eighth and ninth Dura hoards

Author
Bellinger, Alfred R. (Alfred Raymond), 1893-1978
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
Date
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works

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CC BY-NC

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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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Table of Contents

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THE EIGHTH AND NINTH DURA HOARDS

By Alfred R. Bellinger

INTRODUCTION

The finds of bronze coins which have been designated Hoards Eight and Nine were unearthed at Dura in 1932–1933. Since they were not found simultaneously they were given separate numbers, but it is certain that they actually belong together. Both were under the floor of the same room and the composition of both is the same. In the manuscript catalogue at Yale their contents are distinguished but here they are treated as a single body. The labor of cleaning them was undertaken by the American Numismatic Society, by Mr. Noe and Mr. Mosser in particular to whose perseverance I am extremely grateful. After their removal to New Haven some further work was done on them by Mr. Henry McClintock of Yale College and their preparation for publication has been much assisted by the staff of the Art School, especially Mrs. Gordon Haight, and by Miss Dorothy H. Cox of the University Library.

The historical and economic significance of this material has been analyzed in some detail in the Dura Preliminary Report VII–VIII, pp. 391–421. The accompanying map and chart will show the general distribution of the pieces which is closely parallel to that of the chance finds. The collection was apparently begun about 220 and represents the coins in normal circulation at the time of the city's fall. The surprising frequency of coins from the Pontus, which has already been commented upon in the Reports, is explained by the fact that in their period (the beginning of the Third Century) none of the mints which usually supplied Mesopotamia with large bronzes was in operation, and the cities of the Pontus for the time being served the whole eastern limes. The pieces from mints in Greece were undoubtedly imported by recruits of Caracalla. Otherwise the cities represented are about what one would expect.

Certain of the more prominent types invite separate discussion.

Tyche

About the beginning of the third century B. C., Eutychides of Sicyon made for the city of Antioch a statue of Tyche of gilded bronze. 1 The goddess wore a headdress of walls and towers, which shows that she was conceived not as a symbol of abstract Fortune, but as an embodiment of the city itself. Her local significance was further emphasized by her rocky seat, which represented Mount Silpius, and by the river god of the Orontes, shown at her feet as a half figure with arms extended as though swimming. This was by no means the earliest statue of Tyche, but it became very popular and in Antioch itself was used as the city's device on the coins, beginning with Tigranes of Armenia, 83-69 B.C. 2 and continuing to the last autonomous bronze under Valerian, 253–257 A. D. 3 Moreover, when Julian made his celebrated attempt to revive paganism, he had coins issued from the imperial mint at Antioch with Apollo on the obverse and this figure of Tyche on the reverse, 4 and, what is much more surprising, the goddess reappears on little bronzes struck at Antioch by Justin I and Justinian I, 527 A. D. 5

There is much variation of detail: on the best known copy that has come down to us—the Vatican statuette—the right arm is bent upward; more generally it is extended; the right hand most often holds ears of wheat, but sometimes a palm branch and sometimes a cornucopia. The general attitude, however, is always the same when the whole figure is shown and we may be sure that the turreted busts which appear from the time of Severus Alexander on are derived from the same statue. 6 Their identity is made plain by the ram over the head, which occurs in the same position with the full figure on coins of Elagabalus and thereafter. K. O. Müller conjectured that this was a sign of the zodiac, commemorating the time of year when the city was founded, and the suggestion has been commonly adopted. 7 Of course it is out of the question that it should have formed a part of Eutychides' group; its true relation is shown on the bronzes of Trajan Decius and his successors, where it surmounts the tetrastyle shrine within which Tyche is seated. Malalas reports that Trajan erected such a shrine for the statue, though he says nothing of the ram above.

His description does, however, include material which our copies do not. Tyche, he says, is crowned by the kings Seleucus and Antiochus. Now it is generally agreed that the kings were no part of Eutychides' original design but were later additions, though no date is assigned to them. Allègre, following Müller, takes it for granted that the Antiochus represented is the son of Seleucus Nicator. 8 Malalas' words imply that both monarchs were crowning Tyche, which would doubtless be possible, though somewhat awkward and, I think, an arrangement without parallel. It is reasonable to follow instead the analogy offered by those coins of Severus Alexander which show the Tyche of Antioch being crowned by the emperor while another Tyche of a different kind stands to her left.

We may imagine, then, a group whose central figure is the Tyche of Eutychides with Seleucus to the right, crowning her, while Antiochus stands to the left. But what is the significance of these additional figures and by whom were they set up? An interpretation is afforded by a bas-relief discovered at Dura in 1935 and discussed by Rostovtzeff. 9 It shows the Gad of Dura (the Semite counterpart of Tyche) under the form of Zeus Olympius, enthroned. To his right is Seleucus Nicator, identified by the Palmyrene inscription, crowning him; to his left stands the dedicant. The date is A. D. 158. It is astonishing to find the first Seleucus at so late a time, and the only possible explanation seems to be that he was the center of a cult worship which outlasted the temporal power of his descendants. 10 In this relief, therefore, both the Gad and Seleucus are to be regarded as divine, while the third figure, the mortal dedicant, does honor to them both. On this analogy, in the group at Antioch, Tyche would be crowned by the divine Seleucus while Antiochus would occupy the position of dedicant. The latter would be the reigning king and might be the second or third of the name quite as easily as the first.

Now in the time of Severus Alexander the assumption of divine honors by the living Emperor was so regular a convention that there is no difficulty in supposing that he occupies in his group the same position that Seleucus did in the earlier one. The second Tyche would then represent the dedicant. Allègre has already seen the significance of this duplication. Both Tyches stand for the city, but the first is the permanent and essential spirit of the place, the second an embodiment of the citizens actually concerned in the dedication. This second figure of the goddess, standing holding a cornucopia, is of a type equally familiar and perhaps more ancient than that of Eutychides; it has been conjectured that it is derived from a statue of Praxiteles. 11 It was evidently used for city goddesses throughout Asia Minor and would have been instantly understood even if there was no dedicatory inscription. The whole group is represented not only on coins but also on contemporary gems, one of which is in the collection of Mr. Newell; the Metropolitan Museum has three.

There is no way of telling whether Alexander and Tyche directly replaced Seleucus and Antiochus, or whether there was an interval when Eutychides' group was restored to its original state. The earlier coins show Tyche with no accompanying figures, but, if Malalas is right, they still formed part of the group in the time of Trajan. 12 It is likely, however, that Alexander's additions were later removed. Not only is this inherently probable on historical grounds, but the type of Decius, showing Tyche in a tetrastyle shrine which she occupies with no room for other figures, seems to be a true picture of the monument as it appeared in his time.

It was the Tyche of Antioch which became the pattern for city goddesses in the Mesopotamian cities with whose mints we are here concerned. 13 Edessa, Carrhae, Nesibi, Singara and Rhesaena all show the seated figure and the river god, though the last named makes use of the other form of Tyche as well. But it is not simply a case of one mint copying the type of another. At some periods certain Syrian mints were so closely connected that the same obverse die could be used for two cities, 14 and a similar relation existed between Nesibi and Singara, but there was no such connection between Antioch and Mesopotamia. Rather it is a case of these cities borrowing from Antioch her Tyche to be used in statues or pictures of their own, these later to be reproduced on the coins. Proof of this is found in the fresco of the Tribune from Dura 15 where the Tyche of Palmyra and that of Dura, so entitled, appear in the form of seated women with turreted headdresses, though the details are altered to suit the particular cases. Doubtless all the cities of the district had similar representations which showed the same general indebtedness to Antioch and the same minor variations. For example, the coins of Philip from Nesibi show Tyche seated in a tetrastyle shrine as do those of Decius from Antioch, but, in the former case, the ram over her head is within the shrine and therefore part of the group. As already remarked, this would be absurd, if not impossible in sculpture in the round, but it is quite understandable if the agalma of Nesibi was a painting or a relief. As the illustrations will show, there is some variety in the style, but greater differences between periods than between mints so that we can get no reliable idea of the quality of the originals.

In the descriptions of the coins, references to Tyche without further details mean the type of Eutychides when the full figure is shown, the type with veil and turreted headdress, when it is only a bust. It is to be noted that the alternate type is regularly used on the Pontic coins of Septimius Severus, and Rhesaena and Gabala show still other forms.

End Notes
1 Pausanias, VI, 2.6. John Malalas (Ed. Dindorf) p. 276. An excellent general account of Tyche was published by F. Allègre under the title Etude sur La Déesse Grecque Tyché (Paris, 1889). Chapter III, "Représentations figurées de Tyche" contains most of the material here presented. Cf. also the introduction to B. M. C. Galatia , pp. lx–lxii and the article "Tyche" in Roscher's Lexicon.
2 B. M. C. Seleucids , Pl. xxvii, 5, 6.
3 B. M. C. Galatia , p. 232.
4 Cohen VIII, p. 43, No. 1.
5 B. M. C. Byzantine I, p. 24, No. 10 f.
6 It is not so easy to make a simple case for the turreted busts of earlier occurrence such as those at Caesarea in Cappadocia and Laodicea-ad-Mare. There is no evidence that Eutychides invented the turreted crown as distinctive of the city Tyche. Indeed it is much more likely that he merely employed for his group a conception already familiar, and therefore, such busts, though later than his statue, may have an origin quite independent of it.
7 Cf. Cumont: article "Gad" in Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, RealEncyclopädie.
8 Rostovtzeff suggests Antiochus the father of Seleucus arrangement discussed below. This seems to me much less likely.
9 ΠPOΓONOI Journal of Hellenic Studies IV (1935), especially pp. 64, 66.
10 For the question of the Seleucid cult see the article of Rostovtzeff cited above.
11 Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, Journal of Hellenic Studies 1885, p. 56.
12 My colleague Dr. Brown acutely suggests, however, that in this case and that of the relief from Dura we may have to do with a cult restored by Trajan and not one that had continued to his time.
13 It had also an extended vogue outside of Mesopotamia. A list of the cities where it was used is given by C. Bosch, Die Kleinasiatischen Münzen der Römischen Kaiserzeit, Teil II, Band 1, 1 Hälfte, pp. 254–256.
14 B. M. C. Galatia , p. 129, No. 43.
15 Cumont, Fouilles, Pls. xlix–li.

The Roman Types of Rhesaena

In contrast with the poverty of subjects of the other Mesopotamian mints Rhesaena presents an interesting variety of which the vexillum and the colonist ploughing are entirely Roman in character while the complicated scene of the two Tyches clasping hands and the accessory eagles on most of the types have a distinctly Roman look compared with the simple patterns of the neighboring cities. Rhesaena's part in the hoard is too small to justify more than the reminder of this dissimilarity. A special monograph on Rhesaena is being prepared by Carl O. Castelin of Prague which will deal with the civic types at length.

