Hacienda Tokens of Mexico

Author
Noe, Sydney P. (Sydney Philip), 1885-1969, Eklund, O. P.
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Numismatic Notes and Monographs
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works
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HathiTrust

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Hacienda Tokens of Mexico

This monograph is chiefly due to the initiative of Mr. O. P. Eklund, whose specializing in "Minor Coinages" is well known, and who early realized the importance of the tokens issued by the haciendas of Mexico. The careful catalogue which comprises the major part of this publication is his work, save for some slight additions or modifications. A volume of rubbings of all the pieces which had come to his notice, including the collection formed by him and later acquired by Mr. Howard D. Gibbs, supplemented his manuscript. This was later amplified by the pieces acquired by The American Numismatic Society.

The pieces illustrated on the plates are part of the cabinet of The American Numismatic Society. Reference to the catalogue is made by number. Pieces bearing monograms are designated by letters on the plates, as they are not included in the alphabetical catalogue. Those described in the monograph, Los Tlacos Coloniales (Mexico, 1935), by Señor Manuel Romero de Terreros are so designated, and the ones he illustrates are asterisked.

The complicated coinage of Mexico has intrigued many numismatists and collectors. The War of Independence (1811–21), the era of Maximilian, and the Revolution of 1913–16, have all left indelible marks upon the country's coinage, and previous monographs published by The American Numismatic Society have considered some of the problems connected with this coinage. Our present concern is with the group of Mexico's coins, generally known as "Hacienda Tokens," which, because of the extended chronological period over which their issues extend, shares in the complexity. It provides an admirable illustration of the importance of a minor coinage in reflecting the life of a people. Inasmuch as definition is the best corrective for complexity, it will be well for us to digress long enough to obtain a comprehension of what the word "hacienda" involves. An excursus into the geography and agrarian economy of Mexico may be found not without value for other phases of that country's monetary history.

In 1923, The American Geographical Society published in its Research Series (No. 12) a volume entitled The Land Systems of Mexico, by George McCutchen McBride, in which the important part played by these units of the agricultural life of the country is given the prominence it deserves. We are under obligation to Dr. McBride for illuminating quotations which will afford the reader a better understanding of the situation than may be had by other than direct recourse to his book, which is now out of print. We make grateful acknowledgment for permission to quote.

One important statement must be made as a preliminary. The hacienda system which Dr. McBride has described so helpfully is gone. It has passed—just as the cowboy and the life of the range which figured so controllingly in the development of the West in our own country no longer exist. The political changes which have brought this about are not part of our study, but it is interesting to note that the transition is still going on and its course is providing a profitable field of observation to economists.

In reading what Dr. McBride has written, we must keep in mind that where he uses the present we must supply the past tense even though his book was written only twenty-five years ago.

"The haciendas of Mexico are the most conspicuous feature of the land system of the country. They give to agricultural Mexico its distinctive cast, and, by their great size, create the impression that the entire land is divided into vast rural estates. These properties, indeed, are the only type of agricultural holding immediately visible to the traveler in many parts of Mexico, just as the haciendado is the only type of agriculturist whose interests reach beyond the immediate neighborhood of his home.

"Many of the haciendas are of very great extent; it is estimated that 300 of them contain at least 25,000 acres each; 116 have not less than 62,500 acres; 51 have approximately 75,000 acres; while 11 are believed to have 250,000 acres apiece.* The Mexican hacienda seldom contains less than 25,000 acres—whether situated in the arid plans of the north, where land is worth little or nothing, or in the densely settled areas of the Mesa Central, where the price of land is high even in comparison with that of agricultural lands in other countries.

"The great size of these holdings is due, in part, to the fact that the typical hacienda aspires to be self-sustaining, and the variety of a countryside is taxed to render it independent. Hence, for the many different products required, different kinds of land must be included within its limits. In the first place, a large acreage of valley land is needed for the production of grain. These hundreds of thousands of acres of arable land form the nucleus of the estate. An haciendado would not, however, be satisfied to hold valley lands alone; for, in his economy, the products of the hills are only less important than those of the lowlands. Thus, the farm requires a supply of water, for irrigation as well as for the live stock; the hacienda must, therefore, include some stream, which should be controlled up to its headwaters in order to insure the undisputed use of the supply. Again, grazing land is needed for the herds of cattle, horses, sheep, and goats; this is found upon the parklike mountain sides and the alpine meadows. Timber, also, is a prime necessity and is derived either from the deciduous trees that grow along the lower mountain slopes or from the pine forests that clothe the tops of the higher ridges. The products even of the waste land are likewise essential, since from this are obtained stone and lime for building purposes, clay for adobe huts, coarse grass for thatched roofs, salt, and the wild fruits and herbs which are gathered for household use. The administration of such extensive properties necessarily presents great difficulties.

"The haciendas are settlements complete in themselves. Indeed, few of these estates have less than a hundred, while many of them have as many as a thousand, inhabitants. In Michoacán there are two haciendas, Huaracha and Buenavista, each of which maintains over two thousand persons; while in Morelos, Mexico, Puebla, Durango, Veracruz, Queretaro, and Chihuahua there are others in which the number is not much smaller. Furthermore, the haciendas are all named; they appear on the maps, and they are important units of public administration, often being incorporated as municipios. They include all the customary accessories of an independent community, such as a church, a store, a post office, a burying ground and sometimes a school or a hospital. Workshops are maintained, not only for the repair but even for the manufacture of machinery and of the numerous implements required upon the estate. Over this aggregation the owner presides in a more or less patriarchal manner, the degree of paternal care or of tyranny varying with the character of the individual and with that of his superior employees."

In an earlier chapter of his book, Dr. McBride explains that the tillable soil is chiefly to be found in the tableland section of Mexico, known as the Mesa Centrale, and that, with relatively unimportant exceptions, the exigencies of rainfall and soil impose conditions which make haciendas impossible elsewhere. In more modern times irrigation has somewhat affected these conditions. The Mesa Centrale is the most thickly populated section of Mexico. It surrounds the capital city, and we are told that its climatic conditions are admirable, since "altitude counteracts latitude with such nicety that the mean temperature over the entire plateau is nearly uniform." Most of the haciendas are to be found in this section, and they provide the agricultural supplies not only for themselves but for the remainder of the country, where climatic conditions are less favorable. From the quotations already cited, something of the independent nature of these huge land holdings will have been shown, and it will be apparent that conditions favorable to the untroubled operation of such large units encouraged conservatism on the part of the owners. The employment of native laborers and the faults of the peonage system led to occasional insurrections and explain some of the happenings in Mexico's history.

It is not surprising to find, under such conditions, that the owners of the haciendas found it necessary to have a circulating medium of low denomination, and that this medium should vary widely in form and reflect some of the independence that marks the life of the hacienda. It is this very diversity which has attracted the attention of numismatists to these tokens.

There are, and always have been, wide differences in the haciendas—a condition inevitable because of their varying adaptability to the raising of agricultural products of a wide range, as well as to problems of labor and water supply. The employment of Indians and the growth of the peonage system played a considerable part in their development. Some of the haciendas found their land suitable for cattle-raising, and those for which this became the princi- pal objective are called rancheros. We shall see that there is much plausibility for the identification claimed for some of the monograms which appear on the tokens as marks used for branding cattle. Another modification, due to the employment of native workers, finds its cause dating back before the Spanish conquest, when tribal holdings of property were vested in the chief. Some of the Indian pueblos resisted encroachment, and survived in the form of collective holdings. Some of the tokens, as we shall see, are issues of such municipalidades, although not all such are to be considered of Indian origin.

In view of all these conditions, and of others not considered, we shall look in vain for uniformity in the tokens. In fact, part of their attractiveness is their resistance to classification. There were some hacienda tokens in the famous Fonrobert Collection sold in Berlin in 1878, and that catalogue was for a long period practically the only source for numismatists seeking information regarding them. Under date of 1932, a short article, "Mexikanische Hacienda-Marken,"1 by Friedrich Freiherr von Schrötter, recorded specimens in the Berlin Museum with a fairly representative selection illustrated on a single, excellent plate.

The difficulties in the way of identifying these pieces are illustrated by the author's describing as different (his Nos. 28 and 31) two pieces with the same monogram (compare with our illustration Plate IX). Although not from the identical die, and differing in their flan outlines (one is heart-shaped and the other oval), the monogram is unquestionably the same, and the difference in shape probably indicates issues separated by a short interval in output. Had the author been in possession of a larger body of material on which to base his conclusions, he would probably have modified some of them.

In 1935, a privately printed "Ensayo Numismatico" by Manuel Romero de Terreros, entitled Los Tlacos Coloniales, appeared—the first indication, so far as we know, that the importance of these tokens had been appreciated by Mexican scholars. This is limited to pieces believed to have been struck before 1821. The author gives a valuable summary of the legislation regarding coinage in copper and a description of over two hundred varieties of these tokens, as well as illustrations of fifty-eight. Unfortunately, some of his selections for illustration do not lend themselves to half-tone reproduction. This study, however, is the first serious effort to treat the hacienda tokens. The information it supplies concerning them is truly impressive and of great value, and certainly deserves a wider distribution and appreciation than it has received. With the kind permission of the author, many of the pieces have been included here.

A second publication by the same author is entitled "Las Monedas de Necesidad del Estado de Michoacán."2 The concern here is not with hacienda tokens as such, but with the issues of a single state of Mexico, most of which are octavos and quartos put out by municipalities and haciendas between 1825—that is, shortly after the close of the War of Independence—and 1871, just before the death of Juarez. The effort seems to have been to provide for the need of small change which was being insufficiently supplied by the governmental strikings. This study gives helpful information regarding the issuing authorities, a careful description of more than one hundred and fifty varieties, and four plates illustrating forty pieces. In addition, there is an illuminating map showing the location of many of the places named. It is to be hoped that a similar treatment of the issues of other states will follow.

