The F. Munroe Endicott Collection of Greek and Roman Coins was received by the American Numismatic Society in 1935 as the generous gift of Mrs. George Endicott and her son, De Witt Endicott. Because of the general excellence of the collection and the presence in it of outstanding coins and of selections from several hoards, it was felt that it merited a publication of its more important and representative pieces. Thus, publication is here made of the Greek coins, exclusive of the Alexandrian, of a cross-section of the Severan pieces from the "Catacombs" Hoard, and of the more interesting of the other Roman coins. In his work of cataloging the collection and preparing it for the trays of the Society's cabinet, the compiler was constantly dependent on the advice and help of the Society's late President, Mr. Edward T. Newell, who also assisted in selection of the pieces to be included in the present paper.
The quality and condition of the 427 Greek and 714 Roman pieces in the collection reflect its collector's rare discrimination and artistic taste as well as his appreciation of the historical importance of ancient coins. Its formation covered a period of over twenty-five years. Mr. Endicott's interest in coins was first aroused as a young secretary of the United States Legation at Cairo, Egypt, by the finding at Demanhur of the greatest hoard of silver coins of Alexander the Great as yet unearthed. In friendly competition with a young secretary in the British foreign service, Ronald Storrs—later to become governor of Jerusalem and governor of Cyprus—he sought out Alexander pieces from the famous find. The finest and rarest specimens were secured by the two young enthusiasts. Later, large sections of both lots passed into the collection of Mr. Edward T. Newell, whose publications on the Demanhur Hoard 1 are the basis of our modern scientific assignment of Alexander tetradrachms to their various mints. Thirty-five pieces from the hoard (Nos. 18–52 below) remained in the Endicott Collection.
Most outstanding of the Alexander pieces in the collection is a tetradrachm (No. 40 below and illustrated in enlarged size as the frontispiece) of the regular type bearing the name of Alexander on the reverse. This piece, like many others with Alexander's name, was issued after his death. In a close examination of the coin Mr. Endicott discovered a most unusual feature, the presence of the minute letters NIKOKΛEOYΣ on the right-hand row of locks running from the ear to the jaw of the lion's-skin head-dress of Heracles on the obverse. In holding the coin so that the Heracles head faces downwards, the letters NI are to be found on the first lock to the left, KO on the next lock to the right, KΛ on the third, EO on the fourth, and YΣ on the fifth and last lock immediately adjacent to the lion's ear. The discovery of the lettering was communicated to Mr. Newell and permission given him to publish the coin.2 In an earlier article3 Mr. Newell had already assigned such pieces bearing the monogram on the reverse to the mint of Paphos on the island of Cyprus. The presence of the name Nicocles, one of the princes of Paphos, on this specimen furnished corroboration of the mint attribution. The Endicott piece bears evidence that Nicocles was ambitious, as this is the first instance of any ruler except Alexander himself and his immediate successor Philip III placing his own name on the coinage of the Alexander type. It was not until fully fifteen years later that such powerful kings as Seleucus, Lysimachus, Ptolemy or Demetrius dared or found it advisable to do the same. At first, Nicocles did not have the courage to issue coins with a change from the type which Alexander had established or to substitute his name for that of Alexander. On this piece, however, without changing the types, and leaving Alexander's name on the reverse, he authorized his mint-master to place his name in minute letters on the locks of the lion's pelt which covers the head of Heracles on the obverse. Nicocles of Paphos was allied with Ptolemy I, King of Egypt, when, after the death of Alexander, the kingdom was divided among his followers. According to historians, Nicocles made overtures to one of Ptolemy's rivals who disputed Ptolemy's claim to Cyprus, and Ptolemy made an example of Nicocles when he learned of the intrigue. Emissaries of the Egyptian overlord appeared before the palace of Nicocles and informed him that his faithlessness had been discovered. Nicocles, therefore, committed suicide as did his wife and other members of his family. On only one other type does the name of Nicocles appear and of this type only two specimens are known to exist, one of which is suspect. This type bears on its obverse a head of Aphrodite, wearing a tall stephanos, and surrounded by battlements; and on the reverse, Apollo seated on the omphalos, holding arrow and bow, with NIKOKΛEOYΣ ΠAΦION in the left field. These coins (the genuine in the Turin Library and the suspect in Florence) are discussed by G. F. Hill in B. M. C., Cyprus , p. lxxix, Pl. XXII, 10–11.
When varieties found at Demanhur had become exhausted Mr. Endicott turned to other series to be found in Egypt, the Ptolemaic (Nos. 67–100) and the Alexandrian. Among the 327 Alexandrian issues there are instances of variations from already published types. The most interesting of these will be found below (Nos. 101–109). Noteworthy is the large bronze of Antoninus Pius with the unusual reverse type showing a bust of Sarapis above the model of a human foot. Interesting also is the Egyptian lead token (No. 110) bearing types similar in subject and style to the regular Alexandrian coinage.
