|by Robert Wilson Hoge|
Discussions and Discoveries
It goes without saying that the ANS curatorial staff is kept busy serving the needs of researchers and providing material for publications. Our own work, as I have mentioned previously, is often sparked by requirements to update existing information so as to improve the content of forthcoming texts in articles, books, and exhibitions. I believe these new directions may often be of interest to ANS members, and I try to report some of them here, to give a sense of both our curatorial cabinet activities and their direction.
Quite a few correspondents ask us to examine items that they have discovered, and are eager to obtain comparative data and opinions. Most of the time, this can be accomplished via digital images submitted over the Internet, although occasionally we are asked to examine actual specimens. (The ANS does not provide an authentication or grading service; opinions and observations are unofficial and for informational purposes only.)
Our photographic services are widely known and used. The first-rate digital images taken by our photographer, Alan Roche, are made available for very modest charges. Ordering, information, and invoicing are handled by Dr. Elena Stolyarik, our hard-working collections manager, who also prepares all the paperwork for loan requests and acquisitions as well as maintaining the general accession records.
The Ancient World and Western Asia
As always, the fame and depth of the ANS’s collections of ancient coins draw photo requests and research inquiries from many quarters. As one example, Benedicte Gilman, senior editor of Getty Publications, requested for use in the forthcoming scholarly monograph The Language of the Muses: The Myth of the Roman Copy, by Professor Miranda Marvin, images of a handsome, signed Syracusan tetradrachm (Fig. 1). As another example of this kind of use, Richard E. Doughty, managing editor of Saudi Aramco World, ordered images of a beautiful Carthaginian gold tridrachm for publication in the January/February 2007 issue, for an article called “Barb” (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1. Sicily: Syracuse. AR tetradrachm, c. 410 BC. Tudeer 33; SNG-ANS 26. (ANS 1944.100.55775, bequest of Edward T. Newell) 26 mm.
Fig. 2. Zeugitana: Carthage. AV tridrachm, c. 264-260 BC. Jenkins and Lewis 377. (ANS 1997.9.134, bequest of John D. Leggett Jr.) 22 mm.
Dr. Beryl Barr-Sharar, editor of the American School for Classical Studies in Athens, requested reproduction rights for three Theban staters from the same time period, to be included in a forthcoming book, The Derveni Krater, Masterpiece of Greek Metalwork. This will be the first volume in a projected new series to be published by the school. The three coins include one generously bequeathed to the Society by W. Gedney Beatty (ANS 1941.153.450) and two from the great bequest of Edward T. Newell (ANS 1944.100.19847; ANS 1944.100.19864) (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Boeotia: Thebes. AR stater, c. 456-446 BC. (ANS 1944.100.19847, bequest of Edward T. Newell)
On behalf of Wild Dream Films, Helen Grinstead ordered images of a fine Macedonian tetradrachm of Demetrius Poliorcetes, from the mint of Amphipolis (Fig. 4). As is well known, the ANS holds the premier collection of coinages of the Hellenistic kingdoms, of Alexander the Great and his successors, primarily due to the particular studies in this field that held the attention of E. T. Newell for many years. For use in an upcoming television program on ancient ships (“Ancient Discoveries,” for the History Channel), Grinstead also ordered images of ANS 1967.152.651, an Egyptian silver tetradrachm of Ptolemy IV (221-203 BC).
Fig. 4. Macedonian Kingdom, Demetrius Poliorcetes (306-283 BC). AR tetradrachm, Amphipolis mint. Newell 124. (ANS 1944.100.13789, bequest of Edward T. Newell).
