coinage of the Mexican revolutionists

Author
Wood, Howland, 1877-1938
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works

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CC BY-NC

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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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THE COINAGE OF THE MEXICAN REVOLUTIONISTS 1913-1917

By Howland Wood

preface to 1928 edition

In 1921 the monograph on "The Mexican Revolutionary Coinage" appeared. This was the first description of these coins and at that time comparatively little was known about them. What information was then available was from residents in Mexico, travelers returned from Mexico, and a few collectors. Since then a number of collectors in this country and a few in Mexico have specialized upon and studied this series, and it is to these workers that I am largely indebted for the new material in this edition.

When the first monograph was published it was felt that the list of pieces was far from complete and time has proved this. The earlier edition contained seventy-five numbers—in this presentment one hundred and eighty major varieties are described. It was at first planned to add a supplement, but for clarity and for convenience to the collector it was decided to rearrange the whole series. New numbers have been given the descrip- tions but the old numbers of the first monograph follow the new number in parenthesis. The weights of the silver and gold pieces are given, as before, in grammes and grains.

It will be noted that the chief additions fall in the copper Durango and Zapata series. These baser coins were for the most part issued after the silver coins, and clearly reflect either the increasing scarcity of silver bullion, or the depreciation of the currency. A few errors which had crept into the initial monograph have been corrected in this edition.

Although the cabinet of The American Numismatic Society contains many of the pieces described, without the generosity and kindness of the collectors of this series this new material would not have been available. The writer wishes again to thank his several friends, who have been almost copartners in this work. I wish to acknowledge especially my indebtedness to Dr. Everardo Landa of Mexico City; Mr. E. Z. Little of Seattle, Washington; Mr. H. L. Hill of San Francisco, California; Mr. Farran Zerbe of Tyrone, Pennsylvania, as well as to Mr. Julius Guttag, Mr. Frank I. Liveright, and Mr. F. C. C. Boyd of New York; Mr. George F. Brown of Chicago; Mr. L. W. Hoffecker of El Paso, Texas; Mr. O. P. Eklund of Spokane, Washington, and the Reverend A. D. Chaurand of New York City.

Most of the Revolutionary coins may be termed scarce—and many are really rare. A few are known by one specimen only. No especial attempt has been made to give the degree of rarity but a general statement has been made when thought best. In the description, where no especial acknowledgement is given, the piece is in The American Numismatic Society's collection or is common to most collections. In several instances where a piece is noted as being in a certain collection, the reference is to the piece illustrated, although examples may be in other cabinets. No attempt has been made to describe or number each minor variety, especially where the purpose was to make identical dies. The aim has been to over-illustrate rather than to show a few main types—and it is hoped that in cases where the reproductions are none too clear the reader will be indulgent, as the photographs were gathered from many sources and were made under varying conditions during the past seven years.

INTRODUCTION

War in its various phases has always had its influence on coinage; mints have changed hands or new mints have operated, new types or denominations have resulted, while special coinages, either necessity or emergency, have come out during such periods of unusual disturbance or stress. The bygone coinage of Europe well attests this fact. The money of North and South America has frequently been influenced by war and political disturbances.

Ever since the recent revolutionary era began in Mexico, and there were prospects that coins might be issued, it has been the endeavor of The American Numismatic Society to obtain specimens of such coins and the data concerning them. The necessity of collecting all possible information and specimens at the time, while events were fresh and the coins could be acquired, was especially borne in mind. This decision was made chiefly because of the lack of knowledge concerning that previous series of crudely struck coins and counterstamped pieces, issued in Mexico by both the Patriots and Royalists during the War of Independence between 1810 and 1822. Then, unfortunately, and for a long time afterwards, little attention was paid to these early pieces, and not much pertinent and interesting information concerning them remains today, or if it does, it has not been resurrected for the numismatic fraternity. Although we have much knowledge and data concerning the extensive coinage of Morelos, the Commander of the Army of the South, there is much more we do not know. We have the coinage of General Vargas, struck at Sombrerete in Zacatecas, but numismatists know little about this man or his coinage. Also there are the various issues struck by the Royalists and the Central Junta, and the many counterstamped pieces, the product of the time, of which for the most part we are ignorant as to details. This is especially regrettable as these pieces would, with more information, be as interesting as any similar series issued in Europe.

Without attempting to trace the history of the present revolution or, rather, series of revolutions, we can see that the unrest in Mexico, which had been quietly slumbering for a number of years, had its beginning about 1910 when General Porfirio Diaz was elected president for the eighth time. Although the old gentleman was alive to the mutterings of discontent, he was overpersuaded by his advisers to continue his presidency. In November of that year the revolution started under the leadership of Señor Francisco Madero. Diaz had to leave Mexico in May, 1911, and, after a short period of provisional government, Madero became president. His rule was short-lived and lasted from November 6, 1911, until February 13, 1913, when within a few days after a coup d'etat he was murdered. During the next month rebellions again broke out in the North under the command of Generals Carranza and Villa, although some time before there had been in the South, where Zapata and his followers were strong, a very decided opposition to any of the existing governments.

During these first two years, events moved quickly, which resulted in many changes as to politics, but as far as coin issues were concerned we find nothing. With the rapid rise of the Constitutionalist forces of the North and the organization of their territory, we begin to get our revolutionary coinage. This was due probably to the urgent need of a more stable currency and the fact that the civil war had already devastated the land, and what money there was formerly had been either buried or exported. The first currency to be issued consisted of enormous quantities of paper money which were extensively counterfeited and soon became practically valueless. In fact, it looked for a time as though numismatists would be poorly repaid for their trouble in trying to find any coins. As paper money cost practically nothing to issue, and for the most part was put into circulation by force, the necessity of coining money was reduced to a minimum. As a matter of fact when any silver or copper was actually coined, the bullion for it was either stolen or taken over by threats or by force, and the cost of production was consequently very small. Even when silver money was issued, it disappeared from circulation almost over night, as the flood of paper money made it profitable to melt up the new coin or else export it. Large amounts of coin were, nevertheless, in the country from the fact that much had been forced out of hiding by threats, torture, and other high-handed methods. Also it is a well-known fact that vast sums have been smuggled across the border into the United States. It has been reported that Villa, before his death, had sent into the United States several million pesos that he coined in Chihuahua.

The first of these revolutionary issues, especially in the North, were struck with the intention of giving full weight and value. In the South, the coins were stamped with values much in excess of their bullion worth, and later were followed in some instances by a pure token coinage in copper with denominations of silver coins. The admixture of gold in the silver coins is interesting. When done intentionally the amount of gold was stated on the coin, as in the case of the Zapata and Oaxaca issues.

The scope of this monograph is the metallic coinage issued by the different revolutionary bands during the period in question. It makes no pretensions to chronicling the coins issued in Mexico City that followed the regular standards, nor is any attempt made to take up the many and various issues of paper and cardboard money that flooded the country.

One would naturally expect to find counterstamps as a result of the many changes, but these apparently have been very few. The probable reason for this absence of surcharging was the scarcity of coins to revalidate, and the fact that no great amount of enemy issues got into the possession of the other side.

SINALOA ISSUES

The first actual issue of coins made by the revolutionists was in the State of Sinaloa in June and July, 1913, from bullion taken from the Rosario Mine, by order of General Rafael Buelna.

1 (1).* Peso. The regular Mexican eight reals or peso, with eagle on obverse and radiate liberty cap on reverse, as adopted in 1825 and issued almost continuously until 1910.

Size 38-39 mm. Weight 32.72 gm. (505 gr.). Silver. Cast. Plate I.

