It seems strange that no comprehensive effort to arrange the di-staters of Thurium has ever been published. 1 Perhaps the vast number of the varieties of the didrachms is a deterrent sufficient to explain why they have not been given the attention they deserve, but this condition does not apply to the larger denomination. The old and mistaken idea that pieces from identical dies are seldom found may have militated against a serious study of these pieces but the lack of a record of any considerable hoard within recent times is a more significant explanation. The present examination was begun with a view to finding where these tetradrachms of Thurium parallel the single issue of di-staters at Metapontum. These Metapontine double-units are commonly accepted as having been struck during the period of not more than four years during which Alexander of Epirus played a leading role in the history of south Italy. The establishment of a synchronism between the two series should permit working both forward and backward from that point and be of value in showing the evolution of each city's coinage.
Another deterrent which might have acted to prevent an earlier study of these Thurian coins is the slightness of the change in the type and the frequent absence of distinguishing symbols. There is stylistic evidence that the issue of these di-staters was not continuous and it was therefore problematical whether there would be any help from die-mulings. Any attempt to solve the problem depended upon having the majority of the pieces known, together with their weights. The measure with which this condition has been met is due to cooperation which I am glad to acknowledge on the part of the more important national collections of Europe and of those private collectors whose names are cited in the lists which follow, all of whom have been very prompt in responding to my request for casts. To all who have aided, I render cordial thanks.
In his earlier study of the weights of the Greek colonies of southern Italy, the late Dr. Regling brought together data concerning 138 Thurian di-staters. 2 He observed an upward trend in weight toward the end of the series and just before the reduction in the standard. Dr. Regling's observations were founded on a representative group of these di-staters—or those for which the weights were easily obtainable, including those in the Berlin cabinet at that time and such others as had been listed in previously published catalogues. No claim to conclusiveness was made. The number cited by Dr. Regling is herein increased to 322, although the weights of certain pieces (12 in number) are lacking. 3 This number however, with the added notation that it comprises some 111 varieties (each die combination being considered a variety), is the first and a rather startling point to be considered. That there are so many varieties (42) with a single specimen known and twenty-three of which two specimens only have been discovered by careful searching, presents further food for thought, especially when the probability that there are varieties which have not survived is remembered. Other phenomena which have appeared were scarcely to have been anticipated.
A word regarding the convention used for numbering and that employed to indicate identity of dies will be necessary. The capital letters A to N (with the exception of I) indicate the groups into which the di-staters are divided. Thus in Group A there is a single variety—in Group D, nine (with D20, possibly ten). Each die combination is given a separate number and these numbers in every case are even numbers. By this means new varieties and new die combinations can later be interpolated and given intermediate numbers without necessitating an entire renumeration. The chronological placement of an addition will be indicated by the group letter. The condition that an odd number is used will be an indication that it is new to the present arrangement.
An examination of the plates will show straight lines between certain of the coins illustrated. These are intended to show visually that the dies so connected are identical. On Plate I the demonstration is simple because there are few dies to each group and even with numbers C2a and C2b where two specimens sharing both dies are shown, the intention is plain. In Group F, however, where there are twenty-two distinct varieties and here, where the mulings are fairly complicated, the convention is not so satisfactory. To indicate identity of dies that are widely separated, the numbers of the connecting dies are given below in italics at the end of a short line rather than by a line which might have to cross from one end of the plate to the other. 4 This is the only group in which confusion need be anticipated, but the descriptions will satisfy doubts should any arise.
In the coin descriptions the objective has been clarity and brevity. Essential differences are cited—frequently more than a single one and preferably one not likely to be off-flan or ambiguous. Occasionally as in Group G this is exceedingly difficult, especially with the reverses, where the inscriptions provide the easiest means of testing differences. The known specimens are listed under each variety with the usual indication for the Berlin Münzkabinett as Berlin etc., and with easily traceable references to the auction catalogues, such as Naville V or Strozzi, which scarcely require elucidation.
Of three hundred and seven specimens for which the weights have been obtained five have unusually low weights (B2n, H22, K12b, Kl2c, L4c,). The possibility of error in recording these weights is sufficient to warrant eliminating them from a frequency table. We have recorded 302 coins and from these the table was prepared. The greatest number of pieces falls between the weights 15.65 and 15.85. The norm according to this determination is therefore 15.75. The average weight of these 302 pieces is 15.374. The highest weights, that is those in the last two divisions, are predominantly of the later issues. For the weights between 15.95 and 16.04 seven out of ten fall after group G, to which I have assigned a date c.330. In the next group (16.05 to 16.14) all four specimens are of these later issues. This supports Dr. Regling's observation concerning an 'upward trend' in weight. It is hardly strong enough to warrant the suggestion of a change in the weight standard, however.
It should be added that the American Numismatic Society will be grateful for further additions to the specimens here cited—in all cases the weights are desired. Preferably, wherever possible a cast or sealing wax impression should be sent, unless the piece is one which has appeared in an auction catalogue or is illustrated photographically elsewhere, in which case a statement to that effect alone is needed. The present ownership of pieces herein listed according to the sales from which they have come, is also desirable. It would be helpful, whenever a specimen is known to have come from a hoard, to have that circumstance mentioned.
The founding of Thurium in 443 would give a fixed point for the city's coinage, if we could be sure that its coinage began immediately. Jörgensen in his excellent article 5 on the earliest coinage of Thurium opposes Head's position 6 that during the first twenty years of its existence its coinage was very scanty. Jörgensen terminates the issue having the helmet of Athena ornamented with an olive wreath in 425—that is, in the first eighteen years of the city's existence. All of this would be foreign to a study of the di-staters, since we have a single specimen bearing the olive wreath, if it did not bear upon the dating of the B group which follows, in which the Scylla adorning Athena's helmet replaces the wreath, and which, because the letter Φ is common to the obverses of both varieties of the didrachms can be shown to follow immediately after the introduction of the Scylla decoration.
The use of the olive in connection with Athena requires no comment. As much can hardly be said for the figure of Scylla. That it should have been introduced without a significance which would be apparent to the Greeks is foreign to all we know concerning their use of decorative symbols. 7 That the use of this figure persisted so long after its introduction further strengthens the position that it had especial significance. It would not be unusual for such a striking change in the coin type to have taken place because of some important event in the history of the city. We must, therefore, glance back to the scanty records. Because they do not bear on our problem, we may here eliminate a discussion of the voluminous references to the foundation of the city and to the part played by Thurium in the founding of Heraclea.
Apparently Jörgensen's dating for the series having Athena's helmet adorned with the olive wreath is, as has been noted, a swing to the other extreme from the position taken in the first edition of the Historia Numorum—modified in the second edition, possibly because of Jörgensen's arguments. Why 425 was chosen by Jörgensen as the date for the change to the Scylla type is not made clear—or rather, it is admitted to have been arbitrary. 8 Except when applied over long periods of time, deductions based on the comparative number of dies used are of questionable value. This is because of the variable or unknown elements—the life of a die, possible intervals between strikings, and the increased requirements in time of war. But when we find a large number of varieties in the wreathed helmet series during a period in which Thurium is generally at peace, we may question that all these issues could have been crowded into a space of eighteen years as Jörgensen proposes.
The change which took place when the Scylla replaced the wreath of Athena's helmet has one element of significance; it is a change from the type adopted when the influence of Athens was predominant. Furthermore, the Scylla type persisted after the defeat of the Athenians by Syracuse, and for many decades. A glimpse at the record of that mighty struggle as given so impressively by Thucydides provides data that seem to have escaped Jörgensen's notice, and this testimony is confirmed in some of its details by Diodorus 9 and in Plutarch's biography of Alcibiades. We are told that Metapontum and Thurium contributed ships to the Athenian forces before Syracuse (Thucydides VII, lvii, 11). In the light of its foundation by colonists from Athens this is not more than we should expect for the latter place. There is, however, a very illuminating addition by Thucydides who says of Metapontum and Thurium that both these cities were "reduced at this time to such straits by party crises that they could not do otherwise." But we are not dependent upon a single statement of Thucydides as sometimes happens; other confirmatory passages follow. When Alcibiades was recalled it was at Thurium that he abandoned the Salaminia, in whose company his vessel was returning, and from Thurium he fled to Sparta. (Thucydides VI, lxi, 6, 7). In connection with the aid sent to Syracuse by Sparta under the leadership of Gylippos we read that he endeavored to induce several of the South Italian cities to change sides. His hope to have accomplished this at Thurium was the stronger because his father had once been one of its citizens, but he failed to win them over. This failure is the more easily understood because the Athenian forces at this stage had suffered none of the reverses which later caused their downfall (Thucydides, VI, civ, 2).
After the first reversals for the Athenians, in response to Nicias' appeal for further aid from Athens, reinforcements were sent under the leaders Demosthenes and Eurymedon. (Thucydides VII, xxxiii, 3–6). Concerning this force after it had reached Italy, we read, "At Thuria they found that the faction opposed to the Athenians had recently been expelled in a revolution; and as they were desirous, after collecting their whole armament at that place, to hold a review of it, on the chance that anyone had been left behind, and also to persuade the Thurians both to take part with them in the expedition with all zeal and, in view of the Athenian's present good fortune, to regard the same persons foes and friends as the Athenians did, they waited at Thuria and dealt with these matters." 10 Thucydides does not tell us whether the Thurians were persuaded to join the Athenian forces. If they did so, the triumph of the anti-Athenian faction after the Athenian defeat would have been much easier. That there was such a readjustment is indicated by the later statement (Thucydides VIII, xxxv, 1) that Hippocrates the Lacedaemonian sailed from the Peloponnesus with ten Thurian ships under the command of Doreius, son of Diagoras and two colleagues during the same winter (i. e. 412–411).