The collection of hacienda tokens at the Museum of The American Numismatic Society owes a great deal to the initiative and interest of the late Howland Wood, the far-seeing curator of its collections from 1913 to 1938, who did much to stimulate interest in this series. He transmitted his appreciation of their importance to his successor, and to others. After his death in 1938, an opportunity came to the Museum to acquire the considerable collection of hacienda pieces formed over a long period of years by Mr. H. L. Hill of San Francisco, under especially favorable circumstances. These represented, in most cases, pieces in fine condition, and comprised a sizable proportion of dated issues. The acquisition was made possible through subscriptions from Messrs. E. T. Newell, F. C. C. Boyd, H. E. Gillingham, Elliot Smith and Moritz Wormser, which supplemented a balance in the Avery Fund. The accession raised the Society's holdings to a much higher level; and since that time a few further additions have increased its importance. The gift by Mr. Alexander Orlowski of tokens acquired during a visit to Mexico was one outstanding addition, and a small lot acquired in the market added several desirable varieties. The Society has now a thoroughly representative collection, although it can never hope to secure one that can claim anything like completeness.

A glance at the plates will show that hacienda tokens have great variety as to form; that they provide an impressive mass of material for study of their historical bearing should also be obvious. Wear, probably due to circulation, imperfect striking, countermarking and other vicissitudes reduce their attractiveness to a minimum, but the strong individuality which marks many of these pieces is ample compensation for their lack of aesthetic appeal.

Circulation of the tokens was forbidden in 1917, and a provision that all salary payments must be made in legal tender was written into the Constitution of 1924.3 We are told that these tokens are rarely to be found in Mexico now, and there seems strong probability that most of them have been melted down or have disappeared for other reasons. The many and great changes in Mexico during the period in which they circulated are reflected in these substitutes for coin. After 1871, the growth in commercial prosperity brought about the introduction of modern business tokens, which it is difficult to separate from the pieces issued by the haciendas. While their legends are more explicit, the later issues have none of the attractiveness of the pre-revolutionary pieces. It is to the period between 1821 and 1847 that most of the selection of municipal issues on Plates XXI and XXII belong, a selection which supplements rather than repeats the one made by M. Romero de Terreros for Michoacán. One circumstance of prime importance emphasized by Romero de Terreros will bear repetition here. The Spanish colonial government did not begin the coinage of low denominations in copper until 1814. There seems to have been an aversion to the use of copper on the part of the natives, and earlier efforts to introduce a minor coinage in this metal had resulted in failure. These issues are found sometimes during the reign of Ferdinand VII, used a second time through the application of a counterstamped monogram or incised initials, and serve to date the second use as later than we might otherwise have thought.

The foregoing will enable the reader to realize that the most interesting period for these hacienda tokens is the colonial, that is, up to 1821. Any classification based on the names that appear on the tokens meets complications because of the large number of pieces bearing monograms, some of which are so involved that unanimity in reading them, and therefore ease in their identification, is out of the question. Furthermore, the monogram of the same hacienda will change in form on successive issues to an extent which makes a conclusion that they represent the same holding an assumption rather than a conviction. Then, too, some family names are fairly common in Mexico, as elsewhere, and the given names of the haciendas are likely to be repeated (e.g., Buena Vista). Distinguishing between what is "municipalidad" and what is "hacienda" is all but impossible for one who does not have a thorough knowledge of Mexican geography and history. Fortunately for our purposes, a number of the tokens are dated or are datable, and it has been decided to arrange the plates so that the chronological consideration is the one emphasized. This permits a grouping which lessens or seems to lessen the confusion and enables a break-down into sub-groups, and makes further study easier. It must be made clear through repetition that this listing is not complete or comprehensive. It will have to be modified as further evidence is brought forward and closer dating becomes possible. For that reason, the steps leading to the conclusions expressed are frankly laid before the reader, and any rigidity of statement or of contention is avoided where doubt exists. Bringing order out of the complexities of this series can be effected only by the further cooperation of interested collectors.

Because of the variations in the practices of the haciendados and other issuers of these tokens, it is almost impossible to be consistent in making an arrangement of them. Since some of the tokens show an earlier design which has not been entirely obliterated, indicating a second using of the piece, and because countermarking occurs, so that a name may be superimposed on a monogram or a monogram over the name, the wide variance in the unregulated procedure must be taken into consideration in using the plates. These have been arranged to show what homogeneity there is so far as the dates are concerned, so far as the shapes are concerned, and so far as the monograms are concerned. There are also plates showing the tokens put forth after 1821 by the municipalidades and pueblos, as well as ones bearing the word puente (bridge).

When a given piece permits the reading of a name, its location in the alphabetical list and thence the reference to its place on the plates of this monograph is simple. The pieces bearing monograms only are less susceptible to arrangement and consequently are not included in the alphabetical list. With a few exceptions, the earlier ones have been segregated on PLATES II to IV. Some which seem to be later issues will be found on PLATE XIX. Many of them will be easily decipherable to our Mexican confrères even though they may be puzzling to us. In some cases conjectural identifications have been given which may require later correction. This may also be true of statements regarding locations of the issuing agencies.

It is comparatively easy to identify and separate the store cards and business tokens made after 1870 on the basis of workmanship or material. Hard rubber, celluloid, wood and thin brass with a consistent style of lettering are used for pieces which are usually distinguishable from pre-revolutionary issues by anyone who has even a nodding acquaintance with hacienda tokens. The great number of these pieces is sufficient reason for our not including them here, even though there are some which bear the name "hacienda." Some of the wooden pieces may be older than we consider them here. The likelihood of their having been preserved is even slighter than that of their metal counterparts, but those that are dated indicate the general period of their circulation as between 1870-1880.

Because of the many uncertainties which invest the earlier hacienda tokens, it has been deemed desirable to begin our commentary on the pieces with those of comparatively late dates (illustrated on PLATE XX) and it might be well to state why this is so. In 1814, Calleja, the Spanish Viceroy, ordered the coining of two, one and one-half quartos of copper (i.e., one-half, one-quarter and one-eighth reales), and in the following December their acceptance was assured by the passage of a law regulating their circulation and limiting the amount acceptable as legal tender. Quartillos of silver had been struck from 1794 to 1816; these for some reason seem not to have met the needs supplied by the copper pieces. With the outbreak of the War of Independence, we find that the difficulty of moving bullion from the mines to the mint of Mexico City became too great a risk, and branch mints were established in six localities—Chihuahua, Durango, Guadalajara, Guanajunto, Sombrerete and Zacatecas. Provisional coinages were also struck at Nueva Viscaya, Oaxaca, Real del Catorce and Valladolid. For the insurgent forces, almost the entire coinage of Morelos in Oaxaca was in copper, although it involved a promise of Morelos of redemption in gold and silver upon the resumption of the mines. Although there are octavos dating within the period of the War of Independence, they appear to have been destined to meet local needs, and their scarcity seems a dependable indication that their quantity was small. The inability of Morelos to redeem his promises may have contributed to the disfavor in which copper seems to have been held.

It is not easy to gauge the extent to which the coinage of hacienda tokens was affected by the changed condition. Certainly there are few pieces dated between 1814 and 1821, whereas the municipal issues seem to have been widely struck.

As an outcome of the War of Independence, municipal tokens developed a considerable degree of uniformity. Many bear numerals indicating their value as one-eighth real, and occasionally we find the word tlaco appearing on them. Their workmanship or die-cutting will not serve as a dependable dating criterion, for some of the earlier ones are much better than those dating years later. It is instructive to study groups such as that for Colima, called a Villa on one issue (PLATE XX) or that of Ameca, a pueblo (Plate XX). For each of these groups, the progression of dates and the attendant changes give a clear indication of the troubled state of the country, even after peace had returned. It is because of this that Romero de Terreros has justly called certain pieces struck in the state of Michoacán "coins of necessity," although he is careful to explain that this does not imply anything in the nature of a siege piece such as frequently was the case with this classification in Europe.

The first piece of the group bearing the name of Colima (PLATE XX, No. 106) is dated 1813, is uniface, and otherwise differs but slightly from the hacienda tokens which preceded it. It was during this year that Morelos was active; on December 22, he suffered a serious reverse at Valladolid. Haste may therefore explain the form of the square piece dated 1814 (PLATE XX, No. 107). By 1816, there was a return to the earlier form, except that it is no longer uniface, but bears on the reverse a monogram to be read as "Colima," and this form seems to have persisted until 1824, for which year we have three differing issues.

The other series illustrated on PLATE XX consists of uniface coins of Ameca, a pueblo, that is, an Indian controlled holding, situated in the district of Jalisco, with a population given as 1500. Here, there is a sharp contrast between the workmanship of the earliest piece, dated 1814, (No. 25) and those which follow. The inscription is noteworthy—P.D. Ameca QUITILLA D 1814. In the field, there is a façade of a building surmounted by a cross and flanked by two conventionalized trees (?), with "3" on the left and "8" on the right. The piece is uniface. The coin dated 1833 (No. 31) has coarse lettering, while one dated 1853 (No. 30) is even cruder and the inscription reads from the rim. There are two issues dated 1855 with lettering that is still crude. An undated issue (No. 26), whose workmanship would seem to place it as later, bears the designation "TLACO DE AMECA."

The historical value of some of these tokens is illustrated by No. 197 (PLATE XXII), a coin of Hermosillo in the Province of Sonora at the north.4 A concession to coin silver quartillos in this town was obtained in 1828.

The earliest dated specimens of this silver coinage are from 1832, and pieces are known for the following six years. The "L. S." on the obverse is read as an abbreviation for "Leonardo Santoyo," the concessionaire, who was connected with the mining interests of the district. It is noteworthy that the coinage in copper did not start until 1851. It is not improbable that equally impor- tant historical data may be recorded by others of these tlacos, tlacos, but without detailed knowledge of their local significance, we must await their consideration by Mexican numismatists.

Two of the Ameca pieces (PLATE XX, Nos. 30 and 31) bear initials which are read as for personal names. The implication is that these are in the nature of store cards.