The Pyre of Amasia

The types of Amasia are partly of imperial, partly of local significance. Of the former, the commonest is that which shows two figures in togas clasping hands. The most probable explanation of this is that it represents Caracalla and Geta in their joint consulship of 205. It is no valid objection that the same scene reappears dated in the next year, for there was evidently no effort to revise the list of subjects for the second year of the issue. A more puzzling thing is that so far no example of this type has been found with Geta on the obverse. To be sure Geta's coins are not numerous and this may be merely accident, but one would have expected that type to be most particularly associated with him. Nevertheless, it can hardly be doubted that the figures are the two brothers.

The standing Tyche needs no further comment, but there is a group of coins bearing the picture of a flaming pyre which deserves some discussion. It should be remarked at the beginning that the structure is not an altar as it is called in the British Museum Catalogue, but a burning pyre sometimes of two stages. This agrees well with the description of a sacrifice of Mithradates to Zeus Stratios described by Appian (Mithr. 66) , 16 Zeus Stratios was a deity of barbarous origin having some affinity to Ahura-Mazda and regarded as a sun god. The eagle and the quadriga which frequently appear on or above the pyre presumably refer to him. Cumont believes that the tree or trees beside the pyre symbolize the sacred grove which he supposes to have surrounded it. 17 But however appropriate a sacred grove may be to a temple, it seems doubtful if it could have stood about this pyre. According to Appian's account, the flames were visible a thousand stades away and it took several days for the place to cool off enough for people to come back to it. Surely no trees could live to become venerable if they were near enough to such a bonfire to be regarded as an adjunct! Moreover the trees of the coin do not appear to be either pine or oak. Figure 1 shows the peculiar form, with twisted stems and round head often, though not always, surrounded by a circle of dots which seem to represent fruit. The tree on the pyre is obviously a pine, and the smaller shoots to right and left are of still another kind, so that the die-sinker must have known how to differentiate. The appearance of the tree beside the pyre is much more that of an olive or possibly a fig. I confess that I cannot offer the least suggestion as to its meaning or explain its position, but the theory of the sacred grove does not seem to me tenable.

There are certain other variations of this type, rare or unpublished, of which I present drawings since the coins themselves are none too clear. In Figure 2 the second stage of the pyre seems to be separated from the first by a pine branch; in Figure 3 the eagle is under a pediment for which no building can be seen and in Figure 4 he is perched on a very dead bull. Waddington speaks of Mithraic elements, and one is naturally reminded of the Mithraic bull, though I cannot find that he is ever shown in such a position. But M. Cumont, whose word on such a question is authority, writes me that the suggestion of Mithraism is a mistake. He believes that the type should be compared with the Cappadocian bronzes of an eagle on a bull's head to which he refers in an article entitled "L'Archevêché de Pédachtoé et le Sacrifice du Faon," 18 but he admits with pleasant candor that this is merely explaining obscurum per obscurius. Figure 5 shows an astonishing modification of the quadriga type. The chariot itself is invisible but the horses—or rather the foreparts of the horses—are placed one pair above another. Whether this is an individual experiment in perspective or whether the sun god on occasion drove a kind of divine stage coach, the effect is to eliminate the deity himself altogether. It may be that only future excavation at Amasia itself will make clear the significance of these curious details but it has seemed worth while to call attention to features which are new.

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Fig. 1

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Fig. 2

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Fig. 3

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Fig. 4

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Fig. 5

Mention ought also to be made of the hitherto unknown type of the seated river god Iris (p. 77, No. 319) though it is similar to others previously known.

End Notes
16 This was first pointed out by Cavedoni (Bull. d. Inst. 1840, pp. 70 f.) and the matter has since been treated by Cumont (Studia Pontica II, pp. 176 ff.) and Cook (Zeus II. 2, pp. 974 ff.).
17 There are still pine trees on the site of the temple of Zeus Stratios at Amasia and Pliny reports that venerable oaks stood beside the temple of Zeus Stratios at Heraclea (Cumont op. cit., pp. 174, 177, 180 n. 1).
18 Bysantion 1931, pp. 521–529.

The Temples of Neo-Caesarea

Much the commonest type from Neo-Caesarea is a tetrastyle temple, and this apparent monotony may obscure the fact that it is not a single building that is shown, but a number of different ones. Not only are some Ionic and some Corinthian but the statues visible between the columns show a surprising diversity. Unfortunately the scale is so small and the relief so low that their identity is never certain and frequently not even to be guessed. I have included in the catalogue such conjectures as I could make. Without counting too minute details, there appear to be fifteen separate sanctuaries on the pieces in this hoard. The happy excavator of Neo-Caesarea ought to find the world's finest collection of tetrastyle temples!

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The Catalogue

There is preserved at Yale a manuscript catalogue showing all the variations that occur, but it has seemed wiser in the printed catalogue to list only such differences as seem to have a significance greater than accidental, merely summarizing the observed variants in the legends. Of course it is impossible to be sure that varieties grouped together may not, in fact, have constituted separate issues but it is more likely that the error has been in the direction of giving too much detail. The plates have covered, so far as possible, differences of minutiae and also differences of style which could not be adequately described. This has necessitated the illustration of many pieces whose condition is far from satisfactory but whose evidence is serviceable if not a delight to the eye.

An attempt has been made to arrange the mints in a geographical order expressive of their relation to Dura. The types are numbered consecutively. Then follows the number of specimens in each type (in parenthesis) and then the size in millimeters. Types illustrated in the plates are marked with an asterisk. References to specimens already published are given only in the case of exceptional pieces.

EDESSA

Septimius Severus and Abgar VIII

195–201

The dating of this series is discussed in Dura Report, VII–VIII, pp. 399 f.

1. (3) 23–24 mm. CԐOϒH[POC] Head of Severus r., laureate.
Rev. ABΓAPOC [BACIΛԐϒC] Bust of Abgar r., wearing diademed tiara; before face, scepter.

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

The normal obverse inscription is AϒTKMAANTωNԐINOC CԐB for Aὐτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Mάρκος Aὐρήλιος Ἀντωνεῑνος Σεβαστός; one coin has KAIC instead of K, one has Ω instead of ω, two have I instead of ԐI. One has the inscription AϒTKMAANTNANOCC (Sic!) Pl. I. 9.

The official name of the town is Kολωνία Mαρκία Aὐρηλία Ἀντωνινιανή Ἐδέσσα. The following forms occur in these hoards: KOΛωMAPԐΔԐCC, KOΛANTAVPԐΔԐCC, MAPAVANKOԐΔԐCC, MAPKOΛԐΔԐCCA, MAKAVPHKO – –, – – ΛMԐΔԐCCA. These variations, like those of the obverse, are certainly without significance as to date or denomination. There is one coin, however, which reads MHKԐΔԐ – –, the MH standing for Mητρόπολις. Since the title occurs regularly on the coins of Severus Alexander but not earlier than Elagabalus, its introduction may belong to the end of his reign. The piece may be a hybrid, however. The reverse type is the seated Tyche discussed above, pp. 2–8.

2. (2) 26–28 mm. Bust l., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding branch.
3. (2) 25 mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding branch; before her, flaming altar.
4. (2) 25 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit.
*5. (3) 24–27 mm. Bust r., radiate.
Rev. Same.
*6. (2) 25 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit; before her, flaming altar.
*7. (1) 27 mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit; behind her, cornucopia.
8. (2) 25 mm. Bust l., laur., with shield.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit; before her, cornucopia.
*9. Head r., laur. (1) 25 mm.
Rev. Tyche l., holding ears of corn; before her, flaming altar.
*10. (1) 27 mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding Nike who crowns her.
11. (1) 24 mm. Bust l., laur., with shield.
Rev. Tyche l.; before her, flaming altar.
12. (1) 23 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l.; before her, rearing serpent.
13. (1) 25 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche
14. (12) 24–27 mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*15. (3) 25–29 mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

With the Title Metropolis

16. (1) 23 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding branch; before her, flaming altar.

Severus Alexander, Caesar

July 10, 221–March 11, 222

17. (5) 23–26 mm. — NΔPOCKA Bust r., laur.
Rev.– –ԐΔԐCC Tyche 1., details obscure.
*18. (5) 24–26 mm. —ANΔPOCK Bust r., laur.
Rev. MAKAVPԐΔԐCC Tyche l.; before her, altar.

Severus Alexander, Augustus

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

There are four issues identifiable under Severus Alexander as Augustus. Since his reverse as Caesar has no stars and is without the titles Metropolis or Colonia it is apparent that the pieces with the same reverse (B. M. Arab., p. 104, No. 86) are the first issued under him as Augustus.

The second issue is that with the titles Metropolis and Colonia. It is of two denominations: the second, represented in the hoards, and the third by B. M. Arab., p. 109, Nos. 113 f.

The third issue would then consist of the coins with two stars. Here again there are two denominations: the first and second. Hill distinguishes a series ( B. M. Arab., pp. 107 f., Nos. 102–112) on which the seat of Tyche is regular in form while the bust of the Emperor is slightly bearded. The reverse inscription begins MHTKOΛ. On others ( B. M. Arab., p. 106, Nos. 93–96) the inscription begins MHKO, the seat is irregular and the beard is not apparent. A similar difference in inscription appears in the large denomination, some ( B. M. Arab., p. 105, Nos. 87–89, 92) read MHTKO (not KOΛ) while others (B. M. Arab., p. 105, Nos. 90 f.) have MHKO. It may be that the other characteristics accompany the diverse readings, but among the specimens in these hoards I can find no distinctions. Most of the inscriptions are incomplete, it is generally impossible to say whether the Emperor is bearded or not, and the seat of Tyche exhibits so many gradations of regularity that I have made no attempt to subdivide the third issue on these grounds. The variation in the obverse inscription makes one suspect that variation on the reverse is significant of nothing more than the preference of the die-sinker. Coins of Mamaea with two stars (B. M. Arab., p. 110, Nos. 121–123) are to be assigned to this issue.

The fourth series includes the pieces with four stars of Alexander, Alexander and Mamaea together and Mamaea alone; of this issue there are two denominations, the first (only Alexander and Mamaea together) and the second (all three obverses).

The commonest form of the Emperor's title is AVTKMAV CԐAΛԐΞANΔPOC CԐ for Aὐτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Mάρκος Aὐρήλιος Σεουῆρος Ἀλἕξανδρος Σεβαστός. A number of variations occur; KAI instead of K, MAP instead of M, A instead of AV, C or CԐϒ instead of CԐ for Σεουῆρος, and CԐB instead of CԐ for Σεβαστός. These have no discernible connection with the issues or the denominations.

