Two Roman hoards from Dura-Europos

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Bellinger, Alfred R. (Alfred Raymond), 1893-1978
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Numismatic Notes and Monographs
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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TWO ROMAN HOARDS FROM DURA–EUROPOS

During the campaign of 1928–1929, the Yale Expedition to Dura-Europos on the Euphrates unearthed two hoards of coins. The more important, which is here treated first, was found on Jan. 26, 1929, in a pot from a house just inside the main gate of the city. It consists, besides a few unidentifiable fragments, of 789 pieces, of which 507 are base silver Antiochene tetradrachms and 282 are Antoniniani. The earliest emperor represented is Caracalla, the latest, Gallienus. The other hoard was found on Dec. 5, 1928, during the excavation for the Expedition's house. Unfortunately it was not found intact, like the other; it is impossible to be sure that we have all the pieces which originally belonged to it, and, on the other hand, at least one of the coins which were gathered up cannot have been a part of it. There are 89 tetradrachms and 5 Antoniniani of which we can be sure; they extend from Caracalla to Trebonianus Gallus. In addition, there are seven bronze coins of Elagabalus, Severus Alexander and Gordian which may well have belonged to the hoard; three illegible bronzes; and one bronze piece of Antiochus VIII, whose presence with the others must be purely accidental. Probably the silver represents most of the original collection and, since it is parallel to the other hoard, it is not likely that what we have lost would affect our general conclusions.

Remarks on the significance of these finds in relation to the history of Dura will be found in The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Preliminary Report of Third Season, 1929–1930. Yale University Press. Since it was not possible to treat the numismatic aspect in that place with the fulness it deserves, the American Numismatic Society has generously offered to undertake a fuller publication. Thanks are due to the Society's President, Mr. E. T. Newell, not only for this offer, but for constant advice, to whose value the many citations in these pages testify. Indispensable assistance was also rendered by Mrs. A. R. Bellinger in cleaning the coins and preparing material for illustration, and by Mrs. Hopkins, Clark, 1895-1976. The latter was a member of the Expedition when the hoards were found, and it was hoped that she might publish them herself. This unfortunately proved impossible and she had to abandon the project after much labor, for the benefit of which I am most grateful. Miss Cox, Dorothy Hannah, 1893- has been good enough to arrange the casts for illustration, in the course of which labor she has rectified many errors of detail.

The larger part of each hoard, as has been said, consists of silver tetradrachms. They bear on the obverse a portrait of the emperor with his name, in Greek characters, and, on the reverse, an eagle with the legend Δημαρχικfigureς έξουσίας and sometimes a mention of the consulship (Ὕπατος τό ά, β' etc.). From the reign of Elagabalus on, this type is restricted to the mint at Antioch, but it was not there that the issue of such tetradrachms originated. The standard is undoubtedly the Phoenician standard which, in 126–5 B.C., replaced the Seleucid coinage at Tyre. The types there used are, obv., bust of Melqarth-Heracles, rev., eagle standing l. on prow. Since this series lasted past the middle of the first century A.D., it is evidently of this that Josephus speaks (Bell. Jud., II, 212) when he mentions "the Tyrian nomisma, which is worth four Attic drachms." Tetradrachms of the same standard were struck at Antioch by the early Roman emperors, but on these pieces the imperial portrait supplanted Melqarth on the obverse and the eagle was abandoned in favor of the Tyche of Antioch or a second portrait. It is not until Nero that the eagle is restored to the reverse; thereafter it is the regular type. It is still a question which of the issues from Nero to Trojan should be assigned to Tyre, which to Antioch. Since it has no bearing on these hoards I shall not enter upon it here. The reader will find it discussed by Hill in the British Museum Catalogue for Phoenicia and by Dieudonné in an article entitled "L'Aigle d'Antioche" in Revue Numismatique, 1909, pp. 458 ff. In the latter place will also be found a consideration of the various elements represented by the eagle type, which, derived ultimately from the eagle on the hand of Zeus on the reverse of the Alexander-type, becomes at last a symbol of the Roman empire. On the pieces in these hoards the eagle always has spread wings and a wreath in his beak. Since these characteristics are constant they are not specified in the catalogue.

The closing of the mint of Tyre by Hadrian leaves no problem of attribution until the reign of Caracalla, who initiated the experiment of striking tetradrachms at a number of mints which are distinguished by various symbols placed under the eagle. In this he was followed by Macrinus and Diadumenianus and, since there is no general agreement among the authorities as to which symbols belong to each mint, that question is taken up in the body of the catalogue in connection with each piece of these three rulers. Elagabalus and his successors struck tetradrachms at Antioch only.

From Galba to Nerva the tetradrachms bear the legend ЄΤΟϒC NЄOϒ IЄPOϒ A, B, etc., on which, cf. Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum veterum, vol. IV, pp. 416–418. The latest example of this formula is a piece of Trajan with ЄTOϒC NЄOϒ IЄPOϒ B (Dieudonné, R.N., 1927, p. 166). Thereafter the inscription is invariably some abbreviation of Δημαρχικfigureς έξουσίας, which is the Greek for tribunicia potestate. Eckhel, p. 418, says: "Inde a Trajano annus novus sacer inferri numis non desiit, sed alia tantum formula adhiberi coepta; nimirum pro ЄTOϒC NЄOϒ IЄPOϒ scriptum deinceps ΔHMAPXIKHC ЄΞOϒCIAC, tribunicia potestate, quae et singulis annis renovabatur, quod aequivalet τfigure NЄOϒ, et sacra fuit, quod est pro IЄPOϒ, et singulis annis unitate aucta perinde imperatorum annos numeravit, quam Graecorum ЄTOϒC." The assumption by the emperors of tribunician power goes back to Augustus and, since it was renewed yearly, was the simplest way of dating by the emperor's reign. However, in this case, as in some others on coins, it is noticeable that the phrase is not used for dating, for the number never accompanies it, as it regularly does on inscriptions, so that Eckhel's explanation is not entirely accurate. When dates are used they are furnished by the consulship, which comes after the tribunicia potestate when it occurs.

The weights vary considerably. A certain amount of fluctuation is caused by the cleaning: this error is not more than 0.2 grammes, while the weights of pieces not defective run all the way from 8.1 g. to 16.6. The great majority lie between 11 g. and 13.5 g. Application of the frequency table fails to prove any significant variation of the standard from one reign to another.

The Antoniniani, coins of a standard originated by Caracalla to check the alarming deterioration of the denarius, are part of the imperial coinage and, as such, bear Latin inscriptions and the variety of types familiar throughout the empire. The specimens before us have a certain importance since most of those before valerian were certainly struck at Antioch. In this period, before the introduction of mint marks to assist in attribution, the solution of that question rests largely on stylistic grounds, and it is therefore useful to have representatives surely of the mint at Antioch to confirm and supplement the arguments from style.

The list of the larger hoard is given first. Weights, to the nearest tenth of a gramme, follow the numbers of the coins in square brackets, unless the condition is too poor to make the weight significant.


HOARD I

Caracalla, Feb. 4, 211–Apr. 8, 217

TETRADRACHMS

Antioch

1 [13.5] Obv. AϒT · K · M · A · · ANTΩNЄINOC C ЄB. (Aύτoκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Mάρκος Aύρήλιος 'Aντωνєîνος Σєβαστóς. Aύτoκράτωρ is the regular Greek equivalent for "Imperator," Σєβαστóς for "Augustus.") Head r., laur.

Rev. · ΔHMAPX · ЄΞ · VПA · TO· Δ. Eagle on leg and thigh of animal, head r. (Ὕπατος τό δ'. Caracalla's 4th Consulship was in 213. The leg and thigh which the eagle holds seem to refer to the legend that the location for the city of Antioch was divinely indicated to Seleucus I, Nicator, -281 B.C. I by an eagle which carried off the leg of a victim which he was sacrificing to Mount Silpius. Cf. Libanius, Antioch, II, 348.)

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 195. The obv. is No. 361 except that there are two dots between MA and ANT. The rev. is No. 362.)

2 [12.3] Obv. AϒKAI ANTWNINOC. Bust r., undraped, laur.

Rev. ΔHMAPX · ЄΞϒΠATOC TO Δ. Eagle, head l.; between legs, ram's head, l.

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia, etc., pp. 194 ff. and p. 192, Nos. 343, 345.)

Dieudonné, "L'Aigle d'Antioche," Revue Numismatique, 1909, p. 476, lists the ram's head among the symbols which certainly belong to Antioch. But this piece, as well as the one which he illustrates (ibid., pl. IV, fig. 23) which is very similar though from different dies, seems to be of a distinctive style, and Newell, Edward Theodore, 1886-1941 suggests that it is from the mint of Damascus, which also uses the ram on its coins. But there is so much variety of style at Antioch that arguments on that ground are always dangerous, and the pieces in B.M.C. referred to above show that the ram's head was used as a symbol on pieces of M. Aurelius and Commodus which are without question from Antioch. It is safer, therefore, to let the attribution to Antioch stand, at least until some coin of Damascus can be shown where the type or symbol is the head of a ram only.1

Apamea?

3 [11.5, badly eaten away] Obv. AϒT]KAI AN[TΩNINOCCЄB. Head r. laur.

Rev. ΔHMAPX ЄΞϒПAT]OC TO Δ. Eagle on ear of corn, head l.

