Obituary: Sidney Wayne Harl

Sidney Wayne Harl, an eminent coin collector and ANS benefactor, passed away on September 15, 2006. Mr. Harl, who was eighty-two, died in New Orleans, just a few months after his wife Virginia Anne Harl, née Mondante, who passed away on February 3, 2006. Sidney Harl was a long-term ANS member, Fellow, and donor. In recent years, he and the Paley Foundation, of which he was a director for many years, supported research projects in ancient coinage and photography. He was a passionate collector of Anglo-Saxon and Norman pennies, English milled coinage of 1660 through 1816, English tokens, Irish Gunmoney, and, in recent years, Roman coins as well.

Sidney Harl, a native of Illinois, was the financial analyst for William S. Paley, chairman of Columbia Broadcasting System, since 1953. He is survived by his son Kenneth Wayne Harl, his daughter Karen Anne Cicale, and his son-in-law Danny A. Cicale, and their daughters, Sidney’s granddaughters, Melissa Anne and Jessica Anne. Professor Harl, a Trustee of the ANS, acknowledges that he owed his scholarly success in numismatics to his parents, who together encouraged and inspired their son’s passion for coins. Sidney, while in his bed in rehabilitation at the hospital in New Orleans, listened to and offered his corrections to the text of his forthcoming article in the American Journal of Numismatics. Perhaps no more fitting tribute was his last coin purchase, days before his death, from CNG, of a choice denarius of divus Antoninus Pius, the most benevolent of emperors—a fitting tribute to a generous donor and loving and beloved husband, father, and grandfather.

Review: Pamiatnaya medal’ sovetskogo perioda 1919-1991

A. S. Shkurko and A. Yu. Salykov. Pamiatnaya medal’ sovetskogo perioda 1919-1991: Katalog (Soviet Commemorative Medals from 1919 to 1991: Catalogue). Moscow: The State Historical Museum, 2005. 403 pp., many b/w ill. ISBN 5-89076-086-6.

After Robert Hoge, the ANS Curator of North American Coins and Currency, asked me to integrate into the Russian medal cabinet 250 Soviet medals that had been donated to the Society by Dr. Ira Rezak in 1999, a colleague from the Hermitage suggested I use this catalogue for my work. This book proved to be an excellent reference in the cataloging of these and other Soviet medals in the ANS collection.

This profusely illustrated catalogue, featuring black-and-white images of over two thousand commemorative medals of the Soviet period, serves as one example of the renewed efforts of one of Russia’s official cultural institutions (the State Historical Museum in Moscow) to preserve the country’s recent artistic past (in this case, in the realm of numismatics). The principal author of the introductory essay, A. S. Shkurko (who is the Associate Research Scientist and long-time Keeper of the museum’s medallic collection), is known mainly for her articles and exhibition catalogues on Soviet commemorative medals relating to the events of the October Revolution of 1917. Shkurko’s text for the catalogue, typical of Soviet scholarship, presents a thorough—albeit dry—review of Soviet medallic art and its production. A substantially abridged English version is appended at the end of the catalogue. Despite some stylistic flaws, the English summary covers the main points discussed in the Russian essay, but lacks detailed discussions of particular medals and biographies of individuals involved in the production of Soviet medals.

In the foreword to the catalogue, E. S. Shchukina, curator of medals at the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, aptly calls it the “corpus” of Soviet medals from 1919 through 1991. This book embraces virtually every medal produced by the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) and Moscow mints during the period under discussion. The catalogue is primarily based on the collection of medals at the State Historical Museum in Moscow, though the medal collections of the Leningrad and Moscow mints, the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, and numerous private collections were also utilized.

The St. Petersburg Mint, founded by the reformist Tsar Peter the Great, was the only official, functional mint in Russia at the time of the revolution of 1917. However, the production of medals (just like everything else) was adversely affected by the civil war (1918-1922) that followed the revolution and demise of tsarist Russia. The production of medals slowly picked up in the late 1920s and 1930s, with a distinctly ideological character. Some of the older master die sinkers who were active at the mint before 1917 were employed by the new government and were responsible for training the new generation of medalists and for the development of the new stylistic idiom of socialist realism, which was gradually adopted by all of the arts in the country. This style would dominate Soviet medal making in these decades. During World War II, the Leningrad Mint was relocated behind the Ural Mountains; military orders and decorations remained its sole focus of production until the end of the war. In 1952, the newly founded Moscow Mint began producing some of the government’s commissions of commemorative medals. Some medal specialists from the Leningrad Mint were called upon to manage the new production and train new personnel for the industry. Both training and production were financially backed by the Soviet government, which also supplied the industry with the centralized commissions and orders and initiated various competitions among medal makers and sculptors to promote medallic art as part of the wider Soviet monumental art propaganda program. For the last three decades of its existence, Soviet medallic art remained an integral part of official Soviet propaganda. It reflected themes typical of the genre, such as important political events and persons, scientific progress, and military victories. In addition, as the overall political and social atmosphere began to relax somewhat in the early 1960s (a period in contemporary Russian history referred to as the “Thaw”), culture, literature, art, and architecture came to be considered subjects suitable to be featured on medals. Subsequently, the number of medals produced in the early 1970s through the late 1980s increased substantially, and their appearance tended to deviate from the dogma of socialist realism, retaining some elements of the individual styles of the artists involved in medal production. It is worth noting that the completion of official commissions was a sure, if not lucrative, way for a Soviet bohemian to survive and even thrive in an otherwise hostile environment, which considered artists socially suspicious and sometimes outright dangerous to the society.

The catalogue entries are organized in numerical order and are divided into sections according to the year in which a particular grouping of medals was produced. They contain such important information as the title of the medal, the artist’s name, material, diameter, number of medals per issue if available, and additional information on individual specimens that the catalogue’s authors deemed worthy of inclusion. Almost all of the medals referenced in the catalogue are illustrated; the detailed descriptions of those that are not are sufficient for identification. Three alphabetical indices follow the plates: they are organized by the artists’ names, the names of the persons depicted on medals, and by the medal subjects or titles, respectively. Even though the catalogue is written almost exclusively in Russian, the quality of the plates is sufficient to allow a wider audience of readers interested in Soviet commemorative medals to take advantage of this reference. Despite lacking any indication as to which collection individual specimens originated from and, thus, their accession or inventory numbers, this catalogue is undoubtedly the most definitive source for Soviet medals of this period.

—Olga Less

Archivist’s News (Spring 2007)

by Joseph Ciccone

Preserving the Brett and Wood Collections


Eleonora Giampiccolo examines glass-plate negatives from the Brett collection.

While we have taken tremendous strides toward preserving the history of the ANS, the actual work of arranging and preserving individual collections is a time-consuming task. This past December, we were fortunate to have the services of an intern to help us with this effort. Eleonora Giampiccolo, a doctoral student from the University of Catania in Sicily, worked in the ANS Archives through an internship sponsored by the Embassy CES foreign language school. Ms. Giampiccolo’s responsibilities included preserving both the Agnes Baldwin Brett and Howland Wood collections.

Selected images from the Brett collection have been featured previously in the ANS Magazine, in the Summer 2005 issue. Thanks to Ms. Giampiccolo’s help, the full set of images—consisting of more than 440 glass-plate and film-based negatives, as well as an additional 490 photographs—have been preserved in archivally sound containers. Preserving glass-plate negatives is a delicate task. While the glass plate itself is obviously very fragile, the image, which is burned onto one side of the glass plate, is also susceptible to being scratched or otherwise defaced. Ms. Giampiccolo skillfully removed the negatives from their current storage cases and rehoused them in acid-free sleeves and boxes designed to ensure the long-term preservation of these important images. Ms. Giampiccolo also digitized many of the images, which we are adding to a new archival database we recently developed.

In addition to working on the Brett collection, Ms. Giampiccolo also helped preserve our collection of Howland Wood’s papers. Wood, of course, was the Society’s curator from 1913 until his death in 1938. Prior to that, however, he was also very involved in the American Numismatic Association, where he served as a secretary (1905-1909) and chairman of the Board of Governors (1909-1912). The full extent of the collection encompasses more than eight cubic feet of material—about eight standard storage boxes—with each box containing hundreds of letters. The portion Ms. Giampiccolo arranged and preserved included Wood’s personal numismatic correspondence from 1903 through the 1920s.

This proved to be a fascinating lot. Prior to Ms. Giampiccolo’s efforts, the collection was sufficiently disorganized as to effectively render it inaccessible to researchers. We now know that Wood’s collection of correspondence includes a veritable who’s who of the early twentieth-century numismatic world, with correspondents including: A. H. Baldwin, S. S. Heal, Henry Chapman, Thomas Elder, E. H. Adams, George Heath, and Farran Zerbe, among others. Institutions with which Wood corresponded include the British Museum, Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts, the Royal Numismatic Society, and, of course, the ANS.


Howland Wood, undated. (ANS Archives)

Now that Wood’s collection has been organized, researchers can more easily locate pertinent information. For instance, we now know that in 1905 Wood applied for the position of Curator of the Numismatic Collection at the U.S. Mint. (At the time, the collection was housed in the U.S. Mint building in Philadelphia.) A review of Wood’s civil-service examination—the original of which is in the collection—shows that while he did well on the portions of the exam dealing with “nomenclature of coins” and “relation of coinage to the fine arts,” he did much less well on the “care and preservation of coins” and “historic significance of coins,” ironically enough for the future curator.

Wood would not be appointed to the U.S. Mint’s curatorship that year. That honor went to Dr. T. Louis Comparette, with whom Wood would develop a professional relationship lasting until Comparette’s untimely death in 1922. Wood’s correspondence with Comparette makes for one of the livelier series in the collection. For instance, in their initial exchange of letters in 1906, when Wood invited Comparette to join the ANA, Comparette provides an interesting picture of the state of the Mint collection upon his arrival, noting: “As to this Cabinet I wish to say that it has wakened up, and if it is not fully aroused yet, it soon will be. I found the thing dead and decadent and, what is worse, a disposition in some quarters to inter the institution rather than to apply a restorative. . . .”

Although they apparently did not know each other previously, they quickly developed a lasting friendship, with Comparette on occasion addressing Wood as “His August Highness, the Great and only King of Kings, the Anointed Allah, Father of the Faithful (in Numis.), the All-Powerful Sultan of Brookline, or any other line.”

The two discussed a wide range of matters. In 1909, Comparette offered this unkind evaluation of the Assay Commission, when he wrote to Wood that: “The Assay Commission is here today. Just what variety of asses compose it I am unprepared to say, but we usually have a choice lot. . . . Our only revenge for their being asses is gotten by serving them with a rotten luncheon here in the Mint. Last year the whole crowd of us was laid by it. Thus we inflict injury on ourselves to knock them out. I presume Zerbe is here.”

In a more serious vein, Comparette would periodically update Wood on issues such as the redesign of U.S. coinage. For example, in 1909, Wood inquired regarding the status of the new Lincoln cent. Comparette responded by reporting that: “There is a lurking suspicion in Brenner’s mind that the people here are not trying very hard to expedite the work, in fact that they seem to be inclined to let the work lag in some hope perhaps that now that a new man is crushing the chair in the White House this project may be allowed to drop. That is inter nos. Whether true or not I cannot say, but anyhow the piece is pretty apt to be coins and before very long too I think.”

Comparette and Wood also discussed the activities of the ANA during that organization’s tumultuous 1908-1912 period. Included in this correspondence is a terrific caricature of the period. It features Farran Zerbe, described as the “King of Armenia,” with Virgil Brand, William Woodin, and others portrayed.


Albert Frey, undated. (ANS Archives)

Comparette was not the only person with whom Wood discussed the ANA. For instance, in the summer of 1908, only a week after the death of ANA founder George Heath, Wood was in communication with the Canadian numismatist S. S. Heal regarding the state of the ANA and the future of The Numismatist. At the time, Heal commented that “I never swallowed Frey’s dislike to Zerbe. Frey could hardly expect to be perpetual Pres. And if you think Zerbe is the man—the fitting man for the job—why let him take it. . . . One thing struck me in your letter—you say you could not afford the time to run N [The Numismatist]. Poor old Heath. I regret my many kicks at him now its too late. He had his profession to attend to and many other duties—and yet he managed it. I am afraid this will mean the breaking up of the A.N.A. as you cannot keep members together without the Numismatist. . . . I was in great hopes that you would run the show. If Heath’s financial affairs are in any how decent order his people may consider the obligation they are under to continue publication of N.”

Of course, Zerbe continued to edit the Numismatist for a number of years, until it was acquired by W. W. C. Wilson and donated to the ANA in 1911, something pictured on the right-hand side of Wood’s above-mentioned caricature, where we see Wilson’s foot kicking Zerbe in the hindquarters. Albert Frey, one of Wood’s other principal correspondents, would complain of Zerbe’s editorship in a 1910 letter, where he opines that “I am really very much disappointed in the Numismatist, as it is getting to be a regular primer. Of course, Zerbe pays the bills & consequently he has a right to put in what he pleases; nevertheless, it is absolutely worthless to me & if it does not improve by the end of the year I shall not renew my subscription. Typographically it is a big improvement on Heath, but the contents give me the impression that every contributor can have so much space & no more. Hence if the contribution is too short the space is filled with an illustration, an ornamental letter etc; but if it is too long the editor reserves the right to cut it down to suit the columns of the magazine. Of this I can furnish absolute proof. Now I’ll be d____d if Zerbe or Zerbe’s brother or whoever edits the magazine is going to tamper with any of my manuscript.”

The earliest ANS-related correspondence in the collection is dated 1903, with Wood corresponding with the Society’s curator, Edward Groh, regarding an article that Wood had recently written for the American Journal of Numismatics. (At the time, the AJN was owned and published by Wood’s future father-in-law, W. T. R. Marvin.) The correspondence increases substantially after Wood joined the ANS in 1909. Of particular interest is the correspondence from 1911 through 1913, where Wood discusses the possibility of his succeeding Agnes Baldwin Brett as curator of the ANS. Wood’s correspondence as ANS curator comprises the remainder of his fascinating collection—a portion we hope to have arranged soon.

All in all, both the Wood and Brett collections contain fascinating and informative materials that will prove invaluable for researchers in the years to come.


Sketch by Wood of the ANA elections, c. 1912. (Howland Wood collection, ANS Archives)

Current Cabinet Activities

by Robert Wilson Hoge

Discussions and Discoveries

It goes without saying that the ANS curatorial staff is kept busy serving the needs of researchers and providing material for publications. Our own work, as I have mentioned previously, is often sparked by requirements to update existing information so as to improve the content of forthcoming texts in articles, books, and exhibitions. I believe these new directions may often be of interest to ANS members, and I try to report some of them here, to give a sense of both our curatorial cabinet activities and their direction.

Quite a few correspondents ask us to examine items that they have discovered, and are eager to obtain comparative data and opinions. Most of the time, this can be accomplished via digital images submitted over the Internet, although occasionally we are asked to examine actual specimens. (The ANS does not provide an authentication or grading service; opinions and observations are unofficial and for informational purposes only.)

Our photographic services are widely known and used. The first-rate digital images taken by our photographer, Alan Roche, are made available for very modest charges. Ordering, information, and invoicing are handled by Dr. Elena Stolyarik, our hard-working collections manager, who also prepares all the paperwork for loan requests and acquisitions as well as maintaining the general accession records.

The Ancient World and Western Asia

As always, the fame and depth of the ANS’s collections of ancient coins draw photo requests and research inquiries from many quarters. As one example, Benedicte Gilman, senior editor of Getty Publications, requested for use in the forthcoming scholarly monograph The Language of the Muses: The Myth of the Roman Copy, by Professor Miranda Marvin, images of a handsome, signed Syracusan tetradrachm (Fig. 1). As another example of this kind of use, Richard E. Doughty, managing editor of Saudi Aramco World, ordered images of a beautiful Carthaginian gold tridrachm for publication in the January/February 2007 issue, for an article called “Barb” (Fig. 2).