Classical numismatist and conservator Herbert F. Klug was researching an interesting Persian siglos fraction of the kneeling archer type (Fig. 5) that, in the absence of metallurgical analysis, appears on the basis of weight and specific gravity to be an encrusted ancient forgery. It has such a coppery, encrusted look to it that it actually seems as though it could have been intended to be a copper issue, but there do seem to be slight remaining traces of oxidized original silver plating present on the coin, and of course its early date would militate against the occurrence of a genuine copper coinage at that time. This coin may be compared with a single, rare specimen in the ANS cabinet dating to the period of Darius I (c. 510-485 BC), of Carradice Type II (Fig. 6). The metrological data of the two coins are as follows: Klug: weight .738 g, specific gravity 7.94; ANS 1986.78.949: weight .886 g, specific gravity 9.85.
Fig. 5. Persian Empire, temp. Darius I (c. 500-485 BC). AE 1/6 siglos, contemporary counterfeit (fourrée). Carradice type II. (Herbert F. Klug) 7.4 mm.
Fig. 6. Persian Empire, temp. Darius I (c. 500-485 BC). AR 1/6 siglos. Carradice type II. (ANS 1986.78.949, gift of Jonathan P. Rosen) 7.8 mm.
The Society’s magnificent collection of Roman coins is regularly consulted and utilized by scholars for their publications. Along with images of several late Hellenistic coins, Dr. Wendy Cheshire ordered images of coins of Drusilla (ANS 1944.100.47027), Caligula (ANS 1944.100.75470), and Marcus Aurelius (ANS 1944.100.61285), all from the great bequest of Edward T. Newell. Dr. John Alexander Lorbur, assistant professor of classical studies at the University of Mississippi, ordered images of a late Roman Republican coin of Gaius Julius Caesar for use in a future publication (Fig. 7). Another emperor whose coins are perennially sought after as images for publication is Constantine “the Great” (306-337 AD), one of whose issues was requested by Kim Adams, of Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, for use in the multilingual thirteenth edition of Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, by Kleiner and Mamiya. One of Constantine’s early issues while still Caesar, this coin, ANS 1984.146.2004, is a nice example from the mint of Rome celebrating the ruler’s role as preserver of the city.
Fig. 7. Roman Republic, Julius Caesar. AR denarius, African mint, 47-46 BC. The reverse features the legendary Aeneas rescuing his father Anchises and the cultis statue of Pallas Athena from the destruction of Troy. Crawford 458/1. (ANS 1937.158.262, gift of Mrs. R. H. Lawrence, from the collection of Richard Hoe Lawrence)
Working on a future publication of a Sylloge volume covering the coinage of the Kushan Empire in the ANS collection, David Jungward and Joe Cribb requested images of this entire segment of the cabinet—hundreds of coins. While assisting with the coordination of this large-scale effort, curatorial associate Peter Donovan noticed many interesting examples of Kushan coinage, most of which have not been previously published. Among these is a splendid gold fraction of Huvishka, featuring a unique reverse type (Fig. 8).
Fig. 8. Kushan Empire, Huvishka, c. 151-190 AD. AV 1/4 stater (1/4 dinar); axis 12:00; 1.975 g. (ANS 1986.149.14, gift of Marjorie D. Schwarz, from the collection of Herbert F. and Dorothy C. Schwarz) 13 mm.
For inclusion in a forthcoming 2008 sixth-grade social studies textbook by Macmillan McGraw-Hill, Martha Hall, senior photo researcher for Feldman & Associates, ordered images of a pre-Christian gold Aksumite coin of the king Endybis. This important and beautiful specimen is presently on display in our major exhibition “Drachmas, Doubloons, and Dollars,” at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, located just a couple of blocks away from the ANS’s Donald Groves headquarters building (Fig. 9). Although it is not large, the ANS has a fine and important collection of coins of the kingdom of Aksum, including some pieces evidently once in the collection of the early researcher and collector Anzani. The later coinages of Aksum are notable as the world’s first overtly Christian issues.
Fig. 9. Ethiopia: Aksumite Kingdom, Endybis (c. 270? AD). AV unit (tremissis?). Anzani 1. (ANS 1966.22.1, purchase) 17 mm.