This piece is worn and obscure, but the ear of corn is shown clearly on another in the possession of Mr. Newell, who tentatively suggests Apamea as the mint on account of the ear of corn which sometimes appears as a type from that mint (e.g., B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 233, No. 4.)

End Notes
1 Mr. Newell properly calls my attention to the use of a ram's head in the exergue of Damascus bronzes from Elagabalus on, which certainly tells strongly for his view.

Aradus

4 [11.8] Obv. AVTKMAV ANTΩ[N]ЄIN0C. Bust r., draped, radiate.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄϒΠA TOC TO. Eagle, head r.; between legs, bull's head, r.

This piece can hardly be attributed to Antioch. It is of such poor workmanship as to be positively barbarous. The face of Caracalla is much too small for the head and the lettering on both sides is clumsy. Although the coin is somewhat worn, it seems clear that the reverse inscription actually ends with the word τό with no numeral after it. The coins of Macrinus and of Diadumenianus, given below, on which the bull's head reappears may be said to resemble this in lack of style, though there are no specific similarities of detail. Mr. Newell has another piece like this of Diadumenianus. His suggestion of Aradus as the mint is likely, both from the frequency of the bull as a type on the Aradus coinage and from the rudeness of workmanship of the imperial issues, of which specimens are given, B.M.C., Phoenicia, Pl. VI. If this symbol be given to Aradus, the coin of Caracalla with crab and crescent between the eagle's legs, palm tree in the field (B.M.C., Phoenicia, Pl. XLV, 6) doubtfully assigned to Aradus by Imhoof-Blumer (Griech. Münz., No. 786) should be transferred to Ascalon, which possibility he also suggests.

Emesa

5 [11] Obv. A V·T·KMAN·· TΩNЄINOCC Є B. Bust r., draped, laur.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞϒПATO[Δ. Eagle, head l.; between legs, bust of Helios l., radiate; in field, l., Г.

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 291, Nos. 7 and 9.)

Imhoof-Blumer (op. cit., p. 766 f.) attributes this symbol to Heliopolis (Baalbek) but Dieudonné (R.N., 1906, pp. 132 ff.) rightly prefers Emesa (Homs), pointing out that, in spite of its name, Heliopolis never used Helios on its coins, and referring particularly to a piece of Antoninus Pius with rev. ЄMICHNON and radiate bust of Helios r.

Tyre

6 [12.9] Obv. AVTKAIAN TWNINOC C Є. Bust r., draped, laur.

Rev. ΔHMAPX·ЄΞ·ϒПATOC TO·Δ. Eagle on club (handle l.), head l.; between legs, murex shell.

(B.M.C., Phoenicia, p. 304, Nos. 38–41. Imhoof-Blumer, op. cit., p. 763, No. 792. Another is published in the Catalogue of the McClean Collection, iii, p. 353, No. 9386, but is erroneously attributed to Antioch, the murex shell having been mistaken for a star.)

Imhoof-Blumer's attribution to Tyre is now universally accepted. Cf. Dieudonné, R.N., 1909, p. 475.

ANTONINIANUS

Antioch?

1 [4.3] Obv. ANTONINVS] PIVS AVG GERM. Bust r., radiate, wearing cuirass.

Rev. PMTR PXVIII COS III [I] P[P. Jupiter, nude, standing r., mantle on l. shoulder, holding in r., thunderbolt, in l., long scepter. (Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate XVIII Consul IIII Pater Patriae. The title Pius was taken in 200, Germanicus in 213. He became Pontifex Maximus in 211, and had taken the title Pater Patriae in 205. The 4th Consulship was in 213, but the 18th tribunicia potestate was from Dec. 10, 214, to Dec. 9, 215, and this type is, therefore, to be assigned to 215 rather than 213, which is Cohen's date.)

Although the piece is badly corroded, the bust is clear, and the likeness of the style to the tetradrachms suggests the mint of Antioch.

(Cohen, IV, p. 173, No. 279.)

Macrinus, Apr. 11, 217–June 8, 218

TETRADRACHMS

Aradus

8 [13] Obv. figure · U · O · CЄ· MAKPINOC. Bust r., draped, laur(Aύτορκάτωρ Mάρκος 'OΠέλλιος Σєουfigureρος Mακρîνος).

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞVΠATOC Δ. Eagle, head r.: between legs, head and neck of humped bull r.

Cf. 4, Caracalla. Here the symbol is not merely the head of a bull, but the head and neck, and, though it is crude, it certainly seems that the humped bull is intended. This animal appears first on coins of Aradus in the 1st century B.C. and it is the commonest type on the Imperial bronze. For the date, cf. 9, below.

Beroea

9 [12.8] Obv. AVTKMOΠ]CЄ MAKPINOC CЄ. Bust r., draped, laur.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞϒ]ΠA TO CΠΠ.

Eagle, head l.; beneath claws, to l. B, to r. Є; between legs, fantastic bird.

(B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 132, Nos. 19, 20. Imhoof-Blumer, Revue Suisse de Numismatigue, 1898, p. 42, No. 5.)

This symbol is assigned to Beroea in Griech. Münz., pp. 761, 762, where, however, as in B.M.C. the rev. inscription is ϒΠATOC Δ or ϒΠATOC TO Δ. Now Macrinus' 1st Consulship came in 218, and he therefore could not have had a 4th. This inscription, then, must have been a mere thoughtless copying of that of Caracalla if, indeed, an actual reverse of his was not used for the new emperor's coins. The reading of our piece ϒΠA TOC ΠΠ (πατήρ πατρίδος, a title assumed in 17) is correct for Macrinus and so is certainly later than the other. It is, of course, of the year 218.

Carrhae

10 [13] Obv. AVTKMO]Π C Є MAKPINOC CЄ. Bust r., draped, radiate.

Rev. ΔHMAPX [ЄΞϒΠ]ATOC. Eagle, head r.; between legs, crescent; in field l., star; in ex ...

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 199, Nos. 394–396. Hunt. Coll., iii, p. 174, No. 240.)

Dieudonné (R N., 1909, p. 476) attributes this symbol "surement à Antioche," but apparently only because a star appears here as it does on some of the pieces of Antioch, but the crescent, which is here the more conspicuous symbol, has no particular connection with that town, and Mr. Newell suggests Carrhae, where the star and crescent are of constant occurrence. The only silver coinage attributed to Carrhae consists of two tetradrachms, apparently from a Mesopotamian mint, one with busts of Caracalla and Plautilla, the other with Caracalla and Severus. They are described by Imhoof-Blumer (Rev. Suisse, 1908, p. 131) and figured in B.M.C., Galatia, etc., Pl. L, 6 and 7. Their weights, 11.6 g. and 10.35 g., though light, are appropriate for the Antiochene Standard. It may be argued that this issue of different types would make less probable the striking of the eagle reverse here, but, on the other hand, the evidence that the mint at Carrhae was used for tetradrachms at all should have weight and, as we know from the abundance of bronze, it was a mint much used by Caracalla. The crescent and star appear on tetradrachms of Caracalla (B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 195, Nos. 367, 368) and, though there is no published coinage of Macrinus from Carrhae, there is no reason to suppose that he did not use this like the rest of Caracalla's mints.

11 [12.8] Obv. AVTK]M·OΠ· CЄ· MAKPINOC CЄ. Head r., radiate.

Rev. ΔHMAPX·Є· Ξ· ϒΠATOC. Eagle, head r.; between legs, crescent; in field l., star; in ex ...

Emesa

12 [14.1] Obv. AVTOKMOΠCЄ...MAKPINOC[CЄB Bust r., undraped, laureate.

Rev. [ΔHMAPXЄΞϒΠ]TOC figure. Eagle, head l.; between legs, bust of Helios l., radiate; behind bust of Helios, Λ.

(Cf. No. 5 , Caracalla) figure for ΠΠ.

13 [13.3] Obv. Same.

Rev. Same, but no letter behind bust of Helios; in field l., under eagle's beak figure.

Mopsus

14 [13.2] Obv. AϒTKMOΠ[CЄ MAKPI]NOC CЄ Bust r., draped, laureate.

Rev. ΔHMAP ЄΞϒΠATOΠΠ (X omitted). Eagle, head l.; between legs, altar.

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 199, No. 397, where the T in ϒΠATOC is omitted.)

Wroth, l.c., and Dieudonné (R.N., 1090, p. 478) attribute this symbol doubtfully to Antioch. Newell suggests Edessa because of the common appearance there of an altar as symbol. It is reasonable, though not necessary, to expect tetradrachms from Edessa if we have them at Carrhae. (Obiter dicta it might be suggested that the little temple with pediment which is the symbol of B.M.C., Galatia , p. 197, No. 379, may be connected with that on the Edessa bronzes, B.M.C., Mesopotamia, p. 101 f., Nos. 69–71.) But there seems better evidence to attribute this piece to Mopsus in Cilicia. A silver piece of Hadrian and one of Antoninus Pius from Mopsus (B.M.C., Cilicia, pp. 105, 106, Nos. 12 and 15) show a spread eagle with just such an altar between its legs. The inscription is different, but the weights [13.54] show that the standard was the same, and the type is so similar that this seems the most reasonable attribution.

15 [13.3] Obv. AϒTOKMOΠCЄ]MAKPINOC C. Bust r., undraped, laureate.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄ[ΞϒΠATOΠΠ. Same type and symbol.