Fig. 1. Sicily: Syracuse. AR tetradrachm, c. 410 BC. Tudeer 33; SNG-ANS 26. (ANS 1944.100.55775, bequest of Edward T. Newell) 26 mm.


Fig. 2. Zeugitana: Carthage. AV tridrachm, c. 264-260 BC. Jenkins and Lewis 377. (ANS 1997.9.134, bequest of John D. Leggett Jr.) 22 mm.

Dr. Beryl Barr-Sharar, editor of the American School for Classical Studies in Athens, requested reproduction rights for three Theban staters from the same time period, to be included in a forthcoming book, The Derveni Krater, Masterpiece of Greek Metalwork. This will be the first volume in a projected new series to be published by the school. The three coins include one generously bequeathed to the Society by W. Gedney Beatty (ANS 1941.153.450) and two from the great bequest of Edward T. Newell (ANS 1944.100.19847; ANS 1944.100.19864) (Fig. 3).


Fig. 3. Boeotia: Thebes. AR stater, c. 456-446 BC. (ANS 1944.100.19847, bequest of Edward T. Newell)

On behalf of Wild Dream Films, Helen Grinstead ordered images of a fine Macedonian tetradrachm of Demetrius Poliorcetes, from the mint of Amphipolis (Fig. 4). As is well known, the ANS holds the premier collection of coinages of the Hellenistic kingdoms, of Alexander the Great and his successors, primarily due to the particular studies in this field that held the attention of E. T. Newell for many years. For use in an upcoming television program on ancient ships (“Ancient Discoveries,” for the History Channel), Grinstead also ordered images of ANS 1967.152.651, an Egyptian silver tetradrachm of Ptolemy IV (221-203 BC).


Fig. 4. Macedonian Kingdom, Demetrius Poliorcetes (306-283 BC). AR tetradrachm, Amphipolis mint. Newell 124. (ANS 1944.100.13789, bequest of Edward T. Newell).

Classical numismatist and conservator Herbert F. Klug was researching an interesting Persian siglos fraction of the kneeling archer type (Fig. 5) that, in the absence of metallurgical analysis, appears on the basis of weight and specific gravity to be an encrusted ancient forgery. It has such a coppery, encrusted look to it that it actually seems as though it could have been intended to be a copper issue, but there do seem to be slight remaining traces of oxidized original silver plating present on the coin, and of course its early date would militate against the occurrence of a genuine copper coinage at that time. This coin may be compared with a single, rare specimen in the ANS cabinet dating to the period of Darius I (c. 510-485 BC), of Carradice Type II (Fig. 6). The metrological data of the two coins are as follows: Klug: weight .738 g, specific gravity 7.94; ANS 1986.78.949: weight .886 g, specific gravity 9.85.


Fig. 5. Persian Empire, temp. Darius I (c. 500-485 BC). AE 1/6 siglos, contemporary counterfeit (fourrée). Carradice type II. (Herbert F. Klug) 7.4 mm.


Fig. 6. Persian Empire, temp. Darius I (c. 500-485 BC). AR 1/6 siglos. Carradice type II. (ANS 1986.78.949, gift of Jonathan P. Rosen) 7.8 mm.

The Society’s magnificent collection of Roman coins is regularly consulted and utilized by scholars for their publications. Along with images of several late Hellenistic coins, Dr. Wendy Cheshire ordered images of coins of Drusilla (ANS 1944.100.47027), Caligula (ANS 1944.100.75470), and Marcus Aurelius (ANS 1944.100.61285), all from the great bequest of Edward T. Newell. Dr. John Alexander Lorbur, assistant professor of classical studies at the University of Mississippi, ordered images of a late Roman Republican coin of Gaius Julius Caesar for use in a future publication (Fig. 7). Another emperor whose coins are perennially sought after as images for publication is Constantine “the Great” (306-337 AD), one of whose issues was requested by Kim Adams, of Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, for use in the multilingual thirteenth edition of Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, by Kleiner and Mamiya. One of Constantine’s early issues while still Caesar, this coin, ANS 1984.146.2004, is a nice example from the mint of Rome celebrating the ruler’s role as preserver of the city.


Fig. 7. Roman Republic, Julius Caesar. AR denarius, African mint, 47-46 BC. The reverse features the legendary Aeneas rescuing his father Anchises and the cultis statue of Pallas Athena from the destruction of Troy. Crawford 458/1. (ANS 1937.158.262, gift of Mrs. R. H. Lawrence, from the collection of Richard Hoe Lawrence)

Working on a future publication of a Sylloge volume covering the coinage of the Kushan Empire in the ANS collection, David Jungward and Joe Cribb requested images of this entire segment of the cabinet—hundreds of coins. While assisting with the coordination of this large-scale effort, curatorial associate Peter Donovan noticed many interesting examples of Kushan coinage, most of which have not been previously published. Among these is a splendid gold fraction of Huvishka, featuring a unique reverse type (Fig. 8).


Fig. 8. Kushan Empire, Huvishka, c. 151-190 AD. AV 1/4 stater (1/4 dinar); axis 12:00; 1.975 g. (ANS 1986.149.14, gift of Marjorie D. Schwarz, from the collection of Herbert F. and Dorothy C. Schwarz) 13 mm.

For inclusion in a forthcoming 2008 sixth-grade social studies textbook by Macmillan McGraw-Hill, Martha Hall, senior photo researcher for Feldman & Associates, ordered images of a pre-Christian gold Aksumite coin of the king Endybis. This important and beautiful specimen is presently on display in our major exhibition “Drachmas, Doubloons, and Dollars,” at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, located just a couple of blocks away from the ANS’s Donald Groves headquarters building (Fig. 9). Although it is not large, the ANS has a fine and important collection of coins of the kingdom of Aksum, including some pieces evidently once in the collection of the early researcher and collector Anzani. The later coinages of Aksum are notable as the world’s first overtly Christian issues.


Fig. 9. Ethiopia: Aksumite Kingdom, Endybis (c. 270? AD). AV unit (tremissis?). Anzani 1. (ANS 1966.22.1, purchase) 17 mm.

For Brill Publishers’ (Leiden) series “Brill’s Inner Asia,” Professor Maria Subtelny, of the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto, ordered images of a coin for the forthcoming book Timurids in Transition. This piece is a fifteenth-century dirham of the art-loving Timurid Sultan Husayn from the mint of Herat, considered to be the most beautiful of Afghanistan’s ancient cities. Husayn is known to have taken a personal interest in many of the arts, particularly miniature painting and writing in Turkic. The coin was acquired from the Metropolitan Museum of Art after having been on long-term loan to the Society for many years (Fig. 10). Another specimen in the ANS cabinet is from the same reverse die, naming the mint.


Fig. 10. Afghanistan (Khurasan): Timurid Sultanate, Husayn Bayqara (1469-1506). AR dirham, Herat mint, 895 AH (1489/90 AD). Komaroff 1986: pl. 38, 20. (ANS 1974.26.266, purchase, ex Durkee Coll., Metropolitan Museum of Art) 24 mm.

Americana

The great ANS collection of American numismatic materials of all kinds consistently draws attention from scholars and publishers. For his research, Jeff Lipsky inquired about and ordered images of the rare “Hogge Money” twopence of Sommers Islands (Bermuda) from the reign of James I (dating between 1616 and 1624). This is one of the series studied in the recently published COAC Proceedings volume (see below). The picture editor of the Weider History Group, Sarah Mock, ordered images of a Continental currency note (denominated in “Spanish Milled dollars”) for publication in the Spring 2007 issue of the Military History Quarterly (Fig. 11).


Fig. 11. United States. Continental Currency 1-dollar note, November 29, 1775, printed by Hall and Sellars. (ANS 1989.44.1, museum exchange) 96 x 73 mm.

Rob Ferguson, an archaeologist with the Atlantic Service Centre of Parks Canada, in Nova Scotia, reported a discovery with which we were able to assist. During excavations in 1988 at the Port La Joye National Historic Site (an Acadian village occupied between 1720 and 1758), Parks Canada recovered a numismatic item with an image of Apollo treading on a dragon. It came from the cellar of a house occupied from 1720 to 1737 by an Acadian settler and for the next seven years by officers of the French garrison (the house was burned by British troops in 1744). This piece was a jeton similar in appearance to a medal of Louis XV in the ANS collection (ANS 1984.30.12, gift of G. M. Golden), which had led Ferguson to contact us. Publishing the finds for Internet distribution, he had sought help elsewhere, even in France, without success. We were pleased to be of assistance and our international editor Oliver Hoover explained the nature and uses of the French jeton issues in detail.

In connection with the Huntington lecture, held in November the evening before the Coinage of the Americas Conference, an important ANS museum specimen was displayed for those in attendance. Dr. Philip Mossman’s talk, entitled “Counterfeiting in Colonial and Pre-Federal America,” described the nuances and documentation of many of the counterfeits issued during that period, including one of Massachusetts, from December 7, 1775, originally designed and engraved by the famous early American silversmith and patriot Paul Revere. We are fortunate to have in the cabinet a rare surviving copper plate used to print a contemporary counterfeit of the 42-shilling denomination note from this issue (Fig. 12).


Fig. 12. United States: Massachusetts. 42-shilling note, December 7, 1775, copper printing plate for circulating counterfeit note, copied from original engraving by Paul Revere. (ANS 1965.59.1, purchase) 77 x 100 mm.

ANS Trustee Peter Tompa encountered a worthwhile example of a circulating contemporary counterfeit of a British halfpenny of George III that might be among those with an American connection. Its interest is further enhanced by the unknown but very likely American countermark observable on the obverse (Fig. 13).


Fig. 13. Great Britain/British American Colonies. George III. AE halfpenny, 1774, contemporary circulating counterfeit, countermarked SB within a dentilated rectangle on the obverse. (Peter Tompa) 28 mm.

While metal detecting, correspondent Edward Holmes found an example of a 1787 Connecticut copper of Miller variety 4.4-C (weight 7.730 g), which he kindly brought to our attention (Fig. 14).


Fig. 14. United States: Connecticut. AE “copper” (“penny”), 1785. Miller 4.4-C. (Edward D. Holmes) 28 mm.

Writing a piece on the infamous “posture photos” that the nefarious Dr. William Sheldon took of college students as part of his studies of the supposed psychological correlations with particular body “types,” John Dollison inquired about the ANS’s ongoing recovery effort involving the early United States large cents that Sheldon stole from the collection around 1950. As most in the numismatic community now know, through his insidious switching of pieces of identical die varieties, the scoundrel was able to remove many of the finest examples of specific issues, sometimes keeping them and sometimes swapping them into the collections of other unsuspecting collectors, whose finer coins he then purloined. Dollison was interested in our recovery effort, which has been very successful in restoring most of the coins thanks to the extraordinary efforts of ANS Trustee Emeritus Eric P. Newman and the help of leading dealers and auctioneers.

Annette Abshire of the National Park Service’s Media Services requested images of several coins for a new brochure project for the Keweenaw National Historic Park: a 1900 Indian head cent, a 1914 cent obverse and, for some unknown reason, the reverse of a 1955 doubled-die obverse cent. Unfortunately, there is no specimen of the latter interesting coin in the ANS cabinet (would any member care to donate one? It would be much appreciated!), but fortunately we were able to suggest that the reverse of any other Lincoln cent from 1918 through 1958 could probably work just as well! In other areas of Americana, several individuals contacted us concerning their numismatic theories and observations. One believed he had found an experimental piece that demonstrated the U.S. Mint’s technique of die preparation and adjustment for half cents in 1802. Another believed he had found evidence for a new variant of the Confederate half dollar.

A Unique Early U.S. Mint Die-trial Discovery

One of the most exciting items to have been brought to my attention is an unprecedented die trial, found in 2006 by Matt Mille (Fig. 15). This surprising and fascinating memento of the early United States mint was found by Mille in downtown Philadelphia while metal detecting near the site of the original mint building and compound. The specimen, a fragment of copper scrap-metal roughly in the shape of the head of a dog (or of a dinosaur?) was recovered from soil in a rubble area, in a vacant lot where modern demolition had occurred. Although patinated and encrusted, the piece showed impressions of obverse and reverse U.S. coin designs. Mille brought his find to my attention for verification and identification.


Fig. 15. United States. AE trial strike for dollar, 1798, Bowers. (Matt Mille)

No corresponding examples of the U.S. Mint’s production process from this time period are known to have survived, although their contemporary occurrence is unquestionable. Numismatic experts David Alexander of Stack’s and Andy Lustig of Smythe joined me in examining this piece and determining it to be an unprecedented find. It warrants a fuller study than can be undertaken here, and will be featured in a future volume of the American Journal of Numismatics. Although it is thoroughly patinated and encrusted, this trial piece shows the die impressions quite distinctly—particularly so in consideration of its thinness.

The Mille die-trial piece is attributable as a striking from a pair of official U.S. Mint dies for a 1798-dated silver dollar of the familiar Draped Bust/Heraldic Eagle type. The obverse and reverse die combination is that of Bowers 116 (obv. 13; rev. N); Bolender 30.

Coinage of the Americas Conference

Several correspondents have inquired about the publications of the Proceedings series of the Coinage of the American Conference (COAC). As is well known, the ANS has an extensive publications program for an organization with such a small staff, and the schedule can be heavy. There was a fairly lengthy unforeseen delay in the completion of the Proceedings volume for the “Caribbean” COAC held in 1999, while a variety of other material has been published. As an update, members may wish to note the following regarding the COAC series specifically:

  • The last COAC volume to have been published and distributed was Proceedings No. 14, Circulating Counterfeits of the Americas (2000). COAC 14 was held in 1998. This volume has gained a popular place in early American numismatic research. In it a good number of specimens from the ANS cabinet figure prominently (Fig. 16).

Fig. 16. Spanish Colonial Mexico, Charles III. Circulating counterfeit of AR 2 reales, 1785. F. M. Kleeberg, Counterfeit 2 reales of the bust type, 85A-M10. (ANS 1944.95.9, gift of Abe Kosoff) 29 mm.
  • Proceedings No. 15, Money of the Caribbean (2006) has recently been printed and is currently being distributed as of this writing, so previously ordered copies should have arrived by the time members receive this issue of the ANS Magazine. Again, the volume includes significant specimens from the cabinet, typically illustrated for the first time (Fig. 17).

Fig. 17. Bermuda (Sommers Islands), James I. AE 2 pence “Hogge Money,” n.d. (c. 1616-1624). Breen 7. (ANS 1948.49.1, gift of George Hubbard Clapp) 18 mm.
  • Two subsequent COACs, “Washingtoniana” (2000) and “Numismatic Errors” (2001), will not have their proceedings published. Some of the formal papers were never submitted, others were substantially published elsewhere, and still others did not warrant serious presentation. The important papers from these two COACs are being published in other ANS formats, such as the American Journal of Numismatics and the Colonial Newsletter.
  • The next COAC Proceedings, which we hope to have out in 2007, will be called Proceedings No. 16 and will include papers from the conference held in 2003 and entitled “Our Nation’s Coinage: Varied Origins.” Illustrations of important pieces in the ANS cabinet, among them the scarce and interesting Chalmers series, are also included in this forthcoming work (Fig. 18).