For Brill Publishers’ (Leiden) series “Brill’s Inner Asia,” Professor Maria Subtelny, of the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at the University of Toronto, ordered images of a coin for the forthcoming book Timurids in Transition. This piece is a fifteenth-century dirham of the art-loving Timurid Sultan Husayn from the mint of Herat, considered to be the most beautiful of Afghanistan’s ancient cities. Husayn is known to have taken a personal interest in many of the arts, particularly miniature painting and writing in Turkic. The coin was acquired from the Metropolitan Museum of Art after having been on long-term loan to the Society for many years (Fig. 10). Another specimen in the ANS cabinet is from the same reverse die, naming the mint.
Fig. 10. Afghanistan (Khurasan): Timurid Sultanate, Husayn Bayqara (1469-1506). AR dirham, Herat mint, 895 AH (1489/90 AD). Komaroff 1986: pl. 38, 20. (ANS 1974.26.266, purchase, ex Durkee Coll., Metropolitan Museum of Art) 24 mm.
The great ANS collection of American numismatic materials of all kinds consistently draws attention from scholars and publishers. For his research, Jeff Lipsky inquired about and ordered images of the rare “Hogge Money” twopence of Sommers Islands (Bermuda) from the reign of James I (dating between 1616 and 1624). This is one of the series studied in the recently published COAC Proceedings volume (see below). The picture editor of the Weider History Group, Sarah Mock, ordered images of a Continental currency note (denominated in “Spanish Milled dollars”) for publication in the Spring 2007 issue of the Military History Quarterly (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11. United States. Continental Currency 1-dollar note, November 29, 1775, printed by Hall and Sellars. (ANS 1989.44.1, museum exchange) 96 x 73 mm.
Rob Ferguson, an archaeologist with the Atlantic Service Centre of Parks Canada, in Nova Scotia, reported a discovery with which we were able to assist. During excavations in 1988 at the Port La Joye National Historic Site (an Acadian village occupied between 1720 and 1758), Parks Canada recovered a numismatic item with an image of Apollo treading on a dragon. It came from the cellar of a house occupied from 1720 to 1737 by an Acadian settler and for the next seven years by officers of the French garrison (the house was burned by British troops in 1744). This piece was a jeton similar in appearance to a medal of Louis XV in the ANS collection (ANS 1984.30.12, gift of G. M. Golden), which had led Ferguson to contact us. Publishing the finds for Internet distribution, he had sought help elsewhere, even in France, without success. We were pleased to be of assistance and our international editor Oliver Hoover explained the nature and uses of the French jeton issues in detail.
In connection with the Huntington lecture, held in November the evening before the Coinage of the Americas Conference, an important ANS museum specimen was displayed for those in attendance. Dr. Philip Mossman’s talk, entitled “Counterfeiting in Colonial and Pre-Federal America,” described the nuances and documentation of many of the counterfeits issued during that period, including one of Massachusetts, from December 7, 1775, originally designed and engraved by the famous early American silversmith and patriot Paul Revere. We are fortunate to have in the cabinet a rare surviving copper plate used to print a contemporary counterfeit of the 42-shilling denomination note from this issue (Fig. 12).
Fig. 12. United States: Massachusetts. 42-shilling note, December 7, 1775, copper printing plate for circulating counterfeit note, copied from original engraving by Paul Revere. (ANS 1965.59.1, purchase) 77 x 100 mm.
ANS Trustee Peter Tompa encountered a worthwhile example of a circulating contemporary counterfeit of a British halfpenny of George III that might be among those with an American connection. Its interest is further enhanced by the unknown but very likely American countermark observable on the obverse (Fig. 13).
Fig. 13. Great Britain/British American Colonies. George III. AE halfpenny, 1774, contemporary circulating counterfeit, countermarked SB within a dentilated rectangle on the obverse. (Peter Tompa) 28 mm.