Breaking up the tokens which come before 1821 into smaller groups would be extremely difficult without the help which we get from the dated pieces, although groupings according to characteristics of flan or of execution of their lettering become fairly obvious and, within limits, reasonably dependable once we have the dated pieces for a key. In the arrangement of the plates we have tried to bring this out. It would greatly simplify our study if we could say that the pieces having naturalistic or irregular shapes, such as leaves, flowers, hearts, and other simple but distinctive forms, many of which are undated, are preceded by those bearing monograms only, and that, in general, the monograms precede those bearing the names in full, but there are too many exceptions to make such a generalization. Fortunately, we have a few dated pieces which tend to confirm this, but there seems to have been too much overlapping to make any such classification certain. Many of these exceptions are probably due to scanty mechanical facilities for making the tokens in the widely separated centers in which they originated. For example, in the period between 1800 and 1806, there is a certain homogeneity in the pieces which are shown on PLATE X and, although we are without clear indication of their locale, these haciendas probably will be found to have lain within an area which was served by a single die-cutter. Such a one may have received his training from some jeweller, or even through an apprenticeship in the mint of Mexico City. A second group within this period (PLATE XII) is of a much clumsier fabric and heavier workmanship, and here we have an indication that two of the pieces came from Celaya (No. 470) and Queretaro (No. 362), respectively, two cities not widely separated. It would not be surprising to find that the two haciendas whose tokens follow (Nos. 72 and 297) were located in the same neighborhood. It will be seen that trying to date pieces on the basis of workmanship is far from certain except within broad limits. Inasmuch as the tokens of a typical hacienda must have been in use over a considerable number of years, we can expect definiteness as to time of issue from the dated pieces only.

With this in mind, let us look at the plates in some detail, beginning with the one (PLATE I) which bears the earliest dated pieces which we have been able to find. Before starting, however, one peculiarity of dating should be noted. One piece illustrated on this plate (No. 381) is doubly unusual. First, both obverse and reverse bear inscriptions, although the reverse does not enable us to localize the token's place of origin. The obverse reads, in addition to the name of the issuing owner, "ANO 84." Comparison with other pieces will remove any necessity of laboring the point that this must be 1784 and that it cannot be 1884. We are enabled likewise to read the date which appears on the first token on Plate III (A) as 1750. A contrast to this contraction of the date is to be found on Plate I (B) where the date is given in Roman numerals—MDCCLXXIII. The monogram at the center has not been identified. The irregularity in the shape of the flan supports the traditional assignment of the shaped pieces as early.

Turning to the first piece on Plate III (A), dated 1750, we find ourselves in possession of another very valuable piece of information for on the reverse of this piece we read "8 R." We also note that there are two smaller pieces bearing this same monogram (one without date), and that instead of that date, they bear on their obverses "4" (B) and "2" (C), respectively, and that, in addition, they are graduated in size, making a series. These numerals cannot be fractions of the real as were the municipal tokens previously mentioned (page 10), for the "8 R" piece is much larger than that of "2 R." If the intention were to indicate a fractional one-eighth of a real, the most valuable piece would have been the half-real which should have been the larger. Not only do we have a parallel to Nos. 391-395 described by Romero de Terreros (Cf. Note to No. 391), but we have a date which goes far toward establishing the period in which the practice common to the two series was in use. In other words, we have a clear indication that these tokens had a valuation in reals, and this permits the identification of similar numerals on other pieces, many of which are also identical in fabric. The PERES piece (No. 376) to which we have had occasion to refer because of its date "802," has a "4" above the name, and gives us indication that this valuation in reals continued to that date. We may even go further, for the piece shown (PLATE XII, A) is one which has a format closely similar to the group on PLATE X and has the figure "8" counterstamped within the large "O" above the monogram. This confirms the evidence of the PERES token, for this piece, too, should be dated between 1800 and 1806, or not much before or after those years. Similarly, the inscription on the token LARA on PLATE III (No. 218) becomes significant, for we can point to analogies which enable us to read the letter after the figure "4" as a lower-case "r" rather than "x" which it more nearly resembles. This, then, indicates four reals, and we have the probability that there were larger and smaller denominations for this hacienda. Likewise, the oval token with a trefoil with a "2" beneath it (PLATE III, E) falls into this group. Of the other tokens, one with "2 Rs" (D) bears no other indication of its origin, while the last, with a cursive "r" (G) within a chain border has an "8" on its reverse, although smaller than any of the "2 R" tokens on this plate.

The date following the earliest one we have found is 1767 (PLATE I, A). This is engraved or incised on the reverse, while the obverse bears four letters whose significance we are unable to recognize. Can the four pellets on the obverse be an indication that it was valued at four reals? In addition to the date, the reverse bears the name or syllable "Sol" as well as the letter "N" preceding the date. The tilde over the N dictates its reading as an abbreviation for "Anno," or "Año." The "Sol" is to be taken as an abbreviation for a name such as "Solis" (PLATE IV, 431) or some other name whose first syllable is identical. Although this is not the best representative of the cast tokens (others are illustrated on PLATE II), there is a considerable number of tokens which show the same large and crude letters and which afford other evidence of their having been cast. Almost without exception, they are uniface.

The next coin on PLATE I, (No. 133) bears the date 1770. Compared with the token we have just been considering, its workmanship is refined and finished. It, too, is representative of a fairly large class; it is surprising to find workmanship of this order at such an early date, as well as the use of punch dies. Pieces of this class frequently have small units of a decorative nature which are repeated to form a pattern or border, and examination discloses that some of their inscriptions are made by using individual letter punches (some of the repeated letters display identical flaws or other peculiarities which are unmistakable). No evidence has been observed of a graduated series or of two or more denominations in this class. The reverse inscription on PLATE I, 381 (Para la Plaza) is probably indicative that it circulated in the market place of some city or town, as the catalogue notes.

Filling out PLATE I are contrasting tokens dated 1791, the first with a monogram (C), the second with CATALANES and what looks like a cask (No. 90)—both struck from dies. The piece with VAQUEDANO (No. 467) bears a target-like center and the date 1796. The last (D) dated 1799, has a monogram in an octagonal impression. All three are die-struck.

With possible exceptions in the top row, PLATE II consists of tokens which have been cast, bearing monograms or single letters as the sole indication of their origin. The resistance to wear on the monogram is a consequence of the boldness of the lettering. If the first five pieces do not belong to the same hacienda, their close similarity demonstrates the difficulty of distinguishing them.

It would be rash to venture a dating for these cast pieces. Their boldness or occasional crudity may be nothing more than a result of having been made in rural districts removed from the convenience of cities. Casting these tokens would be a simple process, once the technique had been mastered, whereas the preparation of a die such as is obvious on most of the pieces on PLATES III and IV is far more complicated an operation. One would think that the tokens for which dies were used (PLATES III and IV) were later than these cast pieces on PLATE II. If this be so, some of the cast tokens may be earlier than 1750, the date for the first piece on PLATE III. Nor may we lose sight of the tokens on PLATE V which bear neither name nor monogram—merely the "type". Some of these may have used the punning principle common to other coinages, so that No. C may have indicated the same hacienda as did No. 227 (PLATE XVI). There seems to be no convention or rule which may be applied to the reading of the monograms, but this is a condition that might have been expected in marks for branding cattle, which is what some of these are believed to have been. Similar combinations or variations in the letters occur on the much later branding irons of the western ranches of our country.

PLATE V is given to tokens bearing types but without the owners’ names—they are indicated on the plate by letters. No. A clearly depicts a hunter holding a jack-rabbit. It seems that the intention of obliterating the monogram on the reverse was unsuccessful. On the reverse of No. F there is a counterstamp which seems to consist of the letters “P” and “Q” with a tilde over them. The object on No. E is a formalized branding-iron. Why the mere date 1802 should have been used for No. H is something for which we should like to have an explanation. Romero de Terreros also illustrates No. D. He describes the design as two Indians dancing. There are two figures facing a medial axis, a plant with two long branches continuing in an arch over each of the figures and extending nearly to the base line. The die outline is notched while the flan is irregularly octagonal. The tiny piece (No. G) with an eagle on the nopal plant may not be a hacienda token.

On PLATE VI seven tokens are grouped which bear some form of the word puente, which means a bridge. We cannot tell whether these were used for tolls or whether they were issued by haciendas situated near bridges from which they took their names. Some bear rude representations of bridges. In the catalogue, these have been placed under the letter P. This procedure is followed also for the tokens put out under the designation of Esquina—or Esquila.

On PLATES VII to IX, tokens with variously shaped flans are grouped; most of these are other than circular. The group, which is arranged alphabetically for convenience, is representative, but not exhaustive. Heart-shaped tokens seem the most favored (one on Plate V may be added to the seven here). Leaves and fruits are distinguishable, even a ram or goat (Chiuato). The flans of most of these, whether originally cast or punched out of sheets of metal, have in a second operation had a die applied to them. The lettering is usually bold rather than crude, and some ingenuity is shown in its spacing. A dated piece is helpful occasionally, such as the crescent-formed token No. 300 (PLATE VIII) which reads 1804, while on PLATE I we have noted the date 1773 in Roman numerals. Two pieces at the bottom of PLATE VII have incised letters (Nos. 117 and 120). Some of the dies have scalloped edges, while the flans at the top of PLATE VII have pie-crust rims which must have been acquired by casting. One exception to the statement that these oddshaped tokens are usually uniface is to be found in No. 413 (PLATE IX), where the design admirably fits its oval and both obverse and reverse dies are well executed. The reverse of No. 53 (PLATE VII) bears an incised letter T. No. 63 (PLATE VII) may be a bridge token, or perhaps the structure is intended to represent a church. The given name of an individual occasionally accompanies the more usual family name, and this will be found true on succeeding plates. Odd shapes were selected for these tokens because of their distinctiveness; they accomplished their purpose.