It was reported that only 25,000 were cast, so poor were the results, as the casting was executed in coarse sand moulds. The pieces are rare, due to the fact that most of the issue was melted in the course of a few days because it was found that a large percentage of gold was in the bullion used. This had not been assayed before the pieces were made. Exaggerated tales were told at the time of the amount of gold in the pieces. As a matter of fact, the gold in these coins is far in excess of their face value; the pieces weigh about a fifth more than the standard Mexican peso.

2 (2). Peso. Same as No. 1, but counterstamped G. C.

Size 39 mm. Weight 32.2 gm. (497 gr.). Silver. Cast. Plate I.

This counterstamp is said to be the mark of General Juan Carrasco, and is interesting because Carrasco shortly after issued dollars of his own, and probably at the same time stamped the few remaining Buelna dollars that had escaped the melting pot. This G. C. stamp has been interpreted by some as the abbreviation of General Carrasco, but the more probable reading is Gobierno Constitucionalista (Constitutional Government).

During the late autumn of 1913, General Juan Carrasco caused dollars to be cast at Culiacan in Sinaloa, using as a model the old liberty cap peso as in the previous instance.

3 (3). Peso. Same as No. I, but showing the design more clearly.

Size 39 mm. Weights varying from 26.50 to 29.64 gm. (409 to 457.5 gr.). Silver. Cast. Plate I.

These dollars, for the most part, show the design better than did the Buelna specimens, but the edges were left very rough and consequently had to be filed considerably. They can be distinguished more readily from the Buelna pieces by their weight. They are also rare because the bullion value in them was in excess of their face value, especially as the low valuation of the paper money made it profitable to melt them up. These pieces assay about nine-tenths silver, one-tenth copper and a small showing of gold.

4 Fifty Centavos. The regular Mexican 50 centavos issued since 1906, with eagle on obverse and large 50 under radiate liberty cap within wreath.

Size 31 mm. Weight 14 gm. (216 gr.). Silver. Cast. Plate I.

5 Twenty Centavos. The regular Mexican 20 centavos of the type issued prior to 1906.

Size 24 mm. Weight 5.50 gm. (85 gr.). Silver. Cast. Plate I.

The above pieces are of extreme rarity and were probably issued at the same time as the peso. They were both found in Sinaloa and are now in the collection of Dr. Everardo Landa, Mexico City.

End Notes

* The numbers in parentheses are those of the first edition.

PARRAL ISSUES

The next issue was a series of struck coins made at Parral in Chihuahua. It is said that the silver had been confiscated from near-by mines, and the rumor went around that they contained considerable gold. This, however, is probably not so. There are various conflicting statements about these coins. One account is that General Maclovio Herrera gave the order to make this money; another is that General Villa personally authorized it. Both versions may be correct. At any rate, this issue is known as Villa's first coinage, and it was probably first struck in October, 1913. Although it was thought that but few were issued, there is no doubt that a great many pieces were made—sufficient to meet the demand for these coins from collectors. This fact can be stated about these and subsequent coins of the revolutionists, namely, that more are undoubtedly seen in the United States than in Mexico, as the very large issue of paper and cardboard currency soon drove out the metallic money.

6 (4). Peso. Obv. h | del | parral (Hidalgo del Parral), within a partial wreath and a half circle composed of annulets; at base, 1913.

Rev. 1 peso within partial wreath and half circle of annulets.

Edge reeded. Size 39 mm. Weights of pieces examined vary from 25.92 to 27.59 gm. (400 to 426 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

Mr. H. L. Hill has a specimen with plain edge. This piece shows the annulet at bottom of the wreath on reverse very clearly. The weight of this piece is 29.25 gm. (450 gr.).

Two very rare varieties of this peso have come to light in recent years. They are known as the 'bolita' pesos.

7 Peso. Obv. Same as No. 6.

Rev. A round boss or ball, 8 mm. in diameter, in centre, superimposed on a large 1 and p[es]o within partial wreath and half circle of annulets. Edge plain or reeded. Size 38. mm. Weight about 32 gm. (493 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

8 Peso. Obv. Same as No. 6.

Rev. From the same die as No. 7 but the shaft of the 1 and the es of peso have been cut over the circular boss.

Edge plain. Size 38.5 mm. Weight 32 gm. (494 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

Only a very few specimens of these two pieces are known. Mr. E. Z. Little has examples of both varieties.

9 (5). Fifty Centavos. Obv. fuerzas constitucionalistas image 1913 image (Constitutionalist Forces). In centre, a crude representation of a radiate liberty cap, dotted border.

Rev. 50 | centavos; above, a small radiate liberty cap on pole, at each side spray of leaves, dotted border.

Edge reeded. Size 30 mm. Weights vary from 12.96 to 13.47 gm. (200 to 208 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

Specimens have been noted with plain edge.

10 (6). Two Centavos. Obv. 2¢ in wreath within a circle, outside of which fuerzas constitucionalistas image. Outside border of dots.

Rev. Within circle a radiate liberty cap; outside and on each side, spray of leaves; below, 1913, made by stippling.

Size 25 mm. Copper. Plate II.

The copper used in the making of these pieces came from the trolley wire of the Parral-Santa Barbara Railway Company.

11 Same as No. 10 but struck in brass. Hill Collection.

DURANGO ISSUES

Probably the next issue, at any rate in the North, are the Muera Huerta pieces. These were coined at Cuencame, an old Indian village between Torreon and Durango, in Durango State, under orders of Generals Calixto Contreras and Severino Ceniceros.

These coins are most remarkable on account of the inscription—muera huerta (Death to Huerta). So dire a threat on a coin is almost unique in numismatic annals. It is said that Huerta was so enraged about it that he issued a proclamation to the effect that whoever was found in possession of one of these coins should be subject to death.

12 (8a). Peso. Obv. In centre, the regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, • ejercito constitucionalista •; below, muera huerta. Border of irregular indentations.

Rev. In centre a radiate liberty cap; above, estados unidos mexicanos; below, un peso | 1914; at each side, three stars. Border of dots and irregular indentations.

Edge crudely reeded. Size 39 mm. Weight 23.88 gm. (369 gr.). Plate II.

Judging by the style of the lettering, the dies of this piece were cut by the man who cut the Parral 50 centavos, No. 9.

This piece is very rare and I know of only two specimens, one in the collection of The American Numismatic Society and the other in the Hill Collection.

13 (7). Peso. Obv. In centre, the regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, ejercito constitucionalista (Constitutionalist Army); below, muera huerta.

Around border, continuous outer line and wide indentations.

Rev. In centre, a radiate liberty cap; above, estados unidos mexicanos; below, -1914UN peso. 1914. Border as on obverse.

Edge shows traces of crude reeding. Size 39 mm. The two specimens examined weigh 21.70 and 22.61 gm. (335 and 349 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

13a (7a). Peso. Obv Die of above, showing very bad breaks. Plate II.

14 (8). Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 13, but instead of a linear border line, one composed of dots and dashes was substituted; also the milled border is less marked and the oval pellets on each side of muera huerta are larger.

Rev. Same as No. 13.

Edge coarsely reeded. Size 38 mm. Weights of pieces examined vary from 19.47 to 23 gm. (300.5 to 355 gr.). Silver. Plate II.

Shortly after the above piece was struck, General Villa obtained possession of the dies and struck heavier pieces from them in Chihuahua.

15 (9). Peso. Obv. Same as No. 14.

Rev. Same as No. 14.

Edge plain or very slightly reeded. Size 39 mm. Weight of piece examined 28.50 gm. (440 gr.). Silver.

