Obituary: Marcel Jovine 1921-2003

by Joanne Isaac

Distinguished medals sculptor and recipient of the ANS J. Sanford Saltus Award for Signal Achievement in the Art of the Medal, Marcel Jovine, died on January 20, 2003 in Greenwich, Connecticut at the home of his daughter, Andrea Coopersmith, leaving behind also his daughter Marcia of Washington D. C., and grandson, Alexander.

Born in Naples, Italy on July 26, 1921, Jovine was raised in Turin and attended the University of Naples. He was commissioned by the Military Academy at Turin, the equivalent to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, where he created mechanical and architectural drawings and drafts. In Turin Jovine met sculptor (and fellow officer) Bruno Burachini of Siena, who taught him the fundamentals of sculpture. Although Jovine had been drawing, whittling and model-making since his childhood, he had no formal training in sculpture other than his brief time with Burachini.

During World War II, Jovine served in the Italian army in North Africa and was captured there by Allied forces. Sitting out the rest of the war as a POW in Pennsylvania, Jovine spent his free time sketching and sculpting. It was during this time that he met and fell in love with Angela D’Oro, a singer and pianist, who performed concerts for the prisoners. After the war, upon returning to Italy, Jovine continued to correspond with Angela. In 1950, Jovine returned to the United States to marry Ms. D’Oro, and embark on a new life shaped by diverse and creative pursuits.

Jovine soon began what would prove to be a lucrative career as a toy-maker. Working for the Ideal Toy Company, Jovine fashioned several noteworthy creations: first, the Blessed Event Doll (unique for its rubber-plastic substance with an uncanny human-like fleshy quality), then a pirate ship with a full crew of tiny pirates, an anchor, plank and lifeboat. Later, he created hobby items utilizing authentic Army blueprints, designing tanks, missiles, missile carriers, and a dozen varied military vehicles. He also became known for his renditions of great thoroughbred race horses immortalizing in bronze the likes of Affirmed, Spectacular Bid and John Henry to name only a few. It was for his bronze of Spectacular Bid that the National Sculpture Society awarded Jovine the M.H. Lamston Prize for meritorious sculpture in 1983.

Russia’s launching of Sputnik in 1957 inspired Jovine to create hobby items that could serve a purpose. The result was a series of educational plastic models initially produced by Revell that included the anatomically correct Visible Man and Visible Woman. Jovine also designed the Visible V-8 Engine, still being made today.

In the late 1970’s, Mr. Jovine turned his attention away from toy-making and began concentrating his talents on numismatic sculpture. In his studio he carved bas-reliefs and intaglios, creating prototypes for coins, medals, and molds for minting. Jovine achieved notoriety for his superbly detailed, historically authentic artistry. Commissioned by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, Jovine created seventeen-inch models for the 1976 Bicentennial Calendar winning the Lindsay Morris Memorial Prize for bas-relief of the National Sculpture Society in 1977. He was commissioned to create the 100 Year Anniversary Medal of the Kentucky Derby; he made the Olympic medals used in the 1980 Winter Games in Lake Placid, NY as well as the 1980 issue of the Society of Medalists. In 1982, Jovine’s design won the competition for presentation medals for the winners of the International Violin Competition held in Indianapolis, Indiana. He designed commemorative medals for the Viking I and II missions, the Soyuz-Apollo Linkup for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 36 medals of endangered species for the Sierra Club, and another 36 medals observing the “The Opening of the West” for Wells Fargo. In 1981, Jovine created the 60th anniversary medal for the Grand Central Art Gallery in New York City, depicting Grand Central Station statuary on the obverse and the likeness of the artists John Singer Sergeant, Edmund Greacen and W. L. Clark on the reverse.

In 1982, the ANS awarded Jovine with the design for our 125th anniversary medal, one of the ANS’ most successful issues in recent years. Rectangular in shape, the medal portrays a minter striking a coin on an anvil with a hammer; behind him are depictions of various important coins from the ANS collection. The verso illustrates a screw press and a pantograph machine, used for reducing designs in the preparation of dies. The piece, commissioned under the presidency of Harry Bass, was a favorite of the former ANS President. Interestingly the piece originally designed by Jovine showed a nude figure striking coins, but was deemed inappropriate for the occasion.

In 1984, Marcel Jovine was again selected by the ANS to receive the J. Sanford Saltus Award for Signal Achievement in the Art of the Medal. Karen Worth presented the citation praising Jovine for a “style of figurative art that is at the same time varied and individualistic. He has combined a baroque sense of decorative invention with an Art Nouveau love of swirling forms and an Art Deco conventionalization of figurative portrayal. Yet there is nothing old-fashioned or stilted about his work; it is clearly in the contemporary spirit.”

Obituary: Dr. Marie H. Martin 1942-2002

by Dr. Michael Bates

The Staff and Council of the American Numismatic Society were saddened to hear of the death of Dr. Marie H. Martin, former ANS Editor, on Monday, December 9, 2002. Dr. Martin was sixty at the time.

Marie began her association with the ANS in 1978, when she was a member of the Graduate Seminar. In the following year she came to work as Assistant Editor and was subsequently promoted to Associate Editor. In 1983, she left for the business world, but in 1985 she returned to the Society, and was made Editor in 1989. She left us at the end of October 1999.

Although she made her living as an editor, Marie was a trained historian. Her academic specialty was the medieval epoch in India. Her Ph.D. thesis at the University of Michigan, Bahmani Coinage (full title below), included the results of her research in our Graduate Seminar, as well as materials gathered during several years of research in India, Iran, and Europe. She published a number of articles on the subject. Marie was an active member of the ANS and the New York Numismatic Club. She served as its President in 1990-91.

Her friends knew her as a gifted raconteur, whose stock of stories was largely drawn from her extensive international travels. Perhaps she became addicted to life abroad as a high school senior, as a result of a scholarship for the International School of America’s travelling study program, which took her, along with a small faculty and other students, from one American school to another in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, during the academic year 1959-60. The group spent a few weeks in many different locales, living with local families; New Delhi was one of them.

On her return she matriculated at Grinnell College in Iowa, where she received her BA in History in 1964 with a four-year Yonker Honor Scholarship. Almost immediately, she returned to India with a Grinnell College Travel/Service Scholarship to live and work at Ahmednagar College in Maharashtra as a Hostel Supervisor. She continued her stay with two years as a faculty member and boarding unit supervisor at the American International School in New Delhi.

Upon her return to the U.S., she enrolled as a graduate student in history at the University of Michigan, supported at first by a three-year National Defense Foreign Language Fellowship in Persian. The NDFL program also supported her in a summer program for intensive study of Hindi/Urdu at Michigan State University. Meanwhile, she obtained her MA in 1969. She spent the summer of 1970 in Teheran, for study and practical experience of Persian, as well as travel through the country. She was accepted as a Michigan Ph.D. candidate in 1971.

In 1972 she left for India again with a Fulbright-Hays research grant. After three months in London at the Oriental Manuscripts Room of the British Museum, she went on to Ahmednagar College, which served as her base for two years. From there she traveled in search of manuscripts and mentors to Bombay, Poona, Aurangabad, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bidar.

Back at Michigan, she obtained a job as editor at the Center for South and South East Asia Publications to support herself while writing her thesis. She gave up this job to attend the ANS Graduate Seminar, and then returned to Michigan for a year, finishing up her thesis, before obtaining a place as Assistant Editor at the ANS in 1979. Her thesis was submitted in final form in 1980. Although Marie was never able to revise it for publication, arrangements are in progress for a facsimile edition to be published in India.