Fig. 18. United States: Maryland. John Chalmers AR 3 pence, Chalmers’ private Annapolis mint, 1783. Breen 1018. (ANS 1950.50.1, Purchase) 13 mm.
  • Closely following will be the volume for the 2004 COAC, Medals Illustrating American Colonial History, the Work of C. W. Betts Revisited: The Medal in America, Vol. III, which will be called Proceedings No. 17. We hope to be able to have this published in 2007 or 2008. A large number of ANS specimens are encompassed within the articles in this volume, including a complete listing of all the “Betts” medals in the cabinet (Fig. 19).

Fig. 19. Spain, Philip II (1556-1598). AE commemorative medal (1562) by Giampaolo Poggini. This is the extraordinary medal that features the world’s first symbolic and actual representation of an American subject. Betts 12. (ANS 1988.47.2, gift of Mark and Lottie Salton in memory of Felix Schlessinger) 38 mm.
  • Proceedings No. 17 is expected to be followed shortly by Proceedings No. 18, Newby’s St. Patrick Coinage, including the papers from the COAC held in November 2006. We are trying to catch up from having been so understaffed over the past few years. The entire ANS collection of the “Saint Patrick” coins will be featured as an appendix to this volume (Fig. 20).

Fig. 20. Isle of Man and Colonial New Jersey. AV forgery pattern “guinea” of the “Saint Patrick” coinage. (ANS 1988.66.1, gift of R. Henry Norweb Jr.) 22.9 mm.

Mexico, Mañana y Ayer

In the last issue of the ANS Magazine, we reviewed some of the Mexican items that had recently had their catalog entries improved on account of having come under renewed scrutiny. While the Society’s Mexican collection is fairly large and important, it is still nevertheless deficient and meager in certain areas, which we hope to build up in the years to come. Our coin room was recently visited by famed Mexican specialist Clyde Hubbard, who noted a number of impressive pieces in the collection and ordered further photographs.

Another look at early Mexican coinage was occasioned by an inquiry from Paul Harris, who started by using the ANS database himself. He wanted to know about the sixteenth-century 4-reales pieces of Charles and Johanna (familiarly, Carlos I and his mother, Juana la Loca—“Johanna the Mad”). He also asked for the number of pieces, of all denominations, of Philip II, and of the dated versus undated issues of Philip III. In answer, we have in the cabinet thirty-two Mexican 4-reales pieces of Charles and Johanna (five of the early “sin agua” series and twenty-seven of the late), forty-one Mexican silver pieces of Philip II and fifteen undated Mexican silver pieces attributable to Philip III (plus six dated ones), although undoubtedly some of these are pieces struck by dies that included dates that are not visible on the coins. Harris also asked about the cost of producing images as opposed to the cost of coming to New York to study the collection, mentioning that specialist dealer Mike Dunigan had informed him that the cabinet contains a number of very interesting pieces worthy of examination. This is of course a viable alternative in many instances. We are always happy to supply high-quality digital images of ANS specimens.

Among the coins in which Paul Harris was interested is a recent Mexican acquisition of particular note, a 4-reales of Charles and Johanna from the early series of ensayador (assayer) “P,” believed to be Pedro de Espina (ANS 2006.13.1). However, the assayer’s mark on this piece appears to consist of a P punched over an earlier R, the ensayo (assayer’s mark) of the first mint master of Mexico, Francisco del Rincon. This coin was struck from a reverse die that has no rondule in the corners of the rhomboid panel that bears the word PLVS, a reverse unlisted in Nesmith although it is similar to that of his 6d, the obverse die of which matches this coin. The piece is among the issues that will be addressed in the forthcoming work of Kent Ponterio in the COAC series Proceedings No. 16 (Fig. 21).


Fig. 21. Spanish Colonial Mexico: Charles and Johanna (1519-1556). AR 4 reales, assayer P (P over R), c. 1539-1541. Obv. crowned arms of Castile and León flanked by M and M (gothic), with an annulet above and below each M; :KAROLVS:z:ET: IOhANA:R (reverse-barred N in IOhANA). Rev. crowned Pillars of Hercules; between them, PLVS in an overlapping rhomboid panel slanted left; above the panel, 4; z:hISPANIE: z: ET: INDIARV:M: (reverse-barred N in hISPANIE and INDIARVM). The reverse’s “M” is a Roman replacement letter while the “z” is a squarish emblem punch appearing to be a Hebrew letter alef (“A”). Nesmith (cf. 6d, unlisted rev. die); Menzel Type Ia, Mx-61 (ANS 2006.13.1, gift of Richard Ponterio) 33 mm.

David L. Nathan (2006) has suggested the interesting possibility that the puzzling initial mark (usually rendered as a “z” or “x” but entirely of a different character of its own) on this issue may in fact represent the Hebrew letter alef, suggesting a Marano (Spanish Jewish) metalworker’s punch being used in Mexico City circa 1538. He notes that nearly all the dies prepared under the tenure of Francisco del Rincon, the first assayer (designated on this coin by the original “R” ensayo, which was apparently overpunched by a P), are lacking the typical initial mark in the form of a cross found almost universally on medieval Spanish and the succeeding Mexican coinage. There was, of course, a significant Marano metalworking tradition, and Jewish mint workers had played a prominent role in Spanish coining earlier in the Middle Ages but, if correct, this theory would probably postulate the first indication of a Jewish metalworker in the New World. Nathan goes on to consider the possibilities of the known early Mexican mint workers to have been of Jewish extraction.

***

The American Numismatic Society is pleased and proud to provide an outstanding work environment for visitors to our Library and curatorial area Coin Room as well as outstanding assistance to all in search of numismatic information of all kinds. As I have mentioned in this column before, the culmination of much of our day-to-day work serving others eventually finds its way into our accession records, and thence into the system retrievable by the public via the Society’s Web site at http://www.numismatics.org. We also welcome new information and discoveries. There are those, however, who waste considerable amounts of staff time by not consulting our Web site or database, not taking sufficient care to use appropriate search criteria when working with the online catalog, or not bothering to read the terms of photographic services offered. And it seems there are others who obsess themselves into improbable beliefs and want us to espouse their opinions.

Not long ago, an individual requested a series of images to be sought out from our collections to illustrate his writing. Concerning our current $20 per item (two-sided) image charge (which covers identification, location, retrieval, photography, data entry, catalog uploading, invoicing, and digital transfer of the item), he claimed that the American Numismatic Association had tried to charge him $40 but that when he argued about it he was allowed free use of the ANA’s images for a TV program. Once our items had been selected for him, he informed us that on the advice of his publisher he preferred to download Internet images, unprotected by copyright, of similar kinds of items rather than pay anything to the Society. We wish such individuals would not bother to contact us in the first place. On the other hand, a recent researcher on Americana in possession of a rare David Hosack medal (see the article in this issue of the ANS Magazine) said of the ANS’s online catalog, “I find myself consulting it every few weeks… there aren’t many references like it, and I haven’t found any that are anywhere near as comprehensive. Well done!” What more can we say about the world’s largest numismatic online resource?

Bibliography

Anzani, Arturo. 1926. “Numismatica axumita.” Rivista italiana di numismatica 39: 5-110, plates A-M.

Bolender, Milferd Henry. 1988 [1950]. The United States Early Silver Dollars from 1794-1803. 5th rev. ed. Iola, Wis.: Krause Publications.

Bowers, Q. David. 1993. Silver Dollars and Trade Dollars of the United States, a Complete Encyclopedia, vol. 1. Wolfeboro, N.H.: Bowers & Merena.

Breen, Walter. 1988. Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins. New York: Doubleday.

Carradice, Ian. 1998. “The Dinar Hoard of Persian Sigloi.” In Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price, edited by Richard Ashton. London: Spink.

Crawford, Michael H. 1974. Roman Republican Coinage. London: Cambridge University Press.

Doty, Richard G., and John M. Kleeberg, eds. 2006. Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 15, Money of the Caribbean. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Jenkins, G. K., and R. B. Lewis. 1963. Carthaginian Gold and Electrum Coins. London: Royal Numismatic Society.

Kleeberg, John M. 2000. “Counterfeit 2 reales of the bust type.” In Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 14, Circulating Counterfeits of the Americas, edited by John M. Kleeberg. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Komaroff, Linda. 1986. “The Epigraphy of Timurid Coinage: Some Preliminary Remarks.” American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 31: 207-232.

Menzel, Sewall. 2004. Cobs, Pieces of Eight, and Treasure Coins: The Early Spanish-American Mints and Their Coinages. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Miller, Henry C. 1962. The State Coinage of Connecticut. Wayland, Mass.: Ovolon Publishing Co. Reprinted from the American Journal of Numismatics 53 (1920); also, a reprinted edition: The State Coinage of Connecticut, Including a Major New Supplement of Photographic Plates and Data of Virtually All Known Varieties of Connecticut Coins. New York: Sanford J. Durst Numismatic Pub.

Nathan, David L. 2006. “A Hebrew Letter on the New World’s First Coins?” The Shekel 39, no. 1: 8-15.

Ponterio, Kent. Forthcoming. “The Coinage of Mexico Struck During the Reign of Charles and Johanna: Several New Finds Reassigning the Chronology of Assayers.” In Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 16, Our Nation’s Coinage: Varied Origins. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Nesmith, Robert I. 1955. The Coinage of the First Mint of the Americas at Mexico City, 1536-1572. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 131. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Newell, Edward Theodore. 1927. The Coinages of Demetrius Poliorcetes. Corrected ed. London: Oxford University Press, H. Milford.

Tudeer, Lauri O. Th. 1913. “Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Syrakus in der Periode der signierenden Kunstler.” Zeitschrift für Numismatik: 1-292.

From the Collections Manager

by Elena Stolyarik

New Acquisitions

From ancient Greek and Chinese proto-coinage objects to contemporary artistic and industrial medals, ANS members and others continue to fill gaps in our collections by providing us with interesting new acquisitions. Of particular importance, ANS Trustee Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss donated to the Society a Spanish Celtic “Hacksilber” hoard dating circa the fourth to third century BC. It consists of 135 pieces of coins and cut jewelry used as money (Fig. 1). This exceedingly rare donation continues Dr. Weiss’s interest in adding to the ANS cabinet items related to alternative money and bullion sources used in early trade.


Fig. 1. Spanish Celtic “Hacksilber” hoard, circa fourth- or third-century BC. Silver coins and cut jewelry. 135 pieces. (ANS 2007.1.1, gift of Dr. Arnold-Peter C. Weiss)

A fine addition to our extensive Chinese numismatic holdings came from Dr. William M. O’Keefe: an example of Zhou-dynasty “bridge money” (or “Tingle-Dangle” money, also known as Qing money), dated perhaps to the sixth to fifth centuries BC (Fig. 2). This ancient bronze artifact was acquired during Dr. O’Keefe’s residence in São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1970s. Purchased from a Brazilian-born Japanese collector, it may have been found in Macao, one of the oldest European colonies (administered by Portugal until 1999) in China.


Fig. 2. China. AE “bridge money” (Qing money). Zhou Dynasty. Sixth century BC. (ANS 2007.2.1, gift of Dr. William M. O’Keefe) 106 x 45 mm.

The ANS collection of Islamic coins has acquired five new silver Abbasid dirhams (Figs. 3-4) (issues from Madinat al-Salam, of AH 189, AH 193, and AH 194; Madinat Nisabur, AH 194; and Samarqand, AH 195) from long-time ANS member and generous benefactor Alan S. DeShazo. During his visit to the ANS in November, Dr. Hicham Bissat, our new member from Beirut, kindly donated a group of interesting coins from his own Islamic collection, among them eleven silver dirhams of the Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuks of Rum, Mongols of Persia, and Ottoman dynasties. He also presented eleven examples of Arab Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Artukid, and Zengid copper fulus (Figs. 5-8).


Fig. 3. Abbasids AR dirham, Madinat al-Salam, AH 189. (ANS 2007.4.2., gift of Alan S. DeShazo) 25 mm.


Fig. 4. Abbasids AR dirham, Madinat Nisabur, AH 194. (ANS 2007.4.5, gift of Alan S. DeShazo) 25 mm.


Fig. 5. Artukids of Mardin, Hussam al-Din Yuluk Arslan. AE fals. AH 569-577 (AD 1174-1181). (ANS 2007.5.8, gift of Dr. Hicham Bissat) 31 mm.


Fig. 6. Zengids, Atabegs of Al-Jazira. Muʿiz al-Din Sanjar Shah. AE fals. AH 576-605 (AD 1180-1209). (ANS 2007.5.9, gift of Dr. Hicham Bissat) 28 mm.


Fig. 7. Zengids, Atabeg of Sinjar. Qtubal-Din Muhammad b. Zengi. AE fals. AH 594-616 (AD 1197-1219). (ANS 2007.5.10, gift of Dr. Hicham Bissat) 27 mm.


Fig. 8. Seljuks of Rum. Kaykubad I. Silver dirham. Kaysari. AH 617. (ANS 2007.5.19, gift of Dr. Hicham Bissat) 23 mm.

In January 2005, the Society lost one of its dearest friends—and member for over fifty years—Kenneth M. MacKenzie. As an ANS volunteer, Kenneth identified and relabeled thousands of items, and he will always be remembered for his inestimable help in developing the ANS collection of Ottoman coins into what is probably the best such collection outside of Turkey. Several months ago, our friend made a figurative “return visit,” through a donation sent to the ANS by his widow, Mrs. Jean MacKenzie. This gift consisted of an Ottoman “rocker” die (Fig. 9) for a reverse of a silver beshlik (or beslik) or 5-para coin, with the accession date of the Sultan Mustafa III (AH 1171), the “regnal year” 81—in this case, actually indicating the abbreviated Hijra year of the minting, 1181—accompanied by an Ottoman silver Istanbul-mint beshlik of AH 1181, of the kind struck from such a die (Fig. 10). As Mrs. MacKenzie recalled to Dr. Michael Bates, ANS Curator Emeritus of Islamic Coins, her husband had always intended these items to go to the ANS.


Fig. 9. Turkey. Ottoman “rocker” die for a reverse of a silver beshlik (or beslik) or 5-para coin (AH 1181) of the Sultan Mustafa III. (ANS 2007.3.1, gift of Mrs. Jean MacKenzie) 39 x 49 x 18 mm.


Fig. 10. Turkey: Istanbul. Ottoman AR beshlik. AH 1181 (ANS 2007.3.2, gift of Mrs. Jean MacKenzie) 20 mm.

Through a donation from long-time member Emmett McDonald, the ANS modern paper money collection received a colorful group of Guatemalan and Honduran notes issued by the national banks of those countries (Fig. 11-12). This modern currency of 2001 through 2003 bears the images of past leaders, important national events, and heroic episodes in the Central American movement for independence. A timely supplement to this gift came from ANS Trustee Jere L. Bacharach, who presented several modern copper-alloy coins of Guatemala (Fig. 13) and Honduras (Fig. 14) that had been lacking from the cabinet.


Fig. 11. Guatemala. 20 quetzales, 2003 (Doctor Mariano Galvez), Banco de Guatemala. (ANS 2007.6.3, gift of Emmett McDonald) 155 x 68 mm.


Fig. 12. Honduras. 5 lempiras, 2003 (Morazan), Banco Central de Honduras. (ANS 2007.6.3, gift of Emmett McDonald) 157 x 68 mm.


Fig. 13. Guatemala. 25 centavos, 1987. (ANS 2007.7.2, gift of Jere L. Bacharach) 27 mm.


Fig. 14. Honduras. 50 centavos, 1999 (ANS 2007.7.11, gift of Jere L. Bacharach) 24 mm.