The tokens on PLATE X to XII form a fairly homogeneous group. With one or two exceptions, they are similar in size, style and fabric, although as to fabric there is a light and heavy form. The dated pieces range between 1801 and 1806. Many are uniface. The thin-flanned ones are marked by a daintiness of lettering and design, while the heavier pieces have a boldness quite in keeping with their greater thickness. On the thinner-flanned tokens, branches with flowers or berries vie with animal figures (PLATE XI, 198 and 275). On the Olbera issue (PLATE X, 286) we note a pennon or spear used with a cannon. On the Molina piece (PLATE X, 264) there is a monogram as well as this name and the date 1801.

On PLATES XI and XII we find a contrast. The Aguilar token (PLATE XI, 10) is broad, thick and heavy, and the lettering is bold. This piece and several others have inscriptions on both sides. The given name is on the obverse and the family name on the reverse in more than one instance, with the name of the place of issue added on two coins, Queretaro (No. 362) and Celaya (No. 470). The Butron token (No. 71) on PLATE XI seems to have had this name applied to some other token of the fabric we have been considering. Unfortunately, the earlier design is not distinguishable. Monogrammed pieces of both forms are placed at the bottom of PLATE XII. Note that the Munos (No. 275) and Munoz (No. 277) pieces on PLATE XI seem to have nothing in common.

PLATES XIII and XIV may be considered together. They offer further contrasts to PLATES X to XII. Most have smaller flans which bear dates with a slightly more extended range, 1800–1814. With the exception of Nos. 103 and A, they are uniformly die-struck and many have borders of repeated units, some of which are very effective as well as ingenious. The majority are uniface; some are counterstamped with dates or numerals, the latter a possible indication of value. The Cocula token (No. 103) is dated 1808 and bears two counterstamps, one of which is a crown. The second is applied symmetrically and adds the name Vandino which can hardly be a Spanish name.

The three plates (XV-XVII) devoted to the tokens bearing names in full (or nearly so), like those devoted to the irregularshaped pieces, offer some significant phenomena. They are arranged alphabetically, despite the necessary deviations in the interest of plate symmetry. It will be noted that there are a few pieces not circular in shape. Attention might be called to similarities in treatment, as, for example:

a. CAREDES, CVRIL and LOZO (PLATE XV, 79, 129 and 241) share with DE PRIETO (PLATE XVI, 344), a technique which seems to indicate that either the token or the die with which it was struck had been cast.

b. Pieces on which dies show similar workmanship:

It would be too much to claim that these similarities indicate a relation in time or place, but there is at least the possibility.

c. Single tokens often raise questions for which answer is not always obtainable.

  • On the piece inscribed OXORO (PLATE XVI, 298), is the X to be read as a lower-case “r” as it certainly is on PLATE XVII, 458, which Romero de Terreros reads as “Torrescano”?
  • The AGUILERA (PLATE XV, 11) and ADAME (PLATE XV, 6) tokens both bear a counterstamped monogram which combines the letters “A” and “P”—does this connote a combination of two haciendas with the final ownership indicated by the monogram? (Compare, also, PLATE III, A to E).
  • Are the added scrolls on the LEDO piece (PLATE XV, 226) purely decorative?
  • The MACIAS piece (PLATE XVI, 246) bears a triangle with an incised monogram (?) or brandmark. Why was it incised instead of having been made a part of the original design?
  • The MED piece (PLATE XVI, 254) has a counterstamped date of 1820. Is this an abbreviation for “half” or for a proper name? Why was not the date made a part of the name-die? Was it possibly a later addition?

On No. 451 (PLATE XVII), there is a very interesting transliteration. On the token we read CAVEZERA. Dr. A. F. Pradeau kindly informs by letter that this is a substitute for cabecera, a word meaning “county seat”; and that TLAJOMULCO (Cf. PLATE XVII, 451), with about four thousand inhabitants, is a station in the State of Jalisco on the railroad between Mexico and Guadalajara.

PLATE XVIII is intended to demonstrate similarity of names or monograms. Señor Romero de Terreros illustrates and identifies a piece with a large and crude “G” and a small “a” as GARCIA. Here (Nos. 177 and 178) we have two roughly circular pieces with a toothed-die impress and the inscription GAR/SIA. Between them is a diamond-shaped token (No. 179), with smaller and better formed letters reading GARSIA/TAGLE. In the bottom row of this Plate we have (No. 232) a piece reading R. DEL. CHICO. ANO. D. 1808, and within the circle at the center, the name LOPEZ with ornaments above and below. The token (No. G) shows a monogram which can hardly be read other than as LOPEZ, and the preceding piece (No. F) with its neighbor to guide one, should be probably read similarly. On the same line, we have an octagonal token with the name ERA/RA. Counterstamped beneath, in smaller letters, is the name LOPEZ. As this is unquestionably a common name in Mexico, there may or may not have been a connection between these four pieces.

The monogrammed tokens on the second line on this plate will bear study because of their similarities. No. 324 which has a heartshaped die-imprint is apparently unrelated to any of the heart-shaped tokens on PLATE IX.

PLATES XXI and XXII provide an amplification of what appears on PLATE XX (cf. pp. 10 to 12). Most of these are octavos; Nos. 136 (PLATE XXII) and 412 (PLATE XXI) are quartillos. Many are without indication of value. No. 364 (PLATE XXI) is counterstamped. Some are without dates; those bearing dates vary from 1813 (PLATE XXI, 14 and 489) to 1853 (PLATE XXII, 452). The workmanship on both coins and dies varies widely—well-preserved specimens are uncommon. Several other designs are ambitious beyond the power of the die-cutter, for example, No. 309. Apparently, these are all issues of Municipalities with little or no direct connection with the Hacienda token. They are illustrated, herein, to make this distinction clear.

End Notes

* J. R. Southworth: El directorio oficial de las minas y haciendas de Mexico (title also in English: The Official Directory of Mines and Haciendas) Mexico, 1910.
1 Zeitschrift fur Nümismatik, XLII (1935), pp. 128–135, pl. II.
2 Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, V (1940), pp. 17–39, 4 pls., map.
1 Zeitschrift für Numismatik, XLII (1935), p. 130.
1 Cf. A. F. Pradeau. The Mexican Mints of Alamos and Hermosillo , N.Y., 1934 (Num. Notes & Monographs No. 63).