Tarsus

16 [11.8] Obv. AϒTK]MOΠCЄ MAKPЄINOC CЄ Bust r., draped, laureate.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞϒΠATOΠΠ. Eagle, head l.; between legs, group of three Graces in laurel wreath.

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia , p. 196, No. 371, Caracalla.)

Dieudonné (R.N., 1909, p. 478) gives this doubtfully to Antioch, but there is nothing to connect the three Graces with that city, while they do appear as the Reverse type on coins of Maximinus from Tarsus (B.M.C., Cilicia, p. 207, Nos. 233–235). Also we know that Tarsus, like Mopsus, struck tetradrachms of the Antioch Standard: there is a piece of Hadrian (B.M.C., Cilicia, p. 187, No. 150) with a spread eagle on a harpa; its weight is 13.35.

UNCERTAIN MINT

17 [14.2] Obv. AϒTKAIMOΠC ЄO MAKPIN[OC. Bust r., draped, laureate.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞϒΠA TOCΠΠ. Eagle, head l., standing on thyrsus around which serpent is twined.

Dieudonné's attribution to Antioch is faute de mieux. There are four mints which have some connection with this symbol, though in no case is it close. Berytus has coins of Elagabalus (B.M.C., Phoenicia, pp. 84 f., Nos. 216–219) showing Eshmun-Asclepius between two serpents. But there are three other symbols conjecturally assigned to Berytus (B.M.C., Phoenicia, p. 303, Nos. 31, 32; p. 305, No. 43; PI. XXXVII, No. 6). Carne also shows the same deity (B.M.C., Phoenicia p. xxxix, p. 111, No. 3), but the date, 221 B.C., makes the connection very remote. Sidon has a coin of Severus Alexander (ibid., p. 199, No. 321), on which he appears with a serpent staff, but Wroth (ibid., p. 303, No. 33) assigns to Sidon a tetradrachm with a wheeled shrine containing a baetyl as symbol. Ptolemais-Ace uses a caduceus both as an independent type and as a symbol (ibid., pp. lxxxvi f.). The present symbol has hardly the form of a caduceus, but this is perhaps the likeliest attribution. It is the one suggested by Newell.

18 [13.9] Obv. AϒT[KAIMOΠC] ЄOMAKPINOC. Same type.

Rev. ΔHMAPX[ЄΞϒΠAT]O CΠΠ. Same type.

Diadumenianus, Apr. 11, 217–June 8, 218

TETRADRACHMS

Aradus?

19 [12.7] Obv. ....NINOKAI. (The full inscription should have been Mάρκος 'Oπέλλιος 'Aντωνîνος Kαîσαρ. The name Antoninus was given him by Macrinus on the latter's ascending the throne. He is regularly called Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus on his Latin coins.) Bust r., draped, head bare.

Rev. ΔH[MAPXЄΞ]OϒCIAC. Eagle, head l., on thyrsus, around which serpent is twined; between legs, bull's head, l.

This combination of symbols is a great nuisance. There is no reason for the thyrsus and serpent to appear at Aradus unless it be the very tenuous connection with Asclepius-Eshmun shown on the coins of the neighboring offspring mint of Carne, as noted above; but the bull's head seems the more distinctive device, and this is therefore doubtfully assigned to Aradus.

Hieropolis

20 [12.7] Obv. AϒT·KMOΠЄΛANTΩNEINOC CЄB. Bust r., draped, radiate.

Rev. ΔHMA[PXЄΞϒΠAT]OC. Eagle, head r., between legs, lion r.

(B.M.C., Galatia , p. 145, No. 54, McClean Collection, iii, p. 353, No. 9390.)

Aύτοκράτωρ is an error. Diadumenianus, who was only nine years old at the time of his death, was Caesar but not Imperator. As he was never Consul the Reverse is also an error or a die of Macrinus. The coin in the McClean Collection is from different dies but has the same inscriptions. This symbol was assigned to Hieropolis by Imhoof-Blumer, Grisch. Münzen, p. 761, No. 782.

Tyre

21 [14.6] Obv. MOΠANTWNIN0CKAI. Bust r., draped, head bare.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIAC. Eagle, head l., between legs, murex shell.

Cf. No. 6, Caracalla.

Elagabalus, May 16, 218–March 11, 222

TETRADRACHMS

Antioch

With the accession of Elagabalus, Caracalla's policy of minting tetradrachms in a large number of places is abandoned; hereafter they are struck at Antioch only. All the pieces in this hoard are from Elagabalus' 2nd Consulship, in 219. There are coins from his 4th Consulship, 222 (B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 203, No. 425; Hunt. Coll., iii, p. 176, Nos. 253, 254), and one reading simply YΠA TOC, presumably from 218 (Hunt. Coll., iii, p. 175, No. 251).

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. AϒTKMA...ANTWNЄINOC C ЄB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Mάρκος Aύρήλιος 'Aντωνєîνος Σєβαστός). Head r., laur. (This use of the identical inscription employed by Caracalla is sometimes very confusing, as the portraits are often not clearly distinguished. Here, however, not only the portrait but the reverse, with ΔЄ in the case of Elagabalus, makes the difference obvious. The pellets in the inscription might be taken as officina marks in view of the use of pellets for that purpose later at Antioch, but comparison with pieces of Caracalla and Macrinus (e.g., Nos. 1, 5, 12 above) make it plain that this is a mere matter of decoration.1 Elagabalus must have used more than one officina in Antioch, but there is no way of distinguishing their issues.)
  • AϒTKMA...ANTWNЄINOC CЄB. Head r., laur.
  • AϒTKMAAN...TWNЄINOC CЄB. Bustr., draped, laur.
  • ANTWNЄINOC CЄBAVTK ('Aντωνєîνος Σєβαστός Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ). Head l., laur. (This inscription does not occur in B.M.C., Galatia, etc., Hunt. Coll., iii, p. 175, No. 252, has the bust l., laur., paludamentum over shoulder.
  • Reverse. ΔHMAPXЄΞϒΠATOCTOB. Eagle, head l., in field, to l. Δ, to r. Є (for Δημαρχικfigureς έξουσίας); between legs, star. (This, according to Dieudonné (R.N., 1909, p. 478) is the sun, particularly appropriate to Elagabalus, who was high priest of Helios.)
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞϒΠATOCTOB. Eagle, head r., in field, to l. Δ, to r. Є; between legs, star.

22, 23 A1. [13.4, 12.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 202, Nos. 417, 418.)

24–50 Bl. [15.1, 14.9, 14.6, 14.4, 13.9, 13.5(4), 13.1, 12.8, 12.6, 12.5(4), 12.3, 12.2, 12.1, 12.0, 11.9, 11.5(2), 11.4, 11.2, 10.9(2).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 202, No. 420.)

(The reverse inscription of 30 ends TO or TB.)

51, 52 C1. [14.1, 11.8.]

53–59 B2. [14.0, 12.8(2), 12.7, 12.6(2), 12.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia , etc., p. 202, No. 423.)

60 D1. [11.8.]

End Notes
1 Mr. Newell aptly suggests that the pellets may be meant to represent the berries of the wreath.

Julia Mamea, 222–235

ANTONINIANUS

Uncertain Mint

60a Obv. IVLIA M[AMAE]A AVG. Bust r., diad.

Rev. FECVND[AVGV]STAE Fecunditas. Standing l., r. hand outstretched to child, in l., cornucopiae.

(Cohen, iv, p. 490, No. 5.)

Since all of the published coins of Julia Mamaea from Antioch are bronze there is no reason to suppose that this piece was struck there. Its condition is too poor to allow any conjecture as to the mint.

(Severus Alexander (Mar. 11, 222–Mar. 19, 235) struck no tetradrachms and is not represented in this hoard.)

Gordian III, June 238–March 244

TETRADRACHMS

Antioch

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. AϒTOKKMANTГOPΔIANOC CЄB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Mάρκος 'Aντώνιος Гορδιάνος Σєβαστός). Bust r., draped, laur. (The ANT stands here for Antonius, not Antoninus, cf. "Lampridius," Elagabalus , xviii, 1.)
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate in cuirass.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate in cuirass.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate in cuirass; shield on l. shoulder, spear head over r. shoulder with r. hand.
  • Reverse. ΔHMAPXЄΞOVCIAC. Eagle, head l., in ex S.C. (Senatus Consultum, the regular mark on money coined by authority of the Senate, appears commonly on the bronze of Antioch from the time of Augustus on, since Caracalla in combination with ΔЄ. The Latin symbol here appears for the first time on the tetradrachms.)
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞVΠATOCTOB. Same type. (Gordian's 2nd Consulship was in 241. This reverse forms a transition between 1, which is undated, and 3, with the ram.)
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞVΠATOB. Eagle, head l.; beneath, ram, running l., looking r., above its head, crescent. The ram is the astronomical sign of Aries, apparently standing for the month in which the colony was founded. It occurs as a type on the bronze from the time of Augustus.
  • Same inscription. Same type but eagle's head r.
  • Same inscription. Eagle's head l.; ram running r., looking l.

61–65 A1. [14.7, 14.1, 13, 12.3, 11.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 211, No. 497.)

66 C1. [11.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 211, No. 498.)

67, 68 A2. [13, 12.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 211, No. 499, has this Rev. with Obv. C; cf. Hoard II, No. 6.)

69–71 A3. [12.3, 12.2, 10.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 211 f., Nos. 501 f.)