On leaving Egypt, Mr. Endicott began to acquire choice specimens of other Greek series, especially of Italy and Sicily (Nos. 1–16), as well as exceptionally fine Roman portrait pieces—always confining himself to well preserved examples. From the Roman series the most interesting pieces have been selected for description and illustration. The collection is particularly rich in the silver coinage of the emperors of the Severan family due to the acquisitions of Mr. Endicott from the so-called "Catacombs" Hoard. A representative selection from this series has been included (Nos. 123–161). The known facts concerning the hoard from which the bulk of them come are as follows.
|1||"Reattribution of Certain Tetradrachms of Alexander the Great," American Journal of Numismatics, XLV–XLVI (1911–12); Alexander Hoards—II. Demanhur Hoard (Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 19). 1923.|
|2||"Nikokles, King of Paphos," Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XIX, 1919, pp. 64–5. This piece is also referred to in Mr. Newell's monograph on the Demanhur Hoard, op. cit., p. 108.|
|3||"Some Cypriote Alexanders," Num. Chron., 4th Ser., Vol. XV, 1915, pp. 319–20.|
In a carefully posted account book Mr. Endicott noted additions to and withdrawals from his collection. This account book, now in possession of the American Numismatic Society, throws many interesting sidelights on his coins with its information on costs and notations of pedigree. It is from this book and other notes among his papers that we learn that a large portion of his Roman coins came from a hoard.
Eight entries headed "Catacombs" Hoard were made by Mr. Endicott to cover purchases of denarii and antoniniani from Shelley W. Denton and Charles Bell, both of the environs of Boston. The first of these entries was dated Dec. 18, 1922, and the last Nov. 11, 1924. A total of 399 denarii and 95 antoniniani was purchased in these eight lots. Mr. Endicott disposed of duplicates—179 denarii and 51 antoniniani. There is no evidence that Mr. Endicott acquired the entire hoard but it appears on the basis of the coins listed that at least a representative section passed into his hands. From the account book it has been possible to reconstruct the portion of the hoard purchased and, in most instances, to identify the pieces therefrom still in the collection.
The earliest pieces of the hoard were of M. Aurelius and Commodus, each of whom was represented by one denarius. Severus Alexander was well represented with eighty-four denarii and the latest coins were the forty-four denarii and seventy-four antoniniani of Gordian III. Only pieces of Septimius Severus show signs of wear; most of the others are in practically mint state. Excepting for two denarii of Septimius Severus, one of Julia Domna, and one of Geta from Laodicea, all coins remaining in the collection were struck at Rome. This circumstance lends credence to the suggestion of Mr. Endicott's entry "Catacombs" Hoard, that the hoard was found in one of the catacombs of Rome.
A summary of the hoard follows; numerals in italics indicate pieces no longer in the collection.
|Sept. Severus||15 + 6|
|Julia Domna||7 + 9||1|
|Caracalla||22 + 14||5|
|Plautilla||2 + 1|
|Geta||5 + 7|
|Macrinus||6 + 1|
|Elagabalus||20 + 10||3|
|Julia Soaemias||3 + 2|
|Julia Maesa||4 + 2|
|Julia Paula||1 + 1|
|Severus Alexander||51 + 33|
|Julia Mamaea||12 + 4|
|Maximinus||35 + 35|
|Paulina||2 + 1|
|Balbinus||7 + 1|
|Pupienus||11 + 16||1|
|Gordian III||12 + 34||34 + 51|
|220 + 179||44 + 51||494|
The following table gives a complete listing of the pieces from the hoard purchased by Mr. Endicott. In the first column will be found for each variety a reference to Mattingly and Sydenham's Roman Imperial Coinage; in the second column, corresponding references to Cohen's Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'empire romaine; in the third, the number of pieces remaining in the collection when received by the American Numismatic Society; in the fourth, the number disposed of by Mr. Endicott; and in the fifth, the totals for each variety. Numerals in italics indicate antoniniani; all others refer to denarii.
|M. & S.||Cohen||Endicott||Sold||Total|
|88 var.||61 var.||3||1||4|
|146 var.||276 var.||1||1|
334–302 B. C.
*1. Naked horseman, lancing downwards with r. hand, on horse prancing r.; behind, a large round shield and reserve of two spears; beneath horse ΣA.
550–480 B. C.
Rev. Same type incuse; incuse border of radiating lines.
c. 350–300 B. C.
*3. Head of Dionysius 1., bound with ivy-wreath.
Rev. META Ear of barley with leaf r.; above leaf short torch with cross pieces at top.
Æ. 3.01 grms. 15.5 mm. → Ex Martina Franca Hoard (Noe 661). Cf. B. M. C. Italy , p. 264, 202; Berlin, Beschreibung , III, p. 369, 229; Sim. to Hirsch XXXIV, Pl. II, No. 51.
*4. Head of Apollo Carneios (?) 1., with ram's horn.
Rev. [M]ETA Ear of barley with leaf r.; above leaf short torch with cross pieces at top.
Æ. 1.62 grms. 12.5 mm. ↖ Ex Martina Franca Hoard (Noe 661). Cf. B. M. C. Italy , p. 262, No. 185; Berlin, Beschreibung , III, p. 370, No. 239; Sim. to Hirsch XXXIV, Pl. II, 49.
560–510 B. C.
*5. VM in exergue. Bull standing 1.; exergual line, a band of raised dots; dotted cable border.
Rev. Same type as obverse, incuse and reversed; incuse border of dots and exergual line.
540–500 B. C.
*6. Forepart of lion r., r. forepaw extended, holding stag's leg; dotted truncation line.
Rev. Incuse square, with but three quarters distinct; sides of square irregular.
550–480 B. C.
*7. ϙ PO Tripod-lebes, the legs ending in lion's feet, with three handles; between legs, two serpents facing each other; raised dotted border between lines.
Rev. Same type incuse, without serpents and inscription; incuse border of oblongs.
c. 203–89 B. C.
*8. Busts of Dioscuri r., in laureate pilei and chlamydes; star above each; border of dots.
Rev. PHΓINΩN Hermes standing 1., wearing petasos; in extended r. hand, branch; in 1. hand, at side, caduceus; chlamys over 1. arm; to 1., IIII; cornucopiae below to 1.; plain exergual line; border, a lineal circle.