CATALOGUE

  • Abarateguy. ABA | RATE | GVY within a raised notched border. Uniface. Cast. 21 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE VII.
  • Abascal . ABAS | CAL; a rosette between pellets above and below. Ornamental border. Uniface. Octagonal planchet. 24 mm.
  • Abila . ABI | LA* in a circle of dashes. Triangular die. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Acirre. A | CIRRE, with ornament below; the whole in border of repeated ornaments. Die 20 mm.; flan 26 mm. Uniface. PLATE XIII.
  • Adad. A | DAD within raised and notched border on octagon with curved sides. Uniface. PLATE VII.
  • Adame . ADAME between lines of dots above and below, in rectangular depression. In round die-imprint below, AP in monogram. Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XV. Admitido. See No. 253.
  • Africano . AFRI | CANO, a sheathed sword dividing the two lines, an arrow pointing to right above, and another in opposite direction below; the whole within a crude circle. Uniface. 28 mm.
  • Agebedo. AGE | BEDO in square depression. In shape of a four-leaved rosette. Uniface. PLATE VII.
  • Agire. AGI | RE in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Aguilar. LORENZO within a circle of large beads. Rev. AGUI LAR with similar border. MRdeT. 32 mm. PLATE XI.
  • Aguilera . AGUI | LERA within linear frame in square depression; a monogram, AP, in separate round impression below. Uniface. 21 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Aguirre. A | GUIRRE, rude flowers below, within a circle of dots and dashes. Uniface. 26 mm. Two varieties illustrated; two other variants in A.N.S. PLATE X. (Two specimens.) Aho. See No. 13.
  • Ahualulco. AHO in crude script, 1/8 (real) below. Milled border. Uniface. 18 mm.
  • Ahualulco. On raised disc at center, 1/8. Legend: AHUALULCO. 1813. Uniface. 21 mm. PLATE XXI.
  • Alarcon. ALARCON only. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Alba. AL.BA, an arrow point below; raised indented border. Uniface. 25 mm. Very crude cast. MRdeT.*
  • Albares . ALBA | RES in crude script within a border of large pellets, the R like an X. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Albares . Similar to last but the S retrograde.
  • Albares (Alvares). ALBA | RES within raised notched border. Uniface. Flan cast, the name added with a die. 23 mm. MRdeT. PLATE VII.
  • Albares . ALBA | R.S 806 above a star and coiled lariat, the whole in a wreath. Toothed border. 24 mm. PLATE XIII. Alcant Arilla. See No. 38.
  • Aldana . ALDA | NA with four rosettes in ornate frame. Uniface. Rectangular. 18 × 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XV.
  • Allala (Ayala). ALLA | LA within a circle of dots. Very crude letters. Uniface. Cast. 29 mm. Die, 17 mm. MRdeT.
  • Aller. Coat of Arms and trophies, in ex. ALLER. Rev. E.C. | SALVATIERRA | IENERO | DE 1803. 31 mm. MRdeT.
  • Alvarado. ALVA | RADO. Rev. Within border of dashes, A. Indented edge. 17 mm. Alvares. See No. 19.
  • Ameca . P. D. AMECA QUITILLA. D 1824. In center, façade of a structure, (adobe church?), surmounted by a cross. Conventionalized trees (?) on either side. In 1. field, 3; in r., G inverted. Uniface. 22 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Ameca . TLACO DE AMECA (quatrefoil). In center, QTG(?) in monogram, between rosettes, within ornate circle; the border, a wreath. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XX.
  • Ameca. AME (last letter upside down). CA 811 (1811) within a circle of pointed milling. Uniface. Thick planchet. 24 mm.
  • Ameca. Same as last but octagonal planchet. 22 × 25 mm.
  • Ameca. F 1/8 Z, crude script, within a border of wavy lines. Uniface. 20 mm. Issued by F. Zamora.
  • Ameca., T. Z. (inverted) AMECA* 1833; in center 1/8, crude branches below. Uniface. 22 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Ameca. V. F. (Vincente Figarosa) AMECA 1858, in center 1/8; above, a branch. Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Amescua. AMESQUA* 1828. The Mexican eagle. Uniface. 20 mm. Very crude die. PLATE XXII.
  • Amescua. D MIGUEL AMESCUA. The Mexican eagle; 1838 below; a crude beaded circle around the border. Uniface. 22 mm. PLATE XXII.
  • Ansa. ANSA in border of tiny repeated ornaments. 20 mm. PLATE XV.
    Ansira. See No. 324.
    Antono Gil . See No. 182.
    Apaujo . See No. 164
  • Aragona ARAGON | A. DE. between trefoils | 1812, ornaments above, within ornate border. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Arevalo. AREVALO in crude script, within rectangular depres- sion with toothed border. Irregular diamond-shaped planchet. Uniface. 20 × 25 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Argomanis. ARGOMANIS in two lines, between Q (quarto) and date 1801; the whole within ornate border. Uniface. 31 mm. MRdeT. PLATE X.
  • Arilla . ALGANT | ARILLA. Uniface. Irregular planchet.
  • Arquito. ARQUITO, large crude script, in curved line. Uniface. 24. mm. MRdeT.
  • Arra. AR | RA in crude script within a border of leaves. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Arriaga. ARRI | AGA; below 23 (1823) incuse. Uniface.
  • Asuni. A | SUNI; Q (quarto) above, 827 (1827) below. Uniface.
  • Atencinco. ATENCINCO in curved line above; in center, a large eight-leaved rosette above crossed branches. Uniface. 29 mm.
  • Atotonilco. ATOTONILCO ANO.DE.I8O8 (a trefoil); within a circle of small leaves in center: L.S.S. | JUSU | ESES; the whole within an ornate border. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE XIV.
    Avala. See No. 22.
    Avila. See No. 3.
  • Azcarate . AZCA | RATE in rectangular depression. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 24 × 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE VII.
  • Baibas. BAIBAS. In center, a rosette within a circle of leaves. Ornate border. Uniface.
  • Baja. TIENDA ("a store") BAJA (Ornament), around a double wreath of leaves in center. Uniface.
  • Balensia. BAL | ENSIA; ornament below; within toothed border. Uniface. Flan 25 mm. Die 21 mm.
  • Banegas. BANEGAS in two lines. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Barbeche. BARB | EGHE in crude script between plain lines above and below. Uniface. Pomegranate-shaped planchet. 21 × 26 mm.
  • Bareda. BARE | DA; on a line above, 1806. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE XI.
    Barera. See No. 55.
    Barios. See No. 417.
  • Barios. BARI | OS in script, with the R written like an X. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Baron. BA | RO | N within toothed border, in irregular depression. On reverse, a large T incuse. Oval with square ends. 24 × 30 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Barreda (Varreda). VARE | DA in ornate frame. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVII.
  • Barrera. BAR | ERA in very crude script. Uniface. MRdeT.
  • Barrera. BARRERA between a corded line above, and Q (quarto) between scrolls below; at top, R; and at bottom, 1801; the whole within a laurel wreath. On the reverse, a monogram in square depression, counterstamped. 31 mm.
    Basilio Lopez y Nieto. See No. 363.
    Bega. See No. 353.
  • Belasquez. BELASQUEZ around a bust within a wreath. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Beliz. BELIZ (last letter upside down), a scroll between two ears of grain below. Uniface. 27 mm.
  • Beneto. BENE (N and E conjoined) | TO. Uniface. Semi-circular planchet. 20 mm.
  • Benetos. BENETOS in rectangular depression. Uniface. Rectangular with top and bottom sides scalloped. Cast iron. 20 × 36 mm.
  • Bergara (Vergara). BER | GARA within ornate frame. Uniface. 18 mm. MRdeT.
  • Bernicui . BERNI | CUI in crude script, within a border of pellets. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Beser. A crude structure (bridge?); BESER below in bell-shaped depression, the first letter uncertain. Uniface. In shape of an inverted pomegranate. 25 × 27 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Betanzos . BETAN | SOZ within a crude cartouche of pellets. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Billegas. BILLE | GAS in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Biyegas. BIYE | GAS in square die-imprint. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Bola. ESQVIA (Esquina) DE. BOLA. ANO. 98. (1798). Rev. monogram within a circle of leaves. 24 mm.
  • Bolanos. BOLANOS around the figure of a lion. Uniface. MRdeT.
  • Borbon. BOR | BON in square depression. Uniface. Flan 21 mm. Die 10 × 9 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Bustos . BVS | TOS in square depression. Uniface. 25 mm. ("The Bustos hacienda and mine were owned by the same man.")
  • Butron . BVTRON in rectangular counterstamp on an older token. Flan 34 mm. PLATE XI.
  • Butron . BUTRON | Y | MUXICA, ornament below. Rev. AÑO | DE | 1806. Wreath below. 31 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XII.
    Camano . See No. 118.
    Campa. See No. 214.
    Cani. See No. 215.
  • Cano. CANO. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Cantida. CAN | TIDA in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Canuza. CANV | ZA.* Uniface. Heart-shaped planchet. 24 × 27 mm.
  • Cara. 1805 CARA. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Caranco. CARANCO around a rosette in center, within beaded circle. Uniface.
  • Carasco. CARAS | CO | Q (quartilla), a rosette above, branches below; the whole within a circle of alternating annulets and dots. Uniface. 27 mm.
  • Caredes. CAREDS, the AR and ED conjoined, the S above. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Caro. CARO and stars around 1/8 in center. Uniface. 22 mm.
  • Carrera. CA | RRERA | 800 (1800), within a milled circle. Uniface. Flan 25 mm. Die 17 mm. PLATE XIII.
  • Carrion. CARRION. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Casas. CASAS within a circle of crude milling. Uniface. Cast.
  • Caso. CASO under a crown, in round impression. Uniface. Oblong with pointed ends. 19 × 35 mm. Die 15 mm.
  • Casso . Around an eight-leaved rosette, D PEDRO. (A flower) CASSO. (a flower); the whole within a double, corded circle. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Casteron. CAS | TE | RON. Uniface. 25 mm.
  • Castillo. CASTILLO within a half-circle of ornaments. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Castro . CAS | TRO. Uniface. Cast.
  • Casuyo. CAS | UYO in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 24 mm.
  • Catalanes. Around a barrel in center, CATALANES * 1791 * between two ornate circles. Uniface. 26 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE I. Cavezerade. See No. 451.
    Celaia. See No. 343.
    Celaya . See Nos. 470 and 477.
  • Celis. CELIS in script. Uniface. Cast. 19 mm.
  • Celis. CELIS in minute letters, in rectangular depression with toothed border. Uniface. 19 mm. Die 4 × 12 mm.
  • Cervantes. CERVAN | TES. 1806. SP | PARAMO within ornate border. Rev. SP—Paramo; border of semi-circles. 32 mm. MRdeT. C. Franco. See No. 165.