Does it not seem logical, therefore, to attribute the marked change in the type of the city's coinage to c. 413–410? In the Scylla we may see an apotro-paic motif featuring a native myth and replacing the form adopted when the Athenians were in power.
To Mrs. A. Baldwin Brett I am indebted for pointing out that the signature of Phrygillos on the tetradrachms of Syracuse is dated by Tudeer 11 close to the time of the victory over the Athenians. The associated die by ΕϒΘ depicts a winged charioteer, and singularly enough, shows a Scylla in the exergue. It would require a long digression to review the questions hinging upon the name of this artist in an attempt to determine whether Φ, ΦΡϒ and Phrygillos are the same individual and whether the bird on the Thurian staters is a finch and a punning-reference to the name of Phrygillos. The published material is admirably summarized by Tudeer, and significant specimens of the varieties involved are illustrated by Dr. Regling. 12 Tudeer's conclusion is that ΦΡϒ at Thurium is identical with Phrygillos at Syracuse. Since that is what most concerns us here, we may leave the other branches of this problem for later investigation of the rather complicated evidence. 13 Tudeer also feels that the workmanship of Phrygillos on his signed die at Syracuse shows that he must have been a stranger to the procedure at this mint. This leads him to conclude that his activity at Thurium preceded that at Syracuse—a judgment the more valuable as support because of his Syracusan point of view.
If the activity of Phrygillos at Thurium is to be dated prior to 413 and if it terminated there shortly after that date, since the change to the type having Scylla on Athena's helmet occurs within the series having the bird—a group inseparably connected with the ΦΡϒ coins, we have further support for our dating of this change to the time of the Athenian reverse.
Corolla Numismatica p. 166
Historia Numorum, first edition, p. 71.
For a discussion of the significance of the use of the figure of Scylla and of its employment as a helmet-decoration cf. a monograph by Otto Waser printed in 1894 and entitled Sky IIa und Charybdis. in der Literatur und Kunst der Griechen und Römer. Most coin-occurrences, with the exception of Cyzicus, are on issues of Italy or Sicily. At Cumae and Agrigentum, Scylla provides a subsidiary type—at Syracuse and Agrigentum, it is relegated to the exergue. Among Thurium's neighbors, Heraclea and Tarentum, it is found on Athena's helmet. The author considers that most of the monsters appearing on Athena's helmet are destructive or terror-bringing. He does not improve on the admirable characterization given in Smith's 'Classical Dictionary' that Scylla is 'the personification of the danger to mariners of a rock-bound coast.'
Jörgensen, loc. cit. p. 175.
Bk xiii, ch. 1.
Loeb translation, vol. iv. p. 63.
Tudeer, Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Syrakus, pp. 224 ff., Pl. II, 29.
Regling, Terina, p. 71, notes 9 and 10.
There are at least thirty-four varieties of the Thurian staters with ΦΡϒ or the 'finch'—additional dies having Φ alone may or may not prove to have connection.
The name of Histor occurs but once (B6) on these di-staters—in tiny letters along the exergual line. Its inconspicuousness is in keeping with the signature of Aristoxenos at Metapontum and Heraclea and with that of Philistion at Velia. Dr. A. H. Lloyd 14 has published reasons for identifying the letters ΙΣ on the observe die of a stater as the initials of Histor. His conclusions are accepted and amplified by Mr. E. S. G. Robinson. 15 On B6 on which the Histor signature occurs we have the monogram on the bull's rump to the left of his tail. On the didrachm, there is a large letter Ε in addition to ΙΣ (in small letters), while on the reverse of a closely related stater (Pl. XI, 13) there is a tiny Ε on the rump of the bull. Since the monogram must be read Εϒ, Robinson points out that the acceptance of Histor as the artist involves accepting Ε and Εϒ as initials of a single individual who can hardly be other than a mint official or moneyer. He further submits that since the Ε above the peak of the helmet on the didrachm indicates a moneyer, the Φ on the di-stater B2 does not indicate the artist, but a moneyer, and that this die, because of similarities with B6 is also the work of Histor. This conclusion is not logically inevitable, however, and it seems to fall down when subjected to the obvious test of comparing the obverses of B2 and B6. The style of Histor which is conspicuously noticeable in the didrachm with Ε is very different from that of the obverse die of B2, with its Φ. It is unnecessary to labor this point here, since the succession of Group B depends on the employment of the Φ in its position above the peak of the helmet and is independent of a determination whether that phi indicates Phrygillos or someone else whose name begins with that letter who was moneyer at the time. One possibility is that Phrygillos was artist first and moneyer as well later. In the troubled times following 413 strict consistency with regard to signatures is hardly to be looked for with such a personal procedure.
The didrachms offer very little help in the study of the di-staters. In fact, they rather provide support for the inconsistency of which we have been speaking. Although no pieces of the larger denomination have been found bearing the name of Molossos, the placing of his name on the staters offers analogies with the occurrence of Histor's 'signature.' In 1906, Dr. Regling shared von Sallet's opinion 16 that Molossos was a magistrate rather than an artist. Recently, however, in the entry under Molossos in Vol. XVI of the Pauly-Wissowa Real-encyclopädie, he accepts the interpretation proposed by Robinson 17 that the inscription on a plated coin of Thurium, reading 'ΜΟΛΟΣΣΟΣ ΕΠΟΕΙ' indicates Molossos is to be considered as the die-engraver. When two such scholars are in agreement, it seems hazardous to file a caveat. The chief objection is the workmanship on the dies which bear the name of Molossos. Of these I have found nineteen bearing the name of Molossos in full, and there are others having an initial M which may or may not indicate his name. But even with dies bearing his name, there is little uniformity. That on these nineteen issues we have good, bad and indifferent die-cutting within a demonstrably brief period seems support for deducing that Molossos was a magistrate rather than an 'artist.' Could one individual have done the same thing in so many different ways?
Further support for this is to be found in the unique stater in Berlin which bears the name of ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ in the same position as the name of Molossos. (Pl. XI, 7). Above the exergual line is a grasshopper. On the obverse, the Scylla holds a rudder and the flap of the helmet is decorated with a scroll. The crest has none of the worried treatment which characterizes the issues of Group G of the di-staters, where Scylla also holds a rudder, and it would seem to have preceded them by at least two decades and possibly more. The position of the bull's head is close to that found on the staters of Molossos and with the later issues of Group F of the di-staters. The letters of the Nikandros inscription are smaller than the largest of those of Molossos, but larger than most of the other Molossos inscriptions. If Molossos proves to be a magistrate or moneyer, Nikandros with his single die must follow.
An examination of the plates appended will provide evidence supporting that the issues of the Thurian di-staters cannot have been continuous. Within the groups into which these pieces have herein been divided, die-mulings are usual. Except for the first piece described, the varieties which do not have either their obverse or reverse dies participating in mulings is surprisingly small (23). There is room for some difference of opinion as to what comprises a group. The mere absence of connection, because for many die-combinations we have but a single specimen, should teach us to be wary, since such linkings may still come to light. When, however, there is a noticeable change of style separating two groups it is not unreasonable to deduce that there was an interval separating them.
The breaks between the groups, which have been mentioned, logically claim our first attention. Turning first to the groups F and G, there are two striking differences in the G group which have not occurred previously, (a) the Scylla on the obverse holds a rudder; (b) the reverse shows two fishes in the exergue instead of the single occupant found in the earlier issues. This distinction throws together into the first division most of the di-staters having a single fish in the exergue. 18 In the second class the exergue is occupied by other objects as well as by two fishes, as will be seen. The earlier issues may be subjected to further division.
Num. Chron. 1924, pp. 135–6.
Num. Chron. 1927, pp. 299–300.
Gr. Münzen der Saml. Warren, p. 18, note.
Num. Chron. 1927, p. 302; Pl. XIII, 8.
The exceptions are K14–18, L2 and N6.
Turning to Plates I and II, a distinction is at once apparent. The head of Athena is to the r. on the series shown on Plate I—to the left on Plate II. Further, except for the first coin and C2, all of the pieces on Plate I show a griffin facing to the right on the flap of the helmet; on Pl. II this griffin is no longer seen. The latest series of the staters with the wreathed helmet as well as the first of those with the Scylla bear the distinguishing letter phi in the field in front of the Scylla; and this is found in one of the obverse dies of the B group, thus placing them. The lowered head of the bull in the pieces in Group B is seen to be in profile; in Group C and in the pieces of the following Group shown on Plate II (except for D2) the bull's head is turned so as to be partly facing. The exception noted, D2, found in a single specimen in the Berlin cabinet, shares its obverse die with reverses showing the bull's head facing, and is therefore to be interpreted as the link connecting the groups occupying these two plates. It may seem that a separation of the Group B and C is unnecessary; changes in the head of the bull and in the exergual line are the chief differences.
A word regarding C2a might be interpolated at this point. This coin is known to me in a cast only, but M. Babelon tells me in a letter that there is not the slightest reason to doubt its genuineness. It will be seen that it shares both obverse and reverse dies with C2b although there is no Scylla on the helmet of Athena. The most satisfactory explanation is that we have a coin struck from a die that was still unfinished—what might be called a trial-piece. If such is the case, this is the only specimen of a Greek coin from incomplete dies known to me. As an indication of the manner of die-cutting it should be very important. The figure of the griffin, like that of the Scylla, is made a separate problem and the locks of hair are modified in C2b to correlate the elements of the whole.