On Sunday, December 15, there was a crowded reception in Marie’s small apartment on 181st Street. As President of her co-operative apartment building for ten years, she knew everyone there; about thirty-five neighbors attended, as well as approximately thirty friends from her numismatic life, including a re-union of many ANS colleagues from the eighties and nineties, some of whom drove hundreds of miles to be there, plus friends from the New York Numismatic Club. The reception was hosted by her close friend Mary Marks (better known to many as Mary Davis, until her recent marriage) and her sister Lynn Kunz.

The family and close friends have agreed to establish a fund at Grinnell College, Marie’s alma mater, to perpetuate her memory. Those who wish to make a gift to this fine college in Marie’s name should make out the check to “Grinnell College” and indicate on the memo line that it is sent in memory of Marie H. Martin. Checks should be sent to:

Alumni Relations and Development
Grinnell College
733 Broad Street
Grinnell, IA 50112

The accompanying image is Marie’s Presidential Medal from the New York Numismatic Club, sculpted by John Di Lorenzo, ANS 1992.47.1.

Publications by Marie Hamilton Martin

“The Shuhur San: date equivalencies, origins and special problems,” in Epigraphia Indica: Arabic and Persian supplement, 1971 (ed. Z.A. Desai; Delhi, 1977), pp. 81-106.

“An epigraphical study of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri,” in Challenges of societies in transition (ed. M. Barnabas, et al.; Delhi, 1978), pp. 339-358, 366-371.

Bahmani Coinage, and Deccani and North Indian Metrological and Monetary Considerations, 1200-1600. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 1980. 255 Pp. University Microfilms 8025724.

“Bahmani metrology and the currency reform of the 1420s,” Journal of the Academy of Indian Numismatics & Sigillography 4 (1981-82), pp. 35-47.

“Bahmani coinage,” in Islamic heritage of the Deccan (Bombay, 1986), pp. 14-15.

“The reforms of the sixteenth century and Akbar’s administration : metrological and monetary considerations,” in The imperial monetary system of Mughal India (Delhi, 1987), pp. 68-99.

“Golconda numismatics: currencies in circulation,” in Golconda and Hyderabad (Bombay, 1992), pp. 143-152.

“Nizam Shahis,” Encyclopedia of Islam v. 8, fasc. 131-132 (Leiden, 1993.), pp. 73-75.

“Parallels in coinage and architecture: the Bahmani kingdom,” A Treasury of Indian Coins (Bombay, 1994), pp. 79-88.

Obituary: Herman Miller 1908-2002

by Ute Wartenberg Kagan

Herman Miller, one of the most active members of the ANS community, passed away on October 15th of last year, at the age of 94. As a real estate manager and owner, Herman Miller was very keen on an ANS move to the downtown area, where he owned a few buildings himself. Born on March 1908 in New York City to Lithuanian immigrants Meyer Miller and Rose Moskowitz Miller, he spent most of his life in Yorkville in Manhattan around the Upper East Side. After finishing the New York City High School of Commerce in 1925, he earned a BCS in Business Administration from New York University in 1931. Already as a young teenager, Miller gained valuable work experience in his parents’ paint store on Second Avenue. In his 20s, he set up a successful painting contracting and contractor supply business. As a young man, he ran the New York Paint Dealers Association, which he headed as President in the 1930s.

For over 60 years with his brother Benjamin, Herman Miller headed a successful real estate business under the name of Urban Management Inc. They acquired dozens of commercial and residential buildings in Manhattan and the metropolitan area, among them some well-known New York landmarks. Although most of them were sold in the 1980s, Herman Miller attended to his various businesses until recently. He regularly would go downtown where his office was located. It was his knowledge of the downtown contracting business that was of great help to the ANS when the new building at 140 William Street was first acquired. Herman Miller would personally assist with advice on plumbing or roofing problems when needed.

Herman Miller was a dedicated family man. In 1938, he married Frieda L. Schwartz. The couple had a devoted and close-knit relationship until her death in 1996 and also had two children, Barbara Tancil and Myron Miller. Miller was a devoted grandfather to his five grandchildren and to the wider family clan. An important concern was the educational and professional growth of his children and grandchildren, to which he devoted much time and effort.

As a collector, Herman Miller had an astonishingly broad range of interest, which was not known to many of his fellow-coin collectors. He had an impressive collection of Greek and Roman coins and Renaissance medals, a small part of which ended in the ANS collection. His enthusiasm for collecting went into many different areas, which extended over the years. Watches, clocks, and mechanical instruments, in particular those made in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, were a hobby. He intensively collected and studied medieval illuminated manuscripts as well as Etruscan art and culture.

In his last years of his life, Herman Miller regularly attended meetings at the ANS and the New York Numismatic Club, of which he was a loyal member. Regular outings also included the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which he visited the week before his death. His curiosity in objects and history was quite intense, and although he was not actively collecting at the end of his life, his knowledge of New York buildings or coins was always of interest to others. An ANS Fellow and Patron of the Society, Herman Miller will be much missed by the staff and members of the ANS.

Review: The Pocket Guide to Saint Paul

Peter Lewis and Ron Bolden. The Pocket Guide to Saint Paul: Coins Encountered by the Apostle on his Travels. Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press, 2002. Pb., 202 pp., b/w illus., 4 color pls., 24 maps. ISBN 1-86254-562-6. AU $29.95.

Peter Lewis and Ron Bolden (L. and B. hereafter) have taken the suggestion of forming an ancient coin collection based on the travels of St. Paul, recommended in D. Hendin, Guide to Biblical Coins 4th ed. (2001), pp. 434-437, and attempted to build an interesting and informative book around the topic. The authors can be proud of their success at creating a highly readable account of Paul’s missionary journeys and contemporary coinages, which will be appreciated by anyone with an interest in Biblical numismatics and early Christian history.

The book is divided into 33 chapters, each of which deals with a city, or group of cities, that Paul inhabited or visited during his lifetime (AD 5-62). The first two chapters deal with Paul’s childhood homes in Tarsus and Jerusalem while the remainder follow the chronology of his missionary journeys as recounted in the New Testament book of The Acts of the Apostles. Within each chapter L. and B. adopt a manner similar to that of the ancient geographers and travel writers Strabo and Pausanias for the presentation of the cities, providing a smorgasbord of historical, archaeological, and mythological information before discussing the local coinage and the specific details of Paul’s ministry. In addition to mining the ancient sources for background, the authors also make use of modern tour guides, including the popular Lonely Planet series, in order to give some indication of what the modern traveler might find when visiting the lands once evangelized by Paul.

An ingenious feature of the book is the way that L. and B. have chosen to treat the Provincial coins that Paul may have seen and used on his travels. Not only are all of the coins well illustrated and thoroughly described, with frequent detailed analysis of the types and historical commentary, but often they also serve as springboards for discussion of Pauline theology. For example, the titles, “Lover of his People” and “King of Kings,” which appear on the first century coinages of Nabataean and Parthian kings, respectively, are connected to similar epithets used by Paul to describe Jesus. Likewise, the Panathenaic prize amphora depicted below the owl on some Provincial coins of Athens are a springboard to discuss Paul’s metaphor of Christians as athletes training for a victory over death (1 Cor. 9:24-25), while the shields found on bronzes of the Macedonian Koinon provide the opportunity to comment upon Paul’s description of the Armor of God (1 Thess. 5:8) and the Shield of Faith (Eph. 6:16). Although it is highly doubtful that the coins ever directly prompted Paul in the development of his Christian theology, as the authors would like to suggest, the linkage between images and terminology in the Apostle’s writings and those found on contemporary coinage is very interesting, serving to illustrate the profound influence exerted on Paul by his cultural and historical milieu. To the present reviewer’s knowledge, The Pocket Guide represents the first time that coins and the ideas that their types convey have been added to the list of Hellenistic influences on Paul’s theology.