72, 73 B3. [13.4, 12.3.]

74, 75 D3. [11.8, 11.3.]

(B.M.C. has not this obverse.)

76 A4. [13.1.]

77, 78 A5. [12, 11.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 212, Nos. 502, 503.)

ANTONINIANI

Antioch

Colonel Voetter, discussing the coins of Gordian III (Num. Zeit., XXV, 1893, pp. 385–420, particularly pp. 407–410) observed that certain Antoniniani of his first two years should be assigned to Antioch. Among the types he noted are the first and the third, fourth and fifth here catalogued. The second escaped his attention. But it is clear that no distinction can be made between the Antoniniani of this hoard struck before 240 and those struck later. All certainly belong to the same mint and that mint is certainly Antioch. Unfortunately their condition is bad; they have suffered more than any of the other coins in the hoard. In many cases they have "bubbled" and sometimes they are eaten through, so that the series cannot be adequately illustrated. No attempt is made to give the weights, since none of them would be accurate.

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG (Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus). Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG (Imperator Gordianus Pius Felix Augustus). Same type. (The titles Pius and Felix occur on inscriptions from the beginning of Gordian's reign, but on coins only after 239. Cf. Liebenam, Fasti Consulates, p. 112.)
  • Reverse. PAX AVGVSTI. Peace standing l., holding, in r., olive branch, in l., transverse scepter. (July 25–Dec. 9, 238.)
  • VIRTVS AVG. Soldier standing l., leaning with r. on shield, with l. on spear. (July 25–Dec. 9, 238.)
  • P M TR P II COS PP. (Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestate II Consul Pater Patriae.) Figure standing l., holding in r. globe, in l., transverse scepter. (Voetter, l.c., dates this "after Dec. 10, 238," which is the date of the tribunicia potestate II, but the 1st Consulship is in 239 (Liebenam, l.c.), so that this type ought rather to be given to that year, like the next two.)
  • CONCORDIA AVG. Concord seated l., holding patera and cornucopiae (239).
  • LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI II. Liberality standing l. holding in r. uncertain object, in l. cornucopiae (239).
  • ROMAE AETERNAE. Rome seated l., helmeted, holding in outstretched r. victory, with l. leaning on spear, behind her shield. (After 239.)
  • FORTVNA REDVX. Fortune seated l., holding in r. rudder, in l., cornucopiae. (After Dec. 10, 239.)
  • IOVI STATORI. Jupiter, nude, standing facing, looking r., holding in r. scepter, in l. thunderbolt. (After Dec. 10, 129.)
  • AETERNITATI AVG. Sol standing l., r. hand raised; in l. globe. (Before Dec. 9, 240.)
  • LAETITIAE AVG N (Augusti Nostri). Laetitia standing l., holding in r., wreath, in l., anchor. (Before Dec. 9, 240.)
  • VIRTVTI AVGVSTI. Hercules, nude, standing r., r. hand on hip, with l. leaning on club which rests on rock; to r. lion's skin. (Before Dec. 9, 240.)
  • MARTEM PROPVGNATOREM. Mars helmeted r., holding in r. spear, in l., shield. (After Dec. 10, 240.)
  • FELICITAS TEMPORVM. Felicitas standing l., holding in r. caduceus, in l. cornucopiae. (After Dec. 10, 241.)
  • PM TR P V COS II PP (Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestate V, Consul II, Pater Patriae). Apollo half naked, seated l., on throne, holding in r. laurel branch. (The 2nd Consulship was in 241 but the 5th tribunicia potestate did not begin until Dec. 10, 241.)
  • Same inscription. Gordian in military garb standing r., holding in l. globe, in r. transverse spear. (After Dec. 10, 241.)
  • SECURITAS PERPETVA. Securitas standing facing, looking l., her legs crossed, holding in r. long scepter, her l. elbow leaning on column. (After Dec. 10, 241.)
  • VICTORIA AETERNA. Victory standing l., holding in r. shield which rests on ground, in l., palm; at her feet, captive. (After Dec. 10, 241.)
  • PROVIDENTIA AVG. Providentia standing l., holding in l. uncertain object, in r. scepter. (After Dec. 10, 242.)
  • FIDES MILITVM. Fides standing facing, holding in each hand military standard. (After Dec. 10, 243.)
  • ORIENS AVG. Emperor standing facing, looking l., r. hand raised, cloak falling over l. arm, in l. hand globe. (After Dec. 10, 243.)
  • PAX AVGVSTI. Peace rushing l., holding in upraised r. olive branch, in l., scepter. (After Dec. 10, 243.)
  • SAECVLI FELICITAS. Emperor, in military garb, standing r., holding in r. transverse spear, in l., globe. (After Dec. 10, 243.)
  • VICTORIA AVG. Victory walking r. holding in uplifted r. wreath, over l. shoulder, palm. (After Dec. 10, 243.)

79 A1.

(Cohen, V, p. 39, No. 174.)

80–84 A2.

(Cohen, V, p. 64, No. 381.)

85 A3.

(Cohen, V, p. 41, No. 196.)

86 A4.

(Cohen, V, p. 27, No. 48.)

87 A5.

(Cohen, V, p. 34, No. 130.)

88–90 B6.

(Cohen, V, p. 56, No. 314.)

91–102 B7.

(Cf. Cohen, V, p. 31, No. 98. He gives only "buste lauré" for the obv.)

103–109 B8.

(Cohen, V, p. 32, No. 109.)

110–113 B9.

(Cohen, V, p. 26, No. 41.)

114, 115 B1O.

(Cohen, V, p. 33, No. 121.)

116–122 B11.

(Cohen, V, p. 67, No. 404.)

123–130 B12.

(Cohen, V, p. 37, No. 160.)

131–137 B13.

(Cohen, V, p. 29, No. 81.)

138–145 B14.

(Cohen, V, p. 47, No. 261.)

146–148 B15.

(Cohen, V, p. 48, No. 266.)

149–160 B16.

(Cohen, V, p. 57, No. 336.)

161–168 B17.

(Cohen, V, p. 60, No. 353.)

169–173 B18.

(Cohen, V, p. 54, No. 298.)

174, 175 B19.

(Cohen, V, p. 30, No. 92. He gives "Fidélité debout à gauche.")

176–185 B20.

(Cohen, V, p. 38, No. 167.)

186 B21.

(Cohen, V, p. 39, No. 179.)

187–198 B22.

3

(Cohen, V, p. 56, No. 319.)

199 B23.

(Cohen, V, p. 60, No. 362.)

200–218 B rev., illegible.

Philip Jr, March 244–Autumn 249

OTACILIA, March 244–Autumn 249

PHILIP Jr ., March 244–Autumn 249

The first point to be made clear in the arrangement of these issues is that the Obverse types of Philip Jr. and Otacilia are all struck by Philip Sr. and are not independent issues. This is made certain by the dates involved: Philip Jr. appears on coins dated ϒΠATOГ and ϒΠATOΔ, but as his 1st consulship fell in 247 and he is only known to have had two, a 3rd consulship would be unlikely and a 4th impossible, since he died with his father in 249. Of course the consulships associated with Otacilia must have been those of her husband. It is evident, moreover, that the Reverse types used for the three persons are identical, as the illustrations will show. It is by these reverses, then, that the issues are to be dated. We know from other sources that Philip's 1st consulship came in 245, the 2nd in 247, the 3rd in 248. This ought to date Reverse types 4–6, but there is an annoying difficulty in connection with Philip Jr. On the ϒΠATOГ coins he appears both as Caesar and as Augustus. This should mean that he was made Augustus in 248, but, according to Liebenam, Fasti Consulares, he was made Augustus in 247; Dieudonné (R.N., 1929) following Cagnat, puts it in 246. Can we assume that the mint officials at Antioch were ignorant of his elevation for so long? The alternative is to credit them with another serious error. Dieudonné assumes that they believed Philip Sr.'s 2nd consulship to have come in 246 instead of 247, and the 3rd in 247 instead of 248. According to that hypothesis the ϒΠATOΔ coins were struck in 248 and 249, that is, the year of his 3rd consulship and the next year. Except for these coins there is no evidence for a 4th consulship. In spite of the advantages of this arrangement I am sceptical of its soundness and prefer, with due acknowledgment of the difficulties, to assign Reverse 4 to 245, 5 and 6 to 248, 7 and 8 to 249. We have to determine, then, the position of types 1–3. Now the eagle of types 5–8 are of identical style and they are, moreover, so very much like those of Trajan Decius that it is evident that no issues with unlike eagles, such as Philip's 1–3, can separate them. On the other hand, type 4 is quite different from type 5 and so much like 2 that it is evident that they are to be placed next each other. But in which order? It is natural to assume that undated issues would precede the dated ones rather than break their sequence, but this arrangement will necessitate putting types 1–3 in 244 after February or March, when Philip Jr came to the throne, whereas the gap between 245 and 248 will be filled only by the doubtful issues of the 2nd consulship.1 There is a good deal to be said for assigning types 2 and 3 to 246 though, for convenience, I have put them, as Dieudonné does, before the dated issues. As for type 1, it is clearly Philip's first coinage. It is never found with obverses of Philip Jr. and Otacilia. The inscription MONURB offers a problem not yet solved. It is generally agreed that it stands for MONETA URBIS or some such phrase. It had been taken for granted that the Urbs in question was Antioch, but Dieudonné (l.c.) rightly calls attention to the fact that normally Rome alone is Urbs, other cities being Civitates. His explanation of the phrase is that the tetradrachms were to be accepted as imperial currency; money of the city of Rome. I cannot see what the effect of this would have been, but I have no better solution to offer.2 It may be that it puzzled Philip's subjects as much as it does us, for it never appears after that first issue and was presently replaced by the name of Antioch, which anybody could understand.