As has already been pointed out, this group shares with the succeeding one (E) the distinction of having all the obverse heads facing to the left; except for two further dies, F2 and F12–14, the heads on the Thurian di-staters all face to the right. 19 There are nine, possibly ten varieties, but there are in all only three obverse dies. Each obverse die is combined with three reverses—with the last, there are possibly four combinations. That the initial die precedes D8 is to be seen from the reverse die of D6, which is an earlier stage of the same die found in D8—the die-crack which runs from the ϒ of the ethnic to the back of the bull is not present in D6. The reverses of D4 and D10 are also seen to be identical. The obverse die for Nos. D12–18 shares none of its reverses with any of the varieties which precede it on the plate, nor is its connection with E2 strikingly close. It seems very improbable that this reverse would precede that of D2, however, and the ordering submitted finds support in the slightly less effective treatment of the hair of Athena, which shows some of the simplification to be seen in the single obverse die of Group E.
D2 calls for comment because of the position of the bull, which is apparently a derivative of much earlier issues of the staters. For this reason, one would expect to find it much nearer to A2, but the combination of its obverse die with the other reverses on this plate leaves no room for its placement earlier. The use of the letter delta below the crest should be noted; the position of the left hand of the Scylla in all three obverse dies is also distinctive. Like its immediate predecessor, the obverse die for D8–12 is very beautiful. It is shown in three stages; the break which is not prominent in D10 has developed until a considerable segment of the surface is gone in D12. The relief is perhaps not quite so high as in the preceding groups, but the workmanship has rarely been surpassed.
D20 is a puzzling coin which it is difficult to judge from the reproduction. Although my suspicions may prove unwarranted, it seemed best to reproduce it here in the text, partly because I could not obtain a cast of it. The head of Athena shows signs of tooling and the inscription is very different from that of other dies muled with this obverse. The weight does not indicate plating but this is also a possibility.
The group labelled E is so small that there is room for thinking that a connection with the preceding group may yet come to light. There is a fairly obvious falling off in style as well as such notable differences as the turning of the bull to the I. on the reverses of E4 and E6 and the placing of the tuft of the bull's tail above his back rather than across the flank, which is characteristic of certain dies in the D group—cf. D6, D8 and D18. D12 which seems to provide an exception to this suggestion is struck from a badly broken die which would hardly have been used except in an emergency—that is, a die which would have been rejected in normal times. The reverse, too, may be an old die which had been laid aside before it had worn out. E4 and E6, in harking back to the placing of the bull's tail across the flank, indicate a closer connection with group D than with group F and give ground for considering E2 as following rather than preceding these two combinations of dies.
There seems to be but a single issue of the staters having Athena's helmet decorated with a Scylla and with Athena's head facing to left until very late in the city's history. One of these pieces from Mr. Newell's collection is illustrated on Pl. XI, No. 6. I believe it is unpublished. It is apparently closest to F12 of the di-staters.
The seven pieces placed at the beginning of this division were at first considered a separate group, but double mulings with later issues showed that the group, though large, was a single one. The die-mulings claim priority of attention. In two instances we have a reverse die connected with three obverses (a. F2, F8 and F18; b. F34, F40, F44). There are five instances where two reverse dies are combined with the same obverse; one in which there are four reverses with the same obverse die and another case in which no less than six different reverse dies are found with the same obverse. There is a possibility, one might say probability, that further combinations will be found. With some of these combinations, all of the specimens located are in poor condition and consequently there is room for a difference of opinion as to which is the earlier state of the die. It follows that further specimens may reverse or change the order here submitted.
Throughout the group the Scylla on the helmet is shown with hand upraised to her brow in a scanning or peering attitude. Three of the nine obverse dies have letters between the neckpiece of the helmet and the crest (ΔΙ diagonally downward or retrograde). F2 and F12–14 are the only varieties with Athena's head to the left; on F2 the annulet between the neckpiece and the crest may be intended for a theta. The varieties F4–F10 show an obverse die which is seldom in good condition. This die bears a symbol for which I can find no previous publication. On the bowl of the helmet, between the shoulder of Scylla and the base of the crest, a tiny skyphos or kotyle is to be seen on fine specimens. Possibly this is an instance of a use of the punning principle to which Dr. Macdonald 20 has called attention and is to be recognized as a type parlant for an artist's signature. Alternative suggestions are not abundant.
The distinguishing of the reverse varieties is very difficult because the differences are slight. If the present arrangement proves stable, it would seem that the bull's head three-quarters facing was changed to a profile position. The exergue is uniformly occupied by a single fish; the exergual line is sometimes continuous, sometimes dotted and sometimes double—that is having a continuous as well as a dotted line. In the die F10–12 there are small pellets above the exergual line. Their significance is not clear. The treatment of the ethnic is varied but slightly—the relative spacing of the letters frequently provides the chief means of distinguishing varieties.
The workmanship throughout this large series is uniformly good without being of exceptional quality. There is a tendency towards lowering the relief and occasionally the result, as in F32–34, is unpleasing. Broken dies are helpful (the reverse of F12 and the obverse of F40 for example). Note also the obverse of F30 and the reverses of F22 and F24. Double-striking frequently complicates identifications. The evidence, however, hardly warrants our describing the minting as hurried.
Coin Types, pp. 17 ff.
As has been pointed out the difference between Groups A-E and those which follow are basic and divide the di-staters into two groups. A repetition for emphasis will, I trust, be pardoned. There are two distinguishing marks to separate groups A to E from those which follow, as well as an appreciable difference in style: (1) the exergue of the reverse now contains two fishes instead of one; (2) in Groups G and H the Scylla is seen to be holding a rudder and a trident, respectively. The workmanship is coarser and less careful as may be observed in the crest particularly, but also in the hair treatment and in the modelling of the bull. The coin-flans are seldom sufficiently broad to show the entire surface of the dies. The helmet-crest is frequently incomplete and often either the ethnic or the fishes in the exergue of the reverse fail to show satisfactorily. The inscription, too, is significant; it drops at the end and since this neither follows the curve of the edge of the die nor repeats the line of the back of the charging bull, it weakens the design.
Group G is exceptional because of its small size. So far as we now know, the group consists of one obverse die combined with four reverses. The racing torch which appears on the reverse above the bull is later found as an exergual symbol. The single obverse die, however, is much more significant. On the neckpiece of the helmet there is recurrence of the griffin seen earlier in Groups B and C. Behind the neck appear the letters I Π. As has been mentioned, the Scylla now holds a rudder. In addition, behind the head of Athena and sometimes entirely off flan, we find a tiny Nike with a taenia or a wreath held aloft in front of her.
The first question is "what event in history is likely to have called forth the use of such a symbol?" After the catastrophe of 387 B. C., when Caulonia was destroyed and Croton punished by Dionysius, victories were not so common at Thurium that we may lose count of them. The troubled condition of Italy after the death of Archytas in 345 is common knowledge. The scanty records give us slight hint of anything that can be called a victory until Alexander of Molossos had arrived on the scene. The style of these pieces is not at variance with what we should expect for 334–332. The issue was a brief one—only one obverse die seems to have been needed.
In another place 21 I hope to be able to demon- strate that the single issue of di-staters at Metapontum occurred during the ascendency of Alexander. The reasons are: (1) The name of the same magistrate, AMI, occurs on a stater having the thunderbolt symbol of Alexander (Pl. XI, 12) and also on all of the di-staters (Pl. XI, 11); (2) The period during which Metapontum and Thurium were united under the command of Alexander is the logical one in which to place Metapontum's single issue of this denomination. There are additional reasons, but what most concerns us here is that the Metapontine coin shows the bowl of the Corinthian helmet worn by Leukippos ornamented by the figure of Nike driving a quadriga while at Thurium we have the figure of Nike. In these coins on which Nike figures, may we not see a reference to Alexander's successes, one of which, according to Livy, was the recapture of Heraclea from the Lucanians? The scantiness of the issue would Be an indication that it was initiated shortly before Alexander's death, which would be the reason for its ending.
In the initial arrangement of these di-staters of Thurium, these Nike pieces of Group G were placed after Group H. One reason for this was the letters Εϒ on G2 which might have indicated a connection with H28 and H30 where ΕϒΘ occurs on the flap of the helmet. Through Dr. Regling's kindness, I received the cast of the stater in the Berlin cabinet (Pl. XI, 8) which shows a racing torch on the reverse above the back of the bull just as it occurs on the di-stater and I Π replacing the griffin on the neckpiece of the helmet instead of in the space between the crest and the neck. Although there are other staters showing Scylla holding a rudder which may possibly have some connection with this group, their testimony is not free from equivocation. In marked contrast with the small size of Group G and the rarity of staters which are similar, the stater issue which parallels Group H is exceptionally large. In place of the rudder held by Scylla we find a trident, while on the reverse there are added symbols, letters and monograms, notably ΣΩ and ΣΩΓ as well as . If the ΣΩ issues (cf. Pl. XI, 9) are conceded to have come toward the end of this group as is shown by the di-staters, a comparison with the Berlin I Π stater shows its unmistakably earlier style. It must therefore be the earlier issue, and Group G must precede Group H.
The Coinage of Metapontum, Pt. Ill (in preparation).