16 Peso. Same as above but struck in copper.

The two specimens noted of this rare piece, in the F. C. C. Boyd and in the H. L. Hill Collections, show the obverse die badly broken.

17 Twenty Pesos. Similar to above but on reverse instead of un peso, 20 pesos.

Size 37 mm. Copper.

I know of only one specimen of this piece, which is in a collection in Mexico City, and have been unable to get any detailed information about it.

Besides the pesos a great many five- and onecentavos were issued in Durango, chiefly in copper, though occasional pieces come to light struck in brass or lead. The five-centavo pieces are slightly more common than the one-centavo. Usually the dies are crudely made and the pieces are badly struck.

18 (10). Five Centavos. Obv. In centre, 1914; above estado de durango ; below, a wreath.

Rev. Within a circle of four-pointed stars, 5 centavos.

Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate III.

19 Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 18 but the inscription reads e. de durango , the date is smaller and in center of the field, the wreath at bottom extends to top of date.

Rev. Similar, but the 5 lighter and higher and the letters in centavos have serifs.

Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate III.

This piece is in the Hill Collection and is better cut than the dies described under No. 20.

20 (11). Five Centavos. Obv. a close copy of No. 19. The date is a little larger and more extended, and the wreath does not come to the top of the date.

Rev. A close copy of No. 19. The 5 is heavier and the letters are not as well executed.

Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate III.

Of this variety I have noticed six obverse dies and five reverse dies making fifteen combinations.

21 Five Centavos. Same as No. 20, but struck in lead.

22 (12). Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 20 but the 1914 is smaller and lower down in the field, and the N in durango is retrograde.

Rev. Similar but the c in centavos is square. Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate III.

23 (13). Five Centavos. Same as No. 22 but struck in brass.

24 Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 20.

Rev. Same as No. 22.

Size 24 mm. Copper.

25 (14). Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 19.

Rev. Similar but v centavos.

Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate III.

26 Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 22.

Rev. Same as No. 25.

Size 24 mm. Copper.

27 Five Centavos. Same as No. 26, but in lead.

28 Five Centavos. Obv. In centre 1914; above, e de durango ; below, three five-pointed stars. Rev. 5 cvs (s retrograde) within a border of large and small pellets.

Size 20 mm. Lead. Hill Collection. Plate III.

29 Five Centavos. Obv. In centre, Mexican eagle on cactus: above, republica mexicana; below, wreath and date 1914.

Rev. In centre 5; above, estado de durango ; below, centavos.

Edge, plain. Size 25 mm. Brass.

This piece and the one-centavo in aluminum, No. 45, are of much better die work and were struck in a machine press. Two sets of dies have been noted.

Undoubtedly these pieces were not made in Mexico, and it is very unlikely that they were ever in circulation during the revolutionary period.

They and the one-centavo pieces are almost always found bright and unworn. They were unknown to collectors until after the revolution. It is said that a large quantity of these were bought by an antique dealer at an auction sale of goods remaining in the Mexican City Custom House. Many of them were subsequently used as gaming counters, which would account for a few showing slight signs of wear.

30 Centavo. Obv. In centre, 1914; above, ∗ estado de ∗; below, durango .

Rev. 1 cent, within a wreath. The 1 is thick and made solid.

Size 20 mm. Copper. Plate III.

31 (15). Centavo. Obv. Same as No. 30.

Rev. Similar, but the 1 is not quite as thick and is shaded with horizontal lines.

Size 20 mm. Copper. Plate III.

32 (16). Centavo. Same as No. 31 but struck in lead.

Size 21 mm.

33 Centavo. Same as above, but incuse and retrograde.

Size 22 mm. Lead.

This specimen from the Hill Collection was made by using two of the copper coins as dies.

34 Centavo. Obv. Same as obverse of No. 30. Rev. Same as obverse of No. 31.

Size 20 mm. Copper.

This muling of two obverse dies is in the E. Z. Little Collection.

35 Centavo. Obv. In centre, 19T4; above, [+ e] stado de + durango .

Rev. 1 cent within wreath, the n is cut like a v. Size 19 mm. and 20 mm. Lead, struck. Plate III.

Of the several pieces examined, the e of estado does not show and the s is retrograde. The workmanship is very poor.

36 Centavo, same as No. 35 but cast.

Size 19 mm. Lead.

37 Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 35, but the date is smaller. The period is above and to the right of the o in durango .

Rev. Similar to No. 35 but the figure 1 is Roman, the word cent is in skeleton letters, and the c is square.

Size 20 mm., 1 mm. thick. Brass. Hill Collection. Plate III.

38 Centavo. Same as No. 37, but struck in lead.

39 Centavo. Obv. Same die as No. 37.

Rev. The wreath extends over the 1, the word cent is a trifle smaller and the c is square.

Size 19 mm. Copper. Plate III.

40 Centavo. Same as No. 39, but struck in lead. Farran Zerbe Collection.

41 Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 37, but no period above o in durango .

Rev. The 1 much smaller and thinner and a regular c in cent.

Size about 20 mm. Copper.

Two different sets of dies noted, the top of wreath is much closer together on one than on the other.

42 Centavo. Same as No. 41, but struck in lead. Plate III.

The dies used on the lead piece are not the same as those used on the copper piece.

43 (17). Centavo. Obv. Same as No. 28.

Rev. 1 cent within a border of dots and dashes. The n in cent is retrograde.

Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate III.

44 Centavo. Same as No. 43 but struck in lead. Little Collection.

45 Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 29.

Rev. Similar to No. 29 but 1 in place of 5.

Edge plain. Size 21 mm. Aluminum. Plate III.

This is a companion piece to No. 29, and the same remarks apply.

CHIHUAHUA ISSUES

In 1914 the Villa issues, with the exception of the Muera Huerta pesos (No. 15), consisted of patterns and five-centavo pieces. The latter were issued in great quantities and are still common. The workmanship is about the best of any of the Revolutionary coinage.

46 Peso. Obv. Radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad. Below the rays the engraver's name, salazar; above, republica mexicana; below, between ornaments, e. de chih image.

Rev. Scales with book inscribed ley; below in field → 1914 ←; above, ejercito constitucionalista; below, between ornaments, un peso.

Edge reeded. Size 38 mm. Weight 25.5 gm. (393 gr.).

Copper, coated with a thin silver wash. Plate IV.

This extremely rare coin is in the collection of Dr. Everardo Landa, and probably never got beyond the pattern stage.

47 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad; below the rays, salazar; above, republica mexicana; below, e. de chiha; Rev. 500 in monogram; above and below in small letters cincuenta—centavos; around, ejercito constitucionalista; below, ·1914· Edge reeded. Size 29 mm. Weight, 12 gm. (185.2 gr.).

Copper specimens are also known plated in silver. Plate IV.

This coin is probably only a pattern for a contemplated silver issue. Hill and Landa collection.

48 Fifty Centavos. The regular Mexican 50 Centavos issued since 1906, but with the name francisco villa punched in the field around the eagle on obverse and a 4 punched in over last figure of date on reverse, making the date read 1914.

Size 30 mm. Silver. Landa Collection. Plate IV.

49 (18). Five Centavos. Obv. Radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad; below the rays, salazar; above, republica mexicana; at bottom image e. de chiha image.

Rev. 50 in monogram; above ejercito constitucionalista; below, image 1914 image

Size 25 mm. Copper. Plate IV.

The copper used in this issue is reported to have come from the telegraph and telephone wires of the vast Terrazas estates.

There were a large number of dies used, none presenting any marked variety but the one noted below.

50 Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 49.

Rev. Similar to No. 49, but ornaments at side of date thus ⊲ ⊕⊳.

Size 25 mm. Copper. Hill Collection. Plate IV.

