. He thanked the team effort of the entire committee for their hard work in the amendment process and made special mention of Charlie Karukstis (the newly appointed Chairman of the Committee) as well as Ken Edlow. The Fellows voted to approve the amended By-Laws, posted on the ANS website, and due to be published in the near future.

Dr. Ute Wartenberg Kagan, Executive Director, thanked the staff for their effort and support during her maternity leave. She reported on the various events of the past year and thanked the members for their contributions enabling the Society move forward with its mission.

Mr. Roger Siboni (newly elected Trustee) spoke briefly and encouragingly about the future. He announced that he would like to help launch a campaign for an exhibition hall on the second floor of the new building, stating that he was donating $250,000 to this cause and hoped that others would offer their financial support as well. The ANS hopes to open the exhibition hall by 2008, the Society’s 150th Anniversary.

The curators (Peter van Alfen, Michael Bates, Elena Stolyarik, Sebastian Heath and Robert Wilson Hoge) and the Librarian, Francis Campbell reported on the past year’s donations in illustrated Power Point presentations.

ANS Council Meeting

At its meeting on October 18, 2003 the Council voted Eric P. Newman to the rank of Honorary Trustee as a way of expressing their sincere thanks and gratitude to him for all of his years of dedicated service and contributions to the Society.

At its meeting, the Council elected the following 5 new Fellows:

Wayne K. Homren: of Glenshaw, PA, is best known as the Founder/Editor of E-Sylum. He has collected coins since about 1968 — his interests include: numismatic literature, U.S. encased postage stamps, Pittsburgh-area obsolete currency, Civil War Tokens, Charge Coins, 1907 Clearing House Certificates, Nova Constellation copper coinage, Confederate Half Dollar restrike & related pieces. He has published numerous articles and spoken often at seminars, including the ANS’ Coinage of the America’s Conference, 1994. An ANS member since 1997, Mr. Homren is a contributor to the Frank Campbell Library Chair, and is currently serving on the Library Committee.

Charles Paul Karukstis: of Claremont, CA, has been a member since 1978 and a Life Associate since 1994. He is a contributor to the Islamic Fund, the Educational Department and the General Fund and he serves on the Advisory Committee.

John M. Kleeberg: of New York, NY, an ANS member since 1994, was the Curator of Modern Coins from 1990 to 2001. Since then he has attended NYU Law School. He has been a frequent contributor to ANS publications and assists the editorial team.

Robert B. Korver: of Carrollton, TX, was the Director of Heritage Numismatic Auctions in Highland Park, TX and previous Auction Manager of Bowers and Ruddy Galleries. He was recently appointed by President George W. Bush to serve on the State Department’s Cultural Property Advisory Committee. As the chief editorial writer for Coin Dealer Newsletter, he has written hundreds of articles and is a member of several numismatic organizations. Mr. Korver has been a member of the ANS since 1997.

Michael J. Parris: of North Bergen, NJ has been an ANS member since 1958, is a Full Associate, as well as a contributor and donor. Mr. Parris has been a docent at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, hosting tours of the ANS exhibitions and making himself available for special tours for Federal Reserve Bank Officers and dignitaries.

ANS Elects New Members To The Board Of Trustees

At the Annual Meeting, the Nominating Committee for Trustees also reported its recommendations that six sitting members and six new candidates be elected to the Board of Trustees. The following Trustees were duly elected:

Stanley DeForest Scott — Class of 2006

A real estate executive and developer, was born in Hudson County, NJ in 1926. He resides in New York City. An ANS member since 1993 and Silver Circle Contributor, Mr. Scott was elected to Fellow in 2003. He has a B.A. from the Univ. of Southern California, 1950 and served with USNR, 1944-46. Past General Manager of Alfred Scott Publishers, NYC and Chairman and President of S.D. Scott Printing Co., Inc., NYC. Mr. Scott is presently General Partner of 145 Hudson Street Associates and President of Hudson Square Mgt. Corp. Mr. Scott is the co-chairman of the Fraunces Tavern Museum. Other associations in which Mr. Scott has been involved include: J. Carter Brown Library; former member Mayor’s Industry Advisory Committee; former Board of Directors, Business Relocation Committee; Frick Collection Fellow; Member of the Society of Mayflower Descendents; Society of Colonial Wars, Pilgrims U.S.; Friends of the British Museum; American Museum in Britain (Council 1986 to present); New York Historical Society; and The Grolier Club. His collecting interests are in the areas of Washington Medals and Greek coins as well as books on travel and exploration.