The order shown is dictated by the circumstance that the latest pieces have inscriptions and symbols on both dies, while the earlier have none. The letter pi (Π) makes its appearance on the reverse of H12 and 14 giving place to on H16. This is a very significant addition, for it definitely precludes thinking that these letters can be artists' signatures since the letter on H16, (), has been added to the die of H14 and the earlier letter eradicated. Fortunately, the obliteration is unmistakable. 22 Since this cannot indicate a change in the artist who cut the die, it is submitted that what we have here is a change in the moneyer or magistrate. 23 On the last four coins we have on the reverse—alone on H24, and in combination with ΣΩ or ΣΩΓ on the others. ΣΩ or ΕϒΘ occur on the obverse of the last three accompanied by a tiny owl as symbol. To add further to the difficulties of interpretation, another bird appears between the forelegs of the bull on the reverse—possibly a duck. The owl must be without connection with either of the two names since it occurs impartially with each of them. On the reverse since occurs alone, as well as on the die with ΣΩΓ and the "duck," the interpretation of the bird as a personal symbol would seem to be eliminated. The birds and fishes of Thurium are not a little troublesome.
Similar die-changes are recorded for other mints—typical examples from the issues of Croton and Tarentum are illustrated herein on Plate XI and indicated by italics in the paragraph which follows.
Croton; a. E. T. Newell Coll., Pl. XI, 3, rev. only. b. Naville V, 701, Pl. XI, 4. Coins with the triangular mark of obliteration are frequently listed—those with ME are not common. Tarentum, a. Br. Mus. Cat. Italy, 121, Pl. XI, 1; b. Naples Cabinet, Pl. XI, 2. Both pieces are illustrated in Evans' 'Horsemen of Tarentum,' the first on Pl. III, 6—the second on Pl. XI, 4. This separation may account for the non-recognition that the same die serves for both. Changes of date on the issues of the mints of Sidon and Ake under Alexander have been recorded by Mr. Newell—cf. his 'Dated Alexander Coinage of Sidon and Ake, Notes 9, 12, 17, 19, 48 (Sidon) and 6 (Ake).
Mr. Newell informs me that similar changes occur on the Alexandrine and Ptolemaic issues.
Any arrangement of the groups following H is open to grave exceptions. An examination will show a radical change of style. The large head in bold relief with the wide-crested helmet of groups F and G gives place to a much smaller head occupying the center of the flan rather than filling it or running over its edge as it did formerly. With reference to the head, the relief is weak and mincing. On the reverse the bull is frequently so bad as to seem caricatured. Even when the composition as a whole is impressive at first glance, a close examination reveals slovenliness and lack of care. In consequence, the arrangement submitted is a tentative one—merely a working basis. It is supported by reasoning which may have to be modified with the discovery of the first hoard containing these pieces. The homogenity of the groups should perhaps first be established.
Group J is held together by the presence of the letters ΕϒΦΑ, and almost by these alone. There are seventeen varieties, ten of these have two fishes in the exergue as is the case in the preceding group—the remaining seven have a thyrsus. In two of the obverse dies, the Scylla is holding a trident as in group G. In a discarded arrangement this was seen as a reason for beginning a new series of these pieces, but the continuation of the exergual convention (two fishes) seems a stronger warrant for the present sequence. On the remaining fifteen varieties (8? dies) the Scylla is hurling a rock (J26) or a squid (?).
The degeneration in style is nowhere more apparent than in the modeling of the Scylla, although the change in the treatment of the hair is also noteworthy. With a few exceptions (J22 and 24, and later in some but not all of the N group), the hair is not tied in a knot below the neck as in group H but spread out in loose tresses in a manner not used previously. The treatment of the exergual line, even within the groups, is not consistent—witness the mannered form of Nos. J30–34.
ΕϒΦΑ[Ν] is probably a magistrate, 24 and is possibly, but far from certainly, to be recognized in the Εϒ to be seen beneath the bull on H2. The torch which appears above the bull in the H group is found also in the exergue of group L. The fifth letter of this name is supplied on the diobol illustrated on Pl. XI, No. 5. 25
Of the relative order of groups M and N we may be certain because of the sequence M12–M14–N2–N4. The obverse die is in an earlier stage in M12. Group K is placed before L because we should ordinarily assume that a two-letter form of a name preceded a three-letter form, but there are enough objections to make the alternative plausible. Not only may group L precede group K but reasons may be presented for thinking that both K and L precede group J, although this is not so strong a probability since the continued use of two fishes in the exergue, which characterized Group G, supports the present placing.
Turning to the L group it will be seen that there are five variations of the reverse which share three obverse dies. One of these reverse dies has a single fish in the exergue—this is true also of the last four die combinations of group K, and is the basis of the present sequence. The other four reverse dies show a racing-torch in the exergue. This symbol also occurs on K4 between the hind legs of the bull as well as in group H above the back of the bull. It may be that an alternative to the present arrangement should be preferred—G8, L4–6–8–10–2, K12–14–16–18, K4 to 10 and K2 at the end of the group, which would be followed by group J in practically its present order. The style of the obverse head in the L group is fully as good (or as bad) as that found in group J, while the modelling of the bull is perhaps a little better than in many of the J dies. The presence of the letters ΣΙΜ is the one condition which holds the group together. The dolphin below the crest of Athena on the obverse die of L2 has a single parallel in the introduction of an owl in the same place in H26 to 30. One reason for placing the L group in its present position is the evolution of the exergual line on the reverse—compare LIO and M2. The uninterrupted use of the rock-hurling Scylla is further support but neither has impressive value.
The K group is closely connected with the L group by reason of the letters ΣΙ and ΣΙΜ which are pre- sumably the initials of the same magistrate's name. There are nine die-combinations in the group. K2 is in a class by itself; ΣΙ occurs on the obverse and an aphlaston appears below the chin of Athena. What meaning should be given the NI of K2's reverse, under the circumstances, provides food for conjecture. The coiled serpent in the exergue is unique among the di-staters—it occurs, similarly placed, on the staters. 26 The exergue of the reverse provides a distinctive difference for the remaining eight varieties. Four show a tripod between two dolphins, and the remainder a single fish. It should be noted that the second group has the letter A behind the neck of Athena. The torch between the hind legs of the bull of K4 has already been mentioned.
The M group may be considered transitional. There are eight die combinations of which M12 and 14 mule with N2 and 4 as has already been noted.
The homogenity of the group is indicated by the presence of the name ΕϒΦΡ, which is not to be confused with ΕϒΦΑ of group J. There is again a demonstration that the exergual symbol is not associated with the name since it changes from the flying owl for the first five varieties to the aegis in M12 to 16. Both of these are attributes of Athena but the significance of their use is not apparent. With the exception of M2 (it weighs 14.39 and is possibly plated), all these coins are struck on a wide hammered flan, upon which the head of Athena is well centered. M6 shows a Scylla holding a rudder (cf. group H), but on the other four varieties showing the Scylla, she is hurling a rock as in groups J, K, L and N10–16. On the last three varieties in group M, the Scylla is replaced by a running griffin such as has occurred previously on the flap of the helmet (cf. groups D, F and H). I have been unable to find a satisfying explanation for the occurrence of the griffin at Thurium and Heraclea. 27 One is reminded that the griffin and the sphinx both of which occur earlier on the Thurian and Heraclean coinages, had a part in the decoration of the helmet of the Pheidian Athena of the Parthenon, but their significance there also is not clear. In M4 and M10, the flying owl is holding a wreath and this seems to be the intention on all the specimens showing the owl in the exergue, although the wreath is frequently off flan. May we not interpret this as conveying that "in the magistracy of ΕϒΦΡ, through a plan revealed by Athena, a victory was achieved." 28 It seems noteworthy that in group H the griffin occurs along with the figure of Nike.
Cf. Regling, Die Griechischen Münzen der Saml. Warren, p. 18, note.
In coll. of A. N. S., wt. 1.085.
Lloyd Coll., cf. Num. Chron., 1924, p. 136, 14.
This group, here considered as the last of the di-staters, is held together by the name HPA or HPAK, the former of which occurs twice in retrograde form. There is some ground for placing N6 and N8 at the end of the group because of the exergual symbols and because the Scylla on the helmet is even a little worse than on the other varieties within the group. The exergual objects for these two pieces seem to be a throw-back to the earlier convention but again without any indication of the meaning. The branch in the exergue of N2 is promoted to the space above the bull in N4. Mr. Robinson has called my attention to the similarity in style between the pieces of this group, (especially M12), and certain of the Croton coins having the head of Apollo on the obverse and a tripod on the reverse as well as the Metapontine type having Persephone's head for obv. and the plough symbol on the reverse. This comparison is supported by the branch which appears on N2 and N4—the occurrence of similar branches on the series at Croton can hardly be without significance. Acceptance of this suggestion would involve revising the date assigned for the Croton pieces in Historia Numorum, (370–330 B. C.). The other symbols, a lion's head to the right, cornucopiae and a racing torch (?) show almost the limit of variation possible but they can hardly have a connection with the name HPAK. The workmanship is sadly degenerate—witness the deplorable bull on N10.
This symbol also occurs on the staters—cf. Naville Sale V, 570.
That anything could be much worse than the workmanship shown in some of the pieces of Group N is hard to believe but a glance at the plated coins with which Plate X is filled out demonstrates this possibility. The selection made is intended to be representative; accepting it as such a few deductions may be drawn.