Professor Bacharach also donated an example of a bronze medal (Fig. 15) from the “Great American Restaurant” series, commemorating Delmonico’s, the eating establishment founded by the brothers Giovanni and Pietro Delmonico and opened in New York City in 1838. This famous restaurant earned the nickname “The Citadel,” and it at one time had the largest wine cellar (over 16,000 bottles) in New York. The medal bears an image of Delmonico’s Chef de Cuisine Charles Ranhoffer, one of America’s first celebrity chefs, who is remembered as the inventor of two classic American dishes: baked Alaska and lobster Newburg.


Fig. 15. United States. Delmonico’s, est. 1838, New York. AE commemorative medal, “Great American Restaurant” series. (ANS 2007.7.12, gift of Jere L. Bacharach) 40 mm.

We were pleased to enhance the ANS’s collection of New York Numismatic Club presidential medals with several new examples. These are the silver and bronze medals of Scott Miller (president, 2000-2001) (Fig. 16) and silver and bronze set of David T. Alexander (president, 2005-2006) (Fig. 17). These medals were designed by the famous medallic sculptor and Saltus Award-winner Eugene Daub.


Fig. 16. United States. New York Numismatic Club. AR Presidential medal, Scott Miller (2000-2001), by Eugene Daub (ANS 2007.11.5, gift of Scott Miller) 38 mm.


Fig. 17. United States. New York Numismatic Club. AR Presidential medal, David T. Alexander (2005-2006), by Eugene Daub. (ANS 2007.9.1, gift of David T. Alexander) 38 mm.

Another recently acquired medallic work by Eugene Daub is the medal honoring “Baseball’s Man of Mystery,” Moe Berg (Fig. 18). This gift of Mel Wacks, director of the Jewish-American Hall of Fame, features a jigsaw-puzzle portrait of Berg (1902-1972), with one piece missing—indicating something of the mystery surrounding the life of this astonishing man. Born to a family of poor Ukrainian Jews in New York City, Berg made his mark not only as an outstanding major league baseball catcher and scholar (a graduate of Princeton University and Columbia University Law School, he became a brilliant linguist, was fluent in twelve languages, and was an expert in Egyptian hieroglyphics), but also as one of the most effective undercover agents for the OSS (the United States Office of Strategic Services—the predecessor of the CIA) during World War II. In 1944, he was sent to impede a German scientist overseeing Nazi efforts to build an atomic bomb—a service for which Berg was afterward awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Following the war, he continued to do some intelligence work. While he never returned to professional baseball, his love for the game remained strong, and when he died in 1972 at the age of seventy, his last words were: “How did the Mets do today?” For those contemplating Daub’s evocative medal, Berg’s life suggests how far a single individual can go by believing in himself and daring to dream.


Fig. 18. United States. Jewish-American Hall of Fame. “Baseball’s Man of Mystery” Moe Berg, AE commemorative medal, by Eugene Daub (ANS 2007.8.1, gift of Mel Wacks) 49 x 47 mm.

Of interest among new medallic accessions is a silver commemorative medal issued in 2004 by the mint bureau of the New Bank of Japan, in Osaka (Fig. 19). The medal’s obverse bears the images of three Japanese celebrities: Ichiyo Higuchi, a famous novelist (left); Yukichi Fukuzawa, one of the founders of Keio University (center); and Hideyo Noguchi, a distinguished bacteriologist known for his research work on yellow fever (right). The other side represents traditional Japanese symbols: Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosuko, and the legendary Phoenix. This medal is a gift of Takashi Uemura, managing director of the Insatsu Choyokai Foundation, curator of its numismatic collections, and member of the Board of ICOMON—the International Committee of Museums of Money and Banking.


Fig. 19. Japan. AR commemorative medal. 2004. Mint bureau of the New Bank of Japan, Osaka. (ANS 2007.10.1, gift of Takashi Uemura) 55 mm.

A generous donation to the medals portion of the cabinet came from ANS Fellow Scott Miller, including a plaque of 1886 bearing a realistic image of the French philosopher Pierre Laffitte (1823-1903) (Fig. 20). Laffitte was a close friend and pupil of Auguste Comte (1796-1857), founder of the secular religious system of positivism. After Comte’s death in 1857, Lafitte became the head of the Comité Positiviste. In 1893, he was appointed to the new chair founded at the Collège de France for the exposition of the general history of science, and it was largely due to his inspiration that a statue to Comte was erected in the Place de la Sorbonne in 1902. In his general works, such as Course philosophique sur l’histoire générale de l’humanité (1859), Considérations générales sur l’ensemble de la civilisation chinoise (1861), Les Grands types de l’humanité (1874), De la morale positive (1880), and Le “Faust” de Goethe (1899), Laffitte developed the main principles of positivism: that only knowledge verifiable by the methods of the empirical sciences is valid. He also proposed the transformation of society through scientific methods. The plaque, designed by the fine French medalist Seraphin Emile Vernier, is an excellent addition to our collection of realist medallic art of the nineteenth century.


Fig. 20. France. Pierre Laffitte (1823-1903). AE plaque, by Seraphin Emile Vernier, 1886. (ANS 2007.11.3, gift of Scott Miller) 29.3 x 19.2 cm.

Another French medal, bearing an allegorical allusion to the town of Paris and four figures representing Art and Technology on one side and the image of the nave of Nôtre Dame de Paris on the other, is a further interesting component of Scott Miller’s donation (Fig. 21). This bronze, struck at the Monnaie de Paris, commemorates the thirty-seventh International Exhibition (1937). That exposition, held in Paris and dedicated to Art and Technology in Modern Life, was quite remarkable, given that the event took place during the Great Depression. This ANS bronze, designed and signed on the obverse by the renowned French medalist Paul Marcel Dammann (1885-1939), is a great addition to our holdings relating to international exhibitions.


Fig. 21. France. Paris. The thirty-seventh International Exhibition. 1937. AE commemorative medal by Paul Marcel Dammann. (ANS 2007.11.1, gift of Scott Miller) 77 mm.

An example of the bronze U.S. Mint medal dedicated to Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Lawrence Wood Robert Jr. (1933-1936) was also given to the Society by Scott Miller (Fig. 22). This medal was designed by the famous John R. Sinnock, chief engraver for the U.S. Mint from 1925 to 1947, and was engraved by Adam Pietz, Sinnock’s colleague, an assistant engraver at the mint.


Fig. 22. United States Mint. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Lawrence Wood Robert Jr. (1933-1936). AE commemorative medal, by John. R. Sinnock and Adam Pietz. (ANS 2007.11.2, gift of Scott Miller) 75 mm.

The ANS continues to expand and improve its collection through new purchases. One of the most interesting examples, bought by private arrangement, is a beautiful Art Deco plaque of Hungarian-born French artist Gustave Miklos (1888-1967) (Fig. 23). This piece celebrates the Standard franco-américaine de raffinage company and reflects the development of the French petroleum economy between the two world wars. Miklos’s artistic works have become popular on the art market today but have been lacking in our collection. This new purchase enriches the ANS’s collection of Art Deco medals.


Fig. 23. France. The Standard franco-américaine de raffinage company. 1933-1934. AE plaque, by Gustave Miklos. (ANS 2007.12.1, purchase) 105 x 63 mm.

Toward the end of 2006, the ANS had the good fortune to obtain some of its most exciting acquisitions: three medals from a World Exonumia Mail Bid sale. These are United States silver Indian Peace medal issues of the twenty-first, twenty-second, and twenty-third presidents, Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) (Fig. 24), Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) (Fig. 25), and Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) (Fig. 26). While these particular examples are believed to be “novodel” strikings from the Philadelphia mint, such medals are extremely rare and are not to be confused with the more contemporary mint restrikes. These three silver oval issues were the only ones lacking from the Society’s extensive and famous collection! Executed by the prominent U.S. Mint designers Charles Barber and George Morgan, their obverses bear handsome realistic images of the presidents while the reverses of all three medals, struck by the same die, display the image of a farmer showing an Indian chief the benefits of civilization, together with a crossed pipe and tomahawk in the exergue and the word “PEACE” arrayed above.


Fig. 24. United States. President Chester A. Arthur. 1881. Oval AR Indian Peace Medal, by Charles Barber and George Morgan. (ANS 2007.13.1, purchase) 60 x 76 mm.


Fig. 25. United States. President Grover Cleveland. 1885. Oval AR Indian Peace Medal, by Charles Barber and George Morgan. (ANS 2007.13.2, purchase) 60 x 76 mm.


Fig. 26. United States. President Benjamin Harrison. 1889. Oval AR Indian Peace Medal, by Charles Barber and George Morgan. (ANS 2007.13.3, purchase) 60 x 76 mm.

Silver medals played an important role in American Indian policy for more than a century. The United States government presented “Peace and Friendship” medals to important chiefs and warriors as symbols of attachment to the new nation. Gifted as such, these medals became highly prized possessions and marks of rank within the tribes. They are also important in the history of American art. Designed by the best artists of the day, they form a gallery of the presidents. Interestingly, all the presidents from Thomas Jefferson though Ulysses S. Grant issued round Indian Peace medals, while the oval medals with “PEACE” reverses issued by the last presidents to so honor the Indians—Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison—hearken back to the original shape introduced by Washington from 1789 to 1795. The reverses of all these medals, with their symbolic representations of peace and friendship and of the Indians’ advance toward civilization, are of great historical interest.

The ANS cabinet contains numerous examples of original Indian Peace medals, including a number of the bronze modern mint versions as well as silver-plated pieces, forgeries, and various other “concoctions.” Our new purchase is a splendid addition the Society’s collection of historical United States artifacts.

News (Spring 2007)

ANS Sells 101 Duplicates of U.S. Gold Coins

January 11, 2007—One hundred and one carefully selected die duplicates of U.S. gold coins from the holdings of the American Numismatic Society performed brilliantly at a public auction at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, as collectors and dealers gathered to compete for these long off-the-market prizes while supporting the ANS missions of education and scholarship for the future. Led by a 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition $50 round at $89,125, the funds raised will “go far in endowing the ANS Collections Fund, which will allow generations of ANS curators to expand the collections in poorly represented areas and to ensure that the collections are well maintained for the study and enjoyment of current and future generations of collectors and researchers,” said ANS Executive Director Ute Wartenberg Kagan.

Every denomination from gold dollar to $50 was represented among the 101 coins selected, with each issue still represented by a finer specimen that remains available for study at the ANS. The pedigrees of those coins sold were often a major inducement for bidders, with collectors as disparate as the Norwebs and Victor David Brenner having been the original owners of the pieces before their generous donation to the society. An 1804 quarter eagle, BD-2, from a donation by B. Peyton, realized $10,350, while a pair of Proof quarter eagles dated 1900 and 1902, acquired by the ANS through a bequest from the late A. J. Fecht, realized $36,800 and $18,400, respectively.

Among half eagles, the oldest was also the highest valued, as a 1798 BD-2 sold for $19,550. The following lot, a nice 1802/1 BD-1, realized $13,800, while an 1807 of the same type was bid to a final price of $10,350. An 1811 BD-2 half eagle, graded as Choice Brilliant Uncirculated-63, brought $14,950, and an 1813 BD-2 of the same grade found a new home at $20,700. An interesting Proof 1904 half eagle, pedigreed to a 1909 Thomas Elder sale and Archer M. Huntington, son of railroad magnate Collis P. Huntington, was pursued until the hammer fell at $18,400.

Larger-denomination pieces also saw active competition, including the 1838 eagle in Lot 2061 that opened for $3,000 yet sold for $17,250! An 1855 double eagle was chased from $4,500 to $20,700 in similar fashion, and that high price was surpassed by a special 1858-O $20 donated to the Society by R. Henry Norweb Jr., a member of the great collecting family whose Washingtoniana was recently sold in another Stack’s event. Opening at a modest $6,000, the quality of the coin’s surfaces and pedigree propelled it to $27,600. A choice 1876 $20 brought $10,925, and a 1908 With Motto Saint-Gaudens $20 sold for $16,100.

A trio of coins struck in San Francisco for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition also did very well. A quarter eagle, graded fully Gem Brilliant Uncirculated-65, realized $12,650. A quartet of $50 coins from the Exposition was led by a round specimen at $89,125 and a scarce octagonal at $54,625.

ANS Curator Lectures

On Friday, December 1, 2006, Robert Hoge, ANS curator of North American coins and currency, presented an illustrated lecture entitled “A Survey of Colonial-era Coins at the American Numismatic Society,” at the annual convention of the Colonial Coin Collectors Club (C4), in the Educational Forum. The C4 convention was held as part of the Bay State Coin Show (November 30 to December 3, 2006) in Boston, Massachusetts, at the Radisson Hotel. Hoge’s talk reviewed some of the highlights of the Society’s extensive holdings of early American material.

On December 4, 2006, a Parsons School of Design class, “Critical Reading and Writing I,” taught by former curatorial assistant Olga Less, visited the ANS for a lecture by Curator Robert W. Hoge. Entitled “United States Symbolism in Coin Designs,” Hoge’s illustrated talk covered images of Liberty, eagles, Indians, national identity, and other representations from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. Ms. Less gave up her position in January to devote herself more fully to a teaching career. We wish her well.

We are happy to report that on December 5, 2006, Sylvia Tomczyk joined the ANS as a volunteer in the Curatorial Department. Sylvia was previously a 2004 Summer Intern and returned again to the ANS in December 2005 for a month of research for her Masters’ thesis on German emergency money.

ANS members may have had a difficult time, at first, finding the ANS booth at the New York International Numismatic Convention, held at the Waldorf-Astoria from January 11 through 14. On the first day, our booth was moved from our usual location because of a very crowded bourse floor. Bourse Chairman Kevin Foley found a prime space for us in front of the Starlight Roof, which we hope will become our regular spot at future NYINCs! Membership recruitment and ANS book order forms kept a constant stream of visitors to our booth. As always, we are grateful for the efforts by volunteers Rick Witschonke, Jerome Haggerty, Michael Bates, and Peter Sugar, who graciously assisted the staff at the NYINC. On January 13, Collections Manager Elena Stolyarik gave a well-attended lecture entitled “Denominations and Types: A Look at Byzantine Coins,” for the NYINC Association of Dedicated Byzantine Collectors (ADBC) meeting.

ANS Staff and Trustees at AIA Meeting

Sebastian Heath attended the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in San Diego from January 3 to January 7, 2007. On January 6, he was elected an academic trustee of the Institute by the Council, the AIA’s main governing body. On Sunday, Dr. Heath delivered the paper “Local Responses to Late Roman African Red Slip Tablewares” in a session devoted to Roman pottery.

Also in attendance at the meeting was ANS Trustee Dr. Kenneth Harl, who delivered a paper on the coinage of Gordion in Turkey. Dr. Harl also chaired a session on Roman coins, at which former ANS Summer Seminar student Nathan Elkins (2004) spoke on “Political Ideology and Roman Architectural Coin Types of the Republic and Empire” and former student Marsha McCoy (1982) spoke on “Cistophori and Identity in Roman Asia Minor.” Former student Matthew Notarian (2005) organized a colloquium titled “The Function of Numismatic Iconography: Authority or Message?” in which he gave the paper “Symbolic Rivalry on the Imperial Coinage of the Island of Lesbos.” Other 2005 seminar students participating in this session were Sarah Bolmarcich, who spoke on “The Philaïd Coinage of the Thracian Chersonesus,” and Envengelia Georgiou, whose paper was entitled “Icaria: History and Coins.” Dr. Harl was again the discussant of this session. The abstracts of all these papers are available on the AIA Web site at http://www.archaeological.org.

ANS Archives Hosts Guests

On October 11, 2006, the Archivists Round Table of Metropolitan New York, Inc., held its annual awards ceremony at the American Numismatic Society. ANS Archivist Joseph Ciccone attended the meeting—at the time holding an ART board position. Honorees included the American Museum of Natural History. ART is the largest professional association of archivists, records managers, and librarians in the New York City area, with more than 160 repositories represented.