The title on the reverse, Mητρόπολις Kολωνία Ἐδεσσήνων appears as MHKOԐΔԐCCHNωN or MHTKOԐΔԐCCHNωN on the first denomination and, in addition to those forms, as MHTKOԐΔԐCCHNωN on the second denomination.

SECOND ISSUE

Second Denomination

19. (4) 23–25 mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding ears of corn; before her, altar.
20. (2) 23mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*21. (2) 24mm. Bust l., laur.; r. hand raised.
Rev. Same.
22. (1) 24mm. Bust l., laur., with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. Same.
*23. (1) 23mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. – – ԐΔԐCCOII (sic) Tyche 1. holding temple with pediment; before her, altar.

THIRD ISSUE

First Denomination

*24. (22) 30–33mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l.; before her, altar; in field, to l. and r., eightpointed stars [In two cases there are pellets in the field, converted into stars by scratches, obviously impromptu].
*25. (1) 31mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
26. (3) 29–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
27. (2) 30–33mm. Bust 1., laur., shield on shoulder.
Rev. Same.

Second Denomination

*28. (10) 24–28mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit; before her, altar; in field to 1. and r., eight-pointed stars.
*29. (44) 24–28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
30. (3) 23–24mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same, but Tyche holds ears of corn.
*31. (3) 24–25mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*32. (3) 22–29mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same, but Tyche holds uncertain object.
33. (19) 22–27mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
34. (1) 26mm. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*35. (21) 22–28mm. Bust l., laur. with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. Same.
36. (5) 23–26mm. Bust l., laur., with shield; r. hand raised.
Rev. Same.
*37. (8) 24–27mm. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Same.
38. (4) 26–27mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding fruit; altars before and behind her; in field, to l. and r., eightpointed stars.
*39. (3) 25–26mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
40. (2) 26–27mm. Bust l., laur., with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. Same.
*41 (1) 26mm. Bust l., laur., with shield; r. hand raised.
Rev. Same.
*42. (2) 26mm. Bust l. rad., holding scepter l.
Rev. Same.
*43. (1) 27mm. Bust r., laur. with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. MHTKOΛԐΔԐCimageωN (sic) Tyche 1., holding ears of corn; altars before and behind her; in field to l. and r., eightpointed stars.
*44. (1) 28mm. – – KMACԐOANTωNԐIN 19 Bust l., laur., with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. —TKOΛԐΔ[ԐCC]HNω [N] Same but only one altar, before Tyche.

FOURTH ISSUE

Second Denomination

45. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., holding temple with pediment; before her, altar; in field, four eight-pointed stars.
*46. (1) 28mm. Bust l., laur., with shield and eagle-topped scepter.
Rev. Same but above Tyche, Aquarius?
End Notes
19 The inscription [AVT]KMACԐOANTωNԐIN[OC CԐB] would be correct for Caracalla and might be used as an argument for assigning this coin to him, since we now know that the title Colonia goes back to his time. But there are great objections the chief of which is that the reverse is indistinguishable from those associated with obverses of Alexander, while this obverse type appears for him more than once. This appears to be a die on which the name "Antoninus" was erroneously given to Alexander. A similar piece is attributed to Elagabalus ( B. M. Arab., p. 103, No. 77). They are connected with certain tetradrachms to be discussed in my forthcoming study "Syrian Tetradrachms of Caracalla and Macrinus."

Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

The obverse inscription is always AVTKMACAΛԐΞANAPOCCԐBIOVΛMAMԐAC. The reverses have been discussed above, pp. 18–20.

FOURTH ISSUE

First Denomination

*47. (3) 30–33mm. Busts confronted.
Rev. Tyche 1., holding temple with pediment; above her, Aquarius (?); in field, four eight-pointed stars.

Second Denomination

*48. (24) 25–27mm. Same.
Rev. Same.

Julia Mamaea

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

The obverse inscription is IOVΛMAMԐA CԐBACTH. The reverses have been discussed above, pp. 18–20.

THIRD ISSUE

Second Denomination

*49. (5) 24–25mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tyche l., holding uncertain object; before her, altar; in field, l. and r., eight-pointed stars.

FOURTH ISSUE

Second Denomination

50. (2) 27–28mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tyche l., holding temple with pediment; in field, four eight-pointed stars.

Gordian III and Abgar X

240-242

The date of these issues is discussed in Yale Classical Studies V, pp. 95–154, where it is shown that, under Gordian, the regal coinage precedes the colonial.

There are four denominations, of which three are represented here. The obverse bears the portrait of Gordian and the invariable inscription AϒTOKKMANTΓOPΔIANOCCԐB for Aύτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Mάρκος Ἀντώνιος Γορδιανòς Σεβαστός; on the reverse of the first denomination appear Gordian and Abgar with the inscription AVTOK ΓOPΔIANOC ABΓAPOC BACIΛԐVC or Abgar on horseback and merely ABΓAPOC BACIΛԐVC; on the lower denominations the reverse is always the bust of Abgar with the inscription ABΓAPOC BACIΛԐVC. Abgar's tiara is sometimes decorated with a rosette of pellets, sometimes with a network. There is a star in the field on both obverse and reverse of the lower denominations.

51. (16) 32–34mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Gordian seated r. on sella on suggestus with sceptre, receiving Abgar standing l., holding sword and presenting him with Victory holding wreath.
*52. (20) 33–36mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*53. (5) 32–34mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*54. (10) 32–34mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*55. (1) 33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. On l., Gordian r. holding globe and mappa; on r., Abgar l., l. hand on sword, in r., wreath.
56. (1) 34mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*57. (1) 32mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Abgar riding r.
58. (1) 33mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
59. (1) 32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Obliterated.

Second Denomination

*60. (120) 22–26mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Abgar, r., in tiara.
*61. (155) 22–26mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*62. (25) 23–27mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*63. (107) 22–27mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
64. (3) 24–25mm. Bust l., laur., with shield.
Rev. Same.
*65. (5) 24–25mm. Bust l., laur., with shield and eagle-topped sceptre.
Rev. Same.

Third Denomination

*66. (2) 20mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same.
67. (2) 20mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Gordian III, alone

242–March, 244

The obverse types and inscription remain unchanged, but the reverse now bears a bust of Tyche, l. Before it is a pedestal on which stands a statue of Aquarius (?). Between bust and pedestal, usually but not invariably (cf. Pl. IV, 71) stands a little temple with pediment (cf. Pl. IV, 69, 72) such as appears elsewhere on coins of Edessa (e. g. B. M. Arab., p. 101, No. 69, Pl. XV, 4), although its careless execution makes it frequently look like a flaming altar, as it is described in B. M. Arab., p. 111. The inscription is MHTKOΛԐΔԐCCHNωN. These are all of the first denomination though slightly smaller than the regal issue.

68. (5) 28–32mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, l.
*69. (96) 28–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*70. (21) 28–32mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*71. (37) 27–32mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Tranquillina

242–March 244

The obverse inscription is ΦOVPCABINATPANKCԐB for Φούρια Σαβίνια Tρανκυλλῑνα Σεβαστή.

The reverse is that of Gordian.

*72. (8) 28–31mm. Bust r. with stephane.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, l.

Trajan Decius

October 249–May 251

73. (1) 20mm. Inscription illegible [AVΓΔԐKICCԐB] Head r., laur.
Rev. KOΛԐ[ΔԐCCA] Bust of Tyche, l.; in front, small altar. B. M. Arab., pp. 117 f., Nos. 166–172.

CARRHAE

Caracalla

214–217

74. (1) 17mm. Inscription obliterated. Head r., laur.
Rev. CO – – – Bust of Tyche, r. B. M. Arab., pp. 85 ff.

Gordian III

242–March, 244

There are two issues, each of two denominations. The first denomination of the former is very much like Gordian's contemporary colonial issues from Edessa. The portraits and the obverse inscription, AVTKKMANTΓOPΔIANOCCԐB are the same. On the reverse a very similar bust of Tyche appears, faced by the same statue on a pedestal. Between them is sometimes a small altar (Pl. IV). Generally there is a crescent above the bust though sometimes it is omitted. 20 The reverse inscription is MHTPKOΛKAPPHNωN. The second denomination of this issue has the same obverses but, on the reverse, a bust of Tyche, r., appears between two stars. The inscription is MHTPKOΛKAPPHNωN

On the second issue (though we have no means of telling whether it was later in time) the obverse is the same, but the reverse type is replaced by a crescent within which is one eight-pointed star on the first denomination, two on the second. On both the inscription is MHTPKOΛKAPPHNωN.

FIRST ISSUE

First Denomination

*75. (2) 27–28mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, l.; in front, statue on pedestal.
*76. (30) 27–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
77. (2) 28–29mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*78. (32) 27–30mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Second Denomination

*79. (2) 23mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, r. between two stars.
*80. (1) 23mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

SECOND ISSUE

First Denomination

81. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Crescent, within which, six-pointed star.
*82. (6) 28mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Second Denomination

*83. (1) 21mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Crescent, within which two eight-pointed stars.
84. (1) 22mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
85. (2) 22mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
End Notes
20 B. M. Arab., p. 89, Nos. 55 and 58 are marked "crescent obliterated " but on many of the coins of Carrhae the crescent was certainly omitted.

RHESAENA

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

86. (1) 27mm. Inscription illegible. Head r.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Tyche seated l. Double struck and obscure, cf. B. M. Arab., p. 126, Pl. XVIII, 5.
87. (1) 26mm. Inscription illegible. Head or bust r.
Rev. – HCAINH Tyche seated l., holding eagle, cf. B. M. Arab., p. 126, Nos. 5–8. Struck over head of Elagabalus, r. (possibly B. M. Arab., p. 125, No. 4).

Trajan Decius

October, 249–May, 251

There are three varieties of the obverse inscription: AVTKΓMԐKVΔԐKIOCTPAIANOCCԐB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Γαῑος Mἕσσιος Kυίντος Δἕκιος Tραιάνος Σεβαστός), AVTKAIΓAIMԐCKVTPAΔԐKIOCCԐB, and AVTKΓMԐKVTPAΔԐKIOCCԐB the first two used on the second denomination, the third, which is merely an abbreviation of the second, used on the third denomination. I have conjectured (Hoards I, II, p. 40) that the form which reads "Decius Traianus" precedes that with the usual order "Traianus Decius," and consequently I here divide them into two issues, though this must be understood as a mere possibility.