While metal detecting, correspondent Edward Holmes found an example of a 1787 Connecticut copper of Miller variety 4.4-C (weight 7.730 g), which he kindly brought to our attention (Fig. 14).
Fig. 14. United States: Connecticut. AE “copper” (“penny”), 1785. Miller 4.4-C. (Edward D. Holmes) 28 mm.
Writing a piece on the infamous “posture photos” that the nefarious Dr. William Sheldon took of college students as part of his studies of the supposed psychological correlations with particular body “types,” John Dollison inquired about the ANS’s ongoing recovery effort involving the early United States large cents that Sheldon stole from the collection around 1950. As most in the numismatic community now know, through his insidious switching of pieces of identical die varieties, the scoundrel was able to remove many of the finest examples of specific issues, sometimes keeping them and sometimes swapping them into the collections of other unsuspecting collectors, whose finer coins he then purloined. Dollison was interested in our recovery effort, which has been very successful in restoring most of the coins thanks to the extraordinary efforts of ANS Trustee Emeritus Eric P. Newman and the help of leading dealers and auctioneers.
Annette Abshire of the National Park Service’s Media Services requested images of several coins for a new brochure project for the Keweenaw National Historic Park: a 1900 Indian head cent, a 1914 cent obverse and, for some unknown reason, the reverse of a 1955 doubled-die obverse cent. Unfortunately, there is no specimen of the latter interesting coin in the ANS cabinet (would any member care to donate one? It would be much appreciated!), but fortunately we were able to suggest that the reverse of any other Lincoln cent from 1918 through 1958 could probably work just as well! In other areas of Americana, several individuals contacted us concerning their numismatic theories and observations. One believed he had found an experimental piece that demonstrated the U.S. Mint’s technique of die preparation and adjustment for half cents in 1802. Another believed he had found evidence for a new variant of the Confederate half dollar.
A Unique Early U.S. Mint Die-trial Discovery
One of the most exciting items to have been brought to my attention is an unprecedented die trial, found in 2006 by Matt Mille (Fig. 15). This surprising and fascinating memento of the early United States mint was found by Mille in downtown Philadelphia while metal detecting near the site of the original mint building and compound. The specimen, a fragment of copper scrap-metal roughly in the shape of the head of a dog (or of a dinosaur?) was recovered from soil in a rubble area, in a vacant lot where modern demolition had occurred. Although patinated and encrusted, the piece showed impressions of obverse and reverse U.S. coin designs. Mille brought his find to my attention for verification and identification.
Fig. 15. United States. AE trial strike for dollar, 1798, Bowers. (Matt Mille)
No corresponding examples of the U.S. Mint’s production process from this time period are known to have survived, although their contemporary occurrence is unquestionable. Numismatic experts David Alexander of Stack’s and Andy Lustig of Smythe joined me in examining this piece and determining it to be an unprecedented find. It warrants a fuller study than can be undertaken here, and will be featured in a future volume of the American Journal of Numismatics. Although it is thoroughly patinated and encrusted, this trial piece shows the die impressions quite distinctly—particularly so in consideration of its thinness.
The Mille die-trial piece is attributable as a striking from a pair of official U.S. Mint dies for a 1798-dated silver dollar of the familiar Draped Bust/Heraldic Eagle type. The obverse and reverse die combination is that of Bowers 116 (obv. 13; rev. N); Bolender 30.
Coinage of the Americas Conference
Several correspondents have inquired about the publications of the Proceedings series of the Coinage of the American Conference (COAC). As is well known, the ANS has an extensive publications program for an organization with such a small staff, and the schedule can be heavy. There was a fairly lengthy unforeseen delay in the completion of the Proceedings volume for the “Caribbean” COAC held in 1999, while a variety of other material has been published. As an update, members may wish to note the following regarding the COAC series specifically:
- The last COAC volume to have been published and distributed was Proceedings No. 14, Circulating Counterfeits of the Americas (2000). COAC 14 was held in 1998. This volume has gained a popular place in early American numismatic research. In it a good number of specimens from the ANS cabinet figure prominently (Fig. 16).