Æ. Tetrans. 3.53 grms. 17 mm. ↖ Cf. McClean Coll., I, 1942, Pl. 61.14.
500–480 B. C.
Rev. Crab, in circular incuse.
. Tetr. 16.99 grms. 25 mm. → Ex De Ciccio Sale (Sambon, Dec. 19, 1907), Pl. II, 77; ex Merzbacher Sale (Nov. 15, 1910), Pl. III, 187; ex R. Ratto Sale (May 13, 1912), Pl. VII, 366; Cf. B. M. C. Sicily , p. 8, 38.
Before c. 466 B. C.
10. Quadriga of horses r., walking slowly; charioteer holds reins in both hands, whip in r.; above, Nike r., flying to crown horses; dotted exergual line and border.
*11. Naked horseman wearing helmet and holding lance in r. hand; holding reins in 1. hand.
474-c. 450 B. C.
*12. Quadriga of horses walking r., charioteer holding reins in 1. hand, whip in r.; above, Nike flying r. to crown horses; plain exergual line; in exergue, pistrix r.
Rev. ΣYRAKOΣION Head of Arethusa r., wearing pearled diadem, circular earring with pendant and necklace of beads; around, four dolphins.
306–289 B. C.
13. ΣΩTEIPA Bust of Artemis r., wearing earring and necklace; hair in knot behind; quiver over r. shoulder; border of dots.
Rev. AΓA⊙OKΛEOΣ BAΣIΛEOΣ Winged thunderbolt; plain border.
Æ. 9.62 grms. 22 mm. ↖ Cf. B. M. C. Sicily , p. 199, 422; Head, Coins of Syracuse (Num. Chron., 1874), Pl. IX, 13.
275–216 B. C.
14. Head of Hiero 1., wearing diadem.
Rev. IEPΩNOΣ in exergue. Horseman r., wearing helmet, cuirass and chlamys, holding spear in r. hand; horse prancing; beneath horse, plain exergual line.
Æ. 17.32 grms. 26 mm. ↙ Cf. B. M. C. Sicily, p. 217, 585.
344–317 B. C.
15. ZEYΣ EΛE[Y⊙EPIOΣ] Head of Zeus Eleutherios r., laur.; short hair; plain border.
Rev. [ΣYPAKOΣIΩN] Thunderbolt upright; in r. field, eagle r.
Æ. 14.03 grms. 24.5 mm. ↓ Cf. B. M. C. Sicily, p. 189, 313; Head, Coins of Syracuse, Pl. VII, 10.
215–212 B. C.
16. Head of Athena 1., in crested Corinthian helmet, wearing earring and necklace; aegis tied around throat with snakes; border of dots.
Rev. ΣYPAKOΣIΩN Artemis 1., in short chiton and endromides, quiver on shoulder, drawing bow to shoot; at her feet, a hound leaping 1.; to 1., YA above Σ; plain exergual line; border, a lineal circle.
359–336 B. C.
*17. Head of Apollo, laureate, r.; berries in wreath.
Rev. [ΦI]ΛIΠΠOY Biga galloping r., charioteer hold- ing reins in 1. hand, and whip above horses' heads in r. hand; below raised forelegs, grain of barley; exergual line.
Alexander III, 336–323 B. C.
328–327 B. C.
18–19. Head of young Heracles r., in lion's-skin; border of dots.
Rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated 1. on throne without back, lower part of body draped; r. leg visible in front of 1.; on extended r. hand, eagle r., wings closed; in 1. field, a herm; border of dots.
c. 326 B. C.
Rev. Similar. In 1. field, Athena Promachus.
c. 325 B. C.
Rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Similar; in 1. field, cornucopiae.
Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOΓ Similar; in 1. field, Athena Promachus.
324–323 B. C.
Rev. Similar; in 1. field, an antler.
Rev. Similar; in 1. field, Macedonian helmet.
322–321 B. C.
c. 333–320 B. C.
. Tetr. Miletus. 17.20 grms. 26 mm. ↑ Ex Demanhur Hoard. Cf. Newell, Demanhur , p. 37, 1751, Pl. IV, 3.
c. 330–320 B. C.
Rev. Similar; in 1. field, ear of barley.
Rev. Similar, except that feet of Zeus are on footstool.
323–319 B. C.
Rev. Similar, except that feet of Zeus on foot-stool; in 1. field, a plow; below throne,⊙
. Tetr. Tarsus. 17.21 grms. 29 mm. ↘ Ex Demanhur Hoard. Cf. Newell, Tarsos, Pl. VII, 4 (this coin).
. Tetr. Tarsus. 17.18 grms. 31 mm. ↖ Ex Demanhur Hoard. Cf. Newell, Tarsos, Pl. VII, 8 (this piece).
37. Similar, except below head B.
To c. 319 B. C.
Rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY Similar to 33, except in 1. field, ram; below throne Δ.A.
Rev. Similar to 38, except below throne Δ:A.
c. 320 B. C. and later.
*40. Head of youthful Heracles r., in lion's-skin; NIKOKΛEOYΣ inscribed in minute letters on right- hand row of locks of lion's mane; border of dots.
After 320 B. C. and later.
*41. Head of youthful Heracles r., in lion's-skin.
Rev. [AΛ]EΞANΔPOY Similar to 18, except in 1. field, prow.
. Tetr. Amathus. 17.15 grms. 26 mm. ↘ Ex Demanhur Hoard. Cf. Newell, Demanhur, p. 45, 2684.
c. 328-c. 319 B. C.