The reverse inscription is generally CԐΠKOΛPHCAINHCIωNLIIIP (Σεπτιμία Kολωνία Pησαινησίων Legio III Parthica) though on one of our pieces (No. 94) the title "Colonia" is omitted. It is noticeable in the British Museum collection that this omission always accompanies the second obverse inscription ( B. M. Arab., pp. 128 f., Nos. 16–21, 27) which I have considered to be later than the first, but the absence of "Colonia" cannot be taken as an indication of date for the title occurs under Severus Alexander (ibid., p. cx, n. 2).

FIRST ISSUE

Second Denomination

*88. (2) 26–27mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Founder ploughing r. with yoke of oxen; he holds eagleheaded scepter in l.; above, spread eagle, head l., wreath in beak; in ex., river god r. B. M. Arab., p. 127, Nos. 10– 14.
*89. (1) 25mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Tyche seated l. with r. hand extended over lighted altar; above, spread eagle, head l., wreath in beak. Cf. B. M. Arab., p. 129, No. 27, but obverse inscription is that of Nos. 22–25.
*90. (1) 26mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Two Tyches clasping hands; between them altar of caryatid supporting slab; above, eagle, head r., wreath in beak; to l., Aquarius (?) r. on column; to r., Sagittarius r.; in ex., half-figure of river god swimming r. B. M. Arab., p. 130, No. 28.
*91. (1) 26mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Two Tyches clasping hands; between them, altar; above, eagle, head r., wreath in beak; to 1. Aquarius (?) r. (without column); to r., Sagittarius r.; in ex., half-figure of river god swimming r. cf. B. M. Arab., p. 130, No. 29.
92. (1) 26mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Two Tyches clasping hands; between them, altar; above, eagle, head l., wreath in beak; to 1. Aquarius (?) r. on column; [to r., Sagittarius, r.]; in ex., half figure of river god swimming r. cf. B. M. Arab., p. 130, No. 30.

SECOND ISSUE

Second Denomination

93. (1) 27mm. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Founder ploughing r. with yoke of oxen; he holds in l. eagle-headed scepter; above, eagle l. with closed wings on palm branch, wreath in beak; in ex., wreath [between palm branches] B. M. Arab., p. 127, No. 15.
94. (3) 26mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Tyche seated l.; above her, eagle, l., wreath in beak. B. M. Arab., p. 129, No. 27.
95. (1) 24mm. Inscription illegible. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Obliterated.

Third Denomination

*96. (1) 22mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Two busts of Tyche confronted; above, spread eagle, r.; below, altar. B. M. Arab., p. 131, Nos. 33, 34.

NESIBI

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

As in the case of Edessa, the inscriptions show considerable variation under Alexander with no discernible significance. The usual form in the obverse is AVTKAIMAPAVCAΛԐΞNΔPOCC from which I have noted the following deviations: AV and AVTO for AVT, K and KA for KAI, M for MAP, A for AV, CԐ for C, CԐB for C. The laureate heads are of better style and may be earlier.

The reverse inscription, CԐΠKOΛONԐCIBIMHT (Σεπτιμία Kολονία (sic) Nέσιβι Mητρόπολις varies only in sometimes reading MH, MHTP or MHTPO for MHT. The bust of Tyche is sometimes accompanied by one star, sometimes by two and sometimes by two and an ear of corn. I have recorded these varieties which seem to be more than vagaries of the die-sinker; but if they are separate issues there is nothing in the appearance of the coins to suggest their order.

*97. (100) 26–30mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, r.; above, ram, r.; in field r., star.
*98. (31) 27–28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*99. (22) 26–29mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*100. (1) 28mm. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*101. (80) 26–29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same type; in field, l. and r., stars.
102. (5) 26mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
103. (14) 27–28mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*104. (6) 27–29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same type; in field l., star; r., star and ear of corn.
105. (12) 26–29mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
106. (1) 27mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
107. (142) 26–29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same type; symbols illegible.
108. (7) 27mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
109. (15) 27–29mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
110. (1) 27mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

On none of our coins is the obverse inscription complete. It certainly contained the names of both Emperor and Empress, and in the case of the former, probably showed variations already familiar. The reverses are those of Alexander.

111. (7) 26–29mm. Busts of Alexander r.,laur., and Mamaea l., confronted.
Rev. Same type; in field, l. and r., stars.
112. (5) 27–28mm. Similar, but Alexander rad.; Mamaea with crescent behind shoulders.
Rev. Same.
*113. (6) 27–29mm. Similar, but Alexander laur.; Mamaea without crescent.
Rev. Same type; in field l., star; r., star and ear of corn.
*114. (1) 29mm. Similar, but Alexander rad.; Mamaea with crescent behind shoulders.
Rev. Same.

Julia Mamaea

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

The obverse inscription is always IOV MAMԐA CԐBACTH. The bust without the crescent is of better style and may be earlier. The reverses are those of Alexander.

*115. (23) 27–28mm. Bust r.
Rev. Same type; in field r., star.
*116. (27) 26–28mm. Bust r. on crescent.
Rev. Same.
117. (6) 26–30mm. Same.
Rev. Same type; in field, l. and r., stars.
*118. (6) 27–29mm. Same.
Rev. Same type; in field l., star; r. star and ear of corn.

Gordian III

242–March, 244

These coins must come after the reconquest of this territory from the Persians in 242. The obverse is AVTOKKMANTΓOPΔIANOCCԐ or CԐB the reverse CԐΠKOΛONԐCIBIMHT with KOΛ sometimes for KOΛO and MH, MHTP or MHTPO for MHT. The denomination is always the second, the first being reserved for the coins of Gordian and Tranquillina together.

*119. (20) 25–28mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, r.; above, ram r.
120. (13) 26–29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*121. (14) 25–27mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*122. (9) 24–27mm. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same.

Gordian III Tranquillina

242March, 244

*123. (2) 30mm. AVTOKKMANTΓOPΔIANON CABTPANKVΛΛINANCԐB Busts confronted.
Rev. CԐΠKOΛONԐCIBIMHTPO Tyche seated l.; above, ram l.

Philip, Sr.

247–October, 249

The British Museum does not attempt to distinguish between Philip Sr. and Philip Jr. on these issues, but the division here made seems to be borne out by the portraits. The obverse inscription (for both) is invariably AVTOKKMIOϒΛIΦIΛIΠΠOCCԐB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Mάρκος Ἰούλιος Φζλιππος Σεβαστός). Since this is the formula used in Antioch with tetradrachms of Philip's third and fourth Consulship (248, 249) and since Philip Jr. always appears at Nesibi as Augustus (247 according to Liebenam) I assume that all these issues come from the last years of the reign, certainly not before 247. 21

The reverse inscription for both Philips and Otacilia is IOVCԐΠKOΛΩNԐCIBIMHT showing that Philip had given given his name to the colony (and incidentally reformed its spelling). The only variation is in the case of No. 128 where the final T is omitted.

*124. (11) 25-29 mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple within which Tyche seated facing; above her head, ram r.; at her feet, river god r.
*125. (2) 25-27 mm. Bust 1., laur. with shield.
Rev . Same
*126. (16) 25-27 mm. Bust 1., rad.
Rev . Same.
End Notes
21 cf. Hoards I, II, pp. 30 f.

Otacilia

247–October, 249

*127. (14) 25–28mm. Bust r. on crescent.
Rev. Same.
128. (1) 27mm. Same.
Rev. Similar, but without river god.

Philip Jr.

247–October, 249

*129. (4) 25–27mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same as No. 124.
*130. (29) 24–27mm. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Same.

SINGARA

Gordian III

242–March, 244

The city of Singara issued money only during the last years of Gordian III. As the easternmost mint in Mesopotamia it represents the full extent of his campaign against the Persians and there is little doubt that these coins were chiefly intended to make clear the Emperor's control of the whole region so recently reconquered. But it is unlikely that the striking was actually done on the spot. The extreme similarity between the coins of Singara and those of Nesibi is proof that the same hands cut the dies, and the identity of style is strikingly illustrated by the mules of No. 139 where a second obverse is used by mistake for a reverse. They are here attributed to Singara only on the ground that there are more of Gordian's coins from Singara in this hoard than from Nesibi but there is no possible way of telling where they were supposed to circulate. It may be that the dies were cut in Nesibi and sent to Singara, but it seems more probable that the pieces were actually minted in the former town.

Gordian's obverse inscription is exactly the same as at Nesibi. The reverse type differs only in the substitution of Sagittarius for the ram over Tyche's head. The reverse inscription is AVP CԐΠKOΛCINΓAPA. The title Aὐρηλία presumably refers to Marcus Aurelius or Lucius Verus.

*131. (39) 24–29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, r.; above, Sagittarius, r.
*132. (39) 25–28mm. Head r., rad.
Rev.. Same.
*133. (7) 25–27mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*134. (9) 25–28mm. Bust l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*135. (7) 25–27mm. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Same.

Tranquillina

242–Octobe, 244

*136. (13) 25–28mm. CABTPANKVΛΛINA CεB Bust r.
Rev. Same.

Gordian III and Tranquillina

242–October, 244

Here, as at Nesibix, the Emperor and Empress together appear on the first denomination. The obverse inscription is the same.

*137. (37) 30–33mm. Busts confronted, Gordian laur.
Rev. Tyche seated 1., above, Saggitarius 1.
*138. (2) 33mm. Busts confronted, Gordian rad.
Rev. Same.
*139. (3) 27mm. Bust of Gordian, r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tranquillina r.

SAMOSATA

Elagabalus

June 8, 218– March 11, 222

*140. (2) 24–25mm. AVTKMAV ANTωNIN Head r., laur.
Rev. Inscription beginning upper r. [ΦCAMO] CATεωNMHTP[KOMMA] Tyche seated 1., holding eagle. B. M. Gal., p. 120, No. 39.
*141. (1) 27mm. AVTKAIMAPACε[ANTΩNεIN]OC Bust l., rad.
Rev. CAMOCATεΩN Tyche seated l., beneath, Pegasus running l. B. M. Gal., p. 121, No. 40.

ZEUGMA

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138– March 7, 161

142. (1) 23mm. Inscription illegible. Head l., laur.
Rev. imageεΓΓM ATεωN ε Tetrastyle temple with peribolos, all in laurel wreath. B. M. Gal., p. 125, No. 6.

Elagabalus

June 8, 218– March 11, 222

*143. (1) 35mm. MAϒAN TΩNIN Head r., laur.
Rev. εVΓM ATεΩN Tetrastyle temple with peribolos. Beneath, capricorn, r. B. M. Gal., p. 127, No. 24.

Philip, Jr.