Unfortunately, while L. and B. were well advised to follow their interest in exploring the travels of Paul and the coinage that he may have seen on his journeys, they and their readers could have benefited greatly if they had sought additional academic guidance. The Pocket Guide is an entertaining and occasionally thought provoking book to read if it is taken as a work of popular numismatic literature, however, it suffers greatly if we try to hold it up to its pretensions as a scholarly work.

As with many recent popularly produced numismatic works (e.g., see ANS Magazine 2 [2002], p. 52) there is a surprising reliance on out of date references, which have often been superseded by more recent work. For example, the authors’ understanding of the production and meaning of local coinage in the Provinces appears to be based on outmoded and largely abandoned theories. We are told that Caligula himself chose Ilium to mint RPC 2312, depicting Roma and the Senate, because of the Roman claim of descent from the Trojan hero, Aeneas (p. 105). Likewise, Athens is said to have had a special exemption from placing the head of the Emperor on its coinage (p. 126).

The latter remark follows the late 19th/early 20th century belief that some Greek cities in the Roman period had so-called quasi- or pseudo-autonomous status, signaled by the right to leave the Imperial portrait off the local coinage. However, recent study has shown that quasi-autonomy is in most cases a red herring and the presence or absence of the Imperial portrait is no secure indicator of special rights (see K. Butcher, Roman Provincial Coins: An Introduction to the Greek Imperials [1988], pp. 29-31). Further research also tends to suggest that the reverse type featuring Roma and the Senate was not dictated by the Emperor, but rather devised by the Ilians, perhaps in an attempt to express their loyalty and ingratiate themselves with the Roman government. Roma and the Senate appeared separately on contemporary coins of Ephesus, Cercina, Alexandria, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Pergamum, Thessalonica, Italica, Cnossus, Smyrna, Lampsacus, Miletus, and Aezani, yet none of these cities were closely connected with the Roman foundation myth. The problem with out of date sources also comes through in some of the mythological discussion, where, for example, we hear of Apollo reflecting the “brightest side of the Grecian mind” (p. 107) and Athena as an earth goddess (p. 128). Both of these examples are indicative of old Romantic and elemental approaches to Greek mythology that are now largely abandoned by classicists.

The vast majority of the coins mentioned in the book are illustrated with excellent images, primarily reproduced from the photographs in RPC, and discussed with clarity, thus making The Pocket Guide to Saint Paul an excellent resource for those interested in following the course of Paul’s travels through the coinage. Unfortunately, in many cases, when the authors attempt to step beyond their source material and promote their own new interpretations they are prone to assumption and flights of fancy. Throughout, we hear of coins that Paul must have seen and thought about, although the truth is that we cannot say for sure, based on the literary evidence, how much Paul concerned himself with coins at all. He is rarely mentioned dealing with matters of money in either The Acts of the Apostles or The Acts of SS. Paul and Thecla. There are certainly no grounds to support the authors’ radical and somewhat disturbing views concerning the Claudian bronzes produced at Ephesus. On p.154 we are told that, “It is important for numismatists to recognize which coins Paul probably touched because anything that touched Paul’s skin has miraculous healing powers…Of course the more worn the specimen the more likely it is to have come in contact with Paul.” The latter statement fails from a logical perspective, since wear on a coin simply indicates that it was handled over a period of time and does nothing to tell us the identities of the handlers. However, the preceding statement is of more serious concern because it gives special status, and therefore possible inflated market value, to Claudian bronzes without any reasonable justification. Since there is no way to know from the account in The Acts of the Apostles, or any other literary or archaeological source, whether Paul ever actually touched any coins issued under Claudius during his stay at Ephesus, it seems irresponsible to suggest that such coins (and especially those in poor condition) might really be Pauline relics with possible miraculous powers.

This extreme view that Claudian bronzes of Ephesus are likely to have been touched by Paul is indicative of the authors’ constant desire to directly connect particular coins with Paul or other New Testament figures. To this end they cannot resist restating L.’s controversial theory concerning the true identity of the Tribute Penny mentioned at Mark 12:15-17, although the problem has more to do with the ministry of Jesus than the missionary work of Paul. They suggest that this famous coin was not a denarius of Tiberius (RIC I, 30) or Augustus (RIC I, 207), as is normally assumed, but rather an extremely rare Syrian tetradrachm of Tiberius (RPC 4161). This view is certainly plausible, as Syrian tetradrachms circulated much more widely in first century Judaea than Roman denarii, but plausibility does not constitute proof. The argument is supported by the claim that denarii did not circulate in Judaea because they apparently did not circulate in neigboring Syria (p. 18). However, the occasional finds in Jerusalem and the 164 denarii (including many examples of RIC I, 207) in the Mount Carmel Hoard of 1966, mentioned on pp. 18 and 20, indicate that Roman Imperial silver was not as completely excluded from Judaea as the authors would like to believe. Thus it was probably a little premature to label fig. 9, depicting RPC 4161, as “the actual Tribute Penny.” Instead, it might have been more prudent for L. and B. to advance RPC 4161 as another likely candidate for the title of Tribute Penny, since the Syrian tetradrachm has just as reasonable and tenuous a claim as the Roman denarii.

As much as we would like to be able to know the Tribute Penny’s true identity, the fact is that it is not at all possible to be certain about exactly which coin the Pharisees and Herodians presented to Jesus in the famous episode of Mark’s Gospel. Without knowing what they had in their purses that day in Jerusalem we are only left with educated guesswork concerning the coin involved in the story. Chance and the marketplace could have put either of the denarii candidates, just as easily as a Tiberian tetradrachm, or some other silver coin naming the Emperor, into the hands of Jesus’ interlocutors. Because a complete description of the Tribute Penny’s types was superfluous to Mark’s purpose in writing, it seems unlikely that it will ever be possible to be certain which of the several candidates should be considered “the actual Tribute Penny.”

Despite its various problems, The Pocket Guide to Saint Paul is a well-written and illustrated guide to the coinage that circulated in the Greek East around the time of Paul’s missionary travels that helps to reveal the Apostle and his thought as products of the world in which he lived. Those with an interest in Biblical history and numismatics will certainly enjoy following Paul through the pages of this book and being introduced to the coins of the 1st century AD. The authors should certainly be commended for the willingness of their spirit to persevere in presenting the journey of Paul through the lens of numismatics. The present reviewer only wishes that the flesh of some of the arguments were not so weak.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Guide for Coins Commonly Found at Anatolian Excavations

Kenneth W. Harl, Guide for Coins Commonly Found at Anatolian Excavations: Byzantine (A.D. 498-1282). Ancient Numismatics Series 7. Istanbul: Archaeology and Art Publications, 2001. 48 pp. b/w illus. ISBN 975-6561-01-7. $12.00. Turkish translations by Burçak Delikan are also available from the publisher.