51 Five Centavos. Obv. In centre regular Mexican eagle on cactus; republica mexicana; below, wreath, and in small letters under, m. sevilla.

Rev. Same as obverse of No. 49.

Size 25 mm. Copper. Hill Collection. Plate IV.

52 (21). Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 51. Rev. Same as the reverse of No. 49 but incuse, having been made by using a coin as a die. Size 25 mm. Copper. George F. Brown Collection. Plate IV.

53 (19). Five Centavos. Same as No. 49 but date 1915.

Size 25 mm. Copper.

54 (20). Ten Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 49 but larger and with denticulated border.

Rev. Similar to No. 49, but with 100 in monogram instead of 5¢, and the date 1915.

Size 27 mm. Copper. Plate IV.

The silver issues of Villa for 1915 show decided improvement both in workmanship and in striking, although some of the planchets were poorly prepared. They were struck at Chihuahua from bullion taken largely from the Chihuahua Smelter, the property of the American Smelting and Refining Company. The issuing of this coin enabled Villa to recruit many men for the Sonora campaign, as he was able to pay his troops in silver while the other leaders could pay their men only in depreciated paper money. This coinage ran into millions. The obverse side bears the name of Sevilla and the reverse that of Salazar.

55 (22). Peso. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus, near ground sevilla; above, republica mexicana; below, wreath.

Rev. In centre, radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad, with salazar underneath; above, ejercito del norte (Army of the North); below, un peso. ch image 1915. F.M. 902.7.

Edge reeded. Size 39 mm. Weights of pieces examined vary from 26.80 to 27.86 gm. (414 to 430 gr.), and were .903 fine. Silver.

This is also known in copper. A specimen in the Hill collection has been gilded. Plate V

56 Peso. Same as No. 55, but from different dies, noticeable in the rays behind the liberty cap. Edge reeded. Size 39 mm. Copper. Landa Collection. Plate V.

JALISCO ISSUES

The army of the North did not confine its mints to Chihuahua province, as we find a series of copper coins struck in Jalisco. The commander of the army in this state was Manuel M. Dieguez.

57 (23). Five Centavos. Obv. Radiate liberty cap, inscribed libertad, similar to No. 49; above, republica mexicana; below, 1915.

Rev. 5¢ in monogram in centre; above, ejercito del norte; below, edo. de jal. (Estado de Jalisco).

Size 24 and 25 mm. Copper. Plate V.

Three different die-varieties have been noted, one apparently without the word libertad on cap.

58 (24). Two Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 57. Rev. Similar, but with 2¢ instead of 5¢.

Size 21 mm. Copper. Plate V.

These pieces vary from 2½ to 1½ mm. in thickness.

59 (25). Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 57.

Rev. Similar, but 1¢ instead of 5¢.

Size 19 mm. Copper. Plate V.

AGUASCALIENTES ISSUE

Francisco Villa struck the following pieces in this state:

60 (26). Twenty Centavos. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, estado de aguascalientes; below, laurel wreath.

Rev. In centre a large 20; behind and above a large liberty cap on pole; below, in two lines, centavos | 1915; beneath and reaching up halfway only, a laurel wreath.

Edge plain or reeded. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate V.

This piece is also found cast in copper, possibly a contemporaneous counterfeit.

61 Twenty Centavos. Same as No. 60 but struck in silver. Very thick.

This piece and the pieces of other denominations struck in silver are probably pattern or gift pieces. Only one set is known and it is in a private collection in Mexico City.

62 Twenty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 60, but the eagle is smaller, and there is a period after the inscription.

Rev. Similar to No. 60, but the liberty cap is smaller and the wreath extends to the top of the figure 20.

Edge reeded. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate V.

63 Twenty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 60.

Rev. Same as No. 62.

Edge reeded. Copper.

64 (27). Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 60. Rev. Similar to No. 60, but 5 centavos.

Size 25 mm. Copper. Plate VI.

65 Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 64.

Rev. 5¢ in monogram within laurel wreath; above, 1915. The 5 is shaded horizontally, the ¢ unshaded.

Size 25 mm. Copper. Little Coll. Plate VI.

66 (28). Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 65, but lettering smaller.

Rev. Similar to No. 65, but the shading in the 5 is vertical.

Size 65 mm. Copper. John F. Le Blanc Collection. Plate VI.

67 Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 66. Rev. Similar, but the 5 is unshaded and the ¢ is shaded. Size 25 mm. Copper. Hill Collection. Plate VI.

68 Five Centavos. There is a piece of this denomination struck in silver, but I have been unable to learn from which die the piece was made. See remarks under No. 61.

69 Two Centavos. Obv. Rayed liberty cap; below r. m. and two sprays; above, estado de aguascalientes.

Rev. 2¢, in monogram within wreath; above, 1915. Size 20 mm. Copper. Zerbe Coll. Plate VI.

Very rare.

70 Two Centavos. Same, but struck in silver.

71 Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 69.

Rev. Similar to No. 69, but 1¢ in place of 2¢. Size 17 mm. Copper. Zerbe and Landa Collections. Plate VI.

Very rare.

72 Centavo. Same but struck in silver.

PUEBLA ISSUES

Madero Faction

73 Two Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus within dotted circle; around, republica mexicana: below 1915; outside, circle of dots.

Rev. In centre, 2 centavos within circle of dots; around, tet. la del oro y ocampo e. de pu (Tetela del Oro y Ocampo, Estado de Puebla).

Size 20 mm. Copper. Hill Coll. Plate VI.

Extremely rare.

Tetela is a district in the northern part of Puebla. The word Oro in the name alludes to the mineral wealth of the district, and Ocampo is an addition in honor of the martyr Melchor Ocampo, one of the heroes of Mexico.

Madero Brigade

The following pieces were wrongly attributed in the first edition to the State of Coahuila. It is now known that they were issued in the northern part of Puebla.

74 (29). Twenty Centavos. Obv. In centre, Mexican eagle similar to that used on the regular Mexican 10 Centavos of 1899; below, 1915; around edge, brigada francisco i. madero + s.n.d.p. +.

Rev. 20 centavos, in two lines; above, transitorio; at sides, small crosses.

Sizes 28, 29, and 30 mm. Copper. Plate VI.

Five pairs of dies of this piece, showing slight variations, have been noted.

75 Twenty Centavos. Obv. From one of the dies of No. 74.

Rev. Same as above, but no crosses at sides.

Size 28 mm. Copper. Julius Guttag Collection.

76 Ten Centavos. Obv. Eagle and date similar to No. 74; around, + brigada francisco i. madero +―

Rev. xc in monogram; above, transitorio; below, S. N. de puebla (Sierra Norte de Puebla.).

At sides, small crosses.

Size 26 mm. Copper. Plate VI.

This piece, which gives the key to where these coins were struck, was not known in the United States until several years after the appearance of the 20 Centavos. Most of these IO-Centavo pieces seen are bright red and uncirculated and are probably from a hoard.

ZAPATA ISSUES

In the South, Emiliano Zapata was one of the first to conspire against President Diaz, but his coinage did not begin until 1914. This at first consisted of silver two-peso pieces about the size of the old single peso pieces, and one-peso pieces about the size of a 50-centavo piece. In 1915, the size of the two-peso piece was reduced and various fractions of the peso were added to the series. In several instances the first coins were struck in silver but later were made of copper. The Zapata issues were struck in the states of Guerrero and Morelos. Those in Guerrero were struck in the towns of Taxco, sometimes spelled Tasco, Atlixtac, and Campo Morado (Purple Camp), a rich mining camp which supplied most of the silver. The latter have the abbreviations Co. Mo. or C.M.