247–October, 249

The coins of Philip and his family from Samosata, Zeugma and Cyrrhus all bear a strong resemblance to those from Antioch. Their close connection to one another is proven by B. M. Gal., p. 129, No. 43 where an obverse die used on a coin of Zeugma is the same as that on p. 123, No. 59, from Samosata. It seems likely that all these coins were struck at Antioch and then distributed to the other cities. If not, then at least the same die-sinkers must have been employed. Since the obverse inscription of both Philips, AVTOKKMIOVΛIΦIΛΠΠOCCεB comes not before 247 at Antioch and since Philip Jr. appears always as Augustus at the three other cities it is reasonable to suppose that here, as at Nesibi (cf. above, p. 39) the whole issue comes after 247.

144. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. ZεVΓMATεΩN Tetrastyle temple with peribolos; in ex. capricorn, r.
145. (1) 29mm. Same.
Rev. Same, but image for Z.

CYRRHUS

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138– March 7, 161

146. (2) 24mm. – – KεCA — Head r., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Zeus Kataibates, wearing himation over lower limbs and shoulders, seated l. on rock; in r., thunderbolt; l. holds long scepter; before him, eagle. B. M. Gal., p.134, Nos. 9f.

Marcus Aurelius

March 7, 161–March 17, 180

This might be a coin of Pius, Verus, Commodus, or even Trajan, but the very little of the obverse that can be seen is most suggestive of Marcus.

147. (1) 27mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur., almost entirely obliterated.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Same type. cf. B. M. Gal., pp, 134 f., Nos. 11 ff.

Lucius Verus

March 7, 161–February, 169

148. (1) 24mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur.
Rev. – – BATOV – – Same type. cf. B. M. Gal., pp. 135 f. Nos. 19 ff.

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

Although the coin is badly corroded, the reverse type is unmistakable. But, as certainl, the obverse is not Philip, but is either Caracalla, Elagabalus or Severus Alexander., The second is the most likely.

149. (2) 29–30mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r., laur.
Rev. In ex. - HC - Hexastyle temple within which Zeus Kataibates seated facing, wearing himation; in r., thunderbolt; in l., scepter; at his feet, eagle.

Otacilia

247–October, 249

For the date, cf. the remarks on Philip, Jr., at Zeugma, above, pp. 44 f.

150. (1) 28mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r.
Rev. – –A – – – OV In ex. KΓPHCTΩN Same type. cf. B. M. Gal., p. 137.

HIEROPOLIS

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138–March 7, 161

151. (1) 22mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r. Obscure.
Rev..Θε[ACCVP]/IAC[IεPO-ΠO] in laurel wreath, cf. B. M. Gal., p. 141, No. 27.

Lucius Verus

March 7, 161–February, 169

152. (1) 21mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., rad.
Rev.. ΘεACCVPI/ACIεPOΠO/ε in laurel wreath, cf. B. M. Gal., p. 142, No. 33.

Caracalla

February 4, 211–April 8, 217

153. (2) 25–27mm. Inscription illegible. Head r.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Atargatis riding r. on lion. Obscure. B. M. Gal., p. 144, Nos. 51 f.

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

154. (1) 30mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r., laur.
Rev. – – ITΩN Atargatis seated r.; on each side of throne, lion. B. M. Gal., p. 145, No. 55.

ANTIOCH

Autonomous

49–16 B. C.

This is a contemporary forgery, which must originally have been plated, of those imitations of the coins of Philip Philadelphus which constituted the first Roman issues from the mint of Antioch. The series was first identified by Newell in a paper entitled "The Pre-Imperial Coinage of Roman Antioch," Num. Chron., 1919, pp. 69–113, and the Fifth Dura Hoard, which he published (Num. Notes & Monogr., No. 58, 1933), contains fifteen of the genuine tetradrachms. The date on this forgery is illegible and it might belong to any year of the series, though its appearance suggests that it is later than 31/0 B. C.

*155. (1) 26mm. Head r. diad.
Rev. . [BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛI]ΠΠOϒ in two perpendicular lines on the r. [EΠ]IΦANOϒΣ[ΦIΛ]AΔEΛ[ΦOϒ] in two perpendicular lines on the 1. Zeus Nicephorus seated 1.; beneath throne, ↑

Domitian

September 14, 81–September 18, 96

156. (2) 26–28mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur. Countermark, Athena standing r.
Rev.. SC in laurel wreath. B. M. Gal., p. 180, No. 242.
157. (1) 25mm. Inscription illegible. Head l., laur.
Rev.. Same. B. M. Gal., p. 181, Nos. 245 ff.

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138–March 7, 161

*158. (1) 22mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur.
Rev. SC; beneath, Θ, all in laurel wreath. B. M. Gal., p. 189, No. 318.

Marcus Aurelius

March 7, 161–March 17, 180

159. (1) 21mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur. Obscure.
Rev. SC; beneath, Z, all in laurel wreath. B. M. Gal., p. 191, Nos. 340 f.

Macrinus

April 11, 217–June 8, 218

160. (2) 19–21mm. - MOCM — Head r., laur.
Rev. SC; above, Δ, beneath, ε, all in laurel wreath. B. M. Gal., p. 198, Nos. 383 f.
*161. (3) 20–21mm. AVTKMOCεMAKPINOC Head r., laur.
Rev. Same, but wreath ornamented by star. B. M. Gal., p. 198, Nos. 386 f.

Diadumenianus,

April 11, 217–June 8, 218

162. (1) 18mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r. In field, SC.
Rev. Same. cf. B. M. Gal., p. 201, No. 413.

Elagabalus

May 16, 218–March 11, 222

Elagabalus struck in three denominations, of which the third continues the types of Macrinus and Diadumenianus, while the first and second introduce the new type of the seated Tyche. The old SC reverse which had begun under Augustus as the first denomination had been growing steadily smaller and the Tyche reverse of Elagabalus was designed as a reform to give Antioch bronze of respectable size once more. Doubtless it was simultaneous with the striking of big coins at Edessa. The third denomination, therefore, may actually have been the first issue, later replaced by the larger pieces, but one or other of the varieties of little coins may well have been struck throughout the reign, so that it is safer not to assume a difference in time on these grounds. However, Nos. 163 and 164 which do not bear the title "Metropolis" may represent an early issue before that title was conferred.

The obverse inscription reads AVTKAIMAPAVPANTΩNεINOCCεB with the following variations: AV for AVT, K for KAI, M and MA for MAP, A and AV for AVP, ANTΩNINOC for ANTΩNεINOC, C and Cε for CεB. 22

The reverse inscription is ANTIOXεΩNMHTKO with M, MH, MHTP, MHTPO and MHTPOΠ occurring for MHT, and K, KOΛ and KOΛΩ for KO.

First Denomination

Without the title "Metropolis"

*163. (1) 35mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. ANTIOXε[ΩN KO]ΛΩNIAC Tyche 1.; above, ram l. In field SC and Δε.
*164. (1) 35mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. – – KOΛΩNIA Same type.

With the title "Metropolis"

*165. (11) 31–35mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. Same type. In field, l, star.
*166. (3) 31mm. Head l., rad.
Rev. Same.
*167. (5) 32–35mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. Same type, but crescent instead of star in field, l.
168. (1) 33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*169. (41) 31–35mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same type, symbol in field illegible.

Second Denomination

170. (1) 26mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. Same type. In field, l., star. Ram absent or illegible.
*171. (12) 24–27mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. Same type but no ram above; no symbol in field.
*172. (1) 27mm. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*173. (1) 25mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tyche seated r. In field SC and Δε No ram above.

Third Denomination

*174. (17) 18–20mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. SC; above, Δε; below spread eagle, all in laurel wreath.
*175. (8) 19–22mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
176. (1) 20mm. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*177. (2) 19–20mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Similar. Wreath ornamented by star.
*178. (1) 20mm. Head l., rad.
Rev. Same.
179. (2) 18mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. SC; above Δ, beneath, ε all in laurel wreath.
180 (1) 19mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
End Notes
22 The coins with the obverse inscription in Latin (B. M. Gal ., p. 205, Nos. 447–450) are better attributed to Laodicea-ad-Mare. Cf. below, No. 231. Dr. Clemens Bosch, however, suggests that they were struck in Cyprus. Cf. Westholm The Temples of Soli,p. 135.

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

There are three issues under Alexander, the first, a continuation of the seated Tyche type of Elagabalus, the second with the group of Tyche crowned discussed above, pp. 5 f., and the third with the bust of Tyche which is continued on the coins of Philip., All Alexander's pieces are of the first denomination.

The obverse inscription AVTKAIMAPAVCεAΛεΞNΔPOCCε shows the following variations: AV for AVT, KAIC for KAI, AVP for AV, CεO for CS or Cε omitted. The reverse inscription is the same as that on the first denomination of Elagabalus and exhibits the same variations; in addition KOΛΩN sometimes appears for KOΛ on the third issue.

FIRST ISSUE

*181. (10) 31–35mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l.; above, ram l. In field SC and Δε and to l., star.
*182. (3) 32–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same type, but crescent instead of star in field, l.
183. (10) 32–35mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same, symbol in field illegible.
*184. (1) 34mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche seated, turned to r.; above, ram l.; in field SC and Δε.

SECOND ISSUE

*185. (17) 31–34mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tyche 1.; to r. Emperor crowning her; to l. Tyche with rudder and cornucopia.
*186. (7) 31–34mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
187. (3) 32–34mm. Head r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*188. (1) 33mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*189. (4) 32–34mm. Bust l., laur.; sceptre over shoulder (Not spear as given in B. M. Gal., p. 209, No. 483).
Rev. Same.

THIRD ISSUE

*190. (19) 30–35mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Bust of Tyche r.; above, ram r.; in field, SC and Δε.

Julia Mamaea

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

The obverse inscription is IOVΛIA MAMԐA CԐBACTH

The reverses are those of Alexander.

FIRST ISSUE

*191. (1) 32mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tyche l.; above, ram l.; in field, SC and Δε
192 (1) 32mm. Bust r.
Rev. Same type; in field, l., star.

THIRD ISSUE

193 (2) 32–33mm. Bust r.
Rev. Bust of Tyche r.; above, ram r.; in field, SC and Δε

Philip, Sr.

March, 244–October, 249

There are two issues for Philip and his family, distinguished by obverse inscription and by reverse inscription and type. As determined in Hoards I, II, pp. 30 f., the form AVTOKKMIOϒΛIΦIΛIΠΠOCCεB comes not earlier than 247. The bronzes which bear that inscription would then be of the second issue, like those of Philip Jr. as Augustus with the same inscription. On these pieces the reverse inscription reads ANTIOXεΩN MHTPOKOΛωN and there is a star under the bust of Tyche (though there are exceptions, e. g. No. 203, Pl. IX).