With some of these coins it is very difficult to be certain whether they are plated or not. One such is illustrated on Plate IV where it is given the number F46. The obverse will sustain a superficial comparison with the other dies of Group F; the reverse is open to criticism. The placement of the piece is determined by the single fish in the exergue, and this is confirmed by the treatment of the figure of Scylla and the form of the crest. F38 has many similarities, but F46 has a sneering expression which is foreign to the prototype. The treatment of the hair above the ear is that of Group D and is also found in F1 and F16–24. The way in which the lower portion of the crest projects below the bowl of the helmet is slovenly to a degree not found in previous dies. The figure of Scylla is also carelessly modelled. On the reverse, the letters are weak. The beautifully indicated fish is too large and it follows the line of the edge as none of its predecessors do. The head and r. foreleg of the bull are not in keeping with anything that has gone before. The weight of this piece is 15.52—a second specimen, however, weighs 14.19, and its reproduction shows strong indications of plating.
Few of the earlier varieties seem to have been imitated in the plated pieces. Coin P2 is a poor derivative of Nos. D2–4–6 and the reverse limits it to the last two of these. The exergual fish is not true to this prototype, but more nearly resembles F20. These combinations of an obverse with a reverse never found associated with it afford an indication that such varieties cannot have been official as some plated pieces seem to be.
J36 as an imitation is very good, but again the poor workmanship confirms the low weight to show that the coin is plated. Here the type imitated is J24, obverse and reverse. The Scylla is a fairly close copy with the defects of its pattern emphasized. On the reverse the exergual line differs and the iota of the inscription seems an after-interpolation.
P10 is designated by the letters HP as a copy of some one of the coins in Group N—an examination shows that bull on N12 was, unfortunately, the type chosen for imitation. The inscription is copied fairly accurately but the two fishes in the exergue as well as the placement of the letters HP above the line are in contrast with the procedure for the group with which this piece would be associated. A much more serious discrepancy, however, is provided by the obverse. For the type copied here we have to go as far back as Groups H and J, on which the Scylla is also holding a trident. The treatment of the crest of the helmet shows unmistakably that this piece is derived from the type of Group J. Further evidences of fabrication (perhaps it isn't plated) are to be seen in the smaller scale of the head—the prototype usually has the crest off-flan because of the large size of the die; here the head is not in the least crowded.
Generalizations without additional evidence seem of questionable value but we must bear in mind that the bronze or copper cores of these pieces militate against their survival. It is impossible to determine from casts the methods used for plating and as I have not examined the pieces in Paris or Naples, information on this score has been omitted.
In an earlier day there was question of our having more than one coin from the same pair of dies. What would such doubters say to the coins P8a and P8b, which are from identical dies and both pieces plated. The illustrations demonstrate how much better the smaller coin has withstood the surface abrasions. The absence in uniformity in the size of the flan throws some light on the methods used by the fabricators. The prototype for the obverse is M12–14–N2. Singularly enough, the presence of the half-zeta-like addition to the original die (cf. M14), shows that the plated piece was made after this addition, whatever its significance may have been. The reverse copies or imitates the reverse of N10–12. In addition to the two pieces shown 29 a third specimen is to be found in the Naples Cabinet (Fiorelli 2777), weighing 15.45. Although this is not indicated as plated in the catalogue, the cast shows a characteristic indentation of the surface on the reverse which is an almost unmistakable indication of plating. The most patent indication of its fabrication is to be seen in the reverse inscription which reads EH PA.
P6. If further proof of the plating of P8 were needed, we have in P10 a muling of its reverse die with an obverse imitating N10—that is, it copies both obverse and reverse of this variety. I am indebted for a cast of this interesting piece to Mr. R. Cyril Lockett in whose collection it is. It will be seen that the surface is broken away below the flap of the helmet. The weight is 14.57.
P4. The muling of plated pieces found in P8 and P10 is carried one step further in this coin, for here we have the obverse connected with a reverse which copies J10. This coin was No. 56 in the Hamburger 98 sale, Apr. 3, 1933, where the weight was given as 12.70. Another instance of the muling of plated coins is cited in Num. Notes and Monogr. 47, Metapontum, Pt. II, pp. 54–5, Nos. 539–541.
None of these pieces are from official dies but No. M 2 at Berlin is of low weight (14.39) and has been kindly indicated by Dr. Regling as possibly plated. Justification for this suspicion is to be found in the exergual line, which is unlike that of any of the others in the group, and by what appear to be breaks in the surface of the coin beneath the chin of Athena on the obverse and at the tip of bull's right foreleg on the reverse. Besides this, the flan is only 24 mm. in width which is in contrast with the 28 to 30 mm. for the others in the group. The others also have hammered edges while this piece does not.
a. Br. Mus. Cat. 47, wt. 13.50; b. De Luynes Cat. 584, wt. 14.62.
|Griffin (Helmet Flap)||Gr. B, C, G.|
|Griffin (Helmet)||M12–16, N2–4. P8|
|Torch||G2–8, K4||L4–10, N12|
|Δ||D2–6, J32, P2.|
|HPA||N6, 10 N14–16, X|
|HPAK||N2, 4 (?)|
|⊐ (?)||M14, N2, P8|
A2. Athena head to r. wearing crested Athenian helmet ornamented with olive wreath showing five pairs of leaves.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. No. 1||15.00|
The piece illustrated in the Walcher de Molthein catalogue, No. 208, weighing 15.70, is a cast of the Br. Mus. specimen.
B2. Athena head r. The crested Athenian helmet is ornamented with figure of Scylla; on the flap a griffin with raised forepaw. In the angle of the crest above the forehead, the letter Φ. Both Athena and Scylla wear necklaces.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 26 (Φ imperfect)||15.82|
|c.||Cambridge, McClean 1254, pl. 40, 11 ex Hirsch XV, 668||15.70|
|d.||Cambridge, McClean 1255, pl. 40, 12 ex Hirsch XVI, 130||15.72|
|f.||Boston Mus. Fine Arts ex Bunbury I, 157||15.84|
|g.||Naples, Fiorelli 2780||15.10|
|h.||Naples, Santangelo 4731 (Pl. I)||15.30||i.||Naples, Santangelo 4735 (Pl. I)||15.80|
|j.||E. T. Newell ex American collector, 87 ex Hirsch XVIII, 2211||15.64|
|k.||Count Chandon de Briailles||15.55|
|l.||Hirsch XXX, 227||15.10|
|m.||Naville XII, 482||15.07|
|n.||Seaby 1927, 539||13.68|
|o.||Santamaria, 1934 Prezzi Signati, 54||15.51|
B4. Die of B2.
R. Similar to B2. Upper line of exergue dotted, lower continuous. The inscription curves downwards, the ϒ being much larger than the other letters.
|b.||Naples, Santangelo 4734||15.70|
|c.||H. A. Greene||15.38|
B6. Similar to B4 save that there is no Φ and the griffin differs slightly in form.
|a.||Naville V, 551 ex Sotheby, 1929, 6||15.69|
|b.||Paris, DeLuynes 581||15.65|
|c.||Marquis Ginori Num. Chron. 1927, 299, pl. XIII, 4||14.10|
B8. Closely similar to B2. The Φ is not present. Further differences in the locks of hair over the base of neck.
|a.||E. S. G. Robinson||15.40|
|b.||R. Jameson 358.||15.75|
|c.||Naville X, 100.||15.68|
|d.||Hirsch XVIII, 2210 ex Ashburnham, 1885, 16 ex Northwick 114||15.74|
C2. Athena head r. Similar to B8, save that the torso of Scylla is short and heavy; further differences in the griffin. Specimen a. is struck from an unfinished (?) die, only the beginnings of the figure of the Scylla having been cut.
R. Bull with lowered head to r. but with head now facing rather than in profile as heretofore. Exergual line of large dots. Beneath, fish to r.
|a.||Paris (cf. pl. I)||15.10|
|b.||Florence (cf. pl. I)|
|c.||Br. Mus. Cat. 27||15.55|
|d.||E. Gagliardi Coll. ex Hartwig 275||15.69|
C4. Similar to C2. The space between the back of neck and crest of helmet larger. The necklace slightly curved. The fins of the Scylla shorter.
R. Similar to C2. The exergual line of heavier dots. The fish to r. larger and slightly more curved.
|b.||Paris, DeLuynes 580||15.85|
|c.||Napels, Santangelo 4732||15.65|
|d.||R. Jameson 363||15.29|
|e.||Naville XVI, 245 ex Ratto, 1912, 282 ex Rous sale, 1911, 19||15.44|
C6. Scylla with r. arm akimbo. No necklace visible.
R. Die of C4.
|b.||Naville XVI, 244 ex Nordheim sale, 1931, 835 ex Naville XIV, 47 ex Duruflé, 82||15.70|
|c.||Locker-Lampson Cat., 30||15.75|
C8. Die of C6.
R. The exergual line is now continuous. Between the ethnic and the back of the bull and below the letters TP, a slightly curved line.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 28||14.98|
|c.||South Kensington Mus., Salting ex Whitehead 5||15.75|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4733||15.50|
|e.||E. T. Newell||15.61|
|f.||Dr. W. Giesecke ex Hirsch XX, 60 ex Hirsch XII, 26||15.30|
|g.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville VI, 222||15.77|
|h.||In the trade||14.98|
D2. Athena head to I. Between the neck and crest, the letter Δ.
R. Walking bull to r.—head not lowered. Heavy exergual line beneath which a fish* to r.
D4. Die of D2.
R. Bull to r. with lowered head, tip of tail following line of back.
|a.||E. T. Newell||15.55|
|b.||Naples, Fiorelli 2783||15.60|
|c.||DeNanteuil Cat., 182||15.00|
|d.||G. Empedocles, Athens||15.75|
|e.||R. Cyril Lockett||15.75|
|f.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles||15.30|
|g.||Ratto, 1927, 230||14.45|
D6. Die of D2 and D4.