STATE OF GUERRERO

77 (30). Two Pesos. Obv. In centre, Mexican eagle on cactus, from the base of which spring sprays of oak and laurel; above, republica mexicana; below, ★dos pesos, gro. 1914:

Rev. A mountain range of three peaks; the centre one a smoking volcano, above and in centre, a radiate sun; across topmost rays, oro: 0,595. Around edge, "reforma libertad. justicia Y ley" (Reform, Liberty, Justice and Law). Edge reeded. Size 39 mm. Silver. Plate VI.

The gro on the obverse is for Guerrero, the state where the pieces were made.

The weights vary from 17.46 to 27.42 gm. (269.4 to 421 gr.). There seem to have been two periods of striking these, as the heavier ones are comparatively well struck while the lighter ones are very poorly struck on wretchedly made planchets. A large number of dies were used but as it has been impossible to assemble a sufficient number of these for purposes of study no exact figure can be given. A few of the major variants are herewith noted.

Cast pieces, probably counterfeits, are occasionally met with.

78 (31). Two Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 77, but the lower part of the legend reads ★dos pesos. image. 1915★.

Rev. Similar to No. 77.

Size 40 mm. Silver.

79 Two Pesos. Same, but struck in copper. Landa Collection.

80 (32). Two Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 78, but no line under ro of gro.

Rev. Similar to No. 77, but image, in exergue. Size 39 mm. Silver. Plate VII.

81 (33). Two Pesos. Obv. Same as No. 80.

Rev. Similar to No. 80, but exergue reads ★co.Mo .★

Size 39 mm. Silver.

The edges of the 1915 issues are reeded as in the previous year but some are so lightly done as hardly to show. The pieces noted of this year vary in weight from 22.15 to 30.03 gm. (342 to 463 gr.).

82 (34). Two Pesos. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, republica mexicana; below, wreath of oak and laurel.

Rev. Radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad; below, dos pesos, c. m. gro. 1915.

Edge plain. Size 35 mm. Weights of the two specimens examined, 18.66 and 20.08 gm. (288 and 310 gr.). Silver. Plate VII.

83 (35). Peso. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus, from the base of which spring sprays of oak and laurel; below base, 1914; above, republica mexicana; below, ★un peso image image

Rev. In centre, radiate liberty cap on pole; below, oro: 0,300. Around edge, "reforma, libertad, justicia y ley."

Size 33 mm. Silver. Plate VII.

The few specimens known are all poorly struck on rough flans and weigh from 16.33 to 16.52 gm. (252 to 255 gr.).

84 (36). Pesos. Obv. In centre, Mexican eagle on cactus, from the base of which springs sprays of oak and laurel; above, republica mexicana.; below, ★un peso. campo image

Rev. In centre, radiate liberty cap inscribed libertad within a wreath of oak and laurel; above gro | oro: 0,300; around edge, "reforma, libertad, justicia y ley" 1914.

Edge plain. Size 31 mm. Silver. Plate VII.

85 (37). Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 84 but inscription at bottom reads only ★un peso.

Rev. Similar to No. 84 but liberty cap not inscribed.

Edge plain or reeded. Size 30 mm. Silver. Plate VII.

86 Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 85, but the sprays at base of cactus extend slightly beyond the eagle's wings, and the inscription at the bottom reads ★un peso.

Rev. Same as No. 84.

Edge plain. Size 31 mm. Silver.

80 (38). Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 86 but inscription at bottom reads ★un peso★.

Rev. Similar to No. 84.

Edge plain. Size 31 mm. Silver.

88 (39). Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 85, but the oak and laurel spray extends nearly to the edge of the coin. Inscription at bottom ★un peso.

Rev. Similar to No. 84.

Edge plain. Size 31 mm. Silver. Plate VII.

The weights of these peso pieces, Nos. 84 to 88 vary from 12.57 to 14.52 gm. (194 to 224 gr.).

89 (40). Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 86, but bottom inscription reads ★un peso.

Rev. Similar, but inscription above liberty cap reads taxco. gro | ★ g. | oro: 0.300., and date in exergue, 1915.

Reeded edge. Size 30 mm. Silver. Plate VIII.

Specimens examined weighed from 10.89 to 12.44 gm. (168 to 192 gr.).

90 Peso. Obv. Similar to No. 89.

Rev. Similar; no star before g under taxco.

Reeded edge. Size 30 mm. Silver. Weight 11.6 gm. (179 gr.). Hill Collection.

91 Peso. Obv. Similar, but inscription reads ★republica mexicana★ and un peso.

Rev. Similar to No. 90, but from a different die. Reeded edge. Sizes 29-31 mm. Silver. Weight 11.5 gm. (177.5 gr.). Hill and Little Collections.

92 (41). Fifty Centavos. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, ★republica★ mexicana★; below, wreath of oak and laurel.

Rev. Within a laurel wreath,—50¢ | ★taxco★ | gro.; above, radiate sun bearing date 1915. Plain edge. Size 28 mm. Weights vary from 8.81 to 10.85 gm. (136 to 168 gr.).

Silver. Plate VIII.

93 Fifty Centavos. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, republica mexicana; below, wreath of oak and laurel.

Rev. Same as No. 92.

Plain edge. Size 28 mm. Copper. Plate VIII.

94 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 88 but the UN peso has been partly obliterated.

Rev. 50 centavos within wreath; above in two lines c. m. gro. | 1915. The wreath has eight berries on each side.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Weight 13.50 gm. (2084 gr.).

Silver. Landa Collection. Plate VIII.

95 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Probably from same die as No. 85 but the un peso effaced.

Rev. Same as reverse of No. 94, but the die has been retouched; this is especially noticeable in the 5.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate VIII.

96 Fifty Centavos. Obv. From same die as No. 84, but the un peso campo mo effaced and a few leaves added to the wreath.

Rev. Similar to No. 95 but the wreath has nine berries at left and seven berries at right. The period after gro is between the top leaves of the branch.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate VIII.

97 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 96.

Rev. Same as No. 95.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper.

98 (42). Fifty Centavos. Obv. In centre, regular Mexican eagle on cactus; above, republica mexicana; below, oak and laurel wreath.

Rev. Similar to above, but the wreath has seven berries at left and nine berries at right, and the period after gro touches the lower leaf of wreath. Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate VIII.

99 Same as No. 98 but very base silver. Landa Collection.

100 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 98.

Rev. Same as No. 95.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper.

101 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar but from a different die, the snake in the eagle's beak extends to the 1 of republica, and the last letter of the inscription extends down to a line with the cactus.

Rev. Similar, but no period after gro. Eight berries at left, nine berries at right.

Edge plain. 29 mm. Copper. Guttag Collection. Plate IX.

102 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 98 but a star before republica.

Rev. Same as No. 95.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper. Plate IX.

103 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 102.

Rev. Same as No. 98.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Copper.

104 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar, but the eagle is larger and the water shows more under the rock, the wreath reaches from each side and is not tied. Rev. Same as No. 95.

This obverse shows a crack through mexicana and most specimens show a bad break at the bottom.

Plain edge. 29 and 30 mm. Copper. Plate IX.

105 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 93, but from a different die.

Rev. 50¢ in monogram within olive wreath; above, 1915.

Edge plain. Size 25-30 mm. Copper. Plate IX.

Although this piece has on it no indications as to where it was issued, it was probably struck in Guerrero.

106 Fifty Centavos. Same but with a light silvery wash. Hill Collection.

107 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Around in very crude lettering, reforma Libertad Justicia; in centre, above and below a crude rayed liberty cap, y Ley. Border of large dots.