Roger Siboni — Class of 2006

Roger Siboni is currently Chairman of the Board of Directors of E.piphany, Inc., after only recently stepping down as CEO. Since his joining in 1997, and under his leadership, E.piphany has grown from a small startup firm, to the CRM industry’s thought pioneer and technology leader. He has been named one of e-businesses’ 25 most influential people (BusinessWeek), was acknowledged as a visionary “mover and shaker” in CRM (CRM Magazine), and was named one of the Elite High-Tech 100 (Upside). E.piphany has been named one of the top 12 IT companies of the future, and one of the IT industry’s 12 most influential companies while under Roger’s direction. Previously, Roger served as Deputy Chairman and Chief Operating Officer of KPMG Peat Marwick LLP where he was a 20 year veteran leader of the firm’s technology group. A frequent speaker and writer for the technology industry, professional organizations, and academic groups, Roger has testified before the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee and the U.S. Treasury Department on behalf of the technology industry, and has counseled many of the prominent enterprises who are currently driving the adoption of new technologies. Roger currently serves on the Board of Directors of FileNet Corporation, and Cadence Design Systems. He previously served on the Board of Directors of Active Software, Corio, Inc., Macromedia, Inc., Pivotal Software and the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley where he served for 15 years, chairing since 1999. He also is a past trustee of the Central Park Conservancy and The Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, and is a past Board member of the San Francisco Exploratorium. Roger graduated from the University of California at Berkeley. He became an ANS member in 1995 and was elected to Fellow in 2003. He has been funding the annual expenses of the CNL and has contributed to other projects on US coins. He most recently gave $270,000 for the Museum Development at 140 William Street. Roger, 48, lives in San Francisco with his wife, Joan, and their three children.

Douglass F. Rohrman — Class of 2005

Mr. Rohrman is a lawyer with 36 years experience in regulatory law. He is a Senior Partner in the Chicago law firm of Lord, Bissell & Brook, LLP where he practices environmental law, representing corporations, businesses and insurance companies. He has also represented not-for-profit organizations, academic institutions and trade associations in governance issues. He has co-authored two books involving environmental regulation of lending institutions and commercial risk management. Mr. Rohrman has authored numerous legal articles on environmental regulation and food and drug law. He was formerly Commissioner of the Illinois Food and Drug Commission in the 1970’s. He was a Commissioned Officer in the U.S. Public Health Service and Counsel to the US Surgeon General at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1966-69. He received an A.B. degree from Duke University in History and Comparative Literature and a J.D. from Northwestern University in 1966, where he was elected to the Northwestern University Law Review and served as Assoc. Editor from 1965-66. A coin collector sinnce he was a boy, he has avid interests in Roman imperial and provincial coins and has written a two-part article for The Celator on Faustina II, entitled “Mater Castrorum, the Coinage of Faustina the Younger” in July and August, 1999. A Life Associate, he became a Fellow in 2001, and has sat as Chairman of the ANS Advisory Committee from 2000-2003. The Advisory Committee, among other things, reconsidered the ANS Constitution and By-Laws and rewrote them into a modern, streamlined version for adoption by the Fellows. Doug lives with his wife Susan and three grown daughters in Kenilworth, Illinois.

Susan Gerwe Tripp — Class of 2005

Susan Gerwe Tripp is a member of Board of Trustees of the Columbia County Historical Society, having served as President for five years. She is currently the Board Secretary. The Society owns and administers three historic structures, including one National Landmark building. From 1974 to 1991 Mrs. Tripp was Curator, Keeper of the Coins and Director of University Collections at The Johns Hopkins University. She worked closely with the Garrett Collections (publishing their extensive collections of Japanese Works of Art [Dauphin Press, London, 1993]); spearheaded and oversaw the remarkable twelve year restoration of the National Landmark building, Homewood (built by Declaration of Independence signer Charles Carroll of Carrollton), which opened to international accolades in 1987; and later directed the restoration of the Garrett mansion Evergreen House. After leaving the University, Mrs. Tripp was Executive Director of Old Westbury Gardens. She has taught, lectured, and written extensively on Historic Restoration. Susan Tripp is a strong supporter of the ANS and, with her husband, David, was instrumental in arranging the donation of the Garrett numismatic archives to the Society. She has served on the Standing Library Committee for three years, and was elected as a Fellow of the Society in 2002.