In these two Guides, based on introductory lectures given to student excavators at the site of Metropolis in western Turkey, Kenneth Harl provides a valuable tool that has long been needed by both site directors and the graduate students who do most of the coin identification and cataloguing work for their sites. In a great number of cases, the latter are specialists in other areas of archaeology and have little or no numismatic background. On occasion, the coins found in the course of excavation may represent the first direct exposure to ancient coinage for such inexperienced field numismatists. However, they may now take some comfort from the information collected together in Harl’s introductory Guides.

Despite the Roman Provincial bronze issue of Caracalla depicted on the cover of the Roman Guide, the subject of this book is actually Roman Imperial coinage from the introduction of the antoninianus denomination to the abolition of the late Roman denominational system under Anastasius I. The Byzantine Guide carries on with the coinage of the Anastasian reforms and concludes with the billon aspra trachea of the Nicean Empire. In both works the greatest emphasis is placed on the low value coins that appear most frequently as finds on archeological sites. Roman AE 4s or Byzantine folles were often dropped by their owners in antiquity and never recovered because of their low value. Much more effort would have been expended to retrieve similarly lost gold solidi, nomismata, and hyperpyra, because of their high value. Thus these coins are rarely uncovered in the course of excavation outside of hoard contexts. An introduction is provided for each of the main Roman and Byzantine denominations, including their distinguishing features (i.e., radiate vs. laureate portraits, AE sizes, value mark, etc.) and historical context. However, a few additional sentences describing the phenomenon of barbarous radiates might have been warranted in the Roman Guide, particularly for those unfamiliar with this class of coin. They are dismissed primarily as a feature of western Roman sites, with some examples also appearing in Anatolia, giving the impression that archaeologists in Turkey should not expect to see much of them. However, Gallo-Roman imitations do appear, and the CONSECRATIO types of Claudius II Gothicus are not uncommon (See for example, D.J. MacDonald, “Aphrodisias and Currency in the East, A.D. 259-305,” AJA 78 (1974), pp. 279-286, and T.V. Buttrey, A. Johnston, K.M. MacKenzie and M.L. Bates, Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 93-94). A fuller description is provided for the similarly imitative Arab-Byzantine coinage of the seventh century AD, although excavators in western and central Turkey are likely to deal with many more barbarous radiates than Arab-Byzantine issues.

Along with the helpful introductions appear a variety of lists and charts that will be indispensable to new field numismatists. These provide key information on such important topics as the meaning of mintmarks used by the Roman and Byzantine empires, how to read Byzantine regnal years, and how to differentiate between late Roman AE sizes. Harl also gives lists of common obverse legends for both series that can be valuable in piecing together the identity of badly worn coins in the field. These lists can be supplemented by the thorough inscriptional indices of major catalogues like RIC and Dumbarton Oaks. It may also be worth noting that several websites now offer search engines for partially preserved Roman obverse inscriptions. The search engine at is currently the most complete that this reviewer has seen on the internet. Commercial software for partial legend searches is also available. Such tools can be a great time saver when one is dealing with large quantities of heavily damaged Roman material.

Line drawings are provided in order to acquaint students with some of the basic coin designs, and to give them a feel for Roman and Byzantine coinage. However, the drawings should not be used for anything but the most basic of identifications. The plates of the major catalogues must be used for specific and detailed identification.

One feature of the books that will be especially useful for those unfamiliar with the study of ancient coins is the presentation of the bibliography. Not only are the major references and background articles listed, as one would expect, but they are keyed to particular chapters of the text for easy reference. For example, RIC IV and V, and other works relating to the identification and study of antoniniani are provided at the end of the chapter in which Harl describes this denomination. Likewise, Dumbarton Oaks III, parts 1 and 2 and related material appear at the end of the chapter on the miliaresia and folles of the Isaurian, Amorian and Macedonian dynasties. By breaking up the bibliography between chapters in this manner, the author makes it easier for the numismatic neophyte to find the works required to make a competent coin identification in the field.

The bibliographies go well beyond the basic reference material likely to be found in most site libraries, including an assortment of articles that have appeared in various numismatic and archaeological journals. Thus, unless one’s “dig house” happens to have a good run of the American Journal of Numismatics, the Numismatic Chronicle, etc., the most efficient use of the Guides would be to issue them to students in the months before departure to the excavation site, thereby allowing them to look up the articles and benefit from their contents. Having some numismatic background before arrival at the site also prepares students to wade right into the excavated material upon arrival at the site, which is often a necessity thanks to backlogs of coins from previous seasons.

Although the bibliographies are excellent for those new to the enterprise of identifying Roman and Byzantine coins in the field, there are two additional works that should probably be added both to the lists and to the collections of “dig house” numismatic references. For late Roman coinage, G. Bruck, Die spätrömische Kupferprägung (Graz, 1961), is indispensable with its thorough illustration of all major types and inscriptional variants. This work is especially helpful when dealing with poorly preserved specimens, as often happens on archaeological sites. Thanks to the illustrations it is often possible to identify a heavily damaged coin through a small fragment of the preserved type. For Byzantine bronzes, Speedy Identification of Early Denominationally Marked Byzantine Bronzes (Tehachapi, CA, 1990), privately produced by the author, C.D. Clark, is also useful for making initial identifications of folles and their fractions. These kinds of books allow the inexperienced field numismatist to get some idea of what material he or she is dealing with, before moving on to the RICs and Dumbarton Oaks for detailed identification.

In a perfect world, where no one is constrained by concerns of time or budget, one might recommend that prospective field numismatists from North American institutions receive advance training by attending the ANS Summer Seminar. However, until the day comes when this would be practical, Kenneth Harl has provided excavation directors and their field numismatists with a solid introduction to the material that they can expect to uncover on sites in Turkey. We look forward to the future volumes in the series dealing with Greek coinage and hoards.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Riječke i Trsatske zavjetne medalje, medaljice i medaljoni

Julijan Dobrinić, Riječke i Trsatske zavjetne medalje, medaljice i medaljoni/ Medaglie, medagliette e medaglioni ex voto di Fiume e Tersatto. Rijeka: Dobrinić & Dobrinić/ Fintrade & Tours, 2001. 95 pp. color and b/w illus. ISBN 953-6603-02-0. 35,00 Euro.

Although the American Numismatic Society and other North American institutions include religious medals in their respective collections (the ANS holdings include some 200 such medals), it would not be improper to say that they are a largely untapped resource for the study of religious and cultural history. However, there has long been European interest in this material, especially in countries with large Catholic populations, like France, Germany and especially Italy. Thanks to Julijan Dobrinić, who has been studying and publishing the religious medals associated with the Croatian shrines in the of Rijeka (Fiume) and Trsat (Tersatto) for several years, we now have a complete catalogue with extensive historical commentary on these interesting medal series of the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries.

The book is divided into four major sections, the first of which is an essay (pp. 9-25) by Igor Žic detailing the religious history of Rijeka and Trsat from the great plague epidemic of 1599 to the coming of Napoleon in 1796. In these pages, the reader is introduced to the development of the local Franciscan and Jesuit communities and the roles that their members played in promoting the veneration of the miraculous crucifix housed in the Church of St. Vitus in Rijeka and the important Marian shrine at Trsat. The revival of strong interest in these popular religious institutions in the 18th century is placed in the context of the Counter-Reformation policies pursued in the Hapsburg Empire. Photographs of the interior and exterior of St. Vitus’ Church complement Žic’s introduction.