  • Chabes. (Chaves). S:CALLE DE MESONES.* In the field, a greyhound running to left; below, CHABES, upside down; the whole within a circle of laurel leaves. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Chamacuero. CHAMACVERO around T in center. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Chapito de la Plazuela. CHAPITO. (last two letters above) in very crude script; a small "s" counterstamped below. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 18 mm.
  • Same. Similar to last but without the counterstamp. Rev. DE (conjoined) LA PLAZUELA. Cast. 25mm. Chaves. See No. 94.
  • Chilchota. Head to right in profile. CHILCHOTA UN OCTAVO 1858. Rev. Two branches form a wreath at center. RESPONSAVIDAD (sic) DE MURGVIA. 20 mm. MRdeT. (Michoacán) No. 26. PLATE XXI.
    Chiques. See Esquina De Chiques. No. 152.
  • Chiuato. CHI | UATO within a frame of small arches in square depression. Uniface. Goat-shaped planchet. Cast in copper. 25 × 33 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Chiuato. Similar to last but the name spelled CHI | VATO, in plain frame, and the head of the animal facing to left instead of right. On some specimens the inscription is upside down. Cast in iron. 25 × 36 mm.
  • Cobo. COBO in ornate frame. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Coboconcha. COBO | CONCHA, ornament below; in square depression. Uniface. 26 mm. Die 13 × 16 mm.
  • Cocula. COCULA A° 1808, a crown above, VANDINO in oblong die-impression below. Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XIII.
  • Colegio de las Ninas. COLEGIO DE LAS NINAS around a fountain in center. Uniface. Irregular, roughly scalloped planchet. 28 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Coliceo . COLIC | -EO-, divided by a line, in rectangular depression. Uniface. Oval shape. 21 × 28 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Colima . VILLA DE (conjoined) COLIMA. At center, 1813. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima . VILLA DE | COLIMA 1814. Uniface. Square flan. 15 × 16 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima. QVART. | COLIMA | 1816. (quarto) within a rude wreath. Rev. Colima in monogram within wreath as on obverse. 26 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima . OCTO DE COLIMA. At center, within linear circle, 1824. Rev. OCTAVO, with branch completing the circle. In center, pellet within a circle. Wreath border. 24 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima. OCTO | DE | COLA. Rev. ANO | DE | 1824. Railroad track borders both sides. 22 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima . CUART° DE COLIMA. Within linear circle at center, 1824. Rev. Within a wreath border, monogram. Cf. No. 108. 24 mm. PLATE XX.
  • Colima . OCTO | DE | COLIMA. Rev. ANO | DE | 1830. Border as in No. 110. 23 mm. PLATE XX. Coloonacio. See No. 352.
  • Conchoso. CONCHOSO Y VCIONDO; in center, a globe with 1801 and an ornament underneath. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Cordoba. COR | DO—BA, the letters O and B separated by a pomegranate, the stem of which is prolonged into a loop which is part of the conventionalized coiled lariat. The whole in an octagonal die-imprint on a circular flan of 24 mm. PLATE XIII.
  • Corral. ANTO. CORRAL. VELO between an ornate circle and a wreath of laurel leaves; in center, a rosette. Uniface. 26 mm. Cored. See No. 123.
  • Cosio. COSIO, in crude script, a coiled lariat below, the whole within a plain circle. Uniface. Flan 22 mm. Die 12 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Cosio. COSIO in crude script, within notched border. Uniface. Oval. 22 × 29 mm. MRdeT. PLATE VII.
  • Cosio. CAMANO around COSIO 14 (1814) in the field. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Cossio. COSSIO, ornament (?) below, in lobed circle. Uniface. Flan 27 mm. Die 18 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Cossio. COSSIO, within a border of four scrolls. Uniface, with indented comers. 21 × 25 mm. PLATE VII.
  • Cotija. DE-D.-JOSE NUNES. Liberty seated to right holding a staff. Rev. COMMERCIO. D. COTIJA. In center 1/8 to 1. near the rim, 1852 between the tips of a crude wreath. 19 mm. PLATE XXII.
  • Coutino. Between two ornate circles, COUTINO, and three pierced rosettes; in center, a face (full moon). Uniface. 30 mm. Die 20 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Coxed. ANO COXED 1814 in crude script, in square indent. Uniface. 23 mm. (Note: the name is probably "Cored," as the cursive R is usually like an X.)
  • Cruz del Factor. CRUS DEL FACTOR (name of hacienda) within a circle of S-shaped ornaments. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Cuautepec. QUAT | EPEC in large crude script, within toothed border. Uniface. Octagonal. 22 × 26 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Cuellar. CUELLAR. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. Cuellas Pedro. See No. 132.
  • Cuevas. CUE | VAS. Uniface. Leaf-shaped planchet. 23 × 30 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE VII.
  • Cuido. CUIDO above; in center 1/8 between branches crossed below; the whole within a plain circle. Milled border. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Curil. CVRIL on circular flan in crude script. Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XV. De la Card. See No. 215.
    De la Garza. See No. 180.
    De la Plaza . See No. 217.
    De la Plazuela. See No. 97.
    De Lara. See No. 174.
  • Del Arolito. ESQ (Esquila or sheep ranch) DEL.-AR-OLITO. between ornate circles around a rosette in center. Edge coarsely reeded. Uniface. 25 mm.
    De Lasanims. See No. 222.
    De la Vega. See Nos. 353 and 471-72.
  • Del Coliceo. ESQ.* | DELCO | LICEO (rosette), within ornate circle. Uniface. 25 mm. Die 20 mm.
  • Del Cuiz. PEDRO CUELLAS. A snake; in square indent below, 806 (1806). Uniface. Cast in iron. 20 mm. (Del Cuiz hacienda in state of Jalisco.)
  • Del Ensall. (Rosette) ERRERA DE (conjoined) L.ENSALL. around 1770 H and an ornament in center; a large ornament above. In octagonal depression with plain line border. Uniface. Octagonal. 23 mm. Die 18 mm. PLATE I.
    Del Puente. See No. 351.
  • Del Rio . TIENDA DEL RIO*; in center, a monogram EVB in script; the whole within a wreath of laurel leaves. Uniface. 22 mm.
  • Del Triunfo. TIENDA DEL TRIVNFO around a wreath in center. Uniface.
    De Peres. See No. 323.
    De Prieto. See No. 344.
    De Rivera. See No. 381.
  • Dexalos. At center, a crown. Legend: AYVNTAMIENTO ILVSTRE. Toothed border. Rev, at center, 4. Legend: DEXALOS. TOTITAN. 1820. Toothed border. Workmanship crude. 24 mm. PLATE XXII.
  • Diaz. DIAZ between ornaments above and below, in round depression. Uniface. 21 mm. Die 15 mm. MRdeT. 23 mm.
  • Diaz . DIAS. 1815. around Q (quartilla) in center; toothed border. Uniface. 27 mm.
  • Diaz Cano. DIAZ CANO within a wreath of oak. 22 mm. MRdeT.
  • Echeverria. ECHEUERRIA* around nine rosettes in center; the whole within a wreath of oak. Uniface. 25 mm. Die 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Eda. EDA within a beaded circle. Uniface. Cast.
  • Elano. ELANO in rectangular depression. Edge coarsely milled. Uniface. 22 mm. Die 4 × 12 mm.
  • El Cambio. EL CAMBIO. Uniface. Cast. Elizarrares. See No. 216.
  • Enriquez. ENRI QVEZ, with a monogram (URTO?) above. Ornate border. Rev. ANDA 1802 (the 2 reversed), an ornament (?) above and a double line below. Ornate border. 21 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Enriques. ENRIQ[S.], the N reversed and the Q like a retrograde P., within a circle of dots within annulets; monogram similar to that of No. 144 above. Uniface. Octagonal. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XIV. Ensall. See No. 133.
  • Enta. ENTA (last letter above the T) in deep depression. Uniface. Cast. Irregular planchet. 24 mm.
  • Erera. ERE | RA above a small counterstamp 3 × 9 mm. with LOPEZ. Octagonal—greatest width 25 mm. PLATE XVIII. Errera. See No. 133.
  • Escandon. ESCANDON around a sun-disc. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.
  • Escandon. Similar to last but an ornament replacing the sun. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Eslava. HES | LAVA. (Probably the name of a hacienda.) Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Espinosa. ES | PINOSA, a fish below; the whole within a circle of annulets. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
    Espumera. See No. 479.
    Esquila de Perpetua. See No. 327.
    Esquila. Cf. del Arolita. See No. 130.
    Esquilada. See No. 175.
    Esquina. See No. 131.
    Esquina de Bola. See No. 67.
  • Esquina de Chiques. ESQUIA DE CHIQS. in crude script. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. Esquina de los Reveldes. See No. 239.
  • Estanco de San Alvaro. ESTANGO DE S. ALBARO between ornaments. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Estanco Iglesias. TA.NA.DL. ESTANGO | YGLESIS. within a double circle of pellets. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Estrada. ESTRADA in two lines. Uniface. 18 mm. MRdeT.
  • Ezcatpusalco. ESCAT.PUSALCO* around a sun disc in center; the whole within a wreath of laurel. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Fama. FAMA above; JO below. Countermarked F.CO in square die, incuse. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Fama. FAMA | MARZ 15 | 1825.*; below, an ornament. Countermarked A above. Uniface. 20 mm. Felisiano. See No. 386.
  • Fernandez. PEDRO RODRIGUZ. FERNANDEZ, around a rosette within a double circle of leaves in center; the whole within ornate circle. Uniface. 26 mm. PLATE XVII. Fernandez Pisar. See No. 336.
  • Flores. FLORES around an ornament, within a circle. Uniface. Octagonal. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Flores. FLORES above, in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Flores de Robles. FLORES | DE | ROBLES DE 1809 within ornate border. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
  • F.P. D.X. F.P. | D.X. | 1824 surrounded by a circle of small leaves. Uniface. (XALPA?) 21 mm. PLATE XVII.
  • Francisco Apaujo. FRANCISC | OAPAUJO between three beaded lines; ornament above; 1801 below; the whole within a circle of pellets. Uniface. 29 mm. PLATE X. Francisco Elizarrares. See No. 216.
  • Franco. C. | FRANCO within a wreath of laurel. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Fuentes. FVEN | TES. Uniface. Heart-shaped planchet. 30 × 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Fuertes . FUERTES* around a pomegranate within a beaded circle in center; the whole within an ornate circle. Octagonal die. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Galvan. GAL | VAN | 1801 within a double circle. Uniface. 29 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Garcia. GAR | CIA with ornaments above and below, the whole in an oval wreath on an eight-sided impression, 20 mm. wide by 14 mm. high; the flan an octagon 18 × 24 mm. at widest dimensions. PLATE XVIII.
  • Garcia. GAR | CIA within a crude wreath. Uniface. 18 mm. PLATE XVIII.
  • Garcia. GARCIA within rectangular frame; the space between the frame and the rim filled with deep, coarse milling. Uniface. Cast. Oval shape. 18 × 26 mm.