The first issue, then, consists of those pieces without the star beneath the bust of Tyche, on which the reverse inscription ends KOΛΩ and the obverse inscription reads AVTOKKMAIOϒΛΦIΛIΠΠOCCεB (like my obverse B, Hoards I, II, p. 33, except that the bronze reads MA for M). Neither obverse nor reverse inscription offers any variation except that the S of SC is occasionally reversed (cf. No. 194, Pl. VIII).

FIRST ISSUE

244–246

*194. (9) 29–35mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Bust of Tyche r.; above, ram r. In field, SC and Δε
*195. (5) 29–31mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

SECOND ISSUE

247–249

*196. (22) 28–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same, but star beneath bust.
197. (10) 30–32mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same.
*198. (9) 27–32mm. Bust l., laur.
Rev. Same.
*199. (4) 28–30mm. Bust 1., laur., spear over r. shoulder, shield on 1. arm.
Rev.. Same.
*200. (6) 30–31mm. Bust l., rad.
Rev. Same.
201. (1) 29mm. Bust l., rad. with shield.
Rev. Same.
*202. (2) 30mm. Bust l., rad. with spear held forward and shield on l. arm.
Rev. Same.
*203. (1) 29mm. Bust l. rad., r. arm (?) raised.
Rev. Same inscription and type, but no star.
204. (2) 32–34mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Type and inscription of first issue.
205. (4) 30–33mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Type and inscription of first issue (Nos. 204, 205 are undoubtedly mules, first issue reverses used again with second issue obverses).

Philip, Jr.

March, 244–October, 249

On the first issue Philip, Jr. appears as Caesar with the inscription MAPIOVΛIΦIΛIΠΠOCKAICAP On the second he is Augustus with the inscription AVTOKKMIOVΛIΦIΛIΠΠOCCԐB identical with that of his father. Reverse types and inscriptions are those of the elder Philip.

FIRST ISSUE

244–246

*206. (13) 29–33mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Bust of Tyche, r.

SECOND ISSUE

247–249

*207. (4) 30mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same, but star beneath bust.
*208. (44) 28–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*209. (5) 30–32mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.

Philip Sr., and Jr.

SECOND ISSUE

247–249

*210. (3) 29–30mm. AVTOKKMIOVΛIΦIΛIΠΠOI CεB Bust of Philip, Sr. r., laur.; facing bust of Philip, Jr. l., rad.
Rev. Same. B. M. Gal., p. 216, Nos. 535 f.
211. (1) 30mm. Same inscription. Busts jugate, Philip, Sr. rad. Philip Jr. laur.
Rev. Same. B. M. Gal., p. 216, No. 537.

Otacilia

March, 244–October, 249

Otacilia appears on both issues; on the first with the inscription MAPΩTAKIΛCεOVHPANCε (Mάρκιαν Ὼτακίλιαν Σεουῆραν Σεβαστήν); on the second with MAPΩTAKIΛICεOϒHPANCεB. 23

FIRST ISSUE

244–246

*212. (5) 30–31mm. Bust r. on crescent.
Rev.. Bust of Tyche r.
213. (1) 31mm. MAPΩTAKIΛCεHPANCεB (sic) Bust r. on crescent.
Rev. Same.

SECOND ISSUE

247–249

214. (1) 31mm. Bust r., on crescent.
Rev. Same, but star beneath bust.

Trajan Decius

October, 249–May, 251

The suggestion made in Hoards I, II, p. 40 that coins with the inscription AVTKΓMԐKVΔԐKIOCTPAIANOCCԐB precede those with AVTKΓMԐKV- TPAIANOCΔεKIOCCεB finds some support from the bronze, for the reverse type with the bust of Tyche, which is a continuation of Philip's, bears the former legend, while that with Tyche within a temple, which is an innovation, bears the latter. 24 The reverse inscription of both issues is ANTIOXԐΩN MHTPOKOΛΩN

FIRST ISSUE

*215. (2) 30–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Bust of Tyche, r.; above, ram r.; beneath, star. In field SC and Δε.

SECOND ISSUE

216. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple, surmounted by ram r.; within, Tyche, facing.
*217. (1) Tetradr. Bust r., laur.; beneath, Z.
Rev. ΔHMAPXεΞOVCIAC Spread eagle, head r., on palm branch. In ex. SC. Hoard I, Nos. 464 f.
End Notes
23 This does not agree with the readings on B. M. Gal., p. 217, Nos. 543–545. There the second issue has KIΛ for KIΛI (No. 543) while the other two pieces have C for Cε These are presumably of the first issue, for the reverse inscription ends KOΛΩ though nothing is said of the absence of the star.

EMISA

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138–March 7, 161

*218. (1) 24mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur. Rev. [εM]ICHNΩN On sacred stone of Elagabal, eagle r., head l., wreath in beak; in field, r., B Cf. B. M. Gal., p. 237, No. 1.
End Notes
24 That is, it does so on B. M. Gal., p. 222, Nos. 600 f. On the piece here published (No. 216) it is unfortunately illegible.

Julia Domna

216

*219. (1) 26mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r.
Rev. — NKOΛΩ Great altar, crescent above to r.; in ex. HKΦ Cf. B. M. Gal., p. 238, No. 12.

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

220. (1) 21mm. Head r., laur. Almost obliterated.
Rev. Agonistic urn or crown in form of tiara; in ex. ΠVΘIA Badly corroded. cf. B. M. Gal., p. 240, No. 21; Rev. Num., 1905, p. 95; 1906, p. 150, No. 15.

GABALA

Caracalla

February 4, 211–April 8, 217

221. (1) 27mm. AVKAIMA – – Head r., laur.
Rev. ΓABAΛεωN Tyche in chiton, peplos and modius seated l. on throne; in r., rud- der; in l., cornucopia. Cf. B. M. Gal., p. 245, No. 14.

Macrinus

April 8, 217–June 8, 218

*222. (1) 27mm. AVTKMOΠMAKPINO Head r., laur.
Rev. Same. Cf. B. M. Gal., p. 246, No. 20.

LAODICEA-AD-MARE

Trajan

115

*223. (1) 26mm. – – CTKAI – – Head r., laur.
Rev. IOVΛIεωNTωNKA – – Bust of Tyche r.; in field, r., IOV B. M. Gal., p. 253, Nos. 42–44.

Antoninus Pius,

141

224. (1) 25mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Bust of Tyche, l. B. M. Gal., p. 255, Nos. 61–63.
225. (1) 24mm. Inscription illegible. Head l., laur.
Rev. Same. B. M. Gal., p. 255, Nos. 65 f.
226. (1) 24mm. Same. Countermarked male head r.
Rev. Same. B. M. Gal., p. 255, No. 64.
*227. (1) 24mm. – – εINOC – – Bust l. laur. Countermarked male head r. Rev. IOVΛIεωN— Same type. In field, r., HΠP

142

228. (2) 25–26mm. Inscription illegible. Head l., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Same type; in field, l., KAC r., PP B. M. Gal., p. 256, Nos. 67 f.

Septimius Severus

May, 193–February 4, 211

229. (1) 23mm. Inscription illegible. Bearded head r.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Wolf r., suckling Romulus and Remus. (Plausible but not certain.) Cf. B. M. Gal., p. 259, No. 91.

Caracalla

4February 4, 211–April 8, 217

230. (1) 23mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur. Obscure.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Head of Tyche r. Obscure. Cf., B. M. Gal., p. 259, No. 88.

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

*231. (1) 21mm. IMPCMAVR Head r., laur.
Rev. Δε; beneath, star; all in laurel wreath. Cf. above, p. 50, n. 22.
*232. (1) 17mm. – –AVRAN – – Head r., laur.
Rev. LADI Within distyle shrine, bust of Tyche, r. In ex. Δε B. M. Gal., p. 261, Nos. 101–103.

SELEUCIA PIERIA

Caracalla

February 4, 211–April 8, 217

233. (1) 21mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Thunderbolt, with fillet attached, on cushion placed on stool. , B. M. Gal., p. 276, Nos. 53 ff.

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

*234. (1) 33mm. – – APA – – Bust r., laur.
Rev. [Cε]ΛEϒKεΩNΠ[Sacred stone of Zeus Kasios within hexastyle temple with eagle on pediment. Doublestruck. B. M. Gal., p. 277, No. 58.

DAMASCUS

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

*235. (1) 27mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Wreath, within which, CεBA/CMIA around it, inscription, Δ – – – beneath, uncertain sumbol. Badly corroded. B. M. Gal., p. 286, No. 21.

ARADUS

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

236. (1) 27mm. – A – – Bust r., laur. In oval countermark APA/ΔOϒ
Rev. Cypress; to l., lion r.; to r., bull l. (only one horn visible); behind lion, standard. Date illegible. Cf. B. M. Phoen., p. 49, Nos. 383–385.

TRIPOLIS

Elagabalus

June 8, 218–March 11, 222

*237. (2) 23–24mm. Head r.
Rev. – – TΩN Altar of Zeus Hagios with flaming altar in center, statues of sun and moon to l. and r. B. M. Phoen., p. 222.

TARSUS

COMMODUS

March 17, 180–Dec. 31, 192

*238. (1) 33mm. [Λ AI]Λ AVPH[KOMOΔOCCε] Bust r., laur.
Rev. TAPCOV MHTPO[ΠOΛεΩC] Facade of decastyle temple in center of which pellet; in pediment spread eagle, head r.; on architrave KOMOΔεIOC; in ex., ΔICNεΩKOPOV B. M. Lycaonia, p. 192, No. 169.

AEGEAE

Severus Alexander

230/1

*239. (1) 38mm. – – PCεϒAΛεΞANΔP – – Head r., rad.
Rev.. [CεVAΔPIA]ΛεΞANΔ POVΠ Galley sailing l. met by four persons: above, spread eagle, head l., beneath which, ZOC (277 = 230/1 A. D.). In ex. (the lower third of the coin) [A]IΓεAIωN MεΠΘ (Mακεδονικὴ εύγενὴς πιστὴ Θϵοφιλής Imhoof-Blumer, G. M., p. 704, No. 549) Inv. Wad., No. 4083. Rev. Num., 1898, p. 152. Pl. IV, 20. Cf. ΔΩPεA CITOV TAPCΩ Rostovtzeff, Num. Chron., 1900, pp. 96 ff. (esp. p. 101) Corn ship from Egypt.