Dinner Auction Highlights

The Dinner Auction was wildly successful, with the bidding realizing an impressive total of $123,000. Some of the items ignited exciting bidding wars that were masterfully encouraged by auctioneer Harmer Johnson. His exuberant and humorous descriptions and jovial coaxing spurred Gala attendees to have fun with the unique objects up for bid. Dr. Alain Baron started the bidding craze with lot 1, which realized $1,300 for a perfectly preserved glass clip tray with a $50 Pan Pacific Gold coin embossed inside its base, from Chet Krause’s personal collection and one of only fifty made. Larry Stack kept the momentum going when he bid $1,700 on behalf of Stack’s for lot 2, a one-of-a-kind 1950s small clip tray displaying Chester Krause’s life membership number in the ANA and CNA. Mr. Anthony Terranova made sure to have the final bid for lot 3—$2,500 for an ornate Krause Publications serving tray—and Mr. Joel Anderson refused to give up on lot 4, a plastic twelve-inch Krause Publication ruler from the 1960s, still in its original wrapping. This lot realized $833—per inch! Mr. Donald Partrick won the opportunity for a special day of research and lunch with ANS Librarian Frank Campbell (lot 5) as well as the set of keys to a mystery briefcase (lot 6), on a keychain with a 1962D cent embedded in plastic—together totaling $7,000. Stack’s can now offer sweets in a decadent bonbon dish decorated with coins and with “Krause Publications” emblazoned on the bottom (lot 7), which went for $2,000. Mr. Charles Anderson keenly bid to win lots 8 and 9, a collection of two early ANS gift acknowledgement letters with two 8.5 x 11 prints of the ANS building at Audubon Terrace as well as ANS letterpress print die cuts of the old and new ANS logo—together realizing an incredible $7,000. Dr. Alain Baron came back with a quick but mighty $500 bid for lot 10, for a 1960s white-on-black glass tray inscribed “Coin Collectors Capitol.” Not willing to give up, Mr. Joel Anderson forced the bidding to $5,500 for lot 11, a Gala Dinner program signed by honoree Chester L. Krause. Mr. Eric McFadden of CNG held strong for lot 12, bringing in $11,000 for the opportunity for four guests to have a glorious weekend in the country with Executive Director Ute Wartenberg Kagan and her husband Jonathan Kagan at their Uphill Farm in Duchess County, New York. Jonathan Kagan kept his eye on lot 13, winning with the high bid of $5,000 the couture gown by Jane Wilson Marquis, one of New York City’s hottest designers. Anderson & Anderson bid hard and won lot 14 at $11,000, a first edition of the Standard Catalogue of World Coins (1972) signed by Chet Krause. Baron Lorne von Thyssen was the high bidder on lot 15, an 1918 invitation to a lecture given by Albert R. Frey from the ANS archives, realizing $4,000. Mr. Joel Anderson was again the winner with an astounding $20,000 bid for lot 16, an opportunity for six guests to spend a day with Q. David Bowers in New Hampshire. For lot 17, Ms. Christine Karstedt fought hard for Stack’s and won, at $3,500, two framed pictures: one of Chet Krause on his famous Sherman tank “Battling Bitch,” and the other of ANS Executive Director Ute Wartenberg Kagan with former ANA president Robert Campbell in the tank during a trip to Iola, Wisconsin. But then Mr. Joel Anderson topped the evening when he was the highest bidder on lot 18: $31,000 for a SilverTowne strike of a unique Chester L. Krause portrait round in gold, housed in a wooden box. The portrait for the piece was executed for use in conjunction with the 2002 Krause Publications Fiftieth Anniversary commemorative issues program by Thomas D. Rogers Sr. The silver mate to this unique medal was presented, at the top of the evening, by Clifford Mishler to Chester L. Krause, the evening’s honoree and 2007 ANS Trustees’ Award recipient.

—Joanne Isaac

From the Executive Director

by Ute Wartenberg Kagan

Dear Members and Friends,

In recent months, I have received quite a few comments from ANS members who have been upset about the increasingly common request for import restrictions on coins. I have so far refrained from addressing this divisive issue. However, an e-mail from a member has prompted me to speak up. This message ended by asking me to “get SERIOUS before American numismatists experience their own ‘holocaust’ at the hands of these ivory tower fascists.” This message had been preceded by an e-mail in which the phrase “Pearl Harbor of the Cultural Property War” was used. Although I understand that this is an important issue, the increasingly belligerent tone of the debate makes me wonder whether a better response and attitude may exist.

The ANS has long been a place where academics, collectors, dealers, and curators have shared their interest in coinage and other items. Numismatists are usually inclined to work with one another; there has always been a healthy exchange between coin collectors and numismatic scholars, and many great scholars were also collectors or dealers, including ANS members Edward Newell, Leo Mildenberg, and Philip Grierson, among others. The overriding principle for many numismatists is the preservation of as much information about the coins as possible, even if that information comes from auction catalogues or eBay. Die-studies, for example, would be impossible without such information.

It is perhaps for that reason that I am keenly aware of the problems that evidence from “market archaeology” brings. For us, a major concern is the loss of critical pieces of information regarding the circumstances and location of a coin’s discovery. Only with knowledge of the precise and total contents of an ancient coin hoard can we begin to determine important facts about the chronology and circulation patterns of the coins of the past. And only by knowing what coins were found where can we begin to reconstruct the behavior of those who used them and learn more about the towns and cities from which the coins came. How can we help prevent the illegal excavation of coins and stop the loss of this important contextual information?

In 1996, Britain’s parliament passed the Treasure Act, which, in principle, records all objects of gold, silver, and, in certain cases, bronze, including coins, while allowing the sale of these items if no institution wishes to purchase them. Recently, this legislation has been coupled with a scheme that encourages finders to report any object they discover in the ground so that it can be added to a central, online database (www.finds.org.uk). Available to all, this has become a wonderful resource for collectors, finders, and scholars alike. This system lets collectors collect and dealers deal while, at the same time, it preserves all the information about the coins that archaeologists and numismatists require. Perhaps other countries could begin working toward some model of recording their coin finds. Without such initiatives, looting will continue and U.S. import restrictions will drive this market underground.

I very much hope that the ANS will serve as a place where this issue can be discussed and debated. I certainly support collecting as a hobby, but I am also convinced that there is common ground between archaeologists who care about their sites and collectors who care about their coins. I urge both sides to drop their bellicose language and pause to listen to each other. I certainly hope that ANS members will always treat one another with respect and understanding, which can then serve as the basis for future agreement and practical results.

Yours truly,
Ute Wartenberg Kagan

The 2007 Summer Seminar

by Rick Witschonke

The fifty-fourth annual Eric P. Newman Graduate Seminar will be in session from June 4 to July 27 of this year. Long considered one of the most significant ANS activities, the Seminar is designed to introduce graduate students in history, classics, art history, and related disciplines to the science of numismatics. Over the years, the Seminar has proven very successful both in training and inspiring budding numismatic scholars as well as in enabling graduates who go on to teach in their chosen field to use numismatics as an adjunct in the classroom (for a history of the Seminar, see the article in the Spring 2006 issue of the ANS Magazine).

We are fortunate this year to have Bernhard Weisser, curator at the Münzkabinett of the Staaliche Museen in Berlin, as our Visiting Scholar. Dr. Weisser is a recognized expert in Greek and Roman numismatics with dozens of publications to his credit. He will present Seminar sessions on Roman Imperial and Provincial Coinages, Coins from Excavations, the RPC Project, Portraits of Rulers Before Alexander, and Iconography: Aesclepius and His Family. In addition, Andrew Meadows, former curator of Greek coins at the British Museum and last year’s Visiting Scholar, will again be on the Seminar team, since he has now joined the ANS staff as Margaret Thompson Curator of Greek Coins (jointly with Peter van Alfen). Andy will be giving lectures on the History of Numismatics and Overview of Numismatic Publications, Hellenistic Coinages, Metrology and Weight Standards, and the UK Portable Antiquities Scheme. The core team will be rounded out by the ANS curators, led by Seminar Co-Directors Peter van Alfen and Rick Witschonke.

In addition to the exposure the students receive to the ANS coin cabinet, library, and staff, another benefit is the opportunity to meet the other scholars who generously volunteer to lecture at the Seminar each year. This year, in addition to Visiting Scholar Weisser, we will have lectures by Richard Stone of the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Bill Metcalf, former ANS chief curator, now at Yale; Christopher Lightfoot; Roger Bagnall; Stephen Scher; Paul Keyser; Ben Damsky; and Liv Yarrow. The complete schedule may be viewed on the ANS Web site (http://www.numismatics.org), and some of the lectures will be open to the public.

The 2006 Seminar introduced several innovations that proved quite popular with the students. These included the assignment of individual advisors for each student, increased “hands-on” time with the ANS collection, a coin identification exercise (each student is given a photo of an unidentified ANS coin and must learn about it and prepare a brief presentation), and a session on Legal and Ethical Issues in Numismatics.


Emily Haug

The success of the 2006 Seminar is perhaps best reflected in the comments of some of the students. Emily Haug, a graduate student at Berkeley who studied the Greek coinage of Antony and Cleopatra while at the ANS, wrote: “With all sincerity, my ANS Seminar experience went far beyond my original expectations. Not only was the basic goal of substantially increasing my numismatic knowledge accomplished in eight weeks, but the unique amicability of our group, which included the ANS staff, instructors, and fellow students, added enormously to my enjoyment. Although the scheduled seminar sessions were in themselves informative, it was more often the accessibility of the advisors and my conversations with fellow graduate students that made my time in New York so intellectually and socially stimulating. The ANS library, due to its specialized and yet comprehensive nature, was an amazing resource for a nascent numismatist like myself. Needless to say, the opportunity to browse and handle the ANS coin collection and talk to experts and collectors in the field was an exceptional learning experience. Furthermore, that the instructors were curious about our reactions to the seminar and were consistently interested in how to make improvements displayed a high degree of dedication on their part. Admittedly, I plan to proselytize the benefits of studying numismatics to my program at Berkeley in the hopes of sharing the value of this field as well as the seminar. Moreover, I was especially pleased with the encouragement and advice that Peter frequently gave us simply to enjoy our time in NYC. This included the day set aside for experiencing just part of what such a great city has to offer, including a tour of exciting lower Manhattan and a beautiful afternoon walk across the Brooklyn Bridge. And while we all worked very hard for our presentations, I looked forward to lunch every day, when many of the students ate in the ballroom and we really got to know one another as we shot the breeze. This of course extended to our candid conversations with the advisors on Friday evenings, World Cup gatherings, and much more! What else can I say about a wonderful group of people who made an opportunity like the ANS seminar all the more enriching?”

Emily made good on her promise to proselytize when she gave a talk on her Seminar experience at the San Francisco Ancient Coin Club. She will also speak on Julio-Claudian coinage from Gaul at the AAH Conference at Princeton in May, and she will be submitting her Seminar paper for publication in the next volume of the American Journal of Numismatics.


Bill Bubelis

Bill Bubelis, who is pursuing his PhD in Greek economic history at the University of Chicago and studied the coinage of the mint of Eion at the Seminar, wrote: “From the first few moments that I stepped into the ANS on Fulton Street, I felt a special camaraderie develop with my fellow seminarians as well as the staff, curatorial and administrative alike. Over the next eight weeks, which was far too short in my opinion, that sense of collaboration and genuine friendship remained palpable. Whether examining a tray of intriguing coins or at an after-hours repast, it was easy to be inspired by the work, perspectives, and goals of others, notwithstanding the diversity of ages and backgrounds.

“Some of my best moments during this seminar came during those moments of discovery that one can only wish to share with such colleagues. When I spotted an early Greek electrum coin in an electronic auction, catalogued as ‘uncertain’ but surely from the mint (Eion) whose coinage I am studying, it was my good fortune to have such a knowledgeable and enthusiastic group of curators, volunteers, and students at hand to render their various opinions. In due course, I made great strides in my project on the coins of a small archaic mint in northern Greece, given the exceptional coin cabinet of the ANS and the strength of its library. Yet most satisfying were not my own discoveries but rather to see the great progress in numismatics that all of us seminarians made in such a short time, regardless of how much knowledge we might already have possessed.

“Finally, to live and study in New York for the summer was a great thrill. Though not a stranger to the ANS and the city, I enjoyed the unique array of cultural resources here more in these eight weeks than I could have hoped, particularly for two wonderful weeks with my family. Throughout my time here, whether at Lincoln Center, traveling north along the Hudson River, or at Die Neue Gallerie, I encountered that spirit of optimism and excellence for which New York is especially known. Strangely enough, it was the very same spirit that I encountered my first day at the ANS, embodied in an exceptional group of people who made the experience unforgettable.”


Lisa Anderson

Lisa Anderson, who is in the doctoral program in classical archeology at Brown University, had this to say: “My main impression of the ANS’s summer seminar is that it was a fantastic experience I would recommend to any of my fellow students. The curators and staff are all quite knowledgeable about numismatics in general, not just about their own particular specialties, and all were very helpful in answering questions and taking care of the desires of eight very demanding students! The scheduled lectures were a great way to learn about areas of numismatics that most of us, being Hellenists and Romanists, would not have studied on our own, like renaissance medallions or medieval coinages. The way in which the basics of numismatics, like die and hoard studies and metrology, were taught made the lectures useful for those students with some prior numismatic experience as well as for those of us who were complete novices.

“One of the best things about the seminar was the opportunity for social interaction and for making professional contacts among established numismatists. The time I spent both inside and outside of the ANS with my fellow students and the lecturers was fantastic. I think it helps to generate stronger ties among the existing numismatic community as well as to help us burgeoning numismatists find our scholarly niche.”

While at the ANS, Lisa worked on a previously unpublished hoard of Athenian tetradrachms, which she will publish in an upcoming volume of the AJN.

As you can see from the comments, the class of 2006 was highly motivated, learned a lot, and thoroughly enjoyed their experience. We look forward to another successful Seminar this year and to graduating another group of students who can use the numismatic skills they acquire throughout their careers.

The Language of Liberty

by Oliver D. Hoover

Part 2: Latin Geographical Terms and Personal Names

The Vermont (excluding the initial “landscape design” of 1785), Connecticut, and NOVA EBORAC coppers, and, to a lesser extent, the IMMUNIS/IMMUNE COLUMBIA patterns all show their deep indebtedness to the model of English halfpence by employing as types crude renderings of the laureate and mailed busts of George II and George III (Fig. 1) and the seated figure of Britannia, occasionally reworked as a personification of Liberty or possibly the State. Thus it is hardly surprising that the designers of these coins should also have used Latin inscriptions, just as did the regular English halfpence or Connecticut coppers (Fig. 2) that they used as typological models. Because of the long tradition of Latin legends on European coinage in general, it is also less than remarkable that when more avant-garde American coin designers developed inscriptions for their new coinages, they too preferred to use this international language.


Fig. 1. Great Britain: England. George III. AE halfpenny, 1774. Peck 907. (ANS 1949.65.44) 29 mm.


Fig. 2. United States: Connecticut, Machin’s Mills. AE “copper,” 1786. (ANS 2005.37.331, gift of the Colonial News-letter Foundation, ex Edward R. Barnsley coll.) 28.8 mm.