321 B. C.
c. 329–326 B. C.
c. 326–324 B. C.
Rev. Similar to 43, except in 1. field, rose; below throne ΔIo
47. Similar to 46. 17.18 grms. 28 mm. ↖ Ex Demanhur Hoard.
48. Similar to 46. 17.24 grms. 26.5 mm. ↖ Ex Demanhur Hoard.
49. Similar to 46. 17.19 grms. 27 mm. ↖ Ex Demanhur Hoard.
Rev. Similar to 33, except in 1. field, thunderbolt; below throne, ΔI
52. Similar to 51. 17.20 grms. 27 mm. ↖ Ex Demanhur Hoard.
323–281 B. C.
53. Head of deified Alexander, diademed, with horn of Ammon; border of dots.
Rev. Pallas Nikephorus seated 1.; to 1., a flower. ΛYΣIMAXOY BAΣIAEΩΣ
*54. ΦΛVCTEINΛ CEBΛCTH Bust of Faustina r., draped, hair elaborately waved and coiled at back of head.
Rev. EΠI ΛIΛ CEYHPOV BYZANTIΩN Dolphin r. between two tunny fish.
Æ. 10.63 grms. Magistrate's name, Aelius Severus; cf. Pick, Num, Zeit., XXVII (1895) p. 33, No. 7 & p. 37; cf. also Mionnet, Suppl., II, p. 250, No. 279.
196–146 B. C.
55. Head of Zeus, r., crowned with oak.
Rev. ⊙EΣΣA ΛΩN Athena Itonia advancing r., spear in raised r. hand, shield on 1. arm; at r., ; above, AMVN ANΔPoY; below, [Ξ]ENOΩANTO[V]
. Double Victoriatus. 7.13 grms. 22 mm. ↑
395–387 B. C.
56. Boeotian shield.
Rev. Amphora, upper part of which is fluted; in circular incuse; ⊙ and bow to 1., [E] to r.
490-c. 400 B. C.
*57. Head of Athena r., in crested Athenian helmet, eye facing; hair arranged in double bandeau over forehead and temple and gathered up behind neck under helmet; circular earring; three olive leaves on helmet; floral ornament at back of helmet.
Rev. A⊙E Owl r., head facing; in field, to 1., crescent and olive branch with two leaves and a berry; all in incuse square.
393–338 B. C.
58. Head of Athena r., eye in profile, wearing large round earring and crested helmet with three upright olive leaves and a floral scroll at back.
Rev. A⊙E Owl r., head facing, to 1., olive branch and crescent.
338–300 B. C.
*59. Pegasus with pointed wing, flying 1.; below, ϙ
Rev. Head of Athena 1., wearing over leather cap Corinthian helmet bound with olive-wreath; in field beneath, A P; to r., gorgon's mask on aegis.
Corinth As Roman Colony
Duoviri: L. Certus Aeficius and C. Julius
c. 46–44 B. C.
*60. LAVS IVLI CORN (INT) Head of Julius Caesar, laureate, r.
Rev. [L] CERTO ÆFICIO, above; CIVLIO IIVIR, below. Bellerophon, wearing petasos, on Pegasus r., striking downward with spear.
Æ. 11.95 grms. Cf. B. M. C., Corinth, Pl. XV, 2; Fox, Jour. Internat. Num. Arch., No. 1; Edwards, Corinth, Pl. I, 16.
320–280 B. C.
*61. Head of Apollo r., laureate.
Rev. ABY Eagle standing r.; behind, [Y]ΛΛIΠΠOΣ; in r. field, a bee.
Tetrobol. 2.61 grms. 14 mm. ↘ Cf. B. M. C., Troas, p. 3, No. 22; Weber Coll., III1, Pl. CXCI, 5262.
300–190 B. C.
*62. Head of young Heracles in lion's-skin, r.
Rev. KΩI[ON] Crab, beneath which, a club and magistrate's name ΠYPPI.
Æ. .94 grms. 11 mm. ↘ Cf. Weber Coll., III2, Pl. 235, 6643.
150–145 B. C.
*63. Diademed head of Alexander r., chlamys around neck, border of dots.
. Tetr. Tyre. 149–148 B. C. 13.24 grms. 27 mm. ↑ Cf. Rogers, Second and Third Seleucid Coinages of Tyre, Pl. I, 3; Newell, Seleucid Coinages of Tyre, No. 58.
Fourth Reign, 108–96 B. C.
*64. Diademed head of Antiochus, r.; fillet border.
Rev. [B]AΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY [E]ΠIΦANOYΣ Zeus, legs draped, seated 1., holding wreath-bearing Nike, r., in outstretched r. hand, rests 1. on sceptre; whole surrounded by laurel wreath; on 1., outside inscription, and A; beneath throne Γ.
First Revolt, 66–70 A. D.
Year 2 (67–68 A. D.)
Shekel. 14.10 grms. 23 mm. ↖ Cf. B. M. C., Palestine , Pl. XXX, 3.
203–181 B. C.
*66. Ram standing r.
Æ. 4.61 grms. 13 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XL, 24, 25; B. M. C., Cyrenaica, Pl. XXXII, 20.
323–285 B. C.
*67. Head of Alexander the Great r., with horn of Zeus Ammon, wearing elephant skin tied below into aegis, of which snake is visible; crescent-shaped punch-mark on cheek.
Rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aetophorus seated 1. on throne; lower part of body draped; 1. hand resting on sceptre; eagle r., with closed wings on outstretched r. hand; to 1., a thunderbolt; below throne, ; border of dots.