Rev. Around, republica mexicana e.; in centre, de | 50¢ | G | 1915. Border of large dots.

Edge plain. Size 34 mm. Weight 14.8 gm. (228.4 gr.). Silver. Plate IX.

I know of only one specimen of this piece, which is in the Hill Collection.

108 Twenty-five Centavos. Obv. In centre, rayed liberty cap; around, mexicana republica, border of large dots.

Rev. In centre, 25; around centavos e. d. g.; below, 1915. Border of large dots.

Edge plain. Size 25 mm. Weight, 7.50 gm. (115.8 gr.). Plate IX.

This is a companion piece to No. 107 and the dies were engraved by the same person. The one illustrated is from the Landa Collection. Although extremely rare, there are several pieces known.

109 Twenty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 93. Rev. 20 centavos, within wreath; above, c. m. gro. | 1915. |★

Edge plain. Size 27 mm. Copper. Plate IX.

110 Ten Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 93, but a blank space under the left part of the cactus. Rev. 10 centavos within wreath; above, in two lines, | gro. | 1915.

Plain edge. Size 27 mm. Copper. Plate X.

These pieces vary in thickness from 1 to 3 mm.

111 Ten Centavos. Obv. Similar to above but the wreath at bottom does not extend beyond the eagle's wings and there is no blank space under the cactus.

Rev. Similar, but the gro 1915 is more extended and there is no period after the date.

Edge plain. Size 27 mm. Copper. Little Collection. Plate X.

112 Ten Centavos. Obv. Very similar to No. III, but the leaves on the cactus and the wreath are different.

Rev. Same as III.

Edge plain. Size 28 mm. Brass. Hill Collection. Plate X.

113 (44). Ten Centavos. Obv. Similar but the tail of the snake in the eagle's claws is above the cactus.

Rev. Within wreath 10 centavos; above, in two lines atlixtac. gro. | 1915, no period after date. Berries in wreath five on each side.

Edge plain. Size 27-28 mm. Copper. Plate X.

Nearly all specimens show a die break on reverse.

114 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 93.

Rev. Similar to No. 113 but period after date and ★before centavos.

Edge plain. Size 27 mm. Copper. Plate X.

115 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 92.

Rev. Same as No. 114.

Edge plain. Size 27 mm. Copper.

116 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 92.

Rev. Similar to No. 113, but the wreath ends in two leaves and the berries number ten and six. Edge plain. Size 28 mm. Copper. Plate X.

117 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 92.

Rev. Same as No. 112.

Edge plain. Size 27. Copper.

118 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 92.

Rev. 10 centavos within wreath; above, in two lines taxco. gro. | 1915.

Edge plain. Size 27 mm. Copper. Little Collection. Plate X.

119 Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to above.

Rev. 5¢ in monogram in wreath; above, in two lines gro. | 1915.

Edge plain. Size 26 mm. Copper. Landa Collection. Plate X.

120 (43). Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 92. Rev. Similar to No. 119, but above in one curved line ★taxco. gro. 1915.

Edge plain. Size 28 mm. Copper. Plate X.

121 Five Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus, short wreath below; above, ★republica mexicana.

Rev. 5¢ in monogram within wreath; above in two lines 1915 | c.m.

Edge plain. Size 23 mm. Copper. Hill and Zerbe Collections. Plate X.

122 Two Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus below wreath; above, edo.de gro.

Rev. 2¢ in monogram within wreath; above, 1915; below, Ṫ (Taxco?).

Edge plain. Size 26 mm. Copper. Plate X.

This piece is somewhat rare. The specimen illustrated is from the Landa Collection.

123 Two Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; below, oak and laurel wreath; above, republica ★mexicana.

Rev. 2¢ in monogram within wreath; above, 1915, Edge plain. Size 22 mm. Copper. Plate X.

This rare piece is in the Hill Collection. Although there is no indication where the piece was minted it was without doubt made in Guerrero, as the workmanship is not unlike that of several other pieces from this state.

The following is an issue from the Guerrero Mint in 1917, after hostilities had somewhat abated. The pieces are of good silver, and the workmanship is superior to the previous issues. A small number only must have been made, as all the pieces are scarce. The peso is extremely rare and is not represented in most collections.

124 Peso. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; below, wreath; above, republica mexicana, in type similar to the pesos between 1898 and 1910.

Rev. Radiate liberty cap; below, ★un peso. go . 1917. s. 10 ds . Similar to the pesos previous to 1910.

Edge imperfectly reeded. Size 38 mm. Weight 32.5 gm. (501.6 gr.). Silver. Landa Collection. Plate XI.

125 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; below, wreath; above estados unidos mexicanos; similar in type to the regular coinage issued since 1906.

Rev. At top, a radiate liberty cap; below in four lines, 50 | gro | centavos | 1917; the whole partly enclosed within a wreath as on the regular issue since 1906.

Edge plain. Size 30 mm. Weight 16.91 gm. (261 gr.). Silver. Plate XI.

126 Twenty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 125. Rev. Similar to No. 125 but 20 | g | centavos | 1917.

Edge plain. Size 21 mm. Weight 5.24 gm. (81 gr.). Silver. Plate XI.

STATE OF MORELOS

127 (46). Fifty Centavos. Obv. In center, Mexican eagle on cactus, from the base of which spring sprays of oak and laurel; above, republica mexicana; below, morelos.

Rev. 50 centavos within laurel wreath; above, 1916.

Edge reeded or plain. Size 29. Copper. Plate XI.

Two obverse dies were used, as a rubbing was once shown me with the eagle's wings treated in fewer and thinner lines.

128 (45). Twenty Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; above, e. l. de morelos . (Free State of Morelos); below, wreath of oak and laurel.

Rev. 200 in monogram within laurel wreath; above 1915.

Edge plain. Size 24 mm. Copper. Plate XI.

129 Ten Centavos. Obv. Crudely-cut Mexican eagle; above, republica mexicana; below, mor. Rev. Within wreath, 10¢ in monogram; above, traces of 1914.

Size 24 mm. Copper. Zerbe Collection.

130 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 129.

Rev. Same as No. 129, but the date which appears to be on a panel has been effaced on the die.

Edge plain. Size 24 mm. Copper. Little Collection. Plate XI.

131 Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 129.

Rev. Same as No. 130, but the date 1915 has been cut on a piece set in the die.

Edge reeded. Size 25 mm. Copper. Hill Collection. Plate XI.

These three 10-centavo pieces are very rare.

132 (47). Ten Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; above, republica mexicana; below, wreath of oak and laurel.

Rev. Within laurel wreath 10 centavos; above in two lines, mor | 1916.

Edge plain. Size 28 mm. Copper. Plate XI.

133 Five Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; above, republica mexicana; below, laurel wreath.

Rev. Within laurel wreath 5¢ in monogram; above, 1915.

Edge plain. Size 19 mm. Copper. Little and Zerbe Collections. Plate XII.

Although this piece has no indication as to where it was struck, it probably was issued in Morelos.

134 Two Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on cactus; above, e. l. de morelos .

Rev. 2¢ in monogram within laurel wreath; above, 1915.

Edge plain. 23 mm. Copper. Hill Collection. Plate XII.

135 Forty Centavos. 40 within a c in circular border of fine dots, forming a punch which was used to stamp on the current Mexican 2-centavo pieces. Size 25 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

136 Twenty Centavos. Same as above but 20 instead of 40 and stamped on the current I-centavo pieces. Size 20 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

It is said that this punch was made at Cuernavaca in Morelos. The coins are scarce; the specimens illustrated are from the Hill and Zerbe Collections.

137 Twenty Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle on rock in water; below, wreath; above, ★ republicamexicana★.