  • Garcia. GARCIA within ornate circle. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Garcia. GA, last letter small and high, and shaped like an inverted V; a large dot below; the whole within a circle. Uniface. Roughly cast. 30 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Garcia. Two stamps, DO. | GAR | CIA. and J. DE | LA | RA, a crown above each. Uniface.
  • Garcia. GARCIA*ESQUILADA (a fleur-de-lis); in center, a lamb(?) within a circle of stars; the whole within a circle of small annulets. Uniface. 23 mm.
  • Garena. GA | RENA | 800 (1800) in round die-impress. Uniface.
  • Garsia. GAR | SIA on toothed reserve of 14 mm.; flan diameter 25 mm. PLATE XVIII.
  • Garsia. GAR | SIA in crude wreath on an impression 16 mm. in diameter; the flan 29 mm. in diameter. PLATE XVIII.
  • Garcia. GARSIA | TAGLE in rectangular depression. Uniface. Diamond shaped. 26 × 34 mm. PLATE XVIII.
  • Garza. DE LA GARZA within a circle of ornaments; above, G. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
    Gavilan. See No. 325.
  • Gayr. GAYR in crude script; 822 (1822) below. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Gil. DMO. AN | TONOGIL in ornate cartouche. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Giron. GIRON; 1779 above. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
  • Gomez. GOMEZ only. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Gomez. GOMEZ in rectangular die-impress; flan outline, four alternating arcs and knobs. 26 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Gomez. GOMES (the ME conjoined) in rectangular depression. Uniface. Seven-cornered planchet. 26 mm.
  • Gonsales. GONS.; S above; in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Gonzales. MIGUEL | GONZALEZ | RIVADENEYRA. Rev. S. MIGUEL | EL GRE. A. | DE 1813. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Granaditas. GRA | NADI | TAS. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.* Gremio de Panaderos. See No. 362.
  • Guadalaxara. Eagle with spread wings holding a serpent(?); above, bow and arrows. Legend: GUADALAXARA in large letters. Rude border. Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XXI.
  • Guerra. GUE | RRA within a frame of annulets. Uniface. Oval shape. 21 × 25 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Gutierez. GVTIE | RREZ* in ornate frame. Square die. Uniface. Octagonal 20 × 23 mm.
  • Gutierez. M. | GUTIER | REZ within a wreath of laurel. Uniface. 19 mm. MRdeT.
  • Gutierrez. ANTON (a small o above the last letter) GUTIER | RES within ornate oval. Uniface. Pomegranate shaped planchet. 25 × 27 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE VIII.
  • Gutierrez. JOSE VENANCIO GUTIERREZ around a rosette in center. Rev. DLA | CIUDAD | D. QUERETARO 1801. Border of ornaments both sides. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Gutierrez de Herran. GUTI | EREZ. Rev. DE HE | RAN. Octagonal. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Hermosillo . L.S.HERMOSILLO. A. DE. 1833. A radiate liberty cap. Rev. EST. DE SONORA. UNA. CUART.* Two cornu-copiae divided by an upright arrow. Coarse milling around the border. 22 mm. (Also dated 1832, 1834 and 1835.) PLATE XXII.
  • Hernandez. HERNANDES; above, a magpie (?) flying to right; below, a dog walking to right, holding a spray of leaves in its mouth. Milled border. Uniface. 31 mm. PLATE XI.
  • Hernandes. Between two ornate circles, HERNANDES, the last four letters interlaced; a star in center. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.
    Herran. See No. 196.
    Heslava. See No. 150.
  • Iglesia. IGLESIA (church) in octagonal depression; struck twice on a leaf-shaped planchet, with a rosette in a circle upon the stem. Uniface. 23 × 33 mm. Iglesias. See No. 154.
  • Infante. INFANTE in two lines within ornate frame. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
  • Istacalco. ISTA | CAL | *CO* within a frame of small leaves; in octagonal depression. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XV.
  • Ivertafala. IVER | TAFA | LA; a rude crown above. Uniface. Rosette shaped planchet. 22 mm.
  • Jala. PUEBLO DE JALA; the Mexican eagle. Rev. LUIS LARIS 1821.; in center 1/4 with an ornate fraction bar. Crude milling. 24 mm.
  • Jalapa. MR (large letters) | JALAPA; two leaves below; the whole within a beaded circle. Uniface with 8 incused near the rim on reverse. 28 mm. PLATE XIII.
  • Japija. JAP.JA in rude script. Uniface. Oval with indented ends. 30 × 19 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Jimenes. JIME | NES. Uniface. Cast. 24 mm. (On some specimens the name is spelled XIMENES.)
  • Jores. JORES in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Juanrios. JUAN | RIOS in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 25 mm.
  • Juan Vasques. JUAN | VASQUES. Uniface. Square.
  • Jurado. JURADO | 810 (1810); ornaments above and below. Uniface. 25 mm.
  • Jurado. JURADO; a rosette below. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Labin. LAB | IN. Uniface. Cast.
  • La Campa. TIENDA DE LA CAMPA. In the field, a bell between branches. Rev. OCTAVO. 22 mm.
  • La Cani. TIENDA DE LA CANI. AO 1798. Uniface.
  • La Constancia. FRANCISCO ELIZARRARES. In the field LA | CONSTAN | CIA 1/8 (real) within laurel wreath. Border of pointed milling. Uniface. 23 mm.
    La Gunilla. See No. 475.
  • La Plaza. DE LA | PLAZA. Uniface. Cast in iron. 27 mm.
  • Lara. LARA, 4R above, an ornament below. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE III.
    Lara. See No. 174.
  • Lares. LARES in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Lares. LARES (the AR conjoined). Rev. GOMES. Ornaments above and below, both sides. 29 mm.
    Laris, Luis. See No. 204.
  • Larrondo. LARRONDO surrounding the letter "A" between stars with a crescent below; the whole within a circle of repeated palmettes on octagonal die. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XIII.
  • Lasanims. DE LASANIMS around a rosette in center. Uniface.
  • Lascano. P.G. | LASCANO in rectangular depression within a toothed circle; the border, a wreath of laurel. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Laso. LASO in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • La Victoria. TIENDA DE LA VICTORIA. In the field, ANO | DE | 1812, a rosette above and below. Oval die. Uniface. The planchet is shaped like a rabbit facing to right. 23 × 28 mm.
  • Ledo. LEDO between ornaments above and below. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE XV.
    Lena. See No. 360.
  • Leon. Within a circle a lion and the name MANVEL. Octagonal die. Uniface. 26 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XVI.
  • Libarr. LI | BARR. Uniface. Heart shaped planchet. PLATE VIII.
  • Linares. LINARES (letters NAR conjoined), ES between ornaments above and below. Beaded border. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Linares. LINA | RES. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Lopez. LOPES between rosettes within ornate circle. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Lopez. Between ornate circles, R. DEL CHICO. ANO. D. 1808; in the center, LOPEZ between rosettes. Uniface. 27 mm. PLATE XVIII.
  • Lopez. DE | LOPEZ; a monogram, "TENRO" below. Rev. PL conjoined; 1819 below. Milled border both sides. 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Same. Similar to last but without the monogram on obverse.
  • Lopez Mier. LOPEZ MIER between ornaments, in octagonal frame. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Lopez Varela. LOPEZ (last letter retrograde) VARELA; the last word between dotted lines; ornament above and below. Rosette shaped die. Uniface. 30 mm.
    Lopez y Nieto. See No. 363.
    Lorenzo. See No. 10.
  • Los Dolores. PVEB. | DE LOS | DOLORES. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.
  • Same. Similar to last but PUEBLO | DE | LOS | DOLORES. Uniface. 25 mm.
  • Los Reveldes. ES NA | DE LOSR | EVELDES, a four-leaved rosette below; the whole within a beaded circle. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Loxero. LOXERO in rectangular frame; 1806 below; a spray of flowers on long stems above. Rev. A monogram (E [?] AS) in square depression. Irregular planchet. 30 mm. PLATE X.
  • Lozo (?) LOZO in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 25 mm. PLATE XV.
    Luis Laris. See No. 204.
  • Luiz. LUIZ in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Luna. LUNA between two lines of four dots. Uniface. 25 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Luque. LUQUE in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Machado. MACHADO in two lines. Uniface. MRdeT.
  • Macias. MA-CI-AS around a large triangle enclosing a monogram incuse, in center. Uniface. Cast. 21 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Manrique. MAN | RIQ between a star and a flourish. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT.
    Manuel. See No. 227.
    Manuel Martines. See No. 251.
    Mariscala. See No. 359.
  • Martines. MAR | TI | NES in irregular depression. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Martines. MARTI | NES in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 18 mm.
  • Martines. MART | INES in irregular depression with toothed border. Uniface. Heart shaped planchet. 29 × 35 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Manuel Martines . MANVEL | MARTINE (last two letters conjoined) S; between the two words a wavy line; Q (quarto) above; ornaments below; the whole within a beaded circle. Rude milling around the border. Rev. 1801 in small rectangular depression. 30 mm. Martines, Simon. See No. 427.
  • Ma. Tero. MA: (a small "o" below the "A") TERO. Very rude die. Uniface. 30 mm.
  • Mazatlan. ADMITIDO-EN MAZATLAN. An anchor in round depression. Uniface. 23 mm.
  • Medina (?). MED (Script); 820 (1820) upside down, in rectangular depression above. Uniface. 20 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Mena. M-E-N-A in ornate cartouche. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Mena. ME | NA in four-lobed indent, both pairs of letters conjoined. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVI.
  • Mendoza. MEN | DOZA | 1801; an ornament above. Milled border. Uniface. 27 mm. Illustrated but not described by MRdeT.*
  • Mendoza. MEN | DOS A (script) 1804 within a circle of pellets. Uniface. 22 mm.
  • Mendoza. MENDOSA (script) in form of a cross; 1804 above. Uniface. 23 mm.
  • Mendoza. PUEBLA around a cross. Rev. MENDOZA. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Mesa. MESA in crude script. Uniface. Irregular octagonal planchet. 27 × 28 mm. MRdeT.
    Mexia. See No. 314.
    Mier. See No. 235.
    Milla. See No. 299.
  • Millan. MILLAN in rude script. Uniface. Rectangular. 24 × 26 mm. MRdeT.
  • Mireles. MIRELES (trefoil) around a rosette in center; the whole within circle of repeated units (leaves?). Uniface. 23 mm. PLATE XIV. Mogica. See No. 270.
  • Molina. MOLINA | GAV in monogram: above, Q (quarto); below, the date 1801.; the whole within frame of flowers. Milled border. Uniface. 32 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE X.
  • Moncavo. MONGA | YO 1801 between ornaments above and below. "Railroad-track" border. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Moneda. MONEDA.8.1806, within a wreath. Uniface. PLATE XIII.