Fig. 16. Spanish Colonial Mexico, Charles III. Circulating counterfeit of AR 2 reales, 1785. F. M. Kleeberg, Counterfeit 2 reales of the bust type, 85A-M10. (ANS 1944.95.9, gift of Abe Kosoff) 29 mm.
- Proceedings No. 15, Money of the Caribbean (2006) has recently been printed and is currently being distributed as of this writing, so previously ordered copies should have arrived by the time members receive this issue of the ANS Magazine. Again, the volume includes significant specimens from the cabinet, typically illustrated for the first time (Fig. 17).
Fig. 17. Bermuda (Sommers Islands), James I. AE 2 pence “Hogge Money,” n.d. (c. 1616-1624). Breen 7. (ANS 1948.49.1, gift of George Hubbard Clapp) 18 mm.
- Two subsequent COACs, “Washingtoniana” (2000) and “Numismatic Errors” (2001), will not have their proceedings published. Some of the formal papers were never submitted, others were substantially published elsewhere, and still others did not warrant serious presentation. The important papers from these two COACs are being published in other ANS formats, such as the American Journal of Numismatics and the Colonial Newsletter.
- The next COAC Proceedings, which we hope to have out in 2007, will be called Proceedings No. 16 and will include papers from the conference held in 2003 and entitled “Our Nation’s Coinage: Varied Origins.” Illustrations of important pieces in the ANS cabinet, among them the scarce and interesting Chalmers series, are also included in this forthcoming work (Fig. 18).
Fig. 18. United States: Maryland. John Chalmers AR 3 pence, Chalmers’ private Annapolis mint, 1783. Breen 1018. (ANS 1950.50.1, Purchase) 13 mm.
- Closely following will be the volume for the 2004 COAC, Medals Illustrating American Colonial History, the Work of C. W. Betts Revisited: The Medal in America, Vol. III, which will be called Proceedings No. 17. We hope to be able to have this published in 2007 or 2008. A large number of ANS specimens are encompassed within the articles in this volume, including a complete listing of all the “Betts” medals in the cabinet (Fig. 19).
Fig. 19. Spain, Philip II (1556-1598). AE commemorative medal (1562) by Giampaolo Poggini. This is the extraordinary medal that features the world’s first symbolic and actual representation of an American subject. Betts 12. (ANS 1988.47.2, gift of Mark and Lottie Salton in memory of Felix Schlessinger) 38 mm.
- Proceedings No. 17 is expected to be followed shortly by Proceedings No. 18, Newby’s St. Patrick Coinage, including the papers from the COAC held in November 2006. We are trying to catch up from having been so understaffed over the past few years. The entire ANS collection of the “Saint Patrick” coins will be featured as an appendix to this volume (Fig. 20).
Fig. 20. Isle of Man and Colonial New Jersey. AV forgery pattern “guinea” of the “Saint Patrick” coinage. (ANS 1988.66.1, gift of R. Henry Norweb Jr.) 22.9 mm.
Mexico, Mañana y Ayer
In the last issue of the ANS Magazine, we reviewed some of the Mexican items that had recently had their catalog entries improved on account of having come under renewed scrutiny. While the Society’s Mexican collection is fairly large and important, it is still nevertheless deficient and meager in certain areas, which we hope to build up in the years to come. Our coin room was recently visited by famed Mexican specialist Clyde Hubbard, who noted a number of impressive pieces in the collection and ordered further photographs.