68. Head of Alexander the Great r., with horn of Zeus Ammon, wearing elephant skin and aegis.
Rev. Similar; in front, an eagle 1.; below throne Δ
*69. Head of Alexander the Great, r., with horn of Zeus Ammon, wearing elephant skin and aegis.
Rev. AΛEΞANΔPOY Athena Promachus r., holding shield in front and hurling javelin; ends of chlamys falling over both arms; at r. below, eagle r. on thunderbolt; to 1.; to r.; dotted border.
. Tetr. 15.65 grms. 29 mm. ↗Ex Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge (Distinguished Artist) 1899, Pl. III, 120; Ex Benson Coll. (Sotheby, Feb. 3, 1909), Pl. XXV, 780. Cf. Svoronos, Pl. V, 17; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. I, 8.
70. Similar. Punch-mark on cheek.
Rev. Similar. To r., helmet and ΔI.
*72. Head of Ptolemy I, r., diademed and wearing aegis; border of dots.
74. Head of Zeus, r.; dotted border.
Æ. 16.60 grms. 27 mm. ↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. X, 11-16; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. III, 3.
75. Head of Alexander the Great r., with horn of Ammon, diademed, hair long.
Rev. [ΠTOΛE]MAIOY [BAΣIAEΩΣ] Eagle 1. on thunderbolt, wings open; to 1., akrostolion above helmet.
Æ. 2.49 grms. 17 mm.↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. VI, 16, 17; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. II, 1.
285–246 B. C.
76. Head of Ptolemy I, wearing aegis; border of dots.
77. Head of Zeus Ammon r., diademed, with horn; dotted border.
Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY Eagle 1. on thunderbolt, wings open, looking back; between legs,⊙.
Æ. 84.90 grms. 47 mm. ↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XVII, 3; B. M. C., Ptolemies, p. 37, 157.
78. Head of Alexander the Great, with horn of Ammon, clad in elephant's skin and aegis; dotted border.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle 1. on thunderbolt, wings open; between eagle's legs, E; dotted border.
Æ. 7.25 grms. 22 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XVII, 17; B. M. C., Ptolemies, p. 57, 114.
(Under Ptolemy II)
*79. Head of Arsinoe r., with horn of Zeus Ammon, wearing diadem, stephane and veil; behind head, K.
Rev. APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY Double cornucopiae, bound with fillet.
80. Similar; to 1., T.
81. Similar; to 1. B.
Rev. Similar; between legs of eagle, X.
246–221 B, C,
*82. AΔEΛΦΩN Jugate busts r., of Ptolemy II, diademed and wearing chlamys, and Arsinoe II, diademed and veiled; to 1., shield bearing thunderbolt as parasemon.
Rev. ⊙EQN Jugate busts r., of Ptolemy I, diademed and draped, and Berenice I, diademed and veiled.
*83. Head of Ptolemy I, r., diademed, wearing aegis; dotted border.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY ΣΩTHPOΣ Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt; to 1., cornucopiae.
84–85. Head of Zeus Ammon r., wearing diadem and horn; dotted border.
Æ. 69.16 & 68.72 grms. 43 mm. ↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XXIX, 19; B. M. C., Ptolemies, p. 55, 87.
86. Bust of Zeus r., laureate.
Æ. 12.44 grms. 26 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XXIX, 13; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. IX, 7.
87. Similar to 84.
Æ. 5.22 grms. 15 mm. ↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XXIX, 23; B. M. C., Ptolemies, p. 55, 95.
(Under Ptolemy III)
88. Head of Arsinoe II, r., with horn of Zeus Ammon, wearing diadem, stephane, and veil; behind head, sceptre; to 1., KK.
Rev. APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEAΦOY Double cornucopiae, bound with fillet.
221–203 B. C.
89. Jugate busts of Serapis r., wearing laurel-wreath above which small cap of Osiris, and Isis, wearing corn-wreath above which globe and horns.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle l. on thunderbolt, looking back; on right wing, double cornucopiae bound with fillet; between legs, ΔI
*90. Head of Ptolemy I, r., diademed and wearing aegis; dotted border.
Rev. Same inscription. Eagle standing l. on thunderbolt; on thunderbolt P⊏
91. Head of Zeus Ammon, r., diademed, with horn. Dotted border.
Rev. Same inscription. Eagle l. on thunderbolt, wings open; on l. wing, cornucopiae; between legs, A
Æ. 29.06 grms. 37 mm. ↑ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XXXIX, 17; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XV, 5.
180–145 B. C.
92. BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ KΛEOΠATPAΣ Head of Zeus Ammon r., diademed.
Æ. 25.40 grms. 30 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XLVII, 9; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XXVI, 7.
93. Head of Zeus Ammon r.; dotted border.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Two eagles l. on thunderbolt; to l., double cornucopiae.
Æ. 23.63 grms. 30 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XLVIII, 10.
94. Head of bearded Heracles r., wearing lion's skin.
Rev. Eagle l. on thunderbolt, looking back; across r. wing, caduceus; between legs, K
Æ. 12.83 grms. 24 mm. ↖ Cf. B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XVI, 10.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle l. on thunderbolt.
Æ. 12.20 grms. 24 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. LI, 14.
96. Head of Cleopatra I as Isis, r., with long curls bound with corn.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle l. on thunderbolt, wings open.
Æ. 16.18 grms. 27 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XL, 11; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XXII, 6.
97. BAΣIΛIΣ[ΣHΣ K]ΛEOΠATPAΣ Similar.
Æ. 4.13 grms. 17 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XLVII, 15; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XVIII, 7.
98. BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ KΛEOIIATPAΣ Head of Cleopatra I, r., clad in elephant's skin.
Æ. 7.40 grms. 21 mm. ↖ Cf. Svoronos, Pl. XLVII, 13; B. M. C., Ptolemies, Pl. XXIII, 3.
First Reign, 80–58 B. C.
99. Head of Ptolemy I, r., diademed and wearing aegis.
Rev. ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ Eagle l. on thunderbolt; to l., LB; to r., ΠA
Second Reign, 55–51 B. C.
*101. ANTωNINOC εV CεB AYT K T AIΛ AΔPI Head r., bare.
Rev. Bust of Sarapis r., crowned with modius, above human foot; to r., ⊏
Æ. Drachm. Year 3 (139–40 A. D.)
The significance of the unusual reverse type of the Sarapis bust over the model of a human foot is unknown. Undoubtedly, it refers to some feature of the Sarapis cult in Alexandria, most likely to votives to Sarapis as a god of healing. This specimen has added interest because of its date, year 3 of Antoninus Pius. The type is mentioned by Milne (Ashmolean, p. xxix) as being of the last year of Antoninus Pius and recurring under M. Aurelius and Commodus. Vogt (Die Alexandrinische Münzen) also gives its earliest appearance to Year 24 of Antoninus Pius. B. M. C. Alexandria has two pieces for Pius (Nos. 1209–10, Pl. XIV) of Year 24, both of smaller size than our piece. However, Mionnet (VI, p. 214, 1431) gives the type for year 3 in the large size, derived from Zoega (N.Aeg., p. 167, No. 44). In no later work does a piece of this type occur for Antoninus Pius in the large size, or for a date earlier than Year 24. For Marcus Aurelius, Dattari (Nos. 3315–16, Pl. XXII) gives two specimens of 32 and 22 mm. respectively and for Commodus (Nos. 3828, 3938–39) three pieces varying between 21 and 23 mm. The type also occurs on a lead token of Egypt (Dattari, No. 6530, Pl. XXXVII). For a list of occurrences of the Sarapis bust over the human foot in sculpture, on gems, etc., see Weinrich in Athenische Mitteilungen, 37 (1912), p. 37, note 3. The human foot alone is used elsewhere as a type on coins: at Ptolemais-Ace under Valerian and Salonina (B. M. C. Phoenicia, Nos. 47, 51–53, Pl. XVII, 11); at Aegaea in Cilicia under Severus Alexander (B. M. C. Lycaonia , etc., 37, Pl. V, 1); and at Isinda in Pisidia (Babelon, Inventaire Waddington, No. 3751, Pl. VIII, 20).
*102. ANTωNINOC [EVC EB AVT K T] AIΛ AΔP Bust r., laureate, draped and cuirassed from behind.
Æ. Drachm. Year 5 (141–42 A. D.) The earliest year listed for this type for Antoninus Pius by Milne, Dattari, and B. M. C. is year 10.
*103. OYHPOC C[ε]A AVRHΛIOC Bust l., laureate, draped and cuirassed from behind.
Rev. Verus and M. Aurelius standing with joined r. hands; to l., L; to r., Γ
Tetr. Year 3 (162–63 A. D.) Dattari 3642 var.
Faustina , wife of M. Aurelius
*104. CεBACTH ΦAVCTINA Bust r., draped.
Rev. Antoninus Pius standing in quadriga to r. Above, L; in exergue, K.
Tetr. Year 20 (179–80 A. D.) Milne 2324 var.
*105. A K Λ ΔOM AYPHΛIANOC CεB Bust r., laureate, and draped; to r., LA
Rev. I A C OYABAΛΛAΘOC AΘHNYACP Bust of Vaballathus r., laureate and diademed, draped and cuirassed.
Tetr. Year 1 (270 A. D.) Dattari 5428 var.; Milne 4322 var.
*106. AVT K Λ Δ AVPHAI ANOC CεB Bust r., laureate, draped and cuirassed from behind.
Tetr. Year 4 (272–73 A. D.) Dattari ——; Milne ——.
*107. Bust of Zenobia, diademed, r. CεΠTIM ZHNOBIA CεB
Tetr. Year 5 (270–71 A. D.) Dattari 5512 var.
*108. MAΞIMIANOC CεB Bust r., laureate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. Alexandria standing l., wearing close-fitting cap surmounted by three turrets, holding out on r. hand bust of Sarapis facing towards her, resting l. on sceptre. To l., L; to r., H; in exergue, A.
Tetr. Year 8 (292–93 A. D.) Dattari ——; Milne ——.
*109. ΦΛA KωNCTANTIOC K Bust r., laureate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. Emperor (Diocletian), laureate, wearing cuirass and cloak, r. hand raised, holding in l. a short sceptre, on walking horse. To l., above, L; to r., Γ.
Tetr. Year 3 (294–95 A. D.) Dattari ——; Milne ——.
*110. Bust of Demeter (?) r., wearing modius and veil; behind head, a torch; in front, branch of grain; to l., above, a crescent; to r., above, a star.
Rev. Jugate busts r. of Sarapis wearing modius and Hermanubis wearing modius; to r., a palm branch (?).
Lucius Aemilius Buca
c. 44 B. C.
Rev. Winged caduceus and fasces in saltire; in angles, celestial globe, two r. hands joined, axe, and L. BVCA
c. 38–36 B. C.
*112. NEPTVNI Head of Pompey the Great, bare r.; in front, a trident; below, a dolphin.