  • Monnos. MON | NOS. Uniface.
  • Monzon. P.D | MON | ZON (Pueblo of Monzon) within a wreath of leaves. Octagonal die. Uniface. 25 mm. Die 15 mm.
  • Morales. MORALS, the last letter above. Uniface. 23 mm.
  • Moxica. MOXI | GA 1803, within a border of rays. Uniface. 24 mm. The name is spelled MOGICA by MRdeT.
  • Moya. MOYA within a circle of demi-annulets. Uniface. Rectangular. 19 × 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Moye. MOYE; a star above. Hexagonal die. Uniface.
  • Muniz. MUNIS between ornaments. Uniface. Oval shape. 12 × 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Muniz. MUNIZ R.1817. Border of dashes. Uniface. 19 mm. MRdeT.
  • Munos. MUNOS in the center; below, a dog with a flower in its mouth, above, a large ornament; the whole within an ornate circle. Uniface. Circular planchet. 34 mm. PLATE XI.
  • Munos . MVNOS within dotted oval; Q(quarto) above; 1801 below; the whole upon the breast of a crude double headed eagle. Rev. OR | TIS in small depression. 31 mm. Munoz . See No. 462.
  • Munoz . MV | NOZ in bold letters on octagonal die. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XI. Muxica. See No. 72.
  • Nargavan. NAR (script) 1777; a rude star above; in square depression. Uniface. 25 mm.
  • Nava . NAVA. Uniface.
  • Navarro. NAVARRO in rectangular depression. Uniface. 22 mm. Die 3 × 18 mm. Ninas. See No. 104. Nueva. See No. 480.
  • Obscura. OBS | CV | RA within a circle of coarse milling. Uniface. Octagonal. 27 × 27 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Ocanpo . OCA-NPO-ANO-1770, incised in the angles of a large four leaved rosette; the whole within a plain linear circle. Brass. Uniface. 30 mm. PLATE I.
  • Ocanpo . OCAN | PO in round depression. Uniface. PLATE XVI.
  • Ochocis . OCHOGI | S in script. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Ogegema . A horse; above, D OGEGEMA; below, 1 8°. (1 octavo) 1840. Uniface. 19 mm. Olbera . See No. 422.
  • Olbera . OLBERA | 1806; above, a rude branch of flowers; below, a cannon to left, a pennon and a sword to right; the whole within a toothed border. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 33 mm. PLATE X.
  • Olbera . OLBE | RA in very crude script, within a border of large pellets. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Olmedo . Between two ornate circles; CALLE DE OLMEDO*. In center, a horse running to left. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Oreto . PA | ESQVINA | EL (conjoined) ORETO, within a toothed circle. Uniface. 26 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Orevana . ORE | VANA, the N inverted. Uniface.
  • Orizava . In script, ORIZAVA | AO 1842; a branch curved around the border above. Rev. a spear of wheat (?) upright; below, 1/8 flanked by eight rosettes; the whole between crossed branches. 29 mm. Auction Catalogue of Salbach Collection by J. Schulman, Amsterdam, 1911, No. 3720.
  • Orosco . OROSCO in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 24 mm.
  • Same. Similar to last. OROS | CO. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Orta . OR | TA between large four-leaved rosettes above and below. Uniface. Oblong planchet. 18 × 32 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Ortuno . ORTV | NO in crude type, within ornate border. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.
  • Ortuno . ORTVNO. ANO.17—(last part of date defaced); in center, a coiled lariat within a circle. Uniface. 27 mm.
  • Oviedo . OVI | EDO, ornament below; within a plain circle. Rev. .A. .D. 1804 (the 4 retrograde) within a circle of pellets. Rude milling on both sides. 32 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XII. Oxero. See No. 240.
  • Oxopo. OXO | PO in crude script; a large pellet separates the last two letters. Uniface. 16 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Pablo Milla . Around a fleur-de-lis in center, PABLO*MILLA*; the whole within a wreath of laurel. Octagonal die. Uniface. 26 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Pajosa . PAJOSA with 1804 above. Border of pellets. Uniface. Crescent shaped. PLATE VIII.
  • Palacio . PALA | CIO on a circular die-imprint. Uniface. Flan 24 mm. Die 18 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Panzacola . PANZA | COLA within ornate rectangle. Uniface. Rectangular 19 × 22 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XVI.
  • Paradela . PARA | DELA | 1806 within ornate circle. Uniface. 26 mm. MRdeT.
  • Paredes . PARE | DES in crude script within toothed frame. Octagonal die. Uniface. Irregular oblong planchet. 25 × 28 mm. Die 13 × 13 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Parra. PARRA | ROMA. Uniface. Octagonal 18 × 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Pastrana . PASTRANA in two lines, within a circle. Uniface. 26 mm. MRdeT.
  • Pastrana . PASTRA (fleur-de-lis) | NA (fleur-de-lis), between fleur-de-lis above and below; the whole within a wreath of leaves. Octagonal die. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Patino . PATI | NO in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 25 mm.
  • Patzcuaro . MUNICIPD DE PAZTCUARO. Three mountains in the lake of Pazcuaro. At the foot of the largest mountain, a church and other buildings (the town); above, 1/8. On the lake, a man in a boat, fishing, and seven sea fowl, of which two are on the shore. Rev. A woman (fish peddler?) walking to right, carrying a bag over her shoulder, a fishing net and a string of fish. Ornate border on both sides. 23 mm. Copper and brass. Also cast in bronze. MRdeT. (Michoacán) No. 43. PLATE XXII.
  • Payares . PAYARES in rectangular panel. Uniface. Octagonal. 22 × 24 mm. PLATE XVI.
  • Paz . PAZ. between 1 above and 8 below (l/8 real) within a crude wreath. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Pedro . PEDRO in crude script, the R in form of an X, as is usual on this type of token. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm. Pedro Cuellas . See No. 132.
  • Pedroja . PEDR | OJA in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Pedro Mexia . PEDRO | MEXIA | 1805 within a beaded circle. Uniface. 26 mm. Die 22 mm.
  • Pelaez . Within ornate circle, PELAEZ 1804, with a radiate sun above. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Pena . PENA around an uncertain object in center, an ornament below; the whole within a beaded circle. Crude die. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Penychet. PENY | CHET. Rev. ANO | DE | 1806; above Q (quarto) countermarked. Border of pellets both sides. 27 mm.
  • Peredo . PEREDO. Uniface. The planchet in form of a sack. 12 × 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Peredo . PEREDO* between two ornate circles; in center, a rosette. Octagonal die. Uniface. In form of a pomegranate with a stem below. 22 × 33 mm. MRdeT.
  • Peredo . PEREDO within ornate square panel. Uniface. Rectangular. 9 × 12 mm. MRdeT.
  • Pereira . PEREIRA in circle, between branches of laurel and palm. Border of pellets. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.
  • Peres . PERES in crude script; above, 4; below, 802 (1802). The border a wreath of leaves. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT.* (Cited as Reyes.) PLATE III, 376.
  • Peres . DEPE | RES in rectangular frame. Uniface. Irregular eight-cornered planchet. 25 × 28 mm. PLATE XV.
  • Peres Ansira . PERES | ANSI | RA. Leaf-shaped die-imprint. Uniface. Octagonal flan 24 mm. PLATE XVIII.
  • Peres Gavilan . PERES | GAVI | LAN in square depression. Uniface. Octagonal. 22 × 24 mm.
  • Same. Similar to last but with a crude fleur-de-lis above. Uniface. The flan, an eight-leaved rosette. Cast iron. 24 × 27 mm.
  • Perpetua . ESQI. DE. PERPETUA (Esquila or sheep ranch?), between two ornate circles; in center, a rosette. Uniface. Octagonal die. Flan, pomegranate shaped. 25 × 31 mm.
  • Pilaseca. PILA | SECA within a wreath of leaves. Octagonal die. Uniface. Rectangular with cut corners. 18 × 21 mm.
  • Pilon. PIL NO (sic | )—the last two letters were punched into the die upside down mistakenly—within a circle. Uniface. In form of a leaf without stem. 16 × 20 mm. Die 8 mm.
  • Pilon. Similar, but PIL | ON correct. Uniface. Leaf-shaped. 16 × 22 mm.
  • Pilon. Similar but PI | LON; the planchet in form of leaf with stem. PLATE VIII.
  • Pilon. In center, GG between rosettes; in curved line below, PILON; the whole within ornate circle. Uniface. 12 mm. A token unusually small.
  • Pino . PINO; a rosette below. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Pinta. PINTA below three rosettes. Very crude die. Uniface. Irregular rectangular planchet. 24 × 34 mm. MRdeT. Pipis. See No. 353.
  • Pizarro . PIZA-RO. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Pizarro . FDS (Fernandez) | PISAR. Uniface. Rectangular. 20 × 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Plateros . PLATE (last two letters conjoined) | ROS | AB in monogram. Uniface. In form of a bale. Plazuela. See No. 96.
  • PLNS.P.L.N.S. CRUZ 1-8? The die-imprint,with a scalloped edge is 27 mm. in diam. PLATE VIII.
  • Portilla . POR | TILLA in crude script; ornament below. Uniface. 27 mm. Die 16 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Portiyo . PORTIYO in rectangular depression. Uniface. 25 mm. Die 3 × 13 mm.
  • Posadas. POSA | DAS. Uniface. Heart-shaped. 25 × 28 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Prado. PRADO. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Prado. A.JOSE ANTONIO R. DE PRADO. CELAIA, around an ornament in center. Uniface. 32 mm. MRdeT.
  • Prieto. DE | PRIETO (the R in form of an X) in script; an ornament below. Uniface. Cast. 27 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XVI.
  • Prieto. Similar to last but the R in regular form, and with a rosette below the ornament.
  • Prieto. Similar to last but with a small cross before “DE.”
  • Progreso . MUNICIPALIDAD DEL PROGRESO. Radiate star above open book. Rev. Within a double wreath, l/8. At top, ANO DE 1858. Diam. 23 mm. PLATE XXL
  • Provincia, (Hacienda de San Nicolas de). PRO | BIN | CIA. Uniface. Octagonal. 22 × 28 mm. MRdeT. Pueblo de Jala . See No. 204. Pueblo de los Dolores . See No. 237. Pueblo de Tequila. See No. 445.
  • Pueblo Nuevo. PUEBLO NUEVO in two lines. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 25 × 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Puente (“bridge”). PUE-NTE around a crude bridge in center. Very rude die. Uniface. 21 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Puente. DEL | PUENTE in script; below, a crude bridge or viaduct, surmounted by a cross; the whole within a toothed circle. Uniface. 26 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Puente Coloonacio. COLOONACIO* around PUEN *TE* *(fleur-de-lis)* in the field; the whole within a wreath of leaves. Octagonal die. Uniface. Octagonal flan. 24 mm. Said to have been issued in 1812.
  • Puente de Pipis . PUENT | DE | PIPIS. Rev. LAIC DE | LA BEGA (La Vega) in rectangular depression, stamped twice. Irregular square planchet. 25 × 25 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Puente de San Jose . PVENTE E SS. JOSE