Jane Merriam Cody — Class of 2004

Currently, Dr. Cody is the Associate Dean of Academic Programs in the College of Letters, Arts & Sciences at the University of Southern California, where previously she held the position of Senior Administrative Director and Chairman in the Department of Classics. Since 1989 Dr. Cody has been Assoc. Prof. Emerita. Previously she was an Adjunct Professor of Art History and Asst. Prof. in the Dept. of Classics. Dr. Cody has been an associate member of the Society since 1968 and was elected a Fellow in 1987. An ANS summer seminar student in 1965, she held an ANS dissertation fellowship in 1966-1967. Other academic awards and honors she has received include: Fellow, America Council of Learned Societies; Dart Award for Academic Innovation, Univ. of Southern CA; Fellowship and Scholarship, Department of Latin, Bryn Mawr College and Phi Beta Kappa. She has held several Editorial and Advisory positions including the Society’s Committee on Roman and Byzantine Coins (1976-1994), a panelist for the selection of Fulbright Fellowships in Classics and for the NEH selection of summer stipend holders, as well as a Reviewer for the American Journal of Ancient History and the American Journal of Philology. Among her numerous professional activities include serving as Chair of the Managing Committee, Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies and serving as a Financial Trustee on the Board of directors of the American Philological Association, as well as an ordinary member of the Finance committee and the Research Committee of that organization. She has also served as a gubernatorial appointee to the California Council on the Humanities, on the Los Angeles Library Foundation Board and the Board of the Los Angeles Children’s Museum. Dr. Cody has various papers and presentations on coins, the classics and philology to her credit and is the co-author of “Wealth of the Ancient World”, Kimball Art Museum, 1982.

Thomas A. Zdeblick — Class of 2004

Currently Dr. Thomas Zdeblick is Chairman and Professor at the University of Wisconsin, in the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Department of Neurosurgery. He is board certified by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Dr. Zdeblick did both his internship and his residency at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. He was the Allen Scholar Research Fellow at Microsurgery Research Laboratory. Following his residency, Dr. Zdeblick was a fellow at Johns Hopkins University in the Department of Orthopaedics and Neurosurgery, Division of Spine Reconstructive Surgery. He has received numerous awards during his schooling and residency as well as for his research and teaching skills including: the Myerson Award for “The Art and Skill of Doctor-patient Relationship,” The American Orthopedic Society North American Traveling Fellowship, The Cervical Spine Research Society Research Award and The Okagaki Resident Teaching Award. He lectures regularly at international meetings, has published over seventy papers in peer reviewed journals, authored three books, and contributed chapters to an additional sixteen books. Additionally, Dr. Zdeblick has been heavily involved with the design and development of several of today’s most advanced spinal instrumentation systems. Dr. Zdeblick’s is an active member of many professional organizations including the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery, American Spinal Injury Association, and Orthopaedic Research Society. A member of the ANS since 2000, Dr. Zdeblick has been a Bronze Circle and Library contributor. He is collector of ancient Greek coins with a specific interest in coinage relating to Dionysos.

Sitting Trustees Confirmed Until 2006:

Kenneth Lewis Edlow

Born in Washington, D.C. in 1941. Son of Ellis Edlow, former general counsel of the ANA. Graduated from the Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania in 1963. Moved to NYC and joined Bear Stearns & Co. in 1969. Became Corporate Secretary of Bear Stearns in 1987, a position still held. Joined the ANS in 1972, became a Councilor in 1993. Benefactor and contributor to the 140 William Street purchase. Served on a variety of ANS Committees and currently serves as Treasurer and Chairman of the Finance Committee. Collects U.S. coins. He also serves on the Board and Investment Committee of Temple Emanu-El of NYC. Married, two children. Lives in Manhattan.