Another look at early Mexican coinage was occasioned by an inquiry from Paul Harris, who started by using the ANS database himself. He wanted to know about the sixteenth-century 4-reales pieces of Charles and Johanna (familiarly, Carlos I and his mother, Juana la Loca—“Johanna the Mad”). He also asked for the number of pieces, of all denominations, of Philip II, and of the dated versus undated issues of Philip III. In answer, we have in the cabinet thirty-two Mexican 4-reales pieces of Charles and Johanna (five of the early “sin agua” series and twenty-seven of the late), forty-one Mexican silver pieces of Philip II and fifteen undated Mexican silver pieces attributable to Philip III (plus six dated ones), although undoubtedly some of these are pieces struck by dies that included dates that are not visible on the coins. Harris also asked about the cost of producing images as opposed to the cost of coming to New York to study the collection, mentioning that specialist dealer Mike Dunigan had informed him that the cabinet contains a number of very interesting pieces worthy of examination. This is of course a viable alternative in many instances. We are always happy to supply high-quality digital images of ANS specimens.
Among the coins in which Paul Harris was interested is a recent Mexican acquisition of particular note, a 4-reales of Charles and Johanna from the early series of ensayador (assayer) “P,” believed to be Pedro de Espina (ANS 2006.13.1). However, the assayer’s mark on this piece appears to consist of a P punched over an earlier R, the ensayo (assayer’s mark) of the first mint master of Mexico, Francisco del Rincon. This coin was struck from a reverse die that has no rondule in the corners of the rhomboid panel that bears the word PLVS, a reverse unlisted in Nesmith although it is similar to that of his 6d, the obverse die of which matches this coin. The piece is among the issues that will be addressed in the forthcoming work of Kent Ponterio in the COAC series Proceedings No. 16 (Fig. 21).
Fig. 21. Spanish Colonial Mexico: Charles and Johanna (1519-1556). AR 4 reales, assayer P (P over R), c. 1539-1541. Obv. crowned arms of Castile and León flanked by M and M (gothic), with an annulet above and below each M; :KAROLVS:z:ET: IOhANA:R (reverse-barred N in IOhANA). Rev. crowned Pillars of Hercules; between them, PLVS in an overlapping rhomboid panel slanted left; above the panel, 4; z:hISPANIE: z: ET: INDIARV:M: (reverse-barred N in hISPANIE and INDIARVM). The reverse’s “M” is a Roman replacement letter while the “z” is a squarish emblem punch appearing to be a Hebrew letter alef (“A”). Nesmith (cf. 6d, unlisted rev. die); Menzel Type Ia, Mx-61 (ANS 2006.13.1, gift of Richard Ponterio) 33 mm.
David L. Nathan (2006) has suggested the interesting possibility that the puzzling initial mark (usually rendered as a “z” or “x” but entirely of a different character of its own) on this issue may in fact represent the Hebrew letter alef, suggesting a Marano (Spanish Jewish) metalworker’s punch being used in Mexico City circa 1538. He notes that nearly all the dies prepared under the tenure of Francisco del Rincon, the first assayer (designated on this coin by the original “R” ensayo, which was apparently overpunched by a P), are lacking the typical initial mark in the form of a cross found almost universally on medieval Spanish and the succeeding Mexican coinage. There was, of course, a significant Marano metalworking tradition, and Jewish mint workers had played a prominent role in Spanish coining earlier in the Middle Ages but, if correct, this theory would probably postulate the first indication of a Jewish metalworker in the New World. Nathan goes on to consider the possibilities of the known early Mexican mint workers to have been of Jewish extraction.
The American Numismatic Society is pleased and proud to provide an outstanding work environment for visitors to our Library and curatorial area Coin Room as well as outstanding assistance to all in search of numismatic information of all kinds. As I have mentioned in this column before, the culmination of much of our day-to-day work serving others eventually finds its way into our accession records, and thence into the system retrievable by the public via the Society’s Web site at http://www.numismatics.org. We also welcome new information and discoveries. There are those, however, who waste considerable amounts of staff time by not consulting our Web site or database, not taking sufficient care to use appropriate search criteria when working with the online catalog, or not bothering to read the terms of photographic services offered. And it seems there are others who obsess themselves into improbable beliefs and want us to espouse their opinions.