Rev. 20 | centavos | 1915 within wreath; above, gralls.

Edge plain. Size 27.5 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

This rare piece in the Landa Collection was probably struck in Morelos, but the general who caused it to be struck is not known.

138 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Mexican eagle very crudely executed in incuse lines; below, wreath. Rev. A large 50; above, ★; below, a line. All in incuse lines.

Edge plain. Size 28 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

It has not been ascertained where this and the following pieces were struck, but it is supposed they were made in Morelos. The planchets were punched out of sheet metal and the 50-centavo piece varies in thickness from 3 mm. to 1 mm.

139 Twenty-five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 138.

Rev. A large 25; above, 0; below, a line.

Edge plain. Size 25 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

140 Twenty cents. Obv. Similar to No. 138, but below eagle a. d j.

Rev. 20★ in monogram; below, a line.

Edge plain. Size 19 mm. Copper. Plate XII.

141 Twenty Centavos. Same, but in brass. Landa Collection.

142 Twenty Centavos. Obv. A Mexican eagle in incuse lines; below, r. m.

Rev. Above, a large incuse 20; below, ★.

Edge plain. Size 25 mm.; thickness 3 mm. Brass.

This rare piece is in the Landa Coll. Plate XII.

OAXACA ISSUES

Of all the revolutionary coins, those produced in the independent state of Oaxaca, during the governship of Jose Inez Davila in 1915, form the most extensive series, especially as regards denominations and die varieties. Outside of the Mint of Mexico City, the only gold that was struck during this recent period of disturbance was from the Oaxaca mint, where a genuine effort was made to provide an adequate coinage to meet all local demands. This coinage circulated freely in Oaxaca city and the neighborhood. Notwithstanding the attempt to keep paper and metallic money on something like a parity, the coins were frequently melted down, so that the number of pieces in circulation was never very large. On March 3, 1916, the Carranza forces overcame the Oaxaca government, seized and melted down all they could find of this coinage, and destroyed the dies and archives, so that today these pieces are scarce, especially in the United States. The denominations issued were as follows: in gold, 60, 20, 10, and 5 pesos; in silver, 5, 2, and 1 peso, 50 and 20 centavos; in copper, 20, 10, 5, 3, and 1 centavo. As there were various changes in designs and sizes, together with frequent mulings of obverse and reverse dies, it is claimed that a complete set of this Oaxaca issue would number about one hundred and fifty varieties.

Teofilo Monroy, long associated with the old mint, was the director of the revolutionary mint, and his son Miguel cut the dies, although those for the first series of copper coins were made by an American resident of the city named De Coe. Some of the punches used to make them were those found in the old mint. The obverse type, for the most part, was of one design—the bust of Benito Pablo Juarez facing left, and the inscription Estado L. y S. de Oaxaca (Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca) and the date 1915.

The whole issue bears the date 1915, except the 6o-pesos piece. This coin was made in the early part of 1916 shortly before the Carranza forces came in, and it is said that partly on this account and partly on account of the scarcity of bullion but twenty-one were struck. Each piece contained 45 grammes of pure gold.

143 (48). Twenty Pesos. Obv. Bust of Jaurez to left. Around, estado l. y s. de oaxaca ★ 1915 ★ scalloped border of half circles enclosing half dots.

Rev. Partly enclosed in oak wreath 20 | pesos | 0.175 | oro; above, moneda provisional; in exergue t. m.; scalloped border of half-circles and half-dots.

Edge reeded. Size 28 mm. Weights, 11.31 to 12.21 gm. (174½ to 188½ gr.). Base gold. Plate XIII.

144 Twenty Pesos. Obv. Similar, but the tip of the bust points toward the date instead of toward the star.

Rev. Similar to above.

Edge reeded. 27 mm. Base gold. Plate XIII.

145 (49). Ten Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 143, except that the border is composed of arcs rather than half circles.

Rev. Similar to No. 143, except 10 instead of 20. Edge reeded. Size 23 mm. Specimens examined weighed from 6.22 to 6.28 gm. (96 to 97 gr.). Base gold. Plate XIII.

146 (50). Five Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 143, except that the date runs into the coat of Juarez and the stars are four-pointed.

Rev. Similar to No. 143, except 5 instead of 10, and a period after pesos. The border is composed of arcs rather than half-circles.

Edge reeded. Size 19 mm. Specimens examined weighed 3.34 to 3.79 gm. (51/2 to 581/2 gr.). Base gold. Plate XIII.

These four pieces, as the title 0.175 indicates, contain very little gold. They present a brassy or lemon-colored appearance. The initials T M on the reverses of these and most of the other coins are for Teofilo Monroy, the director of the mint.

147 (51). Five Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 143. Rev. In centre 5, in circle ag 0.902 au 0.010 pesos.; above, moneda provisional; below, oak wreath and t.m.

Edge reeded. Size 31 mm. Of the several pieces examined, the weights vary from 16.62 to 16.78 gm. (2561/2 to 259 gr.). Silver. Plate XIII.

148 (52). Five Pesos. Same as No. 147, but size 321/2 mm. and weight 17.30 gm. (267 gr.). One obverse and two reverse dies have been noted.

149 (53). Two Pesos. Obv. Same as No. 145.

Rev. Similar to No. 147, but 2 in place of 5. Edge reeded. Size 22 mm. Weights noted vary from 5.96 to 6.48 gm. (92 to 100 gr.). Silver. Plate XIII.

Two obverse dies and one reverse have been noted, one of the obverse dies being the same as used on the 10-peso piece, No. 145. Proofs in copper were also struck. This style of the twopeso piece is known as the fourth issue.

150 (54). Two Pesos. Obv. Same as No. 149 but no punctuation in legend.

Rev. A pair of scales over scroll of the Constitution and a sword in saltire; on the scroll, ley; above, liberty cap in a glory. Around, moneda provisional; below, 2 pesos.

Edge, rope pattern. Size 33 mm. The speci- mens that have been weighed vary from 14.19 to 14.77 gm. (219 to 228 gr.). Silver. Plate XIII.

Two sets of dies have been noticed. This type is known as the first issue.

151 Two Pesos. Obv. Similar to No. 150 but periods after l and s in legend.

Rev. Similar to No. 150 but DOS pesos instead of 2 pesos.

Edge plain, or rope pattern. Size 33-34 mm. Weight 14.14 gm. (218.2 gr.). Silver. Hill Collection. Plate XIII.

Two obverse and two reverse dies have been noted.

152 (55). Two Pesos. Obv. Similar, but commas after l, s, and end of legend and a period after date.

Rev. Similar to No. 151 but from a new die. Edge, rope pattern. Size 34 mm. Weights vary from 14 to 14.45 gm. (216-223 gr.). Silver.

The above pieces are known as the second issue.

153 (56). Two Pesos. Obv. Similar, but the die being intended for a peso piece, the edge of the die shows, making a broad confining band outside the border of arcs.

Rev. In centre, 2 pesos; above, moneda provisional; below, oak wreath and t.m. Border composed of arcs of circles.

Edge, rope pattern, size 31 mm. The weights of the several pieces examined vary from 15.36 to 16.98 gm. (237 to 262 gr.). Silver. Plate XIII.

Specimens in copper are also found. This is known as the third issue.

154 Same as above, but cast; the edge, however, is reeded. Hill Collection.

The edges of most of the balance of the series are of the rope pattern and consequently will not be noted.

155 (57). Peso. Obv. Same dies as No. 153.

Rev. Similar to No. 153, but un peso instead of 2 pesos and without the t. m.

Size 28 mm. Weight 8.51 gm. (1311/2 gr.). Silver.