Arthur Houghton

Born 1940. Educated at: Harvard College (BA 1963); Harvard University (MA 1982); the American University of Beirut (MA 1966). US Department of State, Foreign Service Officer (1966-1979); Associate Curator (1982-3), Acting Curator (1983-6), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu CA; International Policy Analyst, US Government (White House) 1989-1995. Consultant, President Arthur Houghton Associates, 1995-present. ANS Associate 1963; Fellow 1967; Member of Council, 1975-present, President, 1995-99, Benefactor. Former or current member, committees on Greek Coins, Long Range Planning, Publications, Huntington Medal, Finance. A specialist in Seleucid coins. Author or editor of four books on numismatics, 40+ articles. Co-author (with Catharine Lorber) of Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalogue, Part I: Seleucus I – Antiochus III. Former or current board member of Corning Museum of Glass, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Cyprus-American Archaeological Research Institute, Middle East Institute, American Near East Relief Association, Committee for Tyre. Former or current member of visiting committees to Harvard University (Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations), Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Department of Egyptian Art), and Metropolitan Museum of Art (Department of Islamic Art).

Donald G. Partrick

Born in Brooklyn, NY; ANS member 1969; Fellow 1987; Member of Council 1990-present; President 1999-present. Collector of early North American coinage, tokens and medals. Benefactor and contributor to the new ANS building at 140 William Street. Real estate investor. Long Island Builders Institute, Lifetime Director, Past President (twice) and Chairman of the Board. Served as member of Suffolk County Board of Health; Director of Suffolk County Executive’s Task Force for Affordable Housing; Director of the Suffolk County’s Executive’s Committee for New Business; Director of the Long Island Housing Coalition; Director of the Long Island Coalition for Sensible Growth; Commissioner on the Suffolk County Bicentennial Commission. Owner of 3,500 acre wildlife preserve. Author and lecturer on wildlife management.

James H. Schwartz

Born in New York City, James H. Schwartz was educated exclusively in Manhattan. An undergraduate at Columbia College, he obtained an M.D. at New York University School of Medicine, and a Ph.D. at the Rockefeller University. He became professor of Microbiology at the NYU School of Medicine, doing research in molecular biology and biochemistry. In 1967 he became interested in Neuroscience, and in 1975 moved to the Columbia College of Physicians & Surgeons where he became professor of Physiology & Cellular Biophysics, of Neurology, and of Psychiatry in the Center for Neurobiology & Behavior. He continues to do research on the molecular basis of learning and memory and is a co-editor of one of the leading neurobiology textbooks, Principles of Neural Science, now approaching its fifth edition. An ANS member since 1971, he was made Fellow in 1981, Life Fellow in 1998 and was elected to the Council in 2000. His central interest is in ancient engraved gems and magical amulets (of which the Society has over 500 excellent examples). In numismatics he is primarily interested in the iconography of coins of the Roman period, especially of the mint of Alexandria, and also in coins of the late Roman period and Rome’s barbarian neighbors. He has published on early Vandalic coinage and on engraved gems in the ANS collection.

John Whitney Walter

Born in 1934, John is a specialist in early US coins, error coins and federal and national currency; in world numismatics, he specializes in ancient Greek, Roman imperial, English hammered and medieval siege coinage. An active philanthropist, in 1998, he donated to the Smithsonian’s National Numismatic Collection, the only known complete five coin type set of Greek coins by the Demareteion Master engraver. An active exhibitor at many ANA conventions, he has won three First Place and four People’s Choice awards for his exhibits of US coins and currency. He received a BS degree from Norwich University, and an MS from Columbia. John works in the construction industry, designing and implementing security, telephone, TV, audio, computer and building management systems. He joined the ANS in 1996, becoming a Councilor and Fellow in April 2000 and is also First VP of the ANS and Chairman of the Council’s Building Committee for the Society’s new Headquarters Building and is responsible for the implementation of the entire renovation project.

George U. Wyper

Born in 1955, Mr. Wyper is a collector of early American proofs and patterns. Educated at The Wharton School and Yale University, he has previously worked at The First Boston Corporation, was the Chief Investment Officer of Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company, Senior Managing Director of Warburg Pincus Investment Management and is the Managing Partner of Wyper Partners. Mr. Wyper has been involved with ANS since 1995 and been a Councilor since 1997. He also manages a part of the ANS endowment portfolio.