In the second part (pp. 29-35), Dobrinić offers an account of the miraculous local legends that inform the typology of the medals. The main type for medals of Rijeka depicts a crucifix with a scene of the city harbor in the background. According to tradition, in 1296 a local man named Petar Lončarić, enraged at his own bad luck at gambling, cursed and threw stones at the crucifix, thereby causing it to bleed. In response to this sacrilege, the earth was said to have swallowed up Lončarić on the spot.

The main type for medals of Trsat is an image of the Virgin and Child, known as Our Lady of Grace of Trsat, and based upon an icon said to have been painted by St. Luke. This icon was believed to have miraculous powers and is connected with Loreto in Italy, where angels were thought to have deposited the Nazarene house of the Holy Family in 1294. Local legend holds that the house was first carried from Nazareth to Trsat in 1291 in order to save it from desecration at the hands of the Mamluks, and that it was later moved to Loreto. Depictions of the translation of the house to Trsat appear on three of the medals (2.3.1-2, 2.4.1) in the catalogue. The people of the region were so despondent at the removal of the house from Trsat that in 1367 Pope Urban V sent them the icon of Our Lady of Grace, which had originally been housed at Loreto. The shared miraculous experience of Italian Loreto and Croatian Trsat as depicted on the medals make Riječke i Trsatske zavjetne medalje, medaljice i medaljoni an excellent companion volume to F. Grimaldi, Argentieri medagliari orafi a Loreto (1977).

The third part (pp. 39-60) of the book groups the various medals by city and type and discusses notable features, such as the use of Fluminis Sancti Viti as the Latin name of Rijeka, or the reconstruction of the extensive Latin abbreviations on some of the medals of Trsat. He also remarks on the probable dates of issue, which in most cases hover around 1796 for medals of Rijeka and 1891 for medals of Trsat.

A catalogue of 32 medals comprises the final section (pp. 63-94). Along with descriptions of the types as well as data on the previous publications and collections in which they can be found, Dobrinić provides full color images of the individual medals, with the exception of nos. 1.2.2, an anniversary medal of Rijeka, and 2.1.3, a medal of Our Lady of Grace, both of which are known from early 20th century collections in Vienna, but are now lost. For these, the black and white photographs that appeared in R.V. Höfken, “Fiumaner Weihemünzen,” MÖGMM 6 (1910), pp. 167-170, have been used.

In addition to the obvious religious interest of the medals, they also provide valuable material for the study of cultural and civic history. Two of the Rijeka medals (1.2.1-2) depicting the crucifix of St. Vitus’ Church were certainly produced in 1796 in connection with the 500-year anniversary of its miracle, and a third (1.1.1), pairing the crucifix type with a reverse portrait of St. Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order, is probably also associated with the same event. The Jesuits received the old Church of St. Vitus as their headquarters in Rijeka and rebuilt it as an impressive baroque structure during the period 1638-1744. Similarly, the majority of the 19th century medals depicting Our Lady of Grace of Trsat and the crucifix of St. Vitus’ Church can be connected with the celebration of the 600-year anniversary of the deposition of the Nazarene house at Trsat, which fell on May 10, 1891.

Two medals (4.1.1-2) pairing the crucifix of St. Vitus’ Church with Our Lady of Passau, rather than the usual Our Lady of Grace type, are also included in the catalogue and excite some interest from the perspective of 18th century cultural history. The author argues that the medals were probably produced in Germany and reflect the influence of the shrines at Rijeka and Trsat and their medallic iconography. He suggests that in this case the image of Our Lady of Grace was probably replaced by Our Lady of Passau to reflect local German religious sensibilities. The crucifix type, although certainly derived from the medals of Rijeka, may have been interpreted as an image of one of the many other miraculous crucifixes venerated in Germany. Although there is no attempt made to date 4.1.2, Dobrinić assigns 4.1.1 to the 17th or 18th century. However, the reasons for this early dating are somewhat unclear since neither the crucifix (1.1.1, 1.2.1-2) nor the combined crucifix/Our Lady of Grace medals (, upon which the Passau medals appear to have been modeled, are dated before the 18th century.

The importance of the decision to produce Riječke i Trsatske zavjetne medalje, medaljice i medaljoni in a dual language format rather than only in Croatian, a language not well known in the West, should not be underestimated. By including a parallel Italian text translated by Melita Sciucca, the work has been made accessible to a much wider reading audience than it might otherwise have had. It is this reviewer’s hope that more Croatian, and other Slavic-language numismatic authors, might consider a similar format for their respective works and therefore extend the knowledge of their numismatic heritage abroad. It has always been unfortunate that important works, such as I. Dolenec, Hrvatska Numizmatika (1991), etc., have been largely unavailable to the North American and Western European audience because of the difficulties of language. Julijan Dobrinić has provided a detailed look into the development of local Croatian religious traditions and the medals associated with them that will no doubt be of interest to cultural historians and students of religious medals. The accessibility of his text has the special value of allowing non-Croatian speaking scholars the opportunity to share his insights into the medals of Rijeka and Trsat and to understand their place in the larger picture of European religious medal production in the 18th and 19th centuries.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Review: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Coins in the Museum at Amasya

Stanley Ireland. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Coins in the Museum at Amasya (Ancient Amaseia), Turkey. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication No. 33/ British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph No. 27. London: Royal Numismatic Society, 2000. 124 pp., 61 b/w pls. Hb. ISBN 0901405-53-1.

Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Coins in the Museum at Amasya represents the third volume in an ambitious project of the Royal Numismatic Society and the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara to publish the numismatic contents of relatively obscure provincial museums in Turkey. This work is particularly important for archaeologists and historians because these collections are mostly composed of locally found material and therefore can provide a snapshot of the circulating coins of individual regions in various periods. Such collection publications are especially important for field numismatists working at sites in Turkey, as they offer a good indication of the types of coins that can be expected in a given region.

The local character of the Amasya Museum holdings is highlighted by the fact that the majority (85%) of the Greek and Roman Provincial coins are issues of Pontus and the neighboring regions of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. In these regions, the collection is particularly strong on large bronzes of the Commune Ponti (nos. 79-257), civic issues of Amisos (nos. 264-1249), Neocaesarea (nos. 1301-1380), Amastris (nos. 1422-1488) and Sinope (nos. 1490-1625), and the silver issues of Cappadocian Caesarea (nos. 1787-1953). The remaining 15% of Greek and Roman Provincial coins is primarily made up of coins struck at various Anatolian mints, with a few unexpected issues of Armenian, Syrian, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian kings and cities adding some extra spice to the collection. The Thracian (nos. 42-48) and Bosporan (nos. 50-55) material is not especially surprising since Pontus was connected to these regions through the Black Sea grain trade. An Athenian New Style tetradrachm (no. 49) is the only coin in the collection to have originated at a mint in mainland Greece.

The Roman Imperial coinage in the museum indicates a reliance on mints located outside of the immediate area for circulating silver coinage. Most of the denarii are from Rome, but under the Severans some of the silver comes from Syrian mints (Emesa and Laodicea ad Mare). Some sense of the regionalism that we noted for the Greek and Roman Provincial issues returns under Valerian (AD 253-60), whose antoniniani (nos. 2262-66) were all produced at mints in Asia Minor. The heavy reliance on Asia Minor continued until the reign of Claudius Gothicus (AD 268-70), when suddenly Syrian Antioch became the main supplier of silver to the area around Amaseia. Antioch remained the main source for Imperial coin, assisted by Tripolis, and to a much lesser extent, Rome and Cyzicus until the reorganization of the Imperial mint system under Diocletian (AD 284-305). During the period of the Tetrarchy most of the European and eastern mints are represented in the collection, but under the house of Constantine and later Roman emperors, the Anatolian mints of Constantinople, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and Antioch emerged as the main suppliers of Imperial coinage to Pontus. The northern location of the Anatolian mints must have made them the obvious sites from which to supply the region.