CYPRUS

Julia Domna

May 193–April 8, 217

*240. (1) 33mm. IOVA ΔOMNA CεR 25 (sic) Bust r.
Rev. KOI[NON KVΠPI]ΩN Temple of Aphrodite with court in front; in court, one oblong and two globular objects. Cf. B. M. Cyprus, p. 86, No. 57. Cf. also Westholm The Temples of Soli, pp. 162 f. where the objects are explained as a terrace and altars.

Caracalla

February 4, 211–April 8, 217

241. (1) 30mm. Head r., laur.
Rev.. Inscription illegible. Same type. B. M. Cyprus, p. 87, Nos. 60–63.

CAESAREA

Antoninus Pius

July 10, 138–March 7, 161

242. (1) 25mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Mount Argaeus. Cf. Sydenham, The Coinage of Caesarea in Cappodocia, p. 83, Nos. 309 f., p. 84, No. 315.
End Notes
25 This form of B occurs in the date on coins of Neo-Caesarea (Nos. 335 ff. below). It was mistaken by Babelon and Reinach for a form of digamma.

Marcus Aurelius

March 7, 161–March 17, 180

243. (1) 20mm. Inscription illegible. Head r., laur.
Rev. Inscription illegible. Mount Argaeus. Cf. Sydenham, p. 87, No. 337.

Luvius Verus

March 7, 161–February, 169

244. (1) 21mm. Inscription illegible. Mount Argaeus. Cf. Sydenham, pp. 90 f., Nos. 359–361.

Severus Alexander

225

*245. (1) 26mm. – –CԐ – – Bust r., laur.
Rev. – – KAICAPI Agalma of Mount Argaeus on altar. In ex. εTΔ Cf. Sydenham, p. 123, No. 557.

227

*246. (1) 21mm. [AVK]CεOVHAΛεΞANΔP Head r., laur.
Rev. image P KAIC Three double ears of corn tied together. In field, εTς Cf. Sydenham, p. 125, Nos. 570 ff.

AMASIA

Septimius Severus

October, 205–October, 206

The date for this issue which Babelon and Reinach 26 assign to 208/9 is discussed in Dura Rep. VII-VIII, p. 413. It is there shown that the five Pontic towns, Amasia, Comana, Neo-Caesarea, Sebastopolis-Heracleopolis and Zela struck money simultaneously in 205/6 and Amasia and Zela again in 206/7. The date εT (ἕτους) CH 27 sometimes is placed in the exergue, sometimes in the field r., or l. and r. Sometimes it is written reversed.

The normal obverse inscription is AVTKAIΛCεΠTCεOVHPOCCεB for Aὐτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Λούκιος Σεπτίμιος Σεουῆρος Σεβαστός sometimes with the addition of ΠεP for Περτίναξ before CεB, AV instead of AVT, K instead of KAI, CεΠ instead of CεΠT also occur.

The normal reverse inscription, AΔPCεVANTAMACIACMHNEΠPΠO for Ἀδριανεία Σευηρεία 28 Ἀντωνινιανὴ Ἀμάσια Mητρόπολις Nεωκόρος Πρώτη τοῡ Πόντου 29 presents a number of variations: Cε instead of CԐV, AMACI instead of AMACIAC, MHT instead of MH, N instead of NԐ, Π or ΠPΩ instead of ΠP, Π or ΠON or ΠTC (sic) instead of ΠO; sometimes ΠO is omitted.

247. (9) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., with rudder and cornucopia.
248. (3) 30–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Caracalla and Geta in togas clasping hands.
*249. (11) 29–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of one stage.
*250. (11) 29–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
251. (8) 28–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.
*252. (1) 33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail r.
*253. (3) 30–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which quadriga, front.
254. (2) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Emperor on horseback l., raising r. hand; before him, seated captive.

October, 206–October, 207

The types are in general repetitions of those of the previous year. The only difference is that the date is CΘ.

255. (8) 30–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tyche l., with rudder and cornucopia.
256. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Caracalla and Geta in togas clasping hands.
257. (7) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
258. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Same type; in field l., star.
End Notes
26 Recueil Général des Monnaies Grecques d'Asie Mineure, 2nd Edition, Tome I, Fasicule 1, pp. 31 f.
27 CH = 208 of the era of Amasia which began in October 2 B. C.
28 It is curious that Severus on the obverse is always transliterated with the o, Severea on the reverse always without the o.
29 The city's title is discussed by Cumont, Studia Pontica III, p. 110.

Date Illegible

259. (6) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tyche l. with rudder and cornucopia.
*260. (9) 28–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Caracalla and Geta in togas clasping hands.
261 (4) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
262 (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which pine with little trees with berries to l. and r.
*263. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pallas r., with spear and shield.
*264. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur. Countermarked radiate head, r.
Rev.. Emperor on horseback riding r.
265 (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Obliterated.

Julia Domna

October, 205–October, 206

The obverse inscription, which is never complete on our coins, would have been IOVΛIA ΔOMNA CԐBACTH though the variant IOVΛIA ΔOMNA AVΓ CԐ occurs in Waddington Recueil, 2nd Ed., I. 1. p. 43, No. 62. The reverse inscription is like that of Septimius Severus.

266 (3) 30–33mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tyche 1. with rudder and cornucopia.
*267. (10) 29–32mm. Bust r.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
268. (1) 32mm. Bust r.
Rev. Pallas l. with spear and shield.

Caracalla

October, 205–October, 206

The obverse inscription is AV KAIMAVPANTΩNINOC for Aύτοκράτωρ Kαῑσαρ Mάρκος Aύρήλιος 'Aντωνίνος Sometimes CԐB is added; K appears in stead of KAI and AV instead of AVP The reverse inscription is like that of Septimius Severus.

*269. (20) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l. with rudder and cornucopia.
*270. (30) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of one stage.
*271. (33) 28–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
272. (4) 31–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which eagle, head l., tail r.
273. (3) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which eagle, head and tail r.
274. (1) 32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which eagle, head and tail l.
275. (1) 32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which eagle, head r. tail l.
276. (5) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which eagle, head r., under pediment. Cf. Fig. 3, p. 12.
277. (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which quadriga, front.
*278. (3) 28–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre above which foreparts of a four horse team in pairs; to the l. little tree with berries. Cf. Fig. 5, p. 12.
*279. (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pyre of two stages; between the stages, curved branch. Cf. Fig. 2, p. 12.
*280. (2) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Spread eagle, head r., on dead limb.
281. (1) 32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Eagle, head and tail r., on dead limb.
282. (2) 30–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pallas l. with spear and shield.
*283. (3) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre on base formed by two columns; between them CԐOVHPOV/ BACIΛԐVON/TO[C O KOC] M/O[C ԐVTVXԐI] Waddington 47, 85.

October, 206–October, 207

284. (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l., standing on base with wave and dot pattern.
285. (17) 28–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tyche l. with rudder and cornucopia.
*286. (7) 28–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same; in field, star.
287. (1) 29–30mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same, without star.
288. (2) 31mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same; in field, star.
289. (10) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Caracalla and Geta in togas clasping hands.
*290. (4) 28–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same; in field, star.
291. (9) 28–32mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same, without star.
*292. (2) 29–30mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same; in field, star.
293 (12) 29–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of one stage.
*294. (35) 27–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of two stages.
*295. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same; in field, star.
*296. (5) 28–29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.
297. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail r. To l. and r. little trees, with berries.
*298. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.; in field, star.
299. (3) 28–29mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
*300. (3) 29–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which quadriga facing.
*301. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pyre of two stages; on first to l. and r. little trees with berries.
*302. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pallas r., with spear and shield.
303. (2) 29–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Hades-Serapis seated l. on throne; r. hand on head of Cerberus, l. on scepter.
*304. (3) 29–30mm. Same.
Rev. . Same; in field, star.
305. (1) 29mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same, without star.
*306. (2) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Emperor l., sacrificing from patera on flaming tripod, with l. leans on spear.

Date Illegible

307. (57) 29–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tyche l., with rudder and cornucopia.
308. (1) 28mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev. Same.
309. (16) 28–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Caracalla and Geta in togas, clasping hands.
310. (4) 28–31mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same.
311. (19) 27–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Flaming pyre of one stage.
312. (30) 29–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Flaming pyre of two stages.
313. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Same; on first stage to l. and r. little trees with berries.
314. (2) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.
315. (5) 29–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail r.
316. (2) 29–33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail l.
317. (3) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Pyre on which bull, his feet in air; on him, spread eagle, to l. of him little tree with berries. Cf. Fig. 4, p. 12.
318. (5) 28–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Emperor l., sacrificing from patera on flaming tripod, with l. leans on spear.
319. (2) 30–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. – – MHTNԐ River god Iris reclining l., r. hand raised, in ex. ԐIPԐICΠO 30
320. (2) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Obliterated.

Geta

October, 205–October, 206

The obverse inscription is ΠCԐΠTIΓԐTACKԐCAP for Πόπλιος Σεπτίμιος Γέτας Kαῑσαρ Sometimes ΠO stands for Π On only one coin can the title Augustus be read. That is No. 334 of whose inscription only CԐB can be seen. The reverse inscription is that of Septimius Severus.

321. (3) 29–30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Tyche l. with rudder and cornucopia.
322. (2) 31–32mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Flaming pyre of one stage.
323. (1) 30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.
324. (4) 29–30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail r.
*325. (4) 30–31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head and tail l.
*326. (4) 30–32mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Pyre on which bull, his feet in air; on him, spread eagle.
*327. (1) 30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Pyre on which pine tree; to l. and r. little trees with fruit. Cf. Fig. l, p. 12.
328. (1) 31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Zeus Nicephorus seated l., his l. hand on long scepter; at his feet, eagle.
End Notes
30 Eἴρεις (for "Iρις) Πόταμος Although the name of the town does not appear, these are certainly from Amasia. A similar type is published for Faustina the Younger; Wad. p. 37, No. 22.

Date Illegible

329. (1) 32mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Tyche l., with rudder and cornucopia.
330. (4) 31–32mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Flaming pyre of one stage.
331. (1) 30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Pyre on which spread eagle, head l.
332. (1) 31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Pyre on which spread eagle under pediment.
333. (1) 31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Pyre on which eagle (?) indistinct.
334. (2) 29–30mm. – – CԐB Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Pallas r., with spear and shield.

NEO-CAESAREA

Septimius Severus

205/6

These coins are dated ԐT("Eτους)PMB 31 Babelon and Reinach (Op. cit., Tome I, Fasicule 1, p. 120, n. 2) mistaking the form R for digamma, dated some of them 209/10. But R for B is not uncommon at this period. Cf. above, No. 240. The date is always placed in the exergue.