The following types are used: Tetradrachms.

  • Obverse. AϒTOKKMIOϒΛΦIΛIΠOϒCЄB (Aύτοκράτωρος Kαίσαρος Mάρκου 'Iουλίου Φιλίππου Σєβαστοfigure). Bust r., draped, laureate. (This inscription, with the name in the genitive, is associated only with Reverse 1.)
  • AϒTOKKMIOϒΛΦIΛIΠΠOCCЄB. Bust r., draped, laureate (with Reverse 2 and 4).
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate (with Reverse 2 and 4. B.M.C. has an obverse with this inscription and bust l., not represented in this hord, with Reverse 3).
  • AϒTOKKMIOϒΛIΦIΛIΠΠOCCЄB. Bust r., draped, laur. (This inscription, with IOϒΛI instead of IOϒΛ is regularly used after the 1st consulship.)
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, laureate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, radiate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate, undraped.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate, in cuirass.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate, in cuirass, rear view of shoulders.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate, in cuirass, shield on l. arm.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate, in cuirass, shield on l. arm, rear view.
  • MAPΩTAKIΛCЄOVHPANCЄB (Mάρκιαν 'Ωτακίλιαν Σєουfigureραν). Bust of Otacilia r., crescent behind shoulders.
  • Same inscription. Bust l.
  • MAPΩTAKIΛICЄOVHPANCЄB. Bust l.
  • MAPIOVΛIΦIΛIППOCKЄCAP (Mάρκος 'Iούλιος Φίλιππος Kέσαρ - for Kαîσαρ). Bust of Philip Jr. r., draped, head bare.
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, head bare.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, radiate.
  • AϒTOKKMIOϒΛIΦIΛIППOCCЄB. Bust of Philip Jr. r., draped, laur.
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, laureate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., draped, radiate.
  • Same inscription. Bust l., radiate in cuirass.
  • Reverse. ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIAC. Eagle, head l., under wings, to l. S., to r. C. in ex. MONURB.
    • Nothing in field.
    • B in field.
    • Δ in field.
    • Є in field.
    • ς in field. (B.M.C., p. 213, No. 509, has A in the field, and it is reasonable to suppose that Г also occurs. These are almost certainly officina marks. Aside from the probability that this type was all struck in 244, the comparative rarity of these pieces makes it unlikely that they continued to be struck throughout the reign, and, though there would be a year for each letter how should we account for those with no letter? 1)
  • Same inscription. Eagle on palm branch, head l., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle on palm branch, head r., in ex. S.C.
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIACϒПATOA. Eagle on palm branch, head l., in ex. S.C.
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIACϒПATOГ. Eagle, head l., in ex. ANTIOXIA and S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., in ex., same inscription:
    • Tail l., r. wing behind r. leg.
    • Tail l., wings displayed.
    • Tail r., l. wing behind l. leg.
    • Tail r., wings displayed.
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIACϒПATOΔ. Eagle, head l., in ex., same inscription.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., in ex., same inscription.

219–230 A1a. [16.6, 12.8, 12.6, 12.3, 11.4(2), 11.2(2), 11.0(2), 10.9, 10.8, 10.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, No. 508.)

231, 232 A1b. [13.1, 12.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, No. 510.)

233–237 A1c. [13.1, 12.3, 11.6, 11.5, 10.2.]

238 A1d. [12.6.]

239, 240 A1e. [13.5, 10.1.]

241 B2. [10.9.]

242–248 C2. [14.0, 11.8, 11.5, 11.4, 11.3, 9.3, 9.1.]

249–251 M2. [12.4, 12.3, 11.8.]

(B.M.C., p. 216, No. 540.)

252–256 P2. [13.4, 12.1, 11.8, 10.7, 10.8 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 217, No. 546.)

257 R2. [12.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 217, No. 548.)

258 P3. [9.9.]

259, 260 C4. [12.8, 11.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, No. 511.)

261–263 M4. [12.0, 11.2, 11.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 216, No. 541.)

264 N4. [13.1.]

265, 266 P4. [12.6, 12.4.]

267 R4. [10.6.]

268–270 E5. [14.2, 11.2, 10.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, No. 514.)

271, 272 F5. [13.2, 12.0.]

273, 274 T5. [13.2, 12.3.]

275 V5. [13.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, No. 555.)

276 X5. [11.6.]

277–279 D6b. [12.7, 12.5, 11.4.]

280–283 D6d. [13.1, 12.0, 10.4, 9.9.]

284, 285 E6a. [13.6, 11.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, Nos. 512, 513.)

286 E6b. [11.3.]

287 E6c. [12.8.]

288, 289 E6d. [13.0, 10.8.]

290 G6a. [13.0.]

291 I6a. [11.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, Nos. 515, 516.)

292 I6b. [10.4.]

293 I6d. [13.0.]

294 J6a. [8.6.]

295 N6d. [14.1.]

296, 297 O6a. [12.2, 9.2 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 217, No. 542.)

298 P6a. [10.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 217, No. 549.)

299 Q6a. [11.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 217, No. 550.)

300 U6b. [11.0.]

301 U6b. [15.3.]

302, 303 V6b. [13.6, 12.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, p. 218, No. 556.)

304–310 D7. [14.1(2), 13.0, 12.7, 12.5, 11.7, 11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 517.)

311, 312 E7. [13.0, 10.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 520.)

313–316 F7. [13.4, 13.0, 12.4, 11.3.]

317 H7. [10.9.]

318 K7. [11.8.]

319 L7. [11.5.]

320–347 T7. [13.3(2), 13.2, 13.1, 13.0, 12.8, 12.5, 12.3(3), 12.2(2), 12.0, 11.9(2), 11.8, 11.2(2), 11.1, 11.0(2), 10.8, 10.7, 10.4, 9.7, 11.5 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, No. 559.)

348 V7. [11.0.]

349 W7. [11.6.]

350–358 D8. [13.8, 13.0, 12.6, 12.5(2), 12.3, 12.0, 11.1, 10.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 204, No. 518.)

359–361 E8. [11.9, 11.5, 10.2 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 523.)

362 F8. [11.6.]

363–380 T8. [15, 14.5, 13.6, 13.2(2), 12.8, 12.3, 12.0(2), 11.9(2), 11.5, 11.2, 11.0, 10.9, 10.7, 10.0, 9.0 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, Nos. 560–563.)

381 U8. [9.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, No. 551.)

382 V8. [12.8.]

383 W8. [11.0.]

End Notes

1 ϒΠATOB coins appear neither in these hoards nor in the British Museum, but Dieudonné (l.c.) implies that they occur in the collection of the Bibliothèque nationale France, Département des monnaies, médailles et antiques.
1 It is surprising that the practice of marking officinae, once adopted, should be abandoned, but there is an analogy from the reign of Philip Jr: in 248 the marks of six officinae appear on coins from the mint of Rome (though not on all of them) but on none of the issues of 249. Cf. P. Brock, Numismatische Untersuchungen über die Spätere römische Kaiserzeit, mit besonderer Beziehung auf die Munzmarken. Zeit. für Num., 2 (1875), pp. 189–245 and 3 (1876), p. 61.
2 In favor of the theory is the fact that the legend is in Latin rather than in Greek, which would be the normal language for Antioch, but Dieudonné's suggestion that this issue and the ones with ANTIOXIA circulated together, like the Belgian issues with French and Flemish legends, is inadmissible. The types were not contemporary.

ANTONINIANUS

Antioch

384 [3.0] Obv. IMPMIVLPHILIPPVS AVG. Bust of Philip Jr., r., radiate in cuirass.

Rev. PMTRPVICOSPP. Draped female figure standing l., sacrificing on flaming altar with r., holding short scepter in l. (249).

(Cohen, V, p. 164, No. 38.)

Trajan Decius, Oct. 249–May 251

Herennia Etruscilla

Herennius Etruscus, 250–May 251

Hostilian, 250–May 251

TETRADRACHMS

Antioch

As with the family of Philip Jr, Trajan Decius struck the portraits of his wife and two sons on his coins. None of the coins are dated and Reverses 1 and 2 furnish no indication of priority. Indeed, since they are both used with all the Obverses, it is practically certain that they were contemporary and in use throughout the reign. Reverse 3 is certainly the latest. It is a type given in B.M.C. only for Herennia (p. 223, No. 606) and is much like the Reverses of Trebonianus Gallus where, however, the pellet between the eagle's legs is replaced by a letter. It is found here only with Herennius and Hostilian (1 coin of each) and its rarity is probably to be accounted for by the fact that it was a new type which Decius inaugurated in the spring of 251 just before he set out for the war in which he perished. It cannot, however, be put too late in the spring because sometime before May Herennius became Augustus, and he appears still as Caesar on this piece. The order in which I give the Obverses is based on the inscriptions. Obverse A omits the name Trajan altogether and misspells Decius, B and C correct the misspelling and, by further abbreviation, make room for Trajan after Decius, D and E reverse this order and at last produce the proper title. I should surmise that A belongs to 249, B–E to 250, but this is a mere guess. G with its Truscilla for Etruscilla was probably later corrected to F. It is not possible to date these two nor H. J which is associated with Reverse 3 is, by hypothesis, of 251 and I is earlier.