R. Similar to D4. Tip of tail raised from the bull's back. The ethnic in smaller letters.
|a.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville VI, 223||15.46|
D8. Similar to D2, but without the Δ
R. Die of D6. A die-break extends from ϒ to shoulder of the bull.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 32||15.93|
|b.||Brussels (du Chastel)||15.34|
|c.||Naples, Santangelo 4739||15.75|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4740||15.45|
|e.||Egger, 1909, 58||15.66|
D10. Die of D8. The beginning of a die-break extends from the crest, along the arm and across the body of Scylla.
R. Die of D4.
|a.||Cambridge, McClean 1259, Pl. 40, 16 ex Hirsch XI, 51||15.71|
|b.||Dr. W. Giesecke.||15.36|
|c.||Hirsch XXXIII, 205||15.80|
D12. Die of D8 and D10, now broken so as to obscure helmet and crest back of the Scylla.
R. The bull's tail now lies diagonally across his flank. Heavy exergual line.
|a.||E. S. G. Robinson||15.70|
|b.||E. T. Newell||15.26|
D14. Athena head l., the hair above the forehead in short locks, a characteristic of this entire series. A tiny die-fault in front of the nose on line with the eye. The l. hand of the Scylla touches the under portion of her body.
R. Similar to D12 in the position of the tuft of the bull's tail and in the size and placement of the letters of the ethnic. Note that the nose of the bull is above the l. foreleg.
|a.||H. A. Greene ex Hirsch XXI, 401||15.68|
D16. Die of D14.
R. Similar to D12. The final letters of the ethnic follow the curve of the die. The fish in the exergue has his head up, nearly touching the exergual line.
|b.||Nervegna sale 508|
D18. Die of D16.
R. Similar to D6. The ethnic is less extended.
D20. Die of D14–18, (coin tooled?).
R. Similar to D14. The lettering differs and is not like that of this group.
|a.||Hirsch XXVI, 31||15.25|
E2. Similar to D2 in the attitude of the Scylla. The hair treatment is simplified; there are similarities in such details as the modelling of the neck and of the lips and profile. The dog's head to the r. is turned upward.
R. Similar to D16, the l. foreleg of the bull more bent.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat., 31||15.23|
|d.||Br. Mus. ex Ford Coll||15.19|
|e.||New York Metropolitan Museum Ward coll. 72||15.44|
|f.||Helbing, 1928, 48 ex Naville X, 99 ex Naville IV, 104||15.37|
E4. Die of E2.
R. Bull to l. Light exergual line beneath which fish to l. with head upward and nearly touching line.
|c.||Paris, DeLuynes 586||15.92|
|e.||E. T. Newell||15.50|
|f.||Hamburger 98, 57 Ex Naville V, 552 Ex Ratto, 1911, 94 Ex Am. Coll., Soth. 1909, 89||15.68|
E6. Die of E2 and E4.
R. Similar to E4. The loop of the bull's tail smaller.
|a.||Br. Mus. ex J. Sambon Sale, 1889, 44||14.81|
F2. Athena head to l. The Scylla has l. hand in front of torso. The hair masses above the forehead in simple locks. Below the chin, an annulet (on specimens b. and c.). Between the neck and the crest another annulet.
R. Ethnic in large letters, the upsilon and omega being distinctive in form and spacing.
|b.||Paris, DeLuynes 585||15.40|
|c.||Cambridge, McClean 1260, Pl. 40,17||15.39|
F4. Athena head to r. On the bowl of the helmet behind the shoulders of the Scylla and just below the base of the crest of the helmet, a tiny scyphos or kotyle. Below the chin, an annulet (?) or flaw.
R. Ethnic in small letters. Dotted exergual line, with single fish below. The tail of the bull curves distinctively above its hind quarters.
|a.||Naville VI, 221||15.74|
|b.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles ex Naville XV, 195 ex Egger, 40, 187||15.62|
|c.||Sir C. W. C. Oman||——|
F6. Die of F4.
R. The exergual line is double-a continuous line above a dotted one.
|c.||Cambridge, McClean 1257, PI. 40, 14 ex Carfrae 16, Pl. I, 10||15.59|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4730||15.50|
|e.||Vienna, Richter Coll. Num. Zeit, 1914, PI. I, 36 ex Hirsch XVI, 132||15.82|
F8. Die of F4 and F6.
R. Die of F2.
|b.||Turin, Lavy Coll.||15.42|
F10. Die of F4–8.
R. Bull to r. In exergue a single elongated fish. Exergue formed by a line of dots above which six small pellets unevenly distributed, two being between the hind legs of the bull.
|d.||E. T. Newell||15.57|
|e.||Hirsch XXX, 228 ex Strozzi 1071||15.85|
|f.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles ex Naville XV, 196||15.62|
F12. Athena head to l. Similar to E6 in profile but different in hair masses across the neck and in the positions of the dogs' heads.
R. Same die as F10.
|a.||E. T. Newell ex Hirsch XXVI, 283||15.52|
|b.||Br. Mus. Cat. 30||15.36|
|d.||R. Jameson Cat., 362 ex Benson sale, 79||15.94|
|e.||In the trade||15.70|
F14. Die of F12.
R. Bull with lowered head seen in profile. The ethnic in a straight line close to the back of the bull. There is a single exergual line. Cf. groups A and B.
F16. Similar to F4 but without the scyphos. Between the neckpiece and the crest, AI; the second letter is usually fainter than the first.
R. First three letters of the ethnic widely spaced. Exergual line not quite straight.
|b.||Brussels (de Hirsch)||15.98|
|e.||Sir H. Weber Cat. 878||15.77|
|g.||E. Gagliardi Coll.||——|
F18. Die of F16.
R. Die of F2.
|a.||Cambridge, McClean 1256, PI. 40, 13||14.89|
|b.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles||15.40|
|c.||Benson 78 ex R. H. Smith, 1897, 3||15.65|
F20. Die of F16.
R. First five letters of ethnic evenly spaced, the omega separated from the iota by more than usual interval.
|a.||J. P. Morgan coll ex O'Hagan, 69||15.71|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4737||15.50|
|e.||Naples, Fiorelli 2782||15.75|
|f.||E. T. Newell ex Bougerol sale, 1909, 88||15.32|
|g.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles||15.37|
F22. Die of F16.
R. Letters of ethnic evenly spaced throughout. Beneath exergual line, fish with head close to the line.
|a.||Boston, Regling-Warren, 108||15.94|
F24. Die of F16.
R. Beneath exergual line short plump fish with die-break extending to foreleg of bull.
F26. Die of F16.
R. Ethnic in a nearly straight line, the omega extending below the line and close to the iota. The bull's head in profile. Tail of the bull extremely short and forming small loop.
|a.||New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ward 73||15.75|
|b.||Ratto, 1/25/26. 547||15.28|
F28. Athena head r.; between flap of helmet and crest the small letters IΔ.
R. Die of F26.
|a.||A. H. Lloyd, Sylloge II, Pl. XVI, 486 ex Ciani, 12/12/21, 6||15.82|
|b.||Naples, Santangelo 4738||15.30|
|c.||R. Jameson 359 ex Bunbury (I) 159 ex Delbeke 27||15.85|
|d.||H. C. Ives, ex Naville XVII, 72 ex Naville I, Pozzi, 229 ex H. P. Smith sale, 34||15.52|
F30. Die of F28 but showing wear above the figure of the Scylla.
R. Similar to F28; the ϒ of the ethnic much spread, the other letters fairly equally spaced.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 29||15.79|
|c.||Hess 207, 77||15.23|
|ex Seaby, 1927, 540 ex Ratto, 1926, 548||15.35|
F32. Athena head r. with ΔI in space behind neck. The modelling in lower relief than heretofore. The edge of the neckpiece seems to merge with the hair at the back.
R. Die of F4.
F34. Die of F32.
R. The bull has a much longer body than in F32. The exergual line is single and the fish to r. beneath has its head close to the exergual line.
|a.||Feuardent, 1914, 59||——|
F36. Similar to foregoing except that one of the dogs has his head upturned and the letters behind the neck are no longer present.
R. Similar to F30—the fish in the exergue is smaller.
|a.||Paris, DeLuynes 578||15.80|
F38. Similar to F28 and F34 but without AI. The r. hand of the Scylla shows the fingers across the visor of the helmet.
R. Closely similar to foregoing. Slight differences in spacing of the letters and in the fish in the exergue.
|a.||Brussels (de Hirsch)||15.79|
|b.||Brussels (de Hirsch)||15.46|
|c.||Paris, DeLuynes 579||15.84|
|d.||R. Jameson 357.||15.71|
F40. Die of F38. Now badly broken across the helmet and with a flaw at the chin.
R. The ethnic in a straight line with more than the usual space between the iota and omega.
|a.||E. S. G. Robinson||15.66|
|b.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles||15.62|
F42. Die of F36.
R. Die of F38.
|a.||The American Numismatic Soc.||15.77|
|b.||Naville XII, 481||15.16|
|c.||White-King, Sotheby, 1909, 28||15.94|
|d.||Dr. O. Bernhard, St. Moritz ex Helbing LXX, 461 ex Helbing, 10/24/27, 2567||15.60|
F44. Die of F36 and F42.
R. Die of F34 and F40.
|a.||Naples, Santangelo 4729||15.30|
|b.||George J. Bauer, Rochester ex Collignon 41||15.55|
F46. The profile and lips of Athena badly modelled; the figure of Scylla blurred. Possibly plated.