We may detect a similar regional flavor in the mints identified for the early Byzantine material in the collection. The bulk of the coinage around Amaseia also appears to have been supplied by the northern mints of Constantinople and Nicomedia, with additional coinage coming from the mints of Cyzicus, Cherson, and Antioch. However, unlike the late Roman Imperial coinage, no Byzantine issues of European (except Constantinople) mints, or those of Africa, appear in the Amasya Museum collection. It is also notable that with the exception of a rogue hyperpyron (no. 4560) of John II (AD 1118-43), an overstrike of Michael VII (AD 1071-8) marks the chronological limit of the museum’s Byzantine holdings, no doubt reflecting the collapse of Byzantine authority in Pontus in the late 11th century. In AD 1071 the Byzantine army was shattered by the Seljuk Turks at Manzikert near Lake Van, thereby leaving the region and all of Anatolia open to Turkish invasion and occupation. Anatolia was never recovered. Although restrictions of space and historical scope prevented their inclusion, it would have been interesting to see the continuation of the Pontic numismatic chronicle into the post-Manzikert period through the museum’s “considerable collection” of Seljuk, Mongol, and Ottoman coins.

One of the great benefits of producing a collection catalogue of a lesser-known museum, such as that of Amasya, is that it provides the cataloguer with an opportunity to discover previously unpublished types and variants. Ireland does not disappoint in this respect, providing descriptions and photographs of several formerly unknown coins in the Hellenistic, Roman Provincial and Roman Imperial series. The most notable of these new coins are five late Hellenistic issues of uncertain mints of Pontus, Paphlagonia or Bithynia (nos. 1641-1644), four Antonine and Severan bronzes (nos. 1381-1385) tentatively assigned to Neocaesarea, as well as issues of Julia Domna and Marcus Aurelius from Zela (no. 1409) and Nicaea (no. 1638), respectively. A CONSERVATOR MILITVM aurelianianus (no. 2401) of Tacitus (AD 275-6) in the Amasya Museum collection is also unlisted in Roman Imperial Coinage.

An especially intriguing new coin is a Hellenistic bronze (no. 1976) with the types of Zeus head r. and eagle l. on wreath, which the author attributes to an unknown Seleucid king. This identification is reasonably based on the fact that the royal title (but not the personal name) can be read in the upper field and an anchor appears in the left field. However, the typology of the eagle and wreath, and the use of an inscription curving around the edge of the reverse, rather than written in straight lines, are both unusual for Seleucid coinage. Thus, it is tempting to suggest that this may actually be a new coin of the kings of Commagene, who frequently used the anchor symbol as a sign of their Seleucid inheritance. The possibility also exists that the anchor symbol may have no Seleucid connection and that the coin may be a royal Pontic issue. The types of Zeus and eagle on wreath are not entirely unlike the Zeus and eagle on thunderbolt that appear on the civic bronze coinages of Amisos (nos. 367-69, 1209-33) and Sinope (nos.1619-24) in the 1st century BC.

The Amasya collection will be of interest to students of Greek and Roman Provincial countermarks, particularly those of the Pontic region (nos. 35, 61-66, 71, 109-10, 196, 254, 263, 1244) and Cappadocia (1926-27, 1931, 1937). Unfortunately, the countermarks are not always as thoroughly described as they might be and occasionally erroneous descriptions appear. Such mistakes as there are may be partially attributed to the poor preservation of some of the coins. Fortunately, close comparison with similar countermarked examples in the ANS collection allows us to offer a few corrections to the descriptions. For example, the three countermarks appearing on the obverse of no. 63, a bronze issue of Pontus from the late 2nd century BC (SNG BM 972-5), described as “rose and uncertain objects,” are actually a helmet (the rose?), a thunderbolt, and a facing gorgoneion, each in an incuse circle. The gorgoneion countermark reappears on no. 65 as an “amphora” and can also be made out as the “uncertain” countermarks of nos. 61 and 62. Similarly, the “round countermark” on an Alexander drachm (no. 35) is clearly identifiable as the “Apollo head r. with K” countermark, indicative of Calchedon in the period c. 235-225 BC (see M. Thompson, “A Countermarked Hoard from Büyükçekmece,” ANSMN 6 [1954], pp. 18-34 and F. de Callataÿ, “Un trésor de drachmes aux types d’Alexandre le Grand conservé au Cabinet des Médailles à Bruxelles,” RBN 129 [1983], pp. 58-60). The descriptions of the Roman Provincial countermarks are generally much more thorough and include the relevant references to GIC. In addition to the Greek and Provincial material, a countermarked as of Augustus (no. 2094) and two countermarked Tiberian dupondii of Commagene (nos. 2107 and 2110) can be found in the section on Roman Imperial coins.

Also of related interest will be the large number of overstruck Byzantine folles in the cabinets of the Amasya Museum. These coins fall into three main groups: 18 issues of Justin II, Tiberius Constantine and Phocas overstruck with the types of Heraclius (AD 610-41), 26 Class A1, B, C and D anonymous folles of the tenth and eleventh centuries AD overstruck on earlier imperial and anonymous issues (26 examples), and 30 examples of anonymous folles overstruck with the types of Constantine X (AD 1059-67). A single follis overstruck by Romanus IV (AD 1068-71) and another by Michael VII (AD 1071-8) rounds out the collection of Byzantine bronze with multiple types.

In addition to providing numismatists with a valuable overview of the types of coins that circulated in the Pontic region over the course of more than 1500 years, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Coins in the Museum at Amasya also highlights the immense importance of provenance data. Unfortunately, the Amasya Museum inventory ledgers did not always contain information on find spots, often making it difficult to be sure whether foreign coins in the collection should be attributed to ancient trade patterns, or whether they simply reflect purchases by the museum from both legitimate and questionable (16 modern forgeries are catalogued) coin sellers, some of whom may have come from outside of the immediate region. For example, the relatively large selection of bronzes from Syrian Antioch under the Seleucids (nos. 1965, 1972-5) and the Romans (nos. 1977-89) is somewhat unexpected in northern Anatolia. However, the coins that traveled furthest to reach Pontus, two bronzes of Ptolemy IV (180-145 BC) from the Alexandrian mint (nos. 1996-7), may possibly be linked to the trade connections that the Ptolemies maintained with Pontus and other grain exporting states on the coast of the Black Sea. However, without additional information their sequential accession numbers (75.23.3 and 75.23.4) make it uncertain whether the coins were locally found as a group or purchased from a dealer as part of a lot composed elsewhere. Out of the 4,568 individual coins described by Ireland, only two aurelianiani (nos. 2384, 2392) of Aurelian (AD 270-5) and one (no. 2412) of Probus (AD 267-82) have provenance data. They were all found at Kuliçtepe near Amasya in 1974.