The obverse inscription is like that of Amasia, with the same variations. The reverse inscription is KOINΠONNԐOKAIMHTPO for Kοῑνον τοῦ Πόντου Nεοκαισάρεια Mητρόπολις KOI sometimes occurs instead of KOIN; KAIC instead of KAI.

335. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle Ionic temple; between side columns, statues on bases.
336. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple.
337. (3) 29–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple; walls of cella showing.
*338. (2) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple within which figure standing on base leaning on spear.
*339. (1) 31mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle Ionic temple; between the columns, three statues on bases (Graces?).
*340. (3) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle temple within which trophy in shrine.
341. (1) 29mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple within which, radiate bust.
342. (7) 30–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple, details obscure.
343. (1) 29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same.
End Notes
31 PMB = 142 of the era of Neo-Caesarea which began in 64/5.

Julia Domna

205/6

Only MNA of the obverse inscription can be read. The complete inscription was IOVΛIA ΔOMNA CԐBACTH as at Amasia. The reverses are like those of Septimius Severus.

344. (3) 28–29mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tetrastyle Ionic temple within which, figure on base.
345. (1) 28–30mm. Bust r.
Rev. Tetrastyle Ionic temple.

Caracalla

205/6

The obverse inscription is like that at Amasia. The reverses are like those of Septimius Severus.

*346. (4) 28–31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle temple.
347. (1) 28mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same.
348. (2) 29–32mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Ionic temple within which, on base, figure leaning with l. on spear, r. hand lowered (holding globe?).
*349. (2) 31mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Same.
*350. (1) 31mm. Bust r., rad.
Rev.. Same type; between columns to l. and r., long torches.
351. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple within which, lighted altar; walls of cella showing.
352. (1) 30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Ionic temple; between the columns, three statues on bases.
*353. (1) 28mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Ionic temple within which, on base, figure r. (Artemis?) r. hand over head; l. holds bow.
354. (1) 33mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple; rivets on door showing.

Geta

205/6

Only ΛCԐΠ and ΓԐTA of the obverse inscription can be read. The complete inscription was like that at Amasia. The reverses are like those of Septimius Severus.

*355. (4) 29–31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Tetrastyle Corinthian temple with ornamented door; cella walls showing.
*356. (1) 31mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Tetrastyle Corinthian temple, within which, lighted altar.
*357. (1) 29–30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Tetrastyle Corinthian temple within which, on base, figure leaning with l. on spear; r. lowered (holding globe?).
*358. (2) 33mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Same type, but Corinthian temple; walls of cella showing.
*359. (1) 30mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Tetrastyle Corinthian temple within which, on base, figure r. leaning with r. on spear.
360. (1) 29mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev, Tetrastyle Corinthian temple within which statue on pedestal; between columns to l. and r., long torches.
361. (2) 30–32mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple, obscure.
*362. (1) 29mm. Head r., bare.
Rev. Same.

COMANA

Septimius Severussc

205/6

The coins are dated, in the exergue, ԐT("Eτους) BOP 32 Of the obverse inscription only KΛCԐΠCԐOVH can be read. The complete inscription was like that at Amasia. The reverse inscription is IԐPOKAICAKOMANԐ for 'Iερέων Kαισαρέων Kομανέων with KAIC sometimes for KAICA

*363. (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple within which radiate goddess facing with shield and club.
*364. (5) 27–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple within which baetyl on crescent; on it, Nike with palm and crown.
End Notes
32 BOP = 172 of the era of Comana which began in 34/5.

Caracalla

205/6

Of the obverse inscription only –AN– can be read. The complete inscription was like that at Amasia. The reverses are like those of Septimius Severus.

365. (5) 28–30mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle temple within which baetyl on crescent; on it, Nike with palm and crown.
366. (1) 31mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev.. Tetrastyle temple with broken pediment. Double-struck.

Geta

205/6

*367. (1) 29mm. – – ΓԐ[TA K]AI[C] Bust r., head bare.
Rev.. Tetrastyle temple within which baetyl on crescent, on it, Nike with palm and crown.

SEBASTOPOLIS-HERACLEOPOLIS

Caracalla

October, 205–October, 206

The era is the same as that of Amasia.

*368. (1) 28mm. AVKAIMAVPAN– – –OC Bust r., laur.
Rev. Arcade between two temples. In ex., HPAKΛԐ/ԐTHC

ZELA

Septimius Severus

206/7

The era is the same as that of Neo Caesarea and the dates in the exergue ԐTPMB and ԐTPMΓ are equivalent to 205/6 and 206/7. The obverse inscription is illegible. The reverse inscription for both issues is ZHΛITωN TOV ΠON

369. (2) 27mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. Hexastyle temple with broken pediment.

Julia Domna Date Illegible

370. (2) 28–30mm. [IOV]ΛIA ΔOMN[A] Bust r.
Rev. Hexastyle temple with broken pediment.

Caracalla

205/6

The obverse inscription, which is never here complete, was the same as that at Amasia with the additional substitution of ω which is generally given for Ω The reverses are like those of Septimius Severus.

*371. (3) 29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Hexastyle temple with broken pediment.
*372. (1) 29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple with central arch, within which, altar.

206/7

*373. (5) 28–32mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Hexastyle temple with broken pediment.
*374. (1) 29mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple with central arch, within which, star.
375. (1) 32mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple with central arch. In center, grille.
376. (1) 31mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Tetrastyle temple with central arch, within which, indistinct figure.

Geta

Date Illegible

*377. (1) 27mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Hexastyle temple with broken pediment.

PONTUS, UNCERTAIN TOWN

Septimius Severus

378. (1) 29mm. Inscription illegible. Bust r.
Rev. Illegible. Countermark, radiate head, r.

PELTAE, PHRYGIA

Caracalla

February 4, 211-April 8, 217

*379. (1) 23mm. MAVANT℧ Bust r., rad.
Rev. ΠԐΛTHNωN MTPTATAPIωNOC Tyche l., wearing calathos, holding rudder and cornucopia. B. M. Phrygia, p. 351, No. 26 (Πελτήνων Mακεδόνων (σ)τρ. Tατ. 'Aρίωνος Cf. B. M. Phyrgia, pp. lxxxvii f.)

ANTIOCH, PISIDIA

Caracalla

February 4, 211–April 8, 217

380. (1) 25mm. IMP CAES– – – AN – – Youthful head, r., laur.
Rev. [GENI]COL[CAES ANTI]OC[H] Tyche standing l. wearing kalathos; in r., branch; in l., cornucopia. B. M. Lycia, p. 182, Nos. 38, 40.

MEGARA

Julia Domna

202–205

The following coins from towns in Greece all belong to the period of sudden activity, under Septimius Severus, of mints many of which had not struck for centuries. It is probable that these issues were simultaneous. If so, they are dated by the appearance on some of them of Plautilla, who was married to Caracalla in 202 and banished in 205. The references are to Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias.

381. (1) 22mm. Bust r.
Rev.. Asclepius standing front, head l., with caduceus. Cf. N. C. P., 5 A VII

AEGIUM

Geta

202–205

382. (1) 23mm. ΓԐ- Head r.
Rev. AIΓ – Pallas l., leaning on reversed spear with r. and with l. on shield on the ground. Cf. N. C. P., 87. 5 R XX

PELLENE

Septimius Severus

202–205

*383. (2) 22mm. Bust r., laur.
Rev. – – ΛHN Athena helmeted r., holding before her oval shield and thrusting downward with lance. N. C. P., 91. 1 S X

THURIA

Geta

202–205

384. (1) 20mm. Bust r., head bare.
Rev. Athena helmeted l.; in r. patera, with l. leaning on spear. Cf. N. C. P., 65 O XXII

GYTHIUM

Septimius Severus

202–205

385. (1) 22mm. – POV – Head r., laur.
Rev. Hermes l.; in r., purse; in l., caduceus. N. C. P., 62.10 O VII
*386. (1) 22mm. Head r., laur.
Rev. Apollo nude r.; r. hand raised over his head; 1. hand on trunk of tree. N. C. P., 61. Cf. N XXIV

Caracalla?

202–

387. (1) 21mm. Head r.
Rev. Apollo nude, facing. N. C. P

HERAEA

Septimius Severus

202–205

*388. (1) 24mm. -ΛOVCεΠC—Head r., laur.
Rev. —EΩN Dionysus in chiton standing front, looking 1., in r., jug; in 1., bunch of grapes. Cf. N. C. P., 103.2 T XXVI

MANTINEA

Geta

202–205

389. (1) 22mm. Head r., bare.
Rev. Artemis in short chiton with two torches? Cf. N. C. P.,

THELPUSA

Geta

202–205

*390. (1) 24mm. Bust l.
Rev.. Θε – – Demeter standing facing holding two torches; at l., flaming altar. Cf. N. C. P., 106.1 VX

SELEUCID, ANTIOCH

Seleucus III

B. C. 226–222

*391. (1) 14mm. Head of Apollo r., laur.
Rev. [BAΣIΛEΩΣ] ΣEΛ[EVKOV] Apollo seated l. on omphalos with bow and arrow. B. M. Sel., p. 22, Nos. 6, 7.

DENARII

Severus Alexander

March 11, 222–March 19, 235

392. (1) 1.54 gr. IMPCMAVRSEVALEXANDAVG Bust r., laur.
Rev. PAX AVG Peace running 1. Cohen IV, p. 420, No. 187.
393. (1) 1.63 gr. Same.
Rev.. PMTRPCOSPP Liberty 1., holding cap and cornucopia. Cohen IV, p. 423, No. 215.

ADDENDA

After this manuscript was completed, three coins previously rejected as hopeless, were finally identified and should be added to the list.

TARSUS

Elagabalus

1. (1) 23mm. —KAMAVPA — Bust r., laur.
Rev. TAPC Apollo, nude, facing. Numismatic Chronicle 1872–1873 p. 35.

ANTIOCH, PISIDIA

Julia Domna

2. (1) 22mm. – AVGV – – Bust r.
Rev. ANT – – Tyche standing l. with branch and cornucopia. Cf. B. M. Lycia p. 181, Nos. 34 ff.

Caracalla?

3. (1) 21mm. Bust r., almost obliterated.
Rev. Similar. Cf. B. M. Lycia, p. 182 f., Nos. 40 ff.

PLATES

DURA HOARDS VIII-IX

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PLATE I

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PLATE II

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PLATE III

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PLATE IV

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PLATE V

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PLATE VI

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LATE VII

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PLATE VIII

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PLATE IX

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PLATE X

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PLATE XI

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PLATE XII

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PLATE XIII

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