Rev. [Q·NASI] DIVS Galley with rowers, sailing r., with pilot standing on prow and steersman seated in stern; to l, above, six-pointed star.
. Den. Sicily. 3.55 grms. Ex Naville II (Vautier- Collignon), Pl. I, No. 8; Naville XII (Bissen), Pl. 75, No. 2713. B. M. C., Republic, II, p. 564, 21, Pl. CXX, 16. Babelon II, p. 252, l; C. 20 (Pompey).
27 B. C.–14 A. D.
*113. CAESAR AVGVSTVS Head of Augustus, bare, r.
Rev. OB CIVIS SERVATOS in three lines in oak wreath.
37–41 A. D.
*114. C Caesar AVG GERM P M TR P[OT] Head r., bare.
Rev. AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES.AUG GERM Bust of Agrippina, draped r.
41–54 A. D.
*115. TI CLAVD CAESAR AV [G GERM P] M TRIB POT PP Head r., laureate.
Rev. AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTA Bust of Agrippina, draped r., wearing crown of corn-ears, from which one long tie hangs down at back.
54–68 A. D.
*116. AGRIPP AVG DIVI CLAVD NERONIS CAES MATER Busts of Nero, head bare, r., and of Agrippina, l., draped with hair in long plait at back, facing.
Rev. EX S C (in oak-wreath) NERONI CLAVD DIVI F CAES AVG GERM IMP TR P (around).
*117. IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP XIII PP Head r., laureate.
Rev. PACE PR TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT (around) S C (in field). Temple of Janus, showing r. side and end, with closed doors on l.
Æ. Sest. Rome. 66–67 A. D. 24.95 grms. Ex Bement Sale (Naville VIII), Pl. 19, 655. B. M. C., Empire, p. 230, 164 ff., Pl. 42, 7; M. & S., I, p. 156, 167; C. 139.
69 A. D.
*118. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P Head r., bare.
Rev. SECVRITAS PR Securitas, draped, standing l., holding wreath in r. hand and sceptre in l.
134–138 A. D.
*119. HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP Bust r., laureate and draped, from behind.
Rev. AEGYPTOS S C Egypt, draped, reclining l., holding sistrum in r. hand, l. arm resting on basket of fruit, to l. ibis standing r. on low column.
Æ. Dupondius or As. Rome. 134–138 A. D. 11.32 grms. B. M. C., Empire, III, p. 506, 1703, Pl. 94, 7; M. & S., II, p. 446. 839; Strack Pl. XII, 707, C. 111.
Adopted Son of Hadrian
*120. L AELIVS CAESAR Head r., bare.
Rev. TR POT COS II (around); PIE TAS (in field, to l. and r.). Pietas standing r. before altar, raising r. hand, l. hand holding box of perfumes.
Daughter of Didius Julianus
*121. DIDIA CLARA AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. HILAR TEMPOR Hilaritas standing l., holding long palm and cornucopiae.
Den. Rome. 2.82 grms. M. & S., IV, l, 10, Pl. I, 19; C. 3.
193–197 A. D.
*122. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES Head r., bare.
Rev. FELICITAS COS II Felicitas standing l., holding caduceus and sceptre.
193–211 A. D.
*123. SEVERVS PIVS AVG Head r., laureate.
Rev. INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH Carthage seated on lion raised on hind legs to r.; she holds thunderbolt and sceptre; behind, water coming out of rock.
Wife of Septimius Severus
*124. IVLIA AVGVSTA Bust r., draped.
Rev. FORTVNAE FELICI Fortuna standing l., holding cornucopiae and leaning on rudder.
198–217 A. D.
*125. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head r., laureate.
Rev. PM TRP XVII COS IIII PP Apollo, seated l., holding laurel branch and leaning elbow on lyre which rests on tripod.
*126. Similar to No. 125.
Rev. PM TRP XVII COS IIII PP Jupiter, nude, standing l., holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, an eagle.
*127. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP Sol standing 1., raising r. hand and holding globe.
*128. M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT Head r., laureate.
Rev. VICT BRIT PM TR P XIIII COS III P P SC Victory standing r., 1. foot on helmet, erecting trophy; to r., towered woman standing facing and captive seated at her feet.
Æ. Sest. Rome. 211 A. D. 27.38 grms. M. & S., IV, 1, 483a; C. 641. Ex Carfrae Sale, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge (July 8, 1901) Pl. VI, 184.
Wife of Caracalla
*129. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE Bust r., draped.
Rev. CONCORDIAE AETERNAE Caracalla standing 1., clasping r. hands with Plautilla standing r.
*130. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA Bust r., draped.
Rev. VENVS VICTRIX Venus, standing 1., holding apple and palm branch and leaning on shield; before her, Cupid holding helmet.
200–202 A. D.
*131. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT Bust r., head bare, draped.
Rev. NOBILITAS Nobilitas standing r., holding sceptre and palladium.
*132. P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES Bust of Geta r., head bare, draped.
Rev. PONTIF COS II Geta standing 1., holding globe and parazonium.
*133. IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG Head r., laureate.
Rev. PONTIF TR P II COS II Felicitas standing 1., holding cornucopiae and caduceus.
217–18 A. D.
*134. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG Bust r., laureate, cuirassed.
Rev. PONTIF MAX TRP COS P P Jupiter, nude, standing 1., holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
Son of Macrinus
*135. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES Bust r., head bare, draped.
Rev. PRINC IVVENTVTIS Diadumenianus standing facing, looking r., holding standard and sceptre; at r., two standards.
*136. Similar to No. 135.