The author should be commended for his valiant attempt to catalogue the material contained in the display cases of the Amasya Museum, but which he was not permitted to inspect outside of the glass. The display coins primarily represent a sampling of local Hellenistic silver and bronze issues, late Roman solidi and AE coins, as well as Byzantine folles. Several hoards are also on display in the museum, including hoards of Alexander drachms, Pontic bronze (88 pieces), Constantinian AE coins, and Byzantine anonymous folles (143 pieces). It is unfortunate that Ireland was unable to gain better access to the display material so that he could list the individual coins of each hoard. However, for some further commentary readers may resort to the brief discussion in “Some Groups of Roman Coins in Amasya Museum, Turkey,” NC 158 (1998), pp. 295-8.

Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Coins in the Museum at Amasya is a worthy successor to the previous volumes in the RNS/BIAA project to publish the provincial collections of Turkish museums, and it is hoped that through the high quality of this catalogue and the other monographs in the series, this type of project might also gain some popularity in other parts of the world. One suspects that there are many small regional collections in Europe and the Middle East that could also benefit from proper publication. The numismatic community at large can only profit from this kind of work.

—Oliver D. Hoover

Numismatics​.org (Spring 2003)

by Sebastian Heath

In this column I will describe one method for making one to one images of coins using a digital camera. This is very important for the ANS because we frequently fill orders for black and white prints. We use a digital camera to take the pictures but the customers expect the images to be printed at the original size of the coins they are interested in.

Before I begin step-by-step instructions, some background is necessary. As I have mentioned before, the ANS is building up an archive of digital images of its objects. The default resolution of these images is 600 dpi, or “dots per inch.” “600 dpi” means that for every square inch of an object, 360,000 dots — roughly equivalent to the computer graphics term ‘pixel’ – are used to represent it.

To put these numbers in context, an image of a U.S. quarter, which is approximately .95” in diameter, would be 570 by 570 pixels in size, for a total of about 255,127 pixels devoted to the representation of the coin. One conclusion that stands out from this number is that the resolution of today’s multi-megapixel cameras is easily able to meet the needs of most numismatic photography.

It is also important to remember, however, that cameras have no inherent resolution in terms of the real world. At the ANS, our Nikon D1x takes pictures that are 3008 wide and 1960 pixels high. If I were to fill a frame with a quarter, the resolution would be 2063 dpi (1960/.95). If I pull back so that the quarter fills only half the height of the image, the resolution would be just over 1030. When I am taking pictures of coins, medals and other objects, I am constantly moving the camera up and down so that the resolution of the resulting images is often changing for each object I shoot. The rest of this column will show how I resize every image to 600 dpi.

The first step in this process is to determine the resolution of the image that comes off the camera. Figure 1 — a screen dump from Adobe Photoshop running under MacOS X – shows how to do this. You can see that there is a scale in the image and that I have selected a part of that scale one inch high. Just above the coin is the “Info” box which tells me that the selection is 705 pixels high. This establishes that the real world resolution of this image is 705 pixels.

Figure 1

Figures 2 and 3 illustrate how to resize an image. The “Image Size” menu-item is on Photoshop’s “Image” and shows the dialog box that is in the middle of these figures. The first step is to tell Photoshop that this image is 705 pixels. We do this by unclicking the “Resample Image” check-box, typing “705” into the “Resolution” field, and clicking “OK”.

Figure 2

Figure 3

The next step is to change the resolution to the ANS standard of 600 dpi. As figure 3 shows, we bring up the “Image Size” dialog box again. This time the “Resample Image” check-box is checked and we have entered “600” into the resolution field. Clicking “OK” will cause Photoshop to resize this image from 705 dpi to 600. By way of confirmation, figure 4 shows that the rectangle selecting an inch on the scale is now 600 pixels high. Photoshop, as well most of other graphics programs, will use this information to determine the size of the image on the printed page.

Figure 4

The end result of this process is seen in figure 5, which shows the coin, a late fifth century B.C. Syracusan decadrachm, printed at its original size. Of course, color versions of these images are stored in the ANS’ digital archive as 600 dpi TIFF files and the coin can also be seen on the Society’s web-site.

Figure 5

From the Collections Manager (Spring 2003)

by Elena Stolyarik

Five objects from the Society’s collection were lent to the Nassau County Museum of Art in Roslyn Harbor (Long Island), New York. The exhibition entitled The World of Theodore Roosevelt was on display until February 16, 2003. The materials from the exposition illustrated examples of the enormous body of political art and graphics that Roosevelt particularly inspired. Gold currency designed by Augustus Saint Gaudens and Bela Lyon Pratt, as well as the medal by George Morgan and Charles Barber picturing Roosevelt—all from the ANS collection—played a valuable role in the exhibit. Thousands of visitors enjoyed the stylistic variety of the objects symbolizing Roosevelt’s belief in the American values of fairness, freedom and justice.

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural bronze medal, 1905, Morgan/Barber (1985.90.22)

Theodore Roosevelt Special Bronze Medal, 1905 (1958.157.6)

US $20 gold, 1907 (1907.999.6)

US $2½ gold, 1908 (1908.14.1)

Masterworks of Saint-Gaudens from the ANS collection, which include two examples of the US $20 gold of 1907 (high and low relief), two US $10 gold pieces of 1907 (one in standard low relief and the other a proof strike with knife rim), the Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural bronze medal of 1905 and the silver Cornish Masque Plaquette of 1905 were included in a special traveling exhibit entitled Augustus Saint-Gaudens. American Sculptor of the Gilded Age. The exhibition was organized by the Trust for Museum Exhibitions (TME), a non-profit museum service organization founded in 1986 by Ann Van Devanter Townsend. The touring exhibition will be on view at the North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina (February 23-May 11, 2003); the Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, New York (June 5-August 3, 2003); the Museum of the American Numismatic Association and the Colorado Springs Fine Art Center, Colorado (August 28-October 26, 2003); the Allentown Art Museum, Pennsylvania (November 20, 2003-January 18, 2004); the Memorial Art Gallery, University of Rochester, New York (February 12-April 11, 2004); Frick Art and Historical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (May 6-July 4, 2004); the Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (July 29-September 26, 2004); the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, Alabama (October 21-January 2, 2004); the Smith College Museum of Art, Northhampton, Massachusetts (January 26-March 20, 2005); the Wichita Art Museum, Kansas (April 15-June 12, 2005); the Center for the Arts , Vero Beach, Florida (July 7-September 5, 2005); and the Munson-Williams Proctor Museum of Art, Utica, New York (September 29-November 27, 2005). The exhibition of approximately 70 objects includes full-sized works and reductions cast in bronze, marble and plaster sculptures, portrait reliefs, cameos and coins designed by Saint-Gaudens, providing an outstanding retrospective of the master’s work.

Cornish Masque Silver Plaquette, 1905 (1961.137.3)

Visitors to the New Orleans Museum of Art will have a great opportunity to examine the important Thomas Jefferson 1801 Silver Inaugural/Commemorative medal from the Society’s collection in the exhibition Jefferson’s America and Napoleon’s France: An Exhibition for the Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial. This exhibition commemorates the bicentennial of the Louisiana Purchase, and will be on display from April 12 through August 31, 2003. The great but little-recognized medal of John Reich, celebrating both Jefferson’s presidency and the 25th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, is probably the first commemorative medal of the United States Mint. Painting, sculpture, works on paper, furniture, decorative arts, and coins, as well as the ANS medal, are all included in this remarkable international show. All of these artifacts reflect the specific relationship between France and the United States at a pivotal moment in history. One of the central themes of this presentation is a comparison of democratic America with Imperial France. The art in the exhibition tells stories, large and small, of the character of two nations, and of the spirited interchange between the French and Americans, which altered the shape of the modern world.