R. Exergual line dotted; the bull unlike any of its predecessors with the possible exception of C4r-6.
|a.||Count Chandon de Briailles ex Hirsch XVI, 131 ex Egger XL, Prowe, 186||15.52|
|b.||Cahn Sale 66, 59||14.19|
G2. Athena head to r. The Scylla holds rudder and on the flap of the helmet there is a griffin as in Group B. Behind the neck the letters III. In the field to the l. a flying Nike with a wreath in her upraised hands.
R. Bull to r. with flaming race-torch above his back and Eϒ between the forelegs. In the exergue two fishes to r.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 36||15.82|
|d.||Cambridge, McClean 1262, Pl. 40, 19||15.29|
|f.||Naville XVI, 252||15.66|
|g.||Sir C. W. C. Oman, Oxford|
G4. Die of G2.
R. Similar to G2. The race torch is larger and there are no letters between the forelegs.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 35||15.77|
|b.||Booth Sale, Sotheby July 24, 1900, 16||15.47|
G6. Die of G2.
R. Similar to G4. The torch smaller and the fishes in the exergue longer.
G8. Die of G2.
R. Similar to G4. The ethnic closer to the back of the bull, the bowl of the torch separating the P and I.
|b.||Cambridge, McClean 1261, Pl 40, 18 ex Hirsch XIII, 173||15.86|
|c.||Naville XVI, 252 ex Headlam 253 ex Hirsch XXVI, 32||15.67|
|d.||Dr. W. Giesecke.||16.03|
H2. Athena head to r. The Scylla holds a trident in her r. hand with the prongs showing above the shoulder and sometimes intercepting the crest. This occurs throughout the series.
R. Exergue formed by a continuous line above a line of dots. Beneath these, two fishes to r., the one at the l. having its head above the body of the one on the r.
|a.||DeSartiges 49 ex Bunbury (I), 156||15.55|
|b.||Helbing, Mar. 20, 1928, 49 ex Naville XII, 483||14.76|
H4. Similar to H2; the handle of the trident shorter and the crest coarse and wavy instead of straight.
R. The last two letters of the ethnic notably lower than those which precede. The fish to r. above the one at l.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 33||15.93|
|b.||E. T. Newell||16.07|
|c.||Naville XVI, 251 ex Headlam 254 ex Hartwig 272||16.05|
H6. Similar to H4; the trident is at a different angle, and the space between neckpiece and crest is more constricted.
R. Die of G4.
|b.||Naples, Santangelo 4745||15.30|
|c.||Naples, Santangelo 4746||15.30|
H8. Similar to H2; the prongs of the trident extend slightly below the base line of the crest.
R. Similar to H2; in the exergue the fish to the l. has its head below the body of the other.
|b.||Naples, Santangelo 4744||15.40|
|c.||Naples, Santangelo 4747||15.60|
|d.||Hirsch XIV, 110||15.74|
|e.||Cahn 80, 64||16.06|
H10. Die of H8.
R. The bull is similar to the one on H4–between the hind legs, the letter A.
|a.||Count Chandon de Briailles -ex 'Molossian* Hoard cf. Vlasto, Num. Chron. 1926, p. 215||14.75|
H12. Similar to H8. A single dog's head shows prominently.
R. Similar to H10 but a letter, probably II, between the hind legs of the bull.
H14. Similar to H4; the shaft of the trident is very long.
R. Similar to HI2, but with differences in position of the foreleg.
|a.||Naples, Santangelo 4751||15.70|
H16. Similar to H14, but with the shaft of the trident much shorter, and with differences in the locks of hair in front of the ear.
H18. Die of H16, the die broken in front of the nose and below chin.
H20. Die of H18.
R. Similar to H18 save that the l. fish in the exergue has its head above the body of the one to the right.
|a.||E. T. Newell||15.34|
|c.||Cambridge, McClean 1258, Pl. 40, 15||15.20|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4750||14.90|
|e.||Boston, Regling-Warren 107||15.76|
|f.||Cahn 71, 101||15.47|
|g.||Ball, 1932, 24||14.50|
|h.||Naville XVII, 73||15.06|
H22. Similar to H16. (Suspicious-possibly plated.)
R. Cf. H20; the head of second fish nearly touches exergual line.
|a.||Naples, Santangelo 4749||12.60!|
H24. Similar to H6. The trident short and the crest wavy.
|c.||Naples, Fiorelli 2781||15.15|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4748||15.05|
|f.||O'Hagan, 1908, 70||15.42|
|g.||Cumberland Clarke 54 ex Hirsch XVI, 133||15.50|
H26. On the flap of the helmet ΣΩ. In the space between the crest and the neckpiece, an owl to r.
|a.||R. Jameson 366 ex Rollin, 1908, 72 ex Sambon-Canessa, 1906, 116||15.54|
|b.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles ex Hirsch XXI, 402||14.72|
H28. Similar to H26 save that the letters on the helmet are ΕϒΘ, and the trident is held at a different angle.
|a.||Naville IV, 107 ex Sir Herman Weber 882||15.90|
|b.||Cambridge, McClean 1263, Pl. 40, 20 ex Hirsch XIII, 172||14.44|
|c.||Naples, Santangelo 4752||15.80|
|d.||E. T. Newell||15.42|
|e.||Booth, 1900, 16a||15.90|
H30. Die of H28.
R. Similar to H28. The initial stroke of the omega of the ethnic parallels the top stroke of the gamma beneath it. The tail of the bull extends for a longer distance above its back.
|c.||Br. Mus. Cat. 34||14.88|
|i.||Dr. O. Bernhard, St. Moritz ex Ratto, 1926. 551||15.95|
|J.||In the trade ex Waldeck Coll.||15.28|
J2. Head of Athena, wearing triple-pendent earring, to r. Scylla with head thrown back, holds a rock (?) in her upraised r. hand. The tail-fins take the shape of a lyre. The crest-base terminates rather high on the bowl of the helmet.
R. The ethnic in coarse letters, as is also the name of the magistrate found throughout the series, EϒΦA.* Of the two fishes beneath the heavy exergual line the one to l. has its head beneath the body of the other.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 39||15.51|
|b.||Von Wotoch, 1901, 126||——|
J4. Same die as J2.
R. Ethnic in nearly straight line and small letters. In the exergue the fish to r. has its tail beneath the head of the one to the l.
|c.||Rollin-Feuardent, 1908, 74|
J6. Between the crest and the flap of the helmet the letters ΣAN.
R. Ethnic and magistrate's name in very small letters. The figure of the bull poorly modelled. The fishes in the exergue as in J4.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 38||15.47|
J8. Die of J6.
R. Ethnic and magistrate's name in large letters. The exergual line is irregular. The fishes are larger than heretofore and in the position of J4.
|a.||Cambridge, McClean 1265, Pl. 40, 21||15.31|
J10. Similar to J8, but larger in scale and without ΣΑΝ. Die broken across the hair tresses below the helmet.
R. Die of J8.
J12. The tail of the Scylla curves distinctively. The hair-treatment resembles that of Group H.
R. The bull poorly modelled. Single exergual line. ΕϒΦΑ in small letters.
|a.||Naples, Fiorelli 2775||15.28|
J14. Similar to J12, probably same die.
R. Tail of the bull extended along its back to a point just short of the ϒ. Exergue off flan.
|a.||E. Gagliardi Coll. ex Hartwig 271||15.02|
J16. Similar to J12, possibly the same die.
R. Loop formed by the bull's tail larger than in J14. Exergue indefinite in both specimens.
J18. Similar to J16, probably same die.
R. Bull's tail forms small loop. In the exergue, the fish to r. has its tail below the fish to l.
|a.||Cambridge, McClean 1266, Pl. 40, 22 ex Prowe, Egger, 1904, 114||15.64|
J20. The neckpiece of the helmet bears the letters TI.
R. The vertical stroke of the Φ in a line with that of the P.
|a.||A. H. Lloyd ex Ratto, 1926, 549 Cf. Svlloee II. PI. XVI, 490||15.32|
J22. Cf. with Group H, in which the Scylla also holds a trident, and from which this appears to be derived—a weaker version in lower relief and smaller in scale.
R. The ethnic follows the curve of the die. Two parallel lines delimit the exergue. The object occupying this space is off flan.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 40..||15.71|
J24. Similar to J22. The tips of the trident just touch the base of the crest.
R. Similar to J22—the bull smaller in scale. The exergual line is dotted; beneath, a thyrsus to r.
|b.||Paris, DeLuynes 582||15.33|
|c.||New York, Metropolitan Mus., Ward 74 ex Montagu, 1897, 24 ex Well known coll., 1894, 24||15.75|
J26. Similar to J24 but smaller in scale. The Scylla is hurling a squid.
R. Die of J24.
|d.||Cambridge, McClean 1267, Pl. 40, 23 ex Hirsch XIII, 174||15.33|
|e.||E. T. Newell ex Merzbacher, Nov. 1909, 2287 ex Hirsch XIX, 67||15.30|
|f.||Capt. Hollschek, Vienna||15.28|
J28. Similar to J16, but without earring or necklace.
R. Similar to J24–26 save that exergual line is made up of thick dashes.
|a.||Capt. Hollschek, Vienna ex Hartwig: 276||15.25|
|b.||(Plated?) ex Prince Waldeck Coll.||15.31|
J30. Similar to J28, the lower element of the erest differs.
R. Between the hind legs of the bull the letter Δ, between his forelegs A. The exergual line formed by lentoid-shaped dots. The thyrsus in the exergue has its streamers below the shaft.
J32. Similar to J30. Probably the same die.