Geographical Terms

On official and private issues of Vermont, New Jersey, and New York, the names of these states were regularly translated into Latin, but frequently with some difficulty. The coin designers of New Jersey and New York had a somewhat easier time in that these states were named after an island in the English Channel and a northern English town, respectively, both of which received their Latin names during Julius Caesar’s initial invasion of Britannia and the later Roman occupation. The Island of Jersey had formerly been Roman Caesarea, while York was the English name for the Roman colony of Eboracum (a Latinized form of Celtic Eburacon, possibly meaning “the place where yew trees grow”). Nevertheless, while the designer of the New Jersey coppers (Fig. 3) was consistent in his use of the Latin word nova (“new”) to distinguish the American Caesarea (Jersey) from its British counterpart, there seems to have been some difference of opinion about the proper way to express “New York” in Latin. We find James F. Atlee preferring the adjectival prefix neo- (“new”) for the NON VI VIRTUTE VICI coppers of 1786 (Fig. 4) and his 1787 patterns, while Ephraim Brasher and John Bailey used the feminine adjectival form nova for their respective New York doubloons (Fig. 5) and NOVA EBORAC coppers (Fig. 6) in 1787, despite the fact that for a neuter city name such as “Eboracum” the adjective should have been the neuter form novum. These engravers all appear to have been under the mistaken impression that the grammatical gender of the city name was feminine (i.e., Eboraca). One suspects that this error stems from poor knowledge of Latin on the part of the engravers and the influence of the NOVA CONSTELLATIO coppers of 1783 and 1785 (Fig. 7) and perhaps the NOVA CAESAREA of contemporary New Jersey coppers (Fig. 3). Atlee also appears to have been confused about the grammatical gender of New York in Latin, for on his 1787 patterns, he made the city into a masculine Neo-Eboracus.


Fig. 3. United States: New Jersey, Rahway Mills, AE “copper, ” 1786. Maris 18-N. (ANS 0000.999.2847) 28 mm.


Fig. 4. United States: New York, AE NON VI VIRTUTE VICI “copper,” 1786 (copy). (ANS 1959.101.86, gift of Catherine E. Bullowa) 29 mm.


Fig. 5. United States: New York, AR doubloon pattern, 1787. Counterstamped with the initials of Ephraim Brasher. Breen 981.5. (ANS 1969.62.1, ex Norweb coll.) 30 mm.


Fig. 6. United States: New York, AE NOVA EBORAC “copper,” 1787. Breen 986. (ANS 0000.999.28466) 28 mm.


Fig. 7. United States: AE NOVA CONSTELLATIO “copper,” 1785. Breen 1111. (ANS 1941.131.1005) 28 mm.

It is interesting to note that in the cases of New York and New Jersey, the tendency of the designers was to place the adjective nova (“new”) before the name of the city, in contravention of traditional Latin practice. In classical Latin and even in the neo-Latin of the early modern period, nova normally follows the word that it qualifies. Thus we find Karthago Nova (“New Carthage”), the Roman name given to the Punic settlement at modern Cartagena, Spain, when it was refounded by Scipio Africanus in 209 BC. Anglia Nova (“New England”) was also the preferred arrangement on the seal granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company by Charles I in 1629. The placement of nova before the city name on the coppers of New York and New Jersey should probably be attributed to an imperfect grasp of classical Latin syntax by their designers. They translated “New York” and “New Jersey” with such literalism that they preserved the English word order in the Latin legends.

The translation situation was a little more difficult for Vermont. Because the name of this republic, which is actually French for “Green Mountain” (thus the name of Ethan Allen’s paramilitary organization, the Green Mountain Boys), had not been taken from an old English location with a Roman past, Vermont was forced to attempt a true translation of its name into Latin for its coppers (Fig. 8). From the perspective of a Latinist, the result must be judged to be mediocre. Rather than translating the name literally as Mons viridis, or something similar, we have the unwieldy Latin-French hybrid Vermons, composed of French vert (“green”) and Latin mons (“mountain”). Based on this artificial third declension nominative form, the engravers of Vermont’s landscape coppers came up with the genitive form Vermontis (often corrupted to Vermonts) in the legend RES PUBLICA VERMONTIS (“Republic of Vermont”) and the genitive ethnic form Vermontensium in the inscription RES PUBLICA VERMONTENSIUM (“Republic of the Vermonters”).


Fig. 8. United States: Vermont, AE “copper,” 1785. Ryder 4. (ANS 1979.124.8) 27 mm.

It is also worth noting that the geographical name “America” is really a Latin form meaning “[land of] Amerigo,” in honor of Amerigo Vespucci, who discovered continental North and South America in 1499 and 1502. Nevertheless, the term “America” occasionally receives further Latin “translation” on the confederation coinages. Thus, instead of “America,” the continent is named as Columbia (“Land of Columbus”) on Brasher’s New York doubloons (Fig. 5) and the patterns for George Wyon’s IMMUNE COLUMBIA coppers (Fig. 9). Presumably, since Columbus sailed to the New World (although not actually to the continents) seven years before Vespucci, “Columbia” seemed to have a moderately greater air of antiquity and therefore Latinity than “America.”


Fig. 9. United States: New York, AE IMMUNE COLUMBIA “copper,” 1785. Breen 1117. (ANS 0000.999.28547) 28 mm.

Personal Names

With the exception of the WM initials of Walter Mould very rarely found on New Jersey coppers (Maris 62-q and 62 1/2-r) (Fig. 10), the only personal name to appear on a coinage of the Confederation period is that of a certain EG on some of the continental currency patterns of 1776 (Fig. 11). On these coins, the initials are always followed by the Latin inscription FECIT (“he made it”). In 1909, the initials were resolved as Ephraim Getz, the name of a supposed Pennsylvanian die engraver somehow related to Peter Getz, the die maker for the WASHINGTON PRESIDENT I coins (Fig. 12) of 1792 (Breen 1346-1359), but an exhaustive search for such a person led Eric Newman to doubt his existence in 1952. Instead, he suggested that EG might stand for the future fifth vice president of the United States (1813-1814), Elbridge [Thomas] Gerry, who was a commissioner of the treasury for the Continental Congress in 1776 and was required to devise a means of paying war expenses at a time when gold and silver were in very short supply. The continental currency patterns, produced in pewter, may have been proposed by him as just such a means, and thus EG FECIT should refer not to his engraving of the dies but rather to his suggestion of the coinage.


Fig. 10. United States: New Jersey, Morristown, AE “copper,” 1786. Maris 62-q. R. Siboni coll. Photograph by Neil Rothschild.


Fig. 11. United States: Continental Congress. Tin Continental Currency pattern, 1776. Newman 3-D. (ANS 1911.85.7) 38 mm.


Fig. 12. United States. CU cent, 1792. Breen 1352. (ANS 1954.95.6, purchase)

While the Elbridge Gerry solution is interesting, if not ingenious, it does not quite ring true. The Latin verb form fecit (third person singular perfect indicative active) has a long history of use to indicate an artist’s signature going back to the Roman Empire. Thus this Latin formulation might seem more appropriate for the person who designed and/or executed the dies, rather than the man who may have proposed their creation. Also telling against the Elbridge Gerry theory is the nature of popular Revolutionary politics, with its rabid hatred of the elevation of any individual above another. It is hard to imagine Gerry’s colleagues on the Treasury Committee sitting idly by while he had his name boldly emblazoned on the coinage, leaving their names in the shadows.

Newman came up with a much better explanation for EG in 1967, when he published the first edition of The Early Paper Money of America. Here he noted that an Elisha Gallaudet was responsible for engraving the sundial and thirteen links vignettes for the fractional continental currency notes of February 17, 1776 (Fig. 13). Since the pewter continental currency fractions appear to take the place of the dollar denomination in this paper emission, it seems very likely that the EG of the former should be equivalent to the Elisha Gallaudet of the latter. To date, this seems like the most reasonable explanation of EG FECIT, as it takes into account not only the relationship of the pattern coins to the paper money but also the traditional usage of fecit as a feature of artists’ signatures.


Fig. 13. United States: Continental Congress. Half dollar paper note, 1776. Newman 36-37. (ANS 1974.103.3)

The great rarity of specimens bearing EG FECIT compared to the already rare examples that lack it may suggest that the signature was unpopular. It may have been considered distasteful for the reasons already mentioned with respect to the Elbridge Gerry theory. Almost a century and a half later, the public dislike for the prominent naming of living individuals on American coinage reemerged when the Lithuanian immigrant artist Victor David Brenner signed the reverse of the 1909 Lincoln head cent (Fig. 14) with the large initials V.D.B. The outcry that this signature generated in the press led to its immediate removal from the coins later that year. When it was at last restored in 1918, Brenner’s initials were much reduced in size and hidden along the edge of Lincoln’s shoulder truncation.


Fig. 14. United States: San Francisco Mint. CU cent, 1909. Breen 2054. (ANS 0000.999.4589).

Bibliography

Bonjour, R. 1987. “Vermont Coppers, from Landscape to Bust.” The Numismatist 100: 292-297.

Breen, W. 1988. Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins. New York.

Carlotto, T. 1998. The Copper Coins of Vermont and Those Bearing the Vermont Name. Chelsea, Mich.

Crosby, S. 1875. The Early Coins of America and the Laws Governing Their Issue. Boston.

Hodder, M. 1991. “The 1787 ‘New York’ Immunis Columbia: A Mystery Re-Raveled.” The Colonial Newsletter 31: 1204-1235.

Hoover, O. Forthcoming. “The Development of the Liberty Type on Connecticut Coppers.” American Journal of Numismatics 19.

Maris, E. 1881. A Historic Sketch of the Coins of New Jersey with a Plate. Philadelphia.

Miller, H. 1920. The State Coinage of Connecticut. New York.

Mossman, P. 1993. Money of the American Colonies and Confederation. New York.

Newman, E. 1952. “The 1776 Continental Currency Coinage.” The Coin Collector’s Journal (July-August): 1-9.

Newman, E. 1966. “Sources of Emblems and Mottoes on Continental Currency and the Fugio Cent.” The Numismatist 79, no. 12: 1587-1598.

Newman, E. 1967. The Early Paper Money of America. Iola, WI.

Ryder, H. 1920. “The Copper Coinage of Massachusetts.” In The State Coinages of New England, by H. Miller and H. Ryder, 69-76. New York.

Siboni, R. 2004. “The Not-So-Hidden Hand of Walter Mould,” C4 Newsletter 12, no. 4: 5-17.

A Doctor for All Seasons: David Hosack of New York

by Robert Wilson Hoge

Virtually unknown today, David Hosack was one of the most prominent Americans of his time. Widely respected and admired both at home and abroad, he was a man of the arts and sciences too easily overlooked among the movers and shakers of world history. But as sometimes happens, he was memorialized by a numismatic legacy that has helped insure he will continue to find at least a small measure of appreciation as time marches on.

A Scottish Heritage

Along with many of his countrymen, a nineteen-year-old Scot enlisted in the British army in the year 1755, as war clouds darkened over Europe and America. Hailing from the area of the estate of Charles Bruce, fifth earl of Elgin and ninth earl of Kincardine (the father of Thomas Bruce, the seventh earl of Elgin, who is remembered for having acquired the marble sculptures of the Athenian Parthenon for Great Britain), Alexander Hosack was from a respectable Lowland family. The Hosacks had been impoverished by Alexander’s father’s “improvidence” in the aftermath of the bloody uprising and reprisals that had taken place in the days of Charles Edward Stuart—“Bonnie Prince Charlie” (Fig. 1). Probably having felt forced to “take the king’s shilling” to help support his kindred, the lad was sent first to Ireland, and then in 1757 he was ordered with his command to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in preparation for the massive invasion of French Canada planned by William Pitt (Fig. 2), the new British prime minister (Robbins 1964, 5).


Fig. 1. Great Britain. Battle of Culloden AE commemorative medal, 1746, private mint; the defeat of the young pretender Charles Edward Stuart (“Bonnie Prince Charlie”). (ANS 1967.225.434, gift of the Wadsworth Athenaeum, J. Coolidge Hills coll.) 42 mm.


Fig. 2. Great Britain. William Pitt silvered brass commemorative medalet, the so-called Pitt halfpenny, 1766, James Smither’s private mint, Philadelphia. Betts 519; Breen 252 (ANS 1941.131.992, gift of George Hubbard Clapp, ex E. P. Robinson) 28 mm.

After nine weeks at sea, the squadron under Admiral Holborne arrived in Halifax on July 7 to join forces with Commander in Chief Lord Loudoun, out of New York, doubling his army to over twelve thousand troops and eight thousand seamen, for a combined assault on the great French fortress of Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. But preparations for the invasion lasted so long and French reinforcements were so impressive that the attack was called off until the coming year, and all but two thousand men embarked for New York City. It may have been at this time, then, that young Sergeant Hosack first arrived at that bustling little island-town that was later to become his home.

In the spring of 1758, Hosack was part of the British force that successfully assailed the vital port of Louisbourg. This battle was the largest in North America until the Civil War, and it was also the largest amphibious assault ever to occur on the continent. It included over 150 vessels carrying about thirty thousand soldiers and sailors under the command of General Jeffrey Amherst, seconded by Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, called “Old Dreadnaught.” On June 8, the spirited, newly appointed Brigadier General James Wolfe led the landing under fire. Many were killed as their longboats were shot to pieces and their munitions and equipage dragged them to the bottom of Gabarus Bay. The bravery and heroic performance of the Scottish troops in the onslaught received special notice. (Prior to this time, Wolfe had smirkingly regarded Scots as well suited simply to being killed off on behalf of their British masters, they being essentially enemies themselves.) The attack on Louisbourg soon began: by June 19, British siege works were in place and a terrific bombardment commenced. On June 21, a mortar round hit and destroyed the main French vessel in the harbor and the rest of the French fleet was soon eliminated as well. On the June 23, a “hot-shot” round (a cannonball heated red-hot before firing) struck and burned the largest building then standing in North America, the Bastion du Roi. Alexander Hosack served commendably in the artillery, which was ultimately most responsible for the capitulation of the French. It was reported that during the action the British used 1,493 barrels of gunpowder to fire 14,630 cannonballs and 3,390 explosive or canister shot, along with some 750,000 musket rounds—basically expending their entire supply. It is the artillerists’ aspect of the siege that was commemorated on the great medal by Pingo that Boscawen commissioned to be presented to the British expeditionary forces (Fig. 3).


Fig. 3. Great Britain. Capture of Louisbourg AV commemorative medal, 1758, Royal Mint, by Thomas Pingo. Betts 410. Commissioned by Admiral Boscawen to be presented to the victorious British forces: gold for top commanders, silver for officers, and bronze for enlisted personnel; this looped example of one of the four pieces known in gold belonged to Boscawen. The reverse depicts the bombardment of the fortress and town. Betts 410. (ANS 1966.9.1, gift of Ambassador and Mrs. R. Henry Norweb) 43 mm.

Following the engagement, Hosack’s unit was ordered to the Carolinas, where he fell ill. He was mustered out of the service through the patronage of old family friends of his grandfather and made his way to New York. There, according to tradition, he worked in the sugar industry for the prominent Roosevelt family, eventually marrying Jane Arden, a New York woman of English, French Huguenot, and Dutch descent, who was the daughter of a butcher and sometime merchant in the “Fly-Market,” New York City’s first great produce center (located at the eastern end of Maiden Lane). Hosack and Arden’s prosperity declined with the British military occupation of New York from 1776 to 1783. At this time, Hosack had been recorded as an “un-licensed dealer in liquor in Dey Street” (Robbins 1964, 7). He and his father-in-law were both signatories to the citizens’ petition to Lord Howe, the military governor, to restore civil law. With the war’s end, and the establishment of the new country, the economy began quickly to rebound. New York was on its way to become the commercial center not only of America, but of the world.