Thomas Jefferson 1801 Inaugural/Commemorative Medal (0000.999.37649)

The medals of Canadian artist Ms. Dora de Pédery-Hunt, this year’s recipient of the ANS J. Sanford Saltus Award for Achievement in the Art of the Medal, have been placed on display in the East Gallery of the Museum in conjunction with the Saltus presentation event. A special exhibit of items from the ANS cabinet, Cast French Medals of the 1800s, has also opened in the same gallery in conjunction with the annual Stephen K. Scher lecture, “The Renaissance of the Cast Medal in 19th Century France,” presented by David Yates. The exhibition will remain on view until late September 2003.

Library News (Spring 2003)

by Francis Campbell

The Francis D. Campbell Library Chair

In recent months, the Library Committee has been very active with publicity and fundraising for a Library Chair, which the Council approved at its October, 2002 meeting. As part of the fundraising effort, a Challenge grant application will be filed with the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), providing donors to the Chair an opportunity to be involved in the matching grant process. Under the Chairmanship of John W. Adams, the Committee will be soliciting donations from major coin and book dealers. To achieve our goal of $2,000,000, we will also approach most of the specialized organizations within the numismatic hobby. The memberships of these organizations know well the importance of the ANS Library and its librarians as a resource for the numismatic community. Therefore, we have the dual objective of securing a minimum of 500 individual contributors. In the paragraphs that follow, old and new friends will find a brief description of the Library, which has been in existence since the Society’s founding in 1858. Much of the text is drawn from a descriptive brochure that the Library Committee is preparing and will disseminate in the near future.

The Library houses one of the world’s most comprehensive collections of numismatic literature, presently numbering some 100,000 items. These include books, periodicals, manuscripts, photographs, pamphlets, auction catalogues, and microforms, all of which are catalogued. In addition to numismatic works, the Library includes a strong general reference collection and a wide selection of non-numismatic periodicals in the areas of archaeology, art history, economic history and other disciplines. Some 170 current periodical titles are received, and approximately 100 dealers regularly send their auction catalogs and fixed price lists to the Library. On average, the Library acquires some 300 books, 200 pamphlets, 600 periodical issues, 300 auction catalogs, and 200 fixed price lists annually. For the past several years, the Library has cataloged approximately 3500 items annually.

In order to maintain consistency in cataloging, the Library employs a computerized “List of Subject Headings for Specialized Collections in Numismatics.” The original list was compiled by the librarians and staff during the period 1978-1987, with funds received in three successive grants awarded by the NEH. The subject heading list grew out of a need to facilitate access to the Library’s holdings and to accommodate the cataloging of thousands of numismatic articles in the periodicals that the Library regularly receives. With the availability of the Library’s catalogue on the Society’s website, consistency in subject assignment assures that those researching specific topics will find the bulk of the material on those topics held by the Library.

With a professional staff of two, the Library presently supports the informational needs of museum staff, ANS membership and the general public through the acquisition, cataloguing and referencing of numismatic publications, domestic and foreign. Society programs, such as the Graduate Seminar in numismatics, require a library collection that will support graduate-level research. The pamphlet collection, consisting primarily of numismatic offprints, along with the library’s extensive current periodical collection, provide both seminar students and visiting readers with the latest findings in numismatic research. The very large holdings of commercial literature, consisting of auction catalogues and fixed price lists, enable individuals to track provenances and price changes for the particular numismatic objects that interest them. These catalogues and lists often include illustrations of the object not to be found elsewhere.

To service its clientele, the Library maintains a core collection of the early works on numismatics as well as the key numismatic references published over the centuries. Many of these works have come from the private numismatic libraries of distinguished numismatists and collectors, including those of Edgar H. Adams, William S. Appleton, Harry W. Bass, Jr., David M. Bullowa, Charles A. Hersh, Archer M. Huntington, Richard Hoe Lawrence, George C. Miles, Herman Miller, Edward T. Newell, Charles K. Panish, Daniel Parish and Isaac F. Wood. Recent archival acquisitions have included the numismatic archives of Virgil M. Brand, the New Netherlands Coin Company, the Garrett and Norweb families, John S. Davenport, the Chapman Brothers’Auction firm, and the John W. Adams Large Cent archives.

Along with physical growth, the Library has had to expand its services and shift the emphasis of its collection development in order to support the Society’s expanded activities and programs. Advances in information technology have also transformed the traditional role of the Library and its librarians. In particular, the Internet now brings the Library’s entire card catalog to the international numismatic community and that community is making increased use of the Library’s resources. Whereas in the past, we were primarily servicing the public via the post and telephone, we now have a daily stream of e-mail inquiries from all corners of the globe. Because our collection is international in scope, those living abroad have found that the ANS Library is able to satisfy many of their research needs, whether those needs involve an antiquarian numismatic work, a current auction catalog, or an obscure article.

Over the years, a succession of dedicated librarians have been responsible for building and maintaining the fine library collection that now forms the Library of the American Numismatic Society. Beginning in 1858 with James D. Foskett, who formed the original collection, the Library included among its other guardians Daniel Parish, Jr., Isaac F. Wood, Richard Hoe Lawrence, Sydney P. Noe, Richard P. Breaden, and Geoffrey H. North. In order to assure that the Society will be able to sustain this fine leadership tradition, the Society is establishing a Chair, which it will name the Francis D. Campbell Library Chair. As many of you know, Frank Campbell has headed the Library since 1975 and has been an employee of the Society since 1958. During his tenure, he has seen the library collection further enriched, new technology introduced, and the reading rooms modernized. However, before he passes the baton to a successor, he would like to see in place a fully funded Library Chair. The Library Committee and the Council are committed to achieving this goal and they feel certain that those of you who have made use of this great Library will want to lend your full support to seeing the goal achieved.

The Society is fortunate in having a Library Committee that demonstrates its interest in the Library through sound advice, energetic encouragement, and thoughtful generosity. Much of the Library’s growth over the years can be traced to the active involvement of committee members. Despite the demands of their own careers and their other numismatic interests, our committee members have always found time to assist the Library.

John Adams, Chairman of the Library Fund

John W. Adams, present Chairman of the Library Committee, is currently the Chairman and CEO of Adams, Harkness & Hill, Inc., a Boston-based investment bank specializing in emerging growth companies. A Fellow of the Massachusetts Historical Society, American Antiquarian Society and our own Society, he has authored numerous articles and three books which have become standard references. His most recent book is Indian Peace Medals of George III. He is also the author of United States Numismatic Literature : Nineteenth Century Auction Catalogs and United States Numismatic Literature : Twentieth Century Auction Catalogs, two volumes that have become essential references on the subject. Forthcoming, is a volume devoted to the medals of John Law.

The other members of the Library Committee, whose names will be familiar to many who take a serious interest in the numismatic scene, are:

Catherine E. Bullowa Harrington E. Manville
Frank Campbell Richard Margolis
Dan Hamelberg Anthony Terranova
David Hendin David Tripp
Wayne Homren Susan Tripp
George F. Kolbe Randolph Zander
Joseph R. Lasser

Anyone wishing to lend their support to this endeavor can make donations payable to the American Numismatic Society, designated for the Francis D. Campbell Library Chair.

Frank Campbell, ANS Librarian