For the first time we have a consistent system of officina marks adhered to throughout the reign. Eight officinae are represented, seven by a pellet or letter placed under the bust on the Obverse, the eighth by the absence of such mark.1 In the the Catalogue these marks are recorded after the Obverse type letter.

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. AϒTOKKГAIMЄKϒINΔЄKKIOCCЄB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Гαîος Mέσσιος Kυίντος Δέκιος Σєβαστός). Bust r., draped, laureate.
  • AϒTOKГMЄKϒΔЄKIOCTPAIANOCCЄB. Bust r., draped, laureate.
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • AϒTOKГMЄKϒTPAIANOCΔЄKIOCCЄB. Bust r., draped, laureate.
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • ЄPЄNNIA ЄTPOϒCKIΛΛACЄB. Same type.
  • ЄPЄNNIA TPOϒCKIΛΛACЄB. Bust r., diademed, crescent behind shoulders.
  • ЄPЄNNЄTPOϒMЄKϒΔЄKIOCKЄCAP ('Eρέννιος 'Eτρουσκίλλος Mέσσιος Kυίντος Δέκιος Kέσαρ). Bust r., draped, head bare.
  • ГOϒAΛOCTIΛIANMЄKϒINTOCKЄCAP (Гαîος Oύάλєνς 'Oστιλιάνος Mέσσιος Kυίντος Kέσαρ). Bust r., draped, head bare.
  • ГOϒΛOCTIΛMЄKϒINTOCKЄCAP Same type.
  • Reverse. ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIAC. Eagle on palm branch, head l., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle on palm branch, head r., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., between legs., in ex. S.C.

385 A1. [11.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 589.)

386, 387 A2. [11.8, 12.1 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 595.)

388 A.2. [11.0 (badly corroded).]

389–393 B.1. [13.1, 12.8, 11.5, 11.4, 11.2.]

394–397 B..1, [12.1, 11.9(2), 11.2.]

398, 399 B...1. [12.2, 12.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 585.)

400, 401 B....1. [11.6, 11.5.]

402 Bς1. [13.8.]

403, 404 B2. [12.7, 12.5.]

405–409 B.2. [13.2, 12.6, 11.4, 11.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 596.)

409, 410 B...2, [12.8, 12.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 597.)

411 B.....2. [13.7.]

412–415 C.1. [12.9, 12.8, 12.3, 11.7.]

416 C...1. [13.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 586.)

417, 418 C....1. [13.3, 11.1.]

419 Cς1. [9.3.]

420, 421 C.2. [12.5, 11.4.]

422 C....2, [11.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 599.)

428, 424 C.....2. [13.4, 12.8.]

425–428 D.1. [15.3, 12.8, 12.5, 10.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 578.)

429 D.1. [10.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 579.)

430–437 D..1, [14.1, 12.9(2), 12.7(2), 11.6, 10.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 580.)

438–441 D...1. [14.7, 12.9, 12.0, 10.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 581.)

442, 443 D.....1. [11.6, 8.9 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 582.)

444, 445 D.....1. [11.7, 11.0.]

446 DZ1. [11.5.]

447–449 D.2. [12.6, 11.7(2).]

450 D..2. [13.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 591.)

451–456 D...2. [13.4, 12.6, 11.4, 11.3, 11.1, 10.7]

457, 458 D....2, [11.7, 11.5.]

459, 460 D.....2. [13.8, 11.5.]

461–463 Dς2. [13.2, 11.7, 11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 590.)

464, 465 DZ2. [13.9, 12.0.]

466 E....1. [13.2.]

467, 468 Eς1. [13.2, 11.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 583.)

469 E..2. [10.3.]

470 E....2, [12.0.]

471 E.....2. [Broken in two.]

472 Eς2. [12.1.]

473 F1. [10.0.]

474, 475 F...2, [12.7, 11.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 223, No. 605.)

476 Fς2. [13.3.]

477 G.....1. [12.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 223, No. 607.)

478 G2. [11.2.]

479–481 H.1. [12, 11.4, 9.0.]

482 H..1. [11.1.]

483, 484 H...1, [12.5, 11.4.]

485–487 H....1, [13.6, 13.1, 12.2.]

488–490 H.....1. [13.4, 13.2, 10.8.]

491–494 HZ1. [13.3, 12, 11.3, 11.2.]

495–498 H.2. [12.8, 12.5, 12.3, 12.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 224, No. 615.)

499–501 H...2. [12.5, 11.8, broken.]

502 H.....2. [13.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 225, No. 618.)

503, 504 Hς2. [12.9, 11.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 224, No. 619.)

505 HZ2. [11.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 225, Nos. 620, 621.)

506 I1. [12.5.]

507 HA?(Δ?)3. [10.7.]

508 Jvi3. [13.4.]

This is the only case in which the officina mark is in Roman numerals as is later the custom on the Antoniniani of Tribonianus Gallus. (Cf. R.N., 1929, p. 147.)

End Notes
1 In view of the fact that all the coins of Gallus bear officina marks it might be supposed that those of Decius which bear none are mere oversights. But, although they are not especially common, they are sufficiently numerous and of sufficient variety to assign them to a special officina.

Uncertain Officinae

509 B1. [130.]

510, 511 B2. [11.5, 9.3.]

512 C2. [11.5.]

513–517 D1. [13.4(2), 12.9, 10.5, 10.9 (badly corroded).]

518–527 D2. [13.2, 13.0, 12.9, 12.3(2), 12.1, 11.8, 10.0(2), 11.5 (badly corroded).]

528, 529 E2. [11.5, 9.3.]

530, 531 H2. [11.9, 8.5 (badly corroded).]

532 Obv. uncertain, Rev. 2. [8.0 (badly corroded).]

ANTONINIANI

Antioch

533 [3.7] Obv. IMPCMQTRAIANVS DECIVS AVG. Bust r., draped, radiate, beneath, ...

Rev. AEQVITAS AVG. Equity standing l., holding in r. scales, in l. cornucopiae.

(Cohen, V, p. 187, No. 9.)

534 [4.4] Obv. Same.

Rev. VICTORIA AVG. Victory running l., holding in r. wreath, in l. palm.

(Cohen, V, p. 197, No. 111.)

535 [4.5] Obv. HERETRVSCILLAAVG. Bust r., diademed, crescent behind shoulders.

Rev. PVDICITIA AVG. Pudicitia seated left holding veil before her face with r., in l. holding long scepter.

(Cohen, V, p. 210, No. 19.)

536 [4.1] Obv. Same.

Rev. VICTORIA AVG. Victory running l., holding in r. wreath, in l. palm.

(Cohen, V, p. 212, No. 34.)

Trebonianus Gallus, June 251–Oct. 253

VOLUSIANUS, Nov. 251–Oct. 253

TETRADRACHMS

Antioch

Following the precedent of the two previous reigns, Gallus associated his son with himself on his coins. As his 2nd Consulship came in 252, the undated reverses presumably belong to the first year of his reign. Of these there are three pieces in this hoard with the bust l., a type not represented in the British Museum or the Bibliothèque nationale France, Département des monnaies, médailles et antiques. Was this an innovation at the beginning, at once abandoned? There is nothing to show whether it should be placed there or just before the change to the ϒПATOB type, but, for convenience, it is placed first. There seems to be no priority between the eagles with the head l., and those with the head r., but the type with S.C. beneath the wings, although it bears the legend ϒПATOB, is clearly later than the other issues with that inscription. Not only is the eagle a hopelessly scrawny fowl—that is partly accounted for by the unfortunate device of putting letters under the bird's wings—but the bust of the Emperor has undergone a striking change for the worse. Altogether we are quite justified in assigning this type to 253. Whether or not the piece of Uranius Antoninus (B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 231, No. 666) is to be assigned to Antioch, this last issue of Gallus is in effect the end of that mint's activity. One cannot regret it.

The officinae are always marked on coins of this reign, on the obverse by pellets, ς or Z, on the reverse by Greek letters. It is noticeable that five pellets and є never occur. Not only is this true in these hoards but also in the British Museum and the Cabinet des Médailles collection. As this can hardly be accidental we must conclude that officina 5 was closed for some reason.

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. AϒTOKKTOϒIBTPЄBГAΛΛOCCЄB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Гαîος Oύίβιος Tρєβωνιάνος Гάλλος Σєβαστός). Bust l., draped, laureate.
  • Same inscription. Bust r., draped, laureate.
  • AϒTOKKГOϒBTPЄBГAΛΛOC CЄB. Bust r., draped, laureate.
  • AϒTOKKГAΦINГAΛOϒЄNΔOϒOΛOϒCCIANOCCЄB (Aύτοκράτωρ Kαîσαρ Гαîος 'Aϕίνιος Oύєνδουμνίανος1 Oύολουσσιάνος Σєβαστός). Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • Reverse. ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIAC. Eagle, head l., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., in ex. S.C.
  • ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIACϒПATOB. Eagle, head l., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., in ex. S.C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head l., beneath wings, to l., S, to r., C.
  • Same inscription. Eagle, head r., beneath wings, to l., S, to r., C.
    (On 1–4 the officina mark is between the eagle's legs; on 5 and 6 it is in ex.)