The Education of an American

Jane and Alexander Hosack’s son David was born in New York City on August 31, 1769, the first of seven children. The genial father, ever an enterprising man, labored successfully to achieve an affluent home and to give his children the best possible education available at the time. He became the owner of a number of properties, all situated in the neighborhood around the present location of the American Numismatic Society. In 1786, he was listed as a “woolen and linen draper at 72 William Street” (Robbins 1964, 8). Nothing is known of the earliest education of the Hosack children. With the war’s end, David was sent to academies in New Jersey, in Newark and later in Hackensack, where he was taught by Scottish classicists. Other sons were also sent to boarding schools and later to colleges, and a sister, Jane, was privately tutored as befitted a young lady of the time (Robbins 1964, 10-20).

David Hosack matriculated at Columbia College, the renamed King’s College (earlier incarnations of Columbia University), then located at Park Place, just a few blocks from the family’s William Street home, in the fall term of 1786. As it had been before the Revolution, the school was still largely the bastion of the privileged, wealthy heirs of New York’s “best families”—not up-and-coming shopkeepers’ progeny like young Hosack. But the boy excelled there. He was so skilled in oration that his professors tried to convince him to follow a career in law, and he befriended a classmate named DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828), the nephew of New York Governor George Clinton, who became like a brother to him until his death (Fig. 4). But although he was officially an arts student, Hosack became fascinated with medicine.


Fig. 4. United States. DeWitt Clinton WM (Pb) personal medal, c. 1812?, Philadelphia mint, by Moritz Fürst. Neuzil 49. Little is known of this rare medal honoring the great New York politician. Clinton was elected to the New York legislature (1797-1802) and appointed to the U.S. Senate, resigning to serve as mayor of New York City (1803-1815); he also served as state senator (1806-1811) and lieutenant governor (1811-1813). Although he had been a member of the Democratic-Republican party, Clinton ran for president in 1812 as a candidate for the Federalists and antiwar Republican faction, being narrowly defeated by James Madison. He served as governor of New York (1817-1823), accomplishing many progressive goals. (ANS 0000.999.8210; probably the gift of Daniel Parish Jr., part of ANS 1887.24) 33.5 mm.

Hosack might have commenced medical studies with Columbia’s principal professor in medicine, the renowned Dr. Samuel Bard (1742-1821). Bard was a founder and chief medical professor of King’s College/Columbia and the founder and principal physician of New York’s first hospital. An expert on midwifery, he was also George Washington’s personal doctor, and was lauded by the president for having saved his life (by removing a cancerous growth from his leg). Hosack’s own later career was to be intimately associated with Bard, even as a partner in practice and successor as professor, but the young would-be medical student engaged himself instead as a medical apprentice to another physician. His master was Dr. Richard Bayley, a noted local surgeon and former student of the great pioneering Scottish doctor William Hunter (1718-1783), who was professor of anatomy at the Royal Academy of Arts, in London, from 1769 to 1772. (Hunter, the rediscoverer of the anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, is perhaps best known today as the founder of the magnificent Hunterian Museum Collection of the University of Glasgow, which includes one of the foremost cabinets of ancient coins.)

This was an era when medical science was still often very much detached from practical applications, and most actual attention to the afflicted was undertaken by ecclesiastics, apothecaries, barbers, or chirurgeons who may have had only rudimentary training as apprentices, if at all. In spite of his classical erudition, young David Hosack evidently adopted a pragmatic, hands-on approach to this tantalizing field. Nevertheless, in later life as a leading academician himself, Hosack always promoted the value of lectures.

An unfortunate incident occurred early in 1788. Dr. Bayley had been rented a room for private anatomical instruction in the as-yet-vacant New York Hospital. Around the hospital loitered a crowd—an unhappy crowd. Such medical teaching was considered scandalous, odious, and sacrilegious because of the practice of illicitly obtaining human cadavers for study from graveyards. New York City has a famous history of outrages, so it was not surprising that when a medical student taunted the crowd by waving the limb of a corpse out a window, the so-called Doctor’s Mob attacked, invading the dissection area and demolishing Bayley’s laboratory equipment. Trying to defend the doctor’s office, Hosack was hit on the head by a stone (Robbins 1964, 19).

Not long after the “mob scene,” Hosack transferred to the College of New Jersey, in Princeton—later renamed after the town—from which he obtained his baccalaureate in the fall of 1789 (this school had become among the most progressive and enlightened in the new country). Immediately thereafter, back in New York, he enrolled as a student of the polymath Dr. Nicholas Romayne, and started going regularly to the Almshouse for the poor and the Bridewell institution for the insane—the only places where actual clinical instruction was offered. In this manner he was first introduced to Dr. Bard’s lectures on midwifery and diseases of women and children, which Hosack later made an area of his special attention.

Hosack transferred his studies again, in the fall of 1790, to the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania, the first in the former British colonies. An outstanding faculty had been developed at Penn, among them Dr. John Morgan, Dr. William Shippen Jr., Dr. Adam Kuhn, and Dr. Benjamin Rush (Fig. 5). Hosack befriended the local scientific luminaries and wrote a doctoral dissertation on the dread disease cholera. He received his MD in the spring of 1791, shortly after marrying Catharine Warner, a girl with whom he had fallen in love while at Princeton. The Hosacks moved at once to Alexandria, Virginia, near the site of the newly proposed national capital, where David set up a medical practice. Their son, Alexander, was born in June 1792, just before the young family returned to New York City.


Fig. 5. United States. Dr. Benjamin Rush AE personal medal, 1808, Philadelphia mint, by Moritz Fürst. Julian PE-30; Neuzil 47. The celebrated Dr. Rush, who gave Meriwether Lewis a “crash course” in medicine prior to his great exploring expedition, is believed to have been Fürst’s first American medallic subject. (ANS 0000.999.6296) 42 mm.

Along with his academic and medical training, David Hosack had learned a painful truth: compared with the cultural resources available in Europe, an American education was largely circumscribed. The foremost physicians and scientists whom he admired had been educated at least in part across the Atlantic, and much was made of their superiority. He decided that he had to travel to Britain to attain the kind of knowledge for which he thirsted. His father agreed and paid his way.

A Natural Historian

The University of Edinburgh was generally considered to offer the finest medical education in Britain, so Hosack determined to complete his schooling there. He regularly attended lectures and applied himself, devoting ten hours every day to medical coursework, but was mortified to discover that his knowledge of taxonomy, of the technical structures of the plant kingdom in particular, was wholly deficient compared with his European contemporaries. This was the age of the Enlightenment, the age of Linnaeus and his great system of classificatory nomenclature, of the beginnings of accurate measurement and careful scientific reporting of the natural world. The young American scholar, enthused and aroused, was welcomed by the professors and the local gentry, and it was in their formal gardens, so popular at the time, that he began to make botanical observations while also studying the systematic classification of diseases.

Following the academic year at Edinburgh, he visited Elgin, his father’s family’s home, where he was kindly received. Then he proceeded to London, where the leading botanical taxonomists and other scientists were making rapid progress in describing and understanding “natural philosophy.” Direct observation was the key. Hosack arranged to study with the leading figures in this movement: William Curtis, who had developed a botanical garden at Brompton and who organized systematic botanical field trips and collecting expeditions in the vicinity of London; and Sir James Edward Smith, the president of the Linnaean Society, whose lectures Hosack enthusiastically attended. Smith took an interest in him and gave him access to the great herbarium assembled by the celebrated Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné (Linnaeus); he also gave him a collection of Linnaeus’s duplicate specimens and introduced him to many of the leading figures of the Enlightenment, such as Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), the scientist of Captain Cook’s South Seas expeditions, who had become the president of the Royal Society; and Thomas Martyn, regius professor of botany at Cambridge University (Fig. 6). With such guidance and by means of his work and study, Hosack became thoroughly knowledgeable in the world of botany, certainly as much so as any American of his time.


Fig. 6. Great Britain. Sir Joseph Banks AE personal medal, 1816, designed by Thomas Wyon Jr. and sculpted by William Wyon. Here recognized by a product of the Royal Mint, the celebrated British naturalist, whose sister was a serious numismatist, aided the careers of aspiring young scientists. David Hosack, who became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1816, was sometimes referred to as “the American Joseph Banks.” (ANS 1940.100.558) 39.7 mm.

The young Hosack was so highly regarded by his British associates that before he left London, he was invited to present a theoretical paper on optical anatomy. (Twenty years later, he would be elected a fellow of the Society.) Vision and eye care were among the subjects Hosack was to address extensively in his career, but Hosack’s explanation of how vision accommodates to close objects, changing focus from far to near, was not correct. He wrongly postulated that it was by squeezing and elongating the globes that the eyes increased their focal length. It remained for the technical genius Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, inventor of the ophthalmoscope, to identify the correct physiology (Fig. 7).


Fig. 7. United States. Von Helmholtz 150th anniversary of the ophthalmoscope, Cogan Ophthalmic History Society, AR commemorative plaquette, 2000 (copied from a nineteenth-century Austrian medal by Tautenhayn). (ANS 2002.14.1, gift of Dr. Jay M. Galst) 41 x 59 mm.

When he returned home to New York in 1794, Hosack brought back with him the first scientific collection of minerals to be introduced into the United States. His collections, especially his Linnaean duplicates, became the basis of the collections of the Lyceum of Natural History in the City of New York (now the illustrious New York Academy of Sciences), but were misplaced in the 1830s and never seen again. In addition to studies of plants and animals, Hosack developed an interest in earth sciences and among his student protégés were young men who would lead the way in advancing geology well into the nineteenth century. Hosack also became an early advocate of museum collecting and preserving and had some relation with members of the Peale family, American museological pioneers.

A Medical Man Par Excellence

While Hosack was studying in Britain, his infant son Alexander died. In early 1796, his wife Catharine died giving birth to another child, who also died. Yellow fever struck Philadelphia in 1793 and thereafter and in New York in 1795 and 1798. The young doctor was surrounded by what may be euphemistically termed “opportunities.” It may be considered little wonder that much of the rest of his life was shaped by a devotion to expanding medical care and education, training physicians in the treatment of women and children, and an appreciation for the medicinal value of plants and herbs. Hosack became an early advocate for improved conditions for the poor and was a founder of the Humane Society. He served as physician to the New York Hospital and the Bloomingdale Asylum and helped found New York City’s Bellevue Hospital.

The component of Hosack’s medical career for which he is best remembered today, when he is remembered at all, is his service as an attending physician in connection with the most famous duel in American history, that between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in Weehawken, New Jersey, on July 11, 1804 (Fig. 8). Hosack was the Hamilton family doctor; he had also attended the death of Hamilton’s son, fatally wounded in a duel at the same place in 1801. In the collection of the New-York Historical Society is the bill submitted by Hosack to Hamilton’s estate for services rendered in connection with what he referred to as the man’s “last illness” (Newland 2004, 53). In fact, family practice was a primary part of Hosack’s activities. He was recognized for his care and concern for his patients and their families, offering pediatric and obstetric attention as required in addition to general internal medicine.


Fig. 8. United States. Alexander Hamilton AE Treasury medal, 1795, Philadelphia mint, by Moritz Fürst. Neuzil 46. The striking of this medal may have had something to do with the rechartering of the Bank of the United States in the period 1811-1816; the date is that of Hamilton’s relinquishment of office as secretary of the Treasury. (ANS 0000.999.4517) 48.4 mm.

Hosack preferred to leave most surgery to others, yet he performed the first successful ligature of an aneurism of the femoral artery. He was also the first to introduce the operation for hydrocele by injection, was one of the first physicians to use a stethoscope, and was a strong, early advocate of smallpox vaccination. He made a particular study of yellow fever, and was the first to prepare an accurate scientific description of the symptomatology of that frightful disease, which he himself contracted while caring for his patients. His treatment regimen, in the contemporary absence of an understanding of infection and insect vectors, was probably the most enlightened of his time—much in opposition to (and to the consternation of!) other prominent medical men, such as his friend Dr. Rush (Robbins 1964).

A prolific author, from 1810 to 1814 Hosack co-edited the American Medical and Philosophical Monthly. His paper on “Contagious Disorders” and his treatise on “Vision” were republished by the Royal Society of London (1794), and other publications included many of his medical, scientific, and scholarly papers, among them “Memoir of Hugh Williamson, M.D.” (1820), “Essays on Various Subjects of Medical Science” (1824-1830), “System of Practical Nosology” (1829), and “Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Medicine” (published posthumously, in 1838).

Beyond his numerous accomplishments, it seems likely that Hosack may have regarded himself most as a teacher. He was appointed professor of natural history at Columbia College in 1795, and in 1797 succeeded to the chair of materia medica. In 1807 he was named professor of midwifery and surgery in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, later occupying the chairs of the “Theory and Practice of Medicine” and of “Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and Children.” He helped organize the short-lived medical department of Rutgers College in 1826, and even offered his own private medical school as a course in training. He was so well versed in his subject matter that he was able to teach classes in a variety of fields, and may even have had his greatest influence not in medicine but in “natural philosophy.”

Gardening on a Grand Scale

Keenly aware of his countrymen’s lack of knowledge and resources in botany, and believing the understanding of plants and their properties to be crucial for advances in medicine, Hosack took it upon himself to create the nation’s first botanical garden, modeled on ones he had observed in England. Mostly intended for the instruction and benefit of medical students at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia College, in 1801 Hosack purchased from the municipality a twenty-acre $4,800 parcel of vacant land situated in the “commons” far north of the city. He called this creation the Elgin Botanical Garden, named for his father’s Scottish home. With scientific friends and colleagues from around the world contributing seeds and cuttings, Hosack developed well-planned grounds with differing environmental conditions and also built a splendid greenhouse. The ambitious project greatly outstripped Hosack’s personal resources, however, and in 1810 his medical colleagues petitioned the State Legislature to purchase the garden from him. The reluctant lawmakers eventually did, paying Hosack many thousands of dollars less than he had put into the land. They then turned it over to Columbia College, which at the time had no interest in maintaining this costly project, the New York medical world having gone through a series of personal and professional upheavals (Robbins 1964). Hosack’s legacy was not maintained, but by retaining ownership the school reaped a whopping reward for its dereliction. The property was leased out to become Rockefeller Center in the 1930s, and in 1985 it was sold for $400,000,000 to relieve Columbia’s chronic budgetary problems (Fig. 9). Though the garden was not a long-term success, Hosack’s Hortus Elginensis, a scientific catalogue of the collection, was a valuable contribution to America’s beginnings in agronomy. Indeed, education in natural history in America—in geology and botany in particular—owed a great deal to his efforts.


Fig. 9. United States. Rockefeller Center AE commemorative medal, 1933 (after Lee Lawrie). Hoge (2006, Fig. 52). (ANS 0000.999.8282) 69 mm.

Among the most prominent of Hosack’s protégés was scientist and educator Amos Eaton (1776-1842). A 1799 graduate of Williams College, Eaton became a lawyer in New York until 1811, when he was falsely imprisoned for fraud. While in prison, he studied botany and geology and tutored the prison officials’ sons. Following his release, he studied at Yale, returning to New York in 1817 to deliver a series of lectures at the behest of Hosack’s friend DeWitt Clinton. These were lectures on the state’s geology, intended to further Clinton’s grand design to construct a canal, with a series of locks, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes via the Hudson River. Among the legislators in the audience was Stephen Van Rensselaer III, patroon of Rensselaerwyck, who proceeded to hire Eaton to produce A Geological Survey of the County of Albany, which was followed by geological surveys of much of the area through which the canal was finally built (Fig. 10). In 1824, with Rensselaer’s help, Eaton cofounded the Rensselaer School (now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) in Troy, New York, building this town into a rival to London as a center for geological studies in the first part of the nineteenth century.


Fig. 10. United States. Erie Canal WM commemorative medal, 1826, by C. C. Wright, Maltby Pedetreau mint. Brainchild of the great DeWitt Clinton, the marvelous canal was first commemorated with a medallion by Edward Thomason, copied by Wright. (ANS 0000.999.2287) 43.8 mm.