Not long ago, an individual requested a series of images to be sought out from our collections to illustrate his writing. Concerning our current $20 per item (two-sided) image charge (which covers identification, location, retrieval, photography, data entry, catalog uploading, invoicing, and digital transfer of the item), he claimed that the American Numismatic Association had tried to charge him $40 but that when he argued about it he was allowed free use of the ANA’s images for a TV program. Once our items had been selected for him, he informed us that on the advice of his publisher he preferred to download Internet images, unprotected by copyright, of similar kinds of items rather than pay anything to the Society. We wish such individuals would not bother to contact us in the first place. On the other hand, a recent researcher on Americana in possession of a rare David Hosack medal (see the article in this issue of the ANS Magazine) said of the ANS’s online catalog, “I find myself consulting it every few weeks… there aren’t many references like it, and I haven’t found any that are anywhere near as comprehensive. Well done!” What more can we say about the world’s largest numismatic online resource?
Anzani, Arturo. 1926. “Numismatica axumita.” Rivista italiana di numismatica 39: 5-110, plates A-M.
Bolender, Milferd Henry. 1988 . The United States Early Silver Dollars from 1794-1803. 5th rev. ed. Iola, Wis.: Krause Publications.
Bowers, Q. David. 1993. Silver Dollars and Trade Dollars of the United States, a Complete Encyclopedia, vol. 1. Wolfeboro, N.H.: Bowers & Merena.
Breen, Walter. 1988. Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins. New York: Doubleday.
Carradice, Ian. 1998. “The Dinar Hoard of Persian Sigloi.” In Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price, edited by Richard Ashton. London: Spink.
Crawford, Michael H. 1974. Roman Republican Coinage. London: Cambridge University Press.
Doty, Richard G., and John M. Kleeberg, eds. 2006. Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 15, Money of the Caribbean. New York: American Numismatic Society.
Jenkins, G. K., and R. B. Lewis. 1963. Carthaginian Gold and Electrum Coins. London: Royal Numismatic Society.
Kleeberg, John M. 2000. “Counterfeit 2 reales of the bust type.” In Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 14, Circulating Counterfeits of the Americas, edited by John M. Kleeberg. New York: American Numismatic Society.
Komaroff, Linda. 1986. “The Epigraphy of Timurid Coinage: Some Preliminary Remarks.” American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 31: 207-232.
Menzel, Sewall. 2004. Cobs, Pieces of Eight, and Treasure Coins: The Early Spanish-American Mints and Their Coinages. New York: American Numismatic Society.
Miller, Henry C. 1962. The State Coinage of Connecticut. Wayland, Mass.: Ovolon Publishing Co. Reprinted from the American Journal of Numismatics 53 (1920); also, a reprinted edition: The State Coinage of Connecticut, Including a Major New Supplement of Photographic Plates and Data of Virtually All Known Varieties of Connecticut Coins. New York: Sanford J. Durst Numismatic Pub.
Nathan, David L. 2006. “A Hebrew Letter on the New World’s First Coins?” The Shekel 39, no. 1: 8-15.
Ponterio, Kent. Forthcoming. “The Coinage of Mexico Struck During the Reign of Charles and Johanna: Several New Finds Reassigning the Chronology of Assayers.” In Coinage of the Americas Conference, Proceedings no. 16, Our Nation’s Coinage: Varied Origins. New York: American Numismatic Society.
Nesmith, Robert I. 1955. The Coinage of the First Mint of the Americas at Mexico City, 1536-1572. Numismatic Notes and Monographs 131. New York: American Numismatic Society.
Newell, Edward Theodore. 1927. The Coinages of Demetrius Poliorcetes. Corrected ed. London: Oxford University Press, H. Milford.
Tudeer, Lauri O. Th. 1913. “Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Syrakus in der Periode der signierenden Kunstler.” Zeitschrift für Numismatik: 1-292.