R. Similar to J30 save that the letter between the forelegs is now Δ; from this specimen it is impossible to tell whether or not there is a letter between the hind legs.
|a.||E. T. Newell ex Sambon-Canessa, 1927, 401||15.60|
J34. Closely similar to J30. Probably the same die.
R. Similar to J30, the bull smaller in scale. The thyrsus has a short handle and the fillets are displayed in the form of a quatrefoil.
J36. For description see text under Plated Coins.
K2. Athena head r. The Scylla is hurling a rock; the l. arm outstretched. The neck-piece of the helmet is decorated with a scroll. To the l. of neck ΣΙ; to r. an aphlaston.
R. Between ethnic and bull NI; in the exergue, coiled serpent to r.
|b.||Br. Mus. Cat. 41||15.45|
|c.||A. H. Lloyd, Syll. 489 ex Ratto, 1/26/1926, 550||15.42|
|e.||E. T. Newell||15.47|
|f.||Cornell Univ., Ithaca||15.78|
K4. Similar to K2 in form of body of the Scylla and placement of the tail.
R. Between the ethnic and the bull ΣI. In exergue a tripod between two facing dolphins. Between the hind legs of the bull racing torch with top to r.
|b.||A. H. Lloyd, Syll. 488||15.17|
K6. Die of K4.
R. Similar to K2; the ΣΙ is larger. A die-flaw shows to the r. of the tripod.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 45||15.95|
K8. Similar to K6. The space between the lower part of the crest and the neck-piece is smaller.
R. Die of K6.
|b.||Seaby, 1929, 116 ex Cahn 60, 108 ex Sambon-Canessa, 1927, 400 (14.40!)||15.42|
K10. Die of K8.
R. Similar to K8, the letters of the inscription differ; the tripod is smaller.
|a.||Naville XVI, 253 ex Von Wotoch, 1901, 125||15.46|
K12. Similar to K2 but with A in the space between the crest and the neck-piece.
R. Similar to K4 but with fish to r. in the exergue. The Σ of the ΣΙ is beneath the ϒ of the ethnic.
|b.||G. P(icard) Sale, Sambon, 1923, 167 ex Hartwig 273||13.25|
|c.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Balmanno 18||12.40|
K14. Similar to K12, the A is at a slightly different angle, there are five locks of hair below the torso of the Scylla.
R. Similar to K12; the I of ΣΙ is beneath the ϒ of the ethnic.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 44||15.61|
K16. Die of K14.
R. Similar to K14; the I of ΣΙ is to the l. of the ϒ.
|a.||E. P. Robinson||15.42|
K18. Similar to K16 but without the A.
R. Die of K16.
|c.||Naples, Santangelo 4735||15.10|
|d.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville VI, 232 ex Hartwig 274||14.72|
|e.||Egger, 1/7/1908, 14||15.11|
L2. Similar to K16 but having a dolphin to r. between the crest and the neck-piece of the helmet.
R. Similar to K16, save that the letters ΣΙΜ occur between the ethnic and the bull. Fish to r. in the exergue.
|a.||A. H. Lloyd, Syll. 487 ex Naville X, 101 ex Naville, V, 569 ex Burel, 1913, 37||15.55|
|b.||Br. Mus. Cat. 42||15.57|
|d. e.||Hunter 20||15.49|
|E. T. Newell ex Egger 1/7/1908, 13||15.35|
|f.||Dr. W. Giesecke||15.30|
|g.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville XII, 484 ex Hess, 3/19/1918, 100 ex Hamburger, VII, 1908, 222||15.79|
|h.||Cte. Chandon de Briailles||15.63|
|i.||Polese, 1928, 317||——|
L4. Similar to L2 but without the dolphin.
R. Similar to L2 save that in the exergue there is a racing torch with flame upward to r. The letters ΣΙΜ are larger than in L2.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 43||15.20|
|b.||Naples, Santangelo 4741||15.55|
|c.||DeNanteuil 186 ex Collignon 42||13.71|
L6. Die of L4.
R. Similar to L4 but smaller in scale; the under side of the exergual line is irregular. Traces of the torch are barely visible.
|a.||Berlin (possibly plated)||15.00|
L8. The figure of Scylla differs from the foregoing in that the r. arm is bent at the elbow.
R. Similar to L4—the ethnic has smaller letters: the initials ΣΙΜ nearer the bull.
|a.||Naples, Fiorelli 2778||15.65|
|b.||Cambridge, McClean 1269 ex Booth Sale, Sotheby, 1900, 16b||14.87|
L10. Die of L8.
R. Similar to L6; the exergual line is of heavy dots.
|a.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville IV, 105 ex Sir H. Weber 883||15.56|
M2. Athena head to r. Helmet ornamented with Scylla hurling rock.
R. Type similar to foregoing save that the exergual line here is heavy and wavy. In the exergue an owl with outstretched wings holding wreath in its talons. To its l. Εϒ, to the r. ΦΡ.
M4. Similar to M2—the Scylla is holding a spherical object.
R. Similar to M2 but in lower relief. Thin exergual line.
M6. Similar to foregoing. The Scylla holds a rudder. The neck-piece of the helmet is decorated by a scroll.
R. Similar to M4. The exergual line is heavier; the owl is more nearly like that in M2.
M8. Similar to M4. The end of the crest is here separated from the tresses. The whole in lower relief than previously.
R. Die of M6 with a break extending diagonally from the l. hind foot and obscuring the first letter in the exergue.
M10. Similar to M8. The Scylla slightly larger in scale.
R. Similar to M2. The exergual line is dotted.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 37||14.76|
|c.||American Numismatic Society||14.70|
Ml2. The helmet of Athena now ornamented by a running griffin.
R. Similar in type to foregoing. Beneath the exergual line the aegis with Εϒ to l. and ΦΡ to r.
|a.||Br. Mus. Cat. 46||15.36|
Ml4. Die of Ml2 with addition of ⊐ (possibly a die flaw) between crest and neck-piece of helmet.
R. Similar to M12. The letters of the ethnic smaller. The exergue is also constricted.
|a.||Br. Mus. ex Montagu II, 25||15.49|
M16. Similar to M14, but with differences in position of head and wings of griffin.
R. Similar to M12 but larger in scale—note aegis.
|a.||Naples, Santangelo 4743||15.20|
N2. Die of M14.
R. Type similar to foregoing. The exergual line is irregular. Beneath it, a leafy branch points diagonally downwards to r.; to the l. HP, to the r. AK.
|b.||R. Cyril Lockett ex Naville VI, 231||15.25|
N4. Die of N2.
R. Branch similar to that in the exergue of N2, between the ethnic and the back of the charging bull. In the exergue an aphlaston and HP-AK (?).
|b.||G. Empedocles, Athens||15.65|
N6. The helmet of Athena is now decorated by a Scylla with a very thick body. Behind the neckpiece B? or possibly the fire-steel-like object occurring elsewhere on Magna Grecian coins.
R. Bull with r. foreleg doubled back. In the exergue, a single fish. Above the back of the bull HPA.
|b.||Paris, DeLuynes 583||15.80|
N8. Die of N6.
R. Similar to N2. Above the back of the bull, APH. In the exergue, two fishes.
|a.||Naples, Santangelo 4736||15.30|
N10. Athena's helmet ornamented with Scylla hurling rock. The scale slightly larger than in N2–6.
R. Type similar. In the exergue a lion's head to r. with H to l. and PA to r.
|a.||Naville IV, 106 ex Sir Herman Weber 884||15.43|
|c.||E. T. Newell ex Cavedoni 93||14.93|
N12. Die of N10.
R. Similar to N10 save that below the exergue there is a large cornucopiae with H to l. and PA to r.
|c.||Cambridge, McClean 1268, Pl. 40, 24 ex Hartwig 277||15.85|
|d.||Naples, Santangelo 4742||15.00|
N14. Similar to N12. The arm of the Scylla bent at the wrist.
R. Similar to N12. Below the exergual line a cornucopiae with H to the l. and PA to r.
|a.||Br. Mus. ex Egger XLV, 185||15.73|
N16. Similar to N10, slightly smaller in scale.
R. Similar to N10, the last four letters of the ethnic noticeably larger than the first two. The exergual line heavy. Beneath it, a branch (?) or a racing-torch and the conjoined letters retrograde, to r.
|a.||Br. Mus. ex Sir Herman Weber 885||15.40|
*Cf. Zeit. f. Num. XXI (1898) p. 253 where this fish is identified as a Mugil (Greek Kestreus)—found also on the coins of Gela (Imhoof-Blumer & Keller Tier-u. Pflanzenbilder auf Münzen. Pl. VII, 1).
On the evidence of the diobol illustrated on Pl. XI, the fifth letter of this name is an N.
Cf. however C. Jörgensen in Corolla Numismatica, pp. 166–177, pl. VIII-IX, (1905).
Hill, G. F. Greek Coins Acquired by the British Museum in 1927. Num. Chron. 1928, p. 1–3.
Robinson, E. S. G. Coins of Thurium from the Collection of Marchese Ginori. Num. Chron. 1927, p. 297.
Lloyd, A. H. Some Rare or Unpublished Coins of Magna Graecia in my Collection. Num. Chron. 1924, p. 135–136.
Mueller, T. De Thuriorum Republica. Gottingae. 1838.
Schiller, L. De Rebus Thuriorum. Gottingae. 1838.
Klio, v. 6, 1906, p. 517.
This total does not include plated pieces, ten in number, and excludes one or two suspicious varieties. It does include, however, three or four coins which are of correct weight and good style, but which may be plated (e. g., M 2).
When three mulings occur, indication of the connection with one of the other two varieties is considered sufficient.