156 (58). Peso. Obv. Same as No. 155.

Rev. Same as No. 155.

Size 26 mm. Average weight 7.71 gm. (119 gr.).

Silver. Plate XIV.

At least three obverse dies have been noted, one of which is the same die as No. 155. Two reverse dies were used and on one of these the initials t m were added, making three varieties.

157 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar to above but the border is composed of dots and curved dashes. Rev. Similar to No. 156, but 50 centavos in place of un peso.

Size 28 mm. Weight 12.31 gm. (190 gr.).

Silver. Hill Collection. Plate XIV.

This extraordinary piece probably was never put into circulation, being nearly three times as heavy as the regular issues. The obverse die has not been noted combined with any other dies.

158 (59). Fifty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 157. Rev. Similar to No. 157.

Size 22-23 mm. Weight 4.08 to 5.57 gm. (63 to 86 gr.). Silver. Plate XIV.

At least five obverse dies are known and two reverse dies, one with and one without the initials t m. The five obverses are illustrated, and marked a, b, c, d, e.

159 Fifty Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 158. Die c.

Rev. Same as No. 158, without t m.

Edge plain. Weight 2.8 gm. (43.2 gr.). Thickness 1 mm. Silver. Hill Collection.

160 (60). Twenty Centavos. Obv. Similar to above, but the die is of the 1 centavo copper piece, No. 176.

Rev. Similar to above but 20 centavos instead of 50.

Size 20 mm. 4.31 gm. (66.5 gr.). Silver. Little Collection. Plate XIV.

161 (61). Twenty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 147.

Rev. Similar to No. 160.

Size 31 mm. Copper. Plate XIV.

162 Twenty Centavos. Same as No. 161 but counterstamped with a radiate liberty cap above the 20. Hill Collection. Plate XIV.

163 (62). Twenty Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 161.

Rev. Similar to No. 161.

Size 28 mm. Copper.

The obverse dies of this piece apparently are the same ones used for the two-pesos, No. 153 and the 20-peso pieces, Nos. 143-144. Two reverse dies were used, one with and one without the initials t m.

164 (63). Ten Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 163, but the head of Juarez without modeling and the tip of the bust pointed.

Rev. Same as above, but 10 centavos. Size 26 mm. Thick and thin planchets. Copper. Plate XIV.

At least three pairs of dies were used. The thick specimens were the first issued and were soon melted down.

165 Ten Centavos. Same as No. 164, but struck on a planchet for a 5-centavo piece.

Edge plain. Size 22½ mm. Copper.

166 (64). Ten Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 156.

Rev. Similar to No. 164.

Size 26 mm. Copper.

Five or more obverse dies were used, several the same as used on the peso pieces, and at least three reverse dies were made, two dies with the t m and one without.

167 Ten Centavos. Same as No. 166, but counterstamped g v on obverse. This piece, which is in the Hill Collection, is said to have been counterstamped for General Vigil. Plate XIV.

168 Five Centavos. Obv. Upon a raised background a three-quarters facing bust of Juarez rendered in incuse lines; upon depressed circular border in raised letters estado l. y s. de oaxaca ★1915★.

Rev. Similar to No. 164, but 5 centavos.

Size 21 mm. Copper. Little Coll. Plate XIV.

It has been reported that this was the first die cut and it undoubtedly proved unsatisfactory and a profile was adopted. The piece is extremely rare.

169 (65). Five Centavos. Obv. Similar to No. 164. Rev. Similar to No. 168.

Thick planchet. Size 24 mm. Copper. This piece belongs to the first issue.

170 (66). Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 169.

Rev. Same as No. 169.

Thin planchet. Size 22 mm. Copper. Plate XV.

Two obverse dies have been noted.

171 (67). Five Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 158. Rev. Same as No. 169.

Thin planchet, 22-23 mm. Copper. Plate XV.

The obverse dies are the same as used on the 50 centavos as well as on the 10 pesos and small 2 pesos (Nos. 149 and 145). And at least three reverse dies were used, with and without the initials t m.

172 (68). Three Centavos. Obv. estado | l.y s. de | oaxaca 1915 | in rectangular frame. A fivepointed star in each corner.

Rev. provisio i nal. tres | centavos | .—tm—. A five-pointed star in each corner.

Rectangular 24 x 16 mm. Plain edge. Copper. Plate XV.

This and No. 175 were makeshifts while other dies were being prepared, and very few of them were put into circulation.

173 (69). Three Centavos. Obv. Similar to the 5peso piece No. 146, but with a border of half circles and dots, as No. 144.

Rev. Similar to above, but in centre a large, flat-topped 3; below, centavos. The n is retrograde. Border of half circles.

Size 20 mm. Copper. Plate XV.

174 (70). Three Centavos. Obv. Same as No. 173. Rev. Similar, but the 3 is smaller and with a round top. t m added above wreath.

Size 20 mm. Copper. Plate XV.

This obverse die was originally intended for the 5-peso piece, No. 146, but was too large.

175 (71). Centavo. Obv. Similar to No. 172, but inscription in three lines, the date being omitted. Dotted instead of linear border, and no stars in the corners.

Rev. Inscription in three lines instead of four as on the 3-centavo piece, the t m being omitted. The word un is substituted for tres.

Rectangular, 9 x 13 mm. Plain edge. Copper. Plate XV.

176 (72). Centavo. Obv. Same as the silver 20centavo piece No. 160.

Rev. Similar to No. 160, but large 1¢ in monogram in centre.

Thick. Size 18 mm. Copper. Plate XV.

177 (73). Centavo. Obv. and Rev. Same as No. 176.

Thick and thin planchets. Size 19 mm. Copper.

There were two sets of dies used in making these pieces.

Judging from the only example of the coinage for the next year, the issues for 1916 would have been equally extensive, and in all probability of better workmanship, if the Davila government had remained in power at Oaxaca. As it happened, the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca closed its numismatic existence with probably the most interesting as well as best executed specimen of the revolutionary coins.

178 (74). Sixty Pesos. Obv. In centre, within an open wreath of olive and oak, an undraped bust of Juarez facing left. Surrounding this the legend: estado l. y s. de oaxaca—60 pesos oro. Ornamented border.

Rev. In centre, a pair of scales over scroll of the Constitution and a sword in saltire; on the scroll, ley; above, liberty cap in glory. Around, republica mexicana—902.7 ★ t.m. ★ 1916.

Ornamented border.

Edge reeded. Size 39 mm. Weight 50 gm. (772 gr.). Gold. Plate XV.

Copper impressions with plain edge are known.

MEXICO STATE

Toluca

Although the two pieces listed under this state are not metallic they are considered of sufficient interest to be included in this list.

179 Five Centavos. Obv. In centre, coat of arms partly enclosed within a wreath; under the shield in small letters tolbea; above, estado libre y soberano de mexico; below, toluca.

Rev. In centre, a large 5, across which on scroll, centavos; ornaments at sides; above, circulara conforme al decreto N: 4 de; and below + III. 1.915. + Size 27 mm. 2 mm. thick. Plate XV.

The whole is stamped intaglio on grey bookbinders' pressboard, and is somewhat rare.

Texcoco

180 Centavo. In 1915 there was an issue from this town in reddish terracotta, size 15 mm. and 3 mm. thick. A specimen is owned by a collector in Mexico City.


BACK

COINAGE OF MEXICAN REVOLUTIONISTS.

Plate I

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Plate II

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Plate III

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Plate V

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Plate IV

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Plate VI

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Plate VII

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Plate VIII

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Plate IX

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Plate X

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Plate XI

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Plate XII

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Plate XIII

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Plate XIV

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Plate XV

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