537 AZ1Z. [12.9.]

538, 539 AZ2Z. [14.4, 13.8.]

540–549 B.1A. [13.2, 12.6, 11.9, 11.4, 11.3, 11.0, 10.8, 10.5, 10.3, 10.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 636.)

550 B..1B. [11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 637.)

551 B...1Г. [12.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 638.)

552–558 B....1Δ, [13.7, 13.1, 12.7, 11.9, 11.7, 11.5, 11.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 639.)

559–564 Bςlς. [13.5(2), 11.8, 11.6, 10.9, 10.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 640.)

565–567 BZ1Z. [14.8, 13.9, 13.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 641.)

568–574 B.2A. [13.2, 11.5, 11.4, 11.1, 10.5, 8.1, 9.3 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 226, No. 630.)

575–581 B..2B. [14.8, 14.2, 13.2(2), 12.5, 11.0, 10.4 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 631.)

582 B...2Г. [9.0 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 632.)

583 B....2Δ, [9.8 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 633.)

584–587 Bς2ς. [15.0, 12.4, 11.6, 10.8 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 634.)

588 BZ2Z. [11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 635.)

589–591 D.1A. [13.2, 12.5, 11.2.]

592 D..1B. [11.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 230, No. 658.)

593, 594 D..2B. [12.0, 11.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 230, No. 662.)

595 D...2Г [10.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 230, No. 663.)

596 Dς2ς. [12.3.]

597, 598 B.3A. [12.2, 11.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 649.)

599–601 B..3B. [12.1, 11.4, 11.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 229, No. 650.)

602 B....3Δ. [11.6.]

603–605 Bς3ς. [12.0, 11.1, 10.3 (badly corroded).]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 229, No. 652.)

606 BZ3Z. [10.8.]

607 CZ3Z. [13.7.]

608, 609 B.4A. [11.7, 12.4 (badly corroded).]

610–613 B..4B. [13.6, 11.2, 11.1, 10.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 643.)

614 B...4Г [10.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 644.)

615 Bς4ς. [12.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 646.)

616, 617 BZ4Z. [12.9, 10.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 647.)

618–621 B.5A. [12.9, 10.6, 10.3, 8.9 (badly corroded).]

622–631 B...5Г. [12.9, 12.8, 12.0(3), 11.8, 11.4, 11.2, 11.0, 10.6.]

632 B.6A. [11.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 642.)

633–639 B...6Г. [13.7, 13.4, 13.0, 12.3, 12.2, 12.1, 11.4.]

640–643 B....6Δ, [13.4, 12.8, 11.6, 11.5.]

644–649 Bς6ς. [15.1, 14.1, 14.0, 13.0, 11.9, 10.7.]

650, 651 BZ6Z. [11.9, 8.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 648.)

End Notes
1 Liebenam, Fasti Consulares, p. 114, gives the name as VELDVMNIANVS, but it is always VEND or its equivalent both on the Latin and the Greek coins.

Uncertain Officina

652 B?6? [11.0.]

Double Struck

653 [11.2] Obv. OϒCIACOϒIBTPЄBГAΛΛOCCЄB. Bust r., draped, laureate, beneath, ....

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞOϒCIACϒϒIBTPЄBГ. Eagle, head l., beneath wings, to l. S., to r. C., ex. obliterated.

ANTONINIANI

Antioch

Cohen (V, p. 236, Note 2) noticed that certain of the Antoniniani of Gallus bore pellets or numbers in the exergue and said of them, "toutes ces monnaies avec des chiffres ou des points ont dûêtre frappées à Antioche de Syrie" Our pieces confirm his hypothesis. The marks are analogous to those on the tetradrachms, except that, instead of ς and Z, these coins, in harmony with their Latin inscriptions, have VI or VII. (At times they appear as IV and IIV. The former of these might be taken to mark the fourth officina, but the latter can be nothing but VII, inverted by the ignorance of the Antiochene die sinker. As the fourth officina is indicated by .... this also must be a case of inversion.) As on the tetradrachms, there is no sign of the fifth officina, either here or in Cohen. There are a few pieces which have no marks and which may, therefore, come from another mint. But their appearance is so like the others that they are included with them. The style of all is careless and ugly, like that of the last issue of tetradrachms.

The following types are used:

4

  • Obverse. IMPCCVIBTREBGALLVS PF AVG. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • IMPCCVIBVOLVSIANVS AVG. Bust r., draped, radiate.
  • IMPCVAFGALVENDVOLVSIANO AVG.
  • Reverse. ADVENTVS AVG. Emperor on horseback l., raising r., holding scepter in l.
  • AEQVITAS AVG. Aequitas standing l., holding scales and cornucopiae.
  • FELICITAS PVBL. Felicitas standing l., holding in r. caduceus, in l. cornucopiae.
  • IVNO MARTIALIS. Juno seated l., holding in r. uncertain object, in l. scepter.
  • MARTEM PROPVGNATOREM. Mars, helmeted, walking r., holding in r. transverse spear, on l. arm shield.
  • MARTI PACIFERO. Mars walking l., holding in upraised r. branch, in l. long scepter.
  • PAX AVGVS. Pax standing l., holding in upraised r. branch, in l. transverse scepter.
  • ROMAE AETERNAE AVG. Rome seated l., holding in outstretched r. Victory, with l. leaning on spear, shield beside her.
  • SAECVLVM NOVVM. Hexastyle temple, within which, figure seated facing holding in l. long scepter.
  • SAECVLLVM NOVVM. Same type.
  • VICTORIA AVG. Victory walking l., holding in r. wreath, in l. palm.
  • VICTORIA AVG. Victory r. on globe, holding in outstretched r.. wreath, in l. palm.

654 A.1.. [3.3.]

(Cohen, V, p. 236, No. 3.)

655 B.1.. [3.5.]

(Cohen, V, p. 266, No. 1.)

656 A1. [5.1.]

(Cohen, V, p. 236, No. 3. There are apparently no marks in ex. and, since the style is slightly different, this may be from another mint.)

657, 658 A.2.. [4.3, broken in two.]

(Cohen, V, p. 237, No. 6.)

659 A..2... [4.1.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

660 Avi2vi. [4.2.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

661 AIIV2IIV. [4.4.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

662 A.3.. [3.7.]

(Cohen, V, p. 240, No. 34.)

663, 664 A..3... [Badly corroded.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

665, 666 A....3 [4.6, 3.9.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

667 AIV3IV. [Broken.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

668 AVII3VII. [4.2.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

669–673 A3. [4.8, 4.6, 3.5, badly corroded (2).]

(Cohen, ibid., there seem to be no marks here.)

674, 675 A.4.. [3.7, broken.]

(Cohen, V, p. 243, No. 47.)

676 A....4..... [3.5.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

677, 678 A5. [3.6, 3.4.]

(Cohen, V, p. 245, No. 70. No mark in ex.)

679–681 A6. [5.2, 4.2, 4.1.]

(Cohen, V, p. 245, No. 71. No mark in ex.)

682–684 A....7..... [4.8, 3.9, badly corroded.]

(Cohen, V, p. 247, No. 80.)

685 A..8... [4.0.]

(Cohen, V, p. 250, No. 108.)

686 AIV8IV. [3.2.]

(Cohen, ibid.)

687 B..10... [3.5.]

(Cohen, V, p. 277, No. 116.)

688 A..9... [5.0.]

(Cohen, V, p. 251, No. 111.)

689 All. [Broken.]

(Cohen, V, p. 252, No. 126. The ex. is broken away.)

690 C...12..., [3.4.]

(Cohen, V, p. 278, No. 126.)

VALERIANUS, Aug. 253–260

Gallienus, Aug. 253–March 268

ANTONINIANI

All our coins of these two rulers come from the period of their joint reign, 253–260. Indeed they are all from the first three years. Now in 256, Sapor, the Sassanian king, invaded Syria and captured Antioch. It was recaptured by Valerian in the next year, but it is probable that the mint was moved to some safer spot, for the later coins of these emperors from Asia are of a different style. The temporary or permanent interruption of Antioch's activity might be considered sufficient explanation of the fact that no later coins are found in this hoard were it not for the fact that there are a number of pieces of Valerian from the mint of Rome, whether because Antioch was not coining in sufficient quantity or for some other reason. Currency was evidently imported now and of course this could have continued after the fall of Antioch. But the last Roman pieces also are of 256 and, since the other evidence agrees perfectly, the conclusion must be that Dura was taken by Sapor either on his invasion of Syria or on his retreat. The most modern work on these issues is H. Mattingly and E. A. Sydenham, The Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. V, part I; P. H. Webb, Valerian to Florian (cited as R.I.C.), but the material on Antioch is slight, containing only one of our coins.

The following types are used:

  • Obverse. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG. Bust r., draped, radiate (253, 254).
  • IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG. Same type (256).
  • IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG. Bust r., draped, radiate (253, 254).
  • Reverse. AEQVITAS AVGG. Aequitas standing l., holding in r. scales, in l., cornucopiae (256).
  • AETERNITATI AVGG. Sol standing l., r. raised, holding in l. globe (256).
  • LAETITIA AVGG. Laetitia standing l., in r. holding wreath, with l., leaning on anchor (254 and 256).
  • ROMAE AETERNAE. Rome seated l., holding in r. victory, with l. leaning on spear; beside her, shield (254 and 256).
  • SALVS AVGG. Salus standing r., with l. feeding serpent twined about her (256).
  • VENVS VICTRIX. Venus standing l., holding in r. crested helmet, in l. transverse scepter; l. elbow leaning on shield (254 and 256).
  • VICTORIA AVGG. Victory standing l., holding in r. wreath, in l. palm (254).
  • VIRTVS AVGG. Soldier standing l., leaning with r. on shield, with l. on spear (254).

Antioch

691 B1. [3.8.]

( R.I.C., p. 59, No. 279.)

692–696 B2. [3.9, 3.8, 2.4, corroded.]

696–701 B3. [5.2, 4.8, 4.1, 4.0, 3.3, corroded.]

702–717 C3. [4.6, 4.1(3), 4.0(broken), 3.9, 3.8, 3.6(broken), 3.5, 3.4(2), 3.2, 3.0, 2.9(2), 2.7.]

718–725 B4. [4.7, 4.1, 4.0. 3.9, 3.7, corroded (3).]

726–728 C4. [4.0, 3.9, 3.2.]

(These may be from Rome.)

729–736 B5. [4.9, 4.3, 4.1, 3.8, corroded (3).]

736–738 B6. [5.1, 3.4(2).]

739–743 C6. [4.6(2), 4.2, 4.1, 3.5.]

744–748 C7. [4.0, 3.8, 3.2, corroded, broken.]

749–750 A8. [Broken.]

751–769 B8. [5.3, 5.2, 4.5(3), 4.4(2), 4.1, 3.9, 3.8, 3.7(2), 3.5(2), 3.3, 3.2, corroded, broken (2).]

770 C8. [3.8.]

Rome

771–779 A3. [4.4, 4.1, 4.0, 3.9, 3.7(2), 3.6, 3.0, corroded.]

( R.I.C., p. 46, No. 97.)

780–781 A4. [4.4, 3.8.]

( R.I.C., p. 47, No. 120.)

782 B4. [4.7.]

783–786 A7. [3.9, 3.4, 2.9, broken.]

( R.I.C., p. 48, No. 124.)

787 A8. [4.3.]

( R.I.C., p. 48, No. 133.)

788, 789 B?. [Broken.]


HOARD II

In a few cases which are specially noted, types appear here that are not in the larger hoard. There are also some minor varieties, that is different combinations of type and officina, but most of the pieces are duplicates. The letters and figures refer to the types already described in Hoard I. The condition is so inferior, both as to wear and as to corrosion, than that of the other hoard, that the weights run distinctly lower and are much less reliable.

Caracalla

TETRADRACHM

Edessa

1 [13.1] Obv. AϒT·K·M·A·[ANT]ΩNЄINOC CЄB. Bust, in cuirass, r., laur.; behind the head, Δ.

Rev. ΔHMAPXЄΞVПATOCTOΔ.

Eagle, head r.; between legs, small temple or shrine.

(Cf. B.M.C., Galatia, p. 197, No. 379.)

In discussing a coin of Macrinus (No. 14 above) it has already been suggested that the appearance of this symbol on the bronze of Edessa makes this a reasonable attribution.

Elagabalus

TETRADRACHMS

2, 3 A or B1. [Badly corroded.]

GORDIAN III

TETRADRACHMS

4 A2. [12.6.]

5 A5. [12.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 212, Nos. 502, 503.)

6 C2. [9.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 211, No. 499.)

ANTONINIANI

7 B8.

(Cohen, V, p. 32, No. 109.)

8 B10.

(Cohen, V, p. 33, No. 121.)

9 B18.

(Cohen, V, p. 54, No. 298.)

10 B23.

(Cohen, V, p. 60, No. 362.)

PHILIP, Sr .

PHILIP, Jr .

TETRADRACHMS

11 A1a(?). [Badly corroded.]

12 A1c. [10.8.]

13 E5. [11.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 213, No. 514.)

14 E6b. [11.1.]

15 E6d. [9.7.]

16, 17 D7. [11.6, 10.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 517.)

18 D8. [11.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 518.)

19 E7. [11.2.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 214, No. 520.)

20–22 T7. [13.1, 12.1, 10.0.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, No. 559.)

23 T8. [12.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 218, Nos. 560–563.)

ANTONINIANUS

24 [4.1] Obv. IMPMIVLPHILIPPVS AVG. Bust of Philip Sr., r., draped, radiate.

Rev. SAECVLVM NOVVM. Hexastyle temple, within which seated figure facing (248).

(Cohen, V, p. 114, No. 199.)

Trajan Decius

Herennia Etruscilla

Herennius Etruscus

TETRADRACHMS

25 A1. [12.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 589.)

26, 27 B..1. [10,1, 9.2.]

28 B.2. [11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 596.)

29 B...2. [12.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 222, No. 597.)

30 C..1. [11.5.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

31 C.....1. [10.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 587. Not in Hoard I.)

32 CZ1. [11.6.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

33 C..2. [13.2.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

34 D.1. [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 579.)

35, 36 D..1, [13.1, badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 580.)

37, 38 D...1, [11.9, 9.8.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 581.)

39 DZ1. [Badly corroded.]

40 D.2. [12.6.]

41 D..2. [12.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 591.)

42 D...2. [13.0.]

43 D....2 [10.9.]

44, 45 Dς2. [10.0, 9.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 221, No. 590.)

46 E..1. [12.0.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

47, 48 Eς1. [10.6, 9.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 220, No. 583.)

49 E....2, [10.0.]

50 G...2. [10.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 223, No. 605. Not in Hoard I.)

51 H..1. [10.5.]

52, 53 H...1. [11.4, 10.1.]

54 H....1. [10.3.]

55 Hς1. [13.5.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

56, 57 H...2. [10.9, 10.1.]

58 H....2. [12.4.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 224, No. 617.)

59 Hς2. [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 224, No. 619.)

Uncertain officina

60, 61 B1. [10.4, badly corroded.]

62 C1. [Badly corroded.]

63, 64 D1. [11.1, 8.8.]

66 H1. [13.6.]

67 H2. [Badly corroded.]

68 [10.9] Obv. AϒTKKMЄKϒTPAIANOCΔЄKIOCCЄB. Bust, in cuirass, l., radiate.

Rev. 1.

There are no published examples with the bust l. I am inclined to believe that this was Decius' latest type, followed by the rare coins of Gallus with the bust l. (Nos. 537–539, Hoard I.)

Trebonianus Gallus

TETRADRACHMS

69 B...1Г [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 638.)

69. B....1Δ. [9.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 639.)

70 BZ1Z. [11.1.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 641.)

71 B.2A. [11.6.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 226, No. 630.)

72 B..2B. [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 631.)

73 B...2Г. [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 632.)

74, 75 B....2Δ. [10.8, 8.7.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 227, No. 633.)

76 B.3A. [11.3.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 649.)

77, 78 B..3B. [Badly corroded.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 229, No. 650.)

79–83 B..4B. [11.2, 11.0, 10.7, 10.0, 9.5.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 643.)

84, 85 Bς4ς. [12.4, 8.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 646.)

86 Bς5ς. [Badly corroded.]

(Not in Hoard I.)

87–93 B....6Δ, [12.1, 11.1(2), 11.0, 9.6, badly corroded (2).]

94 BZ6Z. [10.9.]

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 228, No. 648.)

The following bronze coins were found with Hoard II:

Caracalla?

Carrhae?

95 15 mm. Obv. Obliterated.

Rev. Crescent. Obscure and doubtful.

Elagabalus

Edessa?

96 25 mm. Obv. Bust r., undraped. May be Severus Alexander.

Rev. Obliterated.

Severus Alexander

Antioch

97 30 mm. Obv. Bust r.

Rev. Tyche seated left. Both sides obscure.

(B.M.C., Galatia, etc., p. 207, Nos. 470 ff.)

Edessa

98 24 mm. Obv. Bust r., undraped.

Rev. Tyche seated l. Obscure.

(B.M.C., Mesopotamia, etc., pp. 106, 107.)

Nesibi

99 30 mm. Obv. Bust r.

Rev. Bust of city goddess r., above her head, sign of Aries r. Both sides obscure but reasonably certain.

(B.M.C., Mesopotamia, etc., p. 119, Nos. 4 ff.)

GORDIAN III

Singara

100 27 mm. Obv. Bust r., laur., in cuirass and paludamentum.

Rev. Bust of Tyche, r. Aϒ]PCЄП[KOΛCINГAPA. Obscure but certain.

(B.M.C., Mesopotamia, etc., p. 134, No. 3.)

Uncertain Mint

101 22 mm. Obv. Bust r. Very obscure.

Rev. Obliterated.

One bronze of Antiochus VIII, B.C. 121–96 (B.M.C., Seleucid Kings, p. 90, Nos. 25 f.) accidentally mixed with the hoard.


DURA HOARD I

PLATE I

PLATE I - 1

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PLATE I - 3

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PLATE I - 8

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PLATE II

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PLATE III

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PLATE IV

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PLATE V

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PLATE VI

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PLATE VII

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PLATE VIII

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PLATE IX

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PLATE X

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PLATE XI

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PLATE XII

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PLATE XIII

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PLATE XIV

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PLATE XV

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PLATE XV - 689

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PLATE XVI

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PLATE XVI - 782

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PLATE XVI - 784

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PLATE XVI - 787

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DURA HOARD II

PLATE XVII

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PLATE XVII - 1

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PLATE XVII - 6

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