218–222 A. D.
*137. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG Bust r., laur., horned and draped.
Rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG Elagabalus, horned, standing l. before altar, holding patera and club; behind altar, reclining bull; in l. field, comet.
*138. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG Bust r., laur. and draped.
Rev. LIBERTAS AVG Libertas standing l., holding cap and sceptre; in r. field, star.
*139. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. SALVS ANTONINI AVG Salus standing r., feeding serpent held on her r. arm.
Mother of Elagabalus
*140. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. VENVS CAELESTIS Venus, diademed, seated
l., holding apple and sceptre; at her feet, a child.
Grandmother of Elagabalus
*141. IVLIA MAESA AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. PVDICITIA Pudicitia seated l., raising veil with r. hand and holding sceptre in l.
First Wife of Elagabalus
*142. IVLIA PAVLA AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. CONCORDIA Concordia seated l., holding patera; in l. field, star.
Second Wife of Elagabalus
*143. IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. CONCORDIA Concordia standing l. before lighted altar, holding patera and double cornucopiae; in r. field, a star.
222–235 A. D.
*144. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG Head r., laur.
Rev. P M TR P VII COS II P P Alexander, laur., advancing r., carrying spear and trophy.
*145. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG Bust r., laur. and draped.
Rev. IOVI PROPVGNATORI Jupiter, nude, with mantle flowing, holding a thunderbolt and an eagle, walking l., and looking to rear.
*146. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. SPES PVBLICA Spes advancing l., holding flower and raising robe.
*147. Similar to No. 144.
Rev. FIDES MILITVM Fides seated l., holding two standards.
Wife of Severus Alexander
*148. SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG Bust r., diademed and draped.
Rev. CONCORDIA AVGG Concordia seated l., holding patera and double cornucopiae.
Mother of Severus Alexander
*149. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG Bust r., draped.
Rev. IVNO CONSERVATRIX Juno, diademed and veiled, standing l., holding patera and sceptre; at feet, a peacock.
235–38 A. D.
*150. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. VICTORIA AVG Victory advancing r., holding palm branch and wreath.
*151. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. VICTORIA GERM Victory standing l., holding wreath and palm branch; at feet, two German captives with hands tied behind back.
Son of Maximinus
*152. MAXIMVS CAES GERM Bust r., head bare, draped.
Rev. PRINC IVVENTVTIS Maximus standing l., holding rod and spear; behind, two standards.
Wife of Maximinus
*153. DIVA PAVLINA Bust r., veiled.
Rev. CONSECRATIO Peacock facing.
238 A. D.
*154. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. ROMAE AETERNAE Roma, helmeted, seated l. on a shield, holding Victory and leaning on sceptre.
238 A. D.
*155. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. IOVI CONSERVATORI Jupiter, nude, mantle thrown behind, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
238 A. D.
*156. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. CONCORDIA AVGG Concordia seated l., holding patera and double cornucopiae.
238–244 A. D.
*157. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. PAX AVGVSTI Pax, standing l., holding olive branch and sceptre.
. Ant. Rome. 238 A. D. 4.64 grms. C. 173 var. Ex "Catacombs" Hoard.
*158. IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. PAX AVGVSTI Pax standing l., holding olive branch and sceptre.
. Den. Rome. 238 A. D. 2.99 grms. C. 173 var.
*159. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. P M TR P III COS P P Gordian standing l., holding patera and sceptre, sacrificing on a tripod.
. Ant. Rome. 240 A. D. 4.96 grms. C. 226. Ex"Catacombs" Hoard.
*160. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG Bust r., laur., draped and cuirassed.
Rev. P M TR P III COS P P Gordian on horse walking l., raising r. hand and holding sceptre.
. Den. Rome. 240 A. D. 2.92 grms. C. 234. Ex "Catacombs" Hoard.
*161. Similar to No. 159.
Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG III Liberalitas standing l., holding tessera and cornucopiae.
. Ant. Rome. 241 A. D. 4.36 grms. C. 145 var.
244–249 A. D.
*162. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. AEQVITAS AVGG Aequitas standing l., holding scales and cornucopiae.
. Ant. Rome. 3.96 grms. C. 8.
251–253 A. D.
*163. IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed, from behind.
Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA Libertas standing l., holding cap and sceptre.
253 A. D.
*164. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed from behind.
Rev. ROMAE AETERN Rome standing l., holding a globe surmounted by a phoenix on r. hand and a spear in l., behind her, a shield.
Wife of Valerian
*165. DIVAE MARINIANAE Veiled bust r. on crescent.
Rev. CONSECRATIO Peacock flying r., carrying empress to heaven.
Wife of Carinus
*166. MAGN URBICA AVG Bust r., diademed, with crescent.
Rev. IVNO REGINA Juno standing l., holding patera and sceptre. In exergue, KAς.
284–305 A. D.
*167. DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS Head r., laur.
Rev. CONSVL V PP PROCOS Emperor standing l., holding globe. Below, to r., star; in exergue, S M A Ξ.
296–297 A. D.
*168. IMP C L DOMITIVS DOMITIANVS AVG Head r., laureate.
Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI Genius, half nude, wearing modius, standing l., holding patera and cornucopiae; at feet to l., an eagle; to r., A; in exergue, ALE.
Æ. Alexandria. 9.72 grms. C. 1.
286–293 A. D.
*169. IMP C CARAVSIVS PI FE IN AVG Bust r., radiate, draped and cuirassed.
Rev. SPES PVBLIC Spes walking l., holding flower and raising robe. In exergue, C; to l., S; to r., P.