Another important student of Hosack’s was the prison warden’s son John Torrey (1796-1873), who was tutored by Amos Eaton during the years he was incarcerated. Torrey began his studies with Dr. Hosack at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1815, receiving his degree in 1818. He soon published a Catalogue of Plants Growing Spontaneously Within Thirty Miles of the City of New York (1819) and a volume called Flora of the Northern and Middle States (1824). Torrey served as a professor of chemistry and geology at the United States Military Academy, at West Point, and of chemistry and botany in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York City, and was appointed botanist to the state of New York in 1836. From 1853 he was the Chief Assayer of the United States.

An Eminent Man of Distinction

Close to two years after his wife Catharine died, Hosack married again, to Mary Eddy of Philadelphia, with whom he had nine children—seven of whom survived to adulthood. A confirmed family man, Hosack gained a reputation as one who enjoyed living well. Becoming a very popular medical practitioner and professor in the years to come, ever a visionary and liberal spender willing to sacrifice his wealth to his interests, he became quite the paterfamilias. Hosack’s son, Alexander Eddy Hosack (1805-1871), became a physician of note like his father, also obtaining his MD at the University of Pennsylvania. After spending the years 1825 to 1827 studying in Paris, the younger Dr. Hosack, unlike his father, devoted himself especially to surgery upon returning to New York, and became the first practitioner in the city to administer ether as an anesthetic.

Not surprisingly, Hosack was the founder and first president of the New York Horticultural Society, the first such organization in America. As honorary members, he brought in his old friend Sir James Edward Smith as well as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and the Marquis de Lafayette (Robbins 1964, 174-175). He was president of the Literary Society and the Philosophical Society and one of the founders of the New-York Historical Society—and its fourth president (1820-1827). In the latter capacity, it was he who welcomed Lafayette (Fig. 11) to the city on his visit in 1824, remarking: “Long, long, Sir, may you live to enjoy the homage so justly due and spontaneously offered from the hearts of a free and grateful People for the service you have rendered to this Nation, to the World, to Liberty…” (Jeffe 2004, 58).


Fig. 11. United States: Cu cent, 1823, with Washington and Lafayette countermarks on obv. and rev., respectively, executed at the time of Lafayette’s visit to the United States, in 1824. (ANS 1944.56.1, gift of John F. Jones, through Sidney P. Noe) 28.4 mm.

After Mary died in 1824, he married Magdalena Coster, a widow of one of his friends and a mother with seven children of her own. The families were combined with rare success, living in a house on Chambers Street and maintaining a country estate for summer getaways on Kip’s Bay—both part of the Coster inheritance. Every Saturday, the Hosacks hosted a salon remarkable for the leading artists and intellectuals as well as other medical men who attended, and they became well-known as social leaders in the city (Robbins 1964, 166). Hosack befriended the poet William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) and was a patron of American artists including Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of telegraphy, and Thomas Cole.

In later life, with his third wife’s family assets to assist in his enterprises, David Hosack was able to purchase the famous Hudson River estate of Hyde Park, former home of his old teacher and sometime partner in medical practice Dr. Samuel Bard, and he recommenced developing a fine botanical garden. The Hosack’s opulent “retreat” became a popular haunt of visitors who enjoyed the mystique of the Hudson River valley, including not only painters and naturalists but the writer Washington Irving.

A Medallic Tribute

It was as a leader in the cultural community that Hosack must have become acquainted with the talented immigrant Slovakian Jewish engraver Moritz Fürst. Hosack clearly had an interest in and appreciation of numismatics, which he spoke of at an address before the New-York Historical Society in 1821 (Orosz 2007). Although almost nothing is known about this, Fürst is reported to have requested examples of medal strikings from the U.S. Mint on his behalf (Julian 1977, 211). And it is to Fürst that we are indebted for a remarkable medal struck in Hosack’s honor at the Mint circa 1830-1835.

Moritz Fürst’s medal honoring David Hosack was a handsome example of the work that brought the artist to the forefront of American medallic sculpture in the early decades of the nineteenth century. Born in March 1782, near Bratislava, in what was at the time part of the kingdom of Hungary under the Habsburg Austro-Hungarian empire, Fürst had had the opportunity to study in Vienna as a pupil of Johann Nepomuk Würth (sometimes written as Würt, Wirt, or Wirth, 1750-1811), chief engraver at the Vienna Mint and medallist to the Imperial Court, who served as director of the Academy of Engraving there (Forrer 1916, 567; Neuzil 1999, 18). He also seems to have studied later in Milan, and thereby achieved notice on the part of Thomas Appleton, the American Consul at Livorno (Leghorn, the important port city on the west coast of Italy), in 1807. Seemingly in the belief that he had been offered a contract, as a result Fürst subsequently traveled to the United States to work as an engraver, settling in Philadelphia (Neuzil 1999, 18-20).

In Philadelphia, Fürst went into business as a seal maker, engraver in steel, and die-sinker, and was indeed given commissions for die-engraving by the fifteen-year-old United States Mint, but he was not given the post of chief engraver, which he had evidently expected. For the Mint, Fürst was to craft “a large number of medals some of which exhibit fair workmanship, according to Dr. P. F. Weber’s opinion” (Forrer 1904, 172). Among the most popular and best-known of Fürst’s patriotic commemoratives, portraits, and other U.S. Mint creations are the series of some twenty-seven medals honoring naval and military heroes of the War of 1812—including classic pieces still issued by the U.S. Mint today (Fig. 12). Fürst executed the official medallic presidential portraits of James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van Buren (Fig. 13). He also sculpted the first known Jewish American medal, commemorating the patriot and religious leader Gershom Seixas upon his death in 1816.


Fig. 12. United States. President Andrew Jackson AR award medal, 1829, Philadelphia mint, by Moritz Fürst. This interesting specimen documents two dies not otherwise known in combination: the Fürst obverse die of Neuzil US-9, that of the Jackson small-sized Indian Peace medal (normally paired with the small-sized “Peace and Friendship” Indian Peace medal reverse by John Reich), and an attractive dedication/presentation medal die reading REWARD OF SKILL AND INGENUITY above a wreath formed by a palm and an oak branch; a small G. below the bow may indicate Christian Gobrecht as the designer/sculptor of this die. (ANS 0000.999.30341) 50.2 mm.


Fig. 13. United States. President John Quincy Adams WM inaugural medal, Philadelphia mint, 1825, by Moritz Fürst. Julian PR-5; Neuzil 45. (ANS 0000.999.39665) 50.8 mm.

Although Fürst left in disappointment after having held his post at the Mint into 1838, appreciation and recognition were eventually forthcoming. Today, his medals are cherished, and many have been restruck by the Mint in modern editions. The artist, however, died in obscurity in Europe, probably in about 1847. On his medal honoring Dr. Hosack can be clearly seen the wonderfully personalized features captured by Fürst’s gift: the Doctor’s characteristic top-knot tuft, his bristly arching eyebrows, his little chin wattle…

In the ANS collection are three examples of the David Hosack medal by Fürst. The accession history database indicates that the Society’s collection actually may have included at least five examples, of which only these three appear to be extant today. Very likely, two duplicate pieces were deaccessioned long ago and sold or traded for other acquisitions (or, it is possible they might still be in the cabinet somewhere, awaiting future attention). The issue is a medal on which scant information exists, so a full description of the features of the elusive piece is in order, as well as descriptions of the different aspects of the individual specimens (Figs. 14a, 14b, 14c):

Medal of the United States Mint, Philadelphia: Dr. David Hosack, by Moritz Fürst, n.d. (circa 1830-1835); 34 mm. Obv.: Hosack’s nude bust to right, truncated just below the neck, with the legend DAVID HOSACK M.D. above; in smaller letters, reading outwardly from the point of the bust truncation, is FURST F. Rev.: the legend ARTS AND SCIENCES above a vignette of objects (Julian refers to them as “scientific implements”) symbolizing various fields of endeavor, including, from left to right, a short-handled spade, for gardening; a classical lyre on a pedestal, to indicate musical appreciation; leaning against the pedestal, a classical caduceus (a snake writhing around a staff), the emblem of Apollo as a healer and thus a representative of medicine; at the foot of the pedestal, a set of dividers or calipers and a drawing square, to indicate mathematics, architecture, or measurement; in the central foreground, a book, manuscript, painter’s palette, and brushes, sculpted bust of a man, and a sculptor’s mallet to represent the liberal arts; and on the right, a terrestrial globe on a stand, to signify geographical knowledge and exploration. In the exergue is the attribution FURST F. (References: Brettauer 1989, no. 507; Freeman 1964, no. 248; Julian 1977, no. PE-15; Neuzil 1999, no. 53; Storer 1931, no. 1604.)


Fig. 14. United States Mint, David Hosack medal, Philadelphia mint, n.d. (c. 1830-1835). By Moritz Fürst. Julian PE-15. (a) Struck in silver, weight 22.503 g; thickness 3.8 mm. This beautiful specimen, formerly incorrectly accessioned provisionally as ANS 0000.999.45756, is very sharp and proof-like. Another example, belonging to a correspondent and weighing 21.643 g, was confirmed as being silver by the Numismatic Guarantee Corporation (NGC). (ANS 1887.24.1, gift of Daniel Parish Jr.) 33.5 mm.


(b) Struck in copper, weight 22.144 g; thickness 3.9 mm. The piece is very sharp and proof-like and has a beautiful old red-chocolate finish. (ANS 0000.999.45762, evidently the gift of either J. N. T. Levick in 1867 or Herbert Valentine in 1906) 33.8 mm.


(c) Struck in unknown WM, weight 25.618 g; thickness 4.5 mm. Quite dark and with light areas of a grayish color, this specimen is probably a somewhat later, thicker, base-metal restrike. It features mint sharpness but dull surfaces. (ANS 1940.100.489, bequest of R. J. Eidlitz and gift of Mrs. R. J. Eidlitz) 33.6 mm.

The Hosack medal stands rather apart from many of Fürst’s other mint products and miscellaneous American works. For one thing, its subject is neither a political nor military figure, nor a celebrity in the normal sense. For another, it is smaller in size and more modest in character. Perhaps Fürst was aware of the close friendship that existed between David Hosack and DeWitt Clinton and chose to make this medal a companion piece to his Clinton medal. Julian stated: “No reason for the striking of this medal has ever been published, so far as is known to the author. It is known from letters in the archives, however, that Hosack and Moritz Fürst were both professional and personal friends… it is the opinion of the author that Hosack’s friends paid Fürst to execute the dies while Hosack was still living, possibly in the early 1830s” (1977, 211).

The mintage figures provided for the Hosack medal by Julian, covering the period from 1855 to 1892, list only one silver piece struck, under fiscal year 1876/77. Hartzog (1986) repeats that information, and reports two auction listings of silver examples in the past 150 years. The provisionally numbered silver medal in the Society’s cabinet is accounted for by the record of a donation by the great ANS president and benefactor Daniel Parish Jr., in 1887. It is satisfying to be able to make this correction and give due credit to that wonderfully generous man (Fig. 15). The Hosack medal, along with several other Fürst portraits, was restruck by the U.S. Mint in the 1980s using the original dies; the modern examples use a thinner planchet (2.6 mm vs. about 3.6 mm) and have a lighter bronze coloring.


Fig. 15. United States. American Numismatic Society AV medal honoring Daniel Parish Jr., 1890, by Lea Ahlborn. One of the greatest numismatists who has ever lived, Parish worked to establish the ANS as the foremost numismatic resource in the country; among his vast donations was the rare silver David Hosack medal. The Society honored him with a magnificent portrait medal by the outstanding medallic artist Lea Ahlborn, chief engraver of the Stockholm mint. (ANS 0000.999.3366) 45.9 mm.

At the time of his acquaintance with Fürst in his later years, Dr. Hosack was an illustrious man but, like Fürst’s, his fame has vanished over the years. “It is one of the vagaries of historical remembrance that certain individuals who are extraordinarily well known and well connected during their lifetimes can become largely forgotten over time. Such appears to be the case with David Hosack” (Jeffe 2004, 54). Clearly responsible both directly and indirectly for many progressive developments of his time, Hosack died in New York City on December 22, 1835. His papers are housed in the Department of Rare Books and Special Collections in the library of Princeton University (Fig. 16).


Fig. 16. Dr. David Hosack, by Rembrandt Peale, circa 1826. Columbia University (used with permission).

Bibliography

Betts, C. Wyllys. 1894. American Colonial History Illustrated by Contemporary Medals. Glendale, NY: Benchmark, 1970 (repr. 1894).

(Brettauer) Holzmair, Eduard. 1989. Medicina in Nummis: Sammlung Dr. Josef Brettauer (unvernderter Nachdruck des Katalogs von Dr. Eduard Holzmair; mit einem Vorwort von Robert Göbl), Verffentlichungen der Numismatischen Kommission; Bd. 222nd, unvernderte Aufl. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2nd edition of work (facsimile) originally published: Vienna: Kuratorium der Dr. Josef Brettauer-Stiftung, 1937.

Forrer, Leonard. 1904. Biographical Dictionary of Medalists: Coin-, Gem-, and Seal-Engravers, Mint-masters, etc., Ancient and Modern, with References to Their Works, B.C. 50 to A.D. 1900, vol. 2. London: Spink & Son, Ltd.

Forrer, Leonard. 1916. Biographical Dictionary of Medalists: Coin-, Gem-, and Seal-Engravers, Mint-masters, etc., Ancient and Modern, with References to Their Works, B.C. 50 to A.D. 1900, vol. 6. London: Spink & Son, Ltd.

Freeman, Sarah Elizabeth. 1964. Medals Relating to Medicine and Allied Sciences in the Numismatic Collection of the Johns Hopkins University: A Catalogue. Baltimore, Md.: Evergreen House Foundation.

Hartzog, Rich. 1986. Medals of the United States Mint: Price Guide. (Rich Hartzog’s 1986 Price Guide for Medals of the United States Mint, the First Century, 1792-1892, by R. W. Julian. Includes articles reprinted from the Numismatist, the Token, and Medal Society Journal, and from Bowers and Merena Galleries). Rockford, Ill.: R. Hartzog, World Exonumia.

Hoge, Robert Wilson. 2006. “Current Cabinet Activities.” American Numismatic Society Magazine 5, no. 1: 31-43.

Jeffe, Elizabeth Rohn. 2004. “Hamilton’s Physician: David Hosack, Renaissance Man of Early New York.” New York Journal of American History 65, no. 3: 54-58.

Julian, Robert W. 1977. Medals of the United States Mint: The First Century, 1792-1892. El Cajon, Calif.: Token and Medal Society.

Neuzil, Chris. 1999. “A Reckoning of Moritz Fürst’s American Medals.” Proceedings of the Coinage of the Americas Conference, No. 13: The Medal in America, 2:17-118. New York: American Numismatic Society.

Newland, Sherwin B. 2004. “Hamilton’s Last Hours.” New York Journal of American History 65, no. 3: 50-53.

Orosz, Joel. 2007. Personal communication, referencing Hosack, David, “Address upon being elected President of the New-York Historical Society, delivered on the Second Tuesday of February, 1820,” in Collections of the New-York Historical Society, vol. 3 (1820): 269-280. Hosack’s brief for the NYHS collecting coins and medals is found on 275-276.

Robbins, Christine Chapman. 1964. David Hosack, Citizen of New York; Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 62. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Storer, Horatio Robinson. 1931. Medicina in Nummis: A Descriptive List of the Coins, Medals, and Jetons Relating to Medicine, Surgery, and the Allied Sciences. Boston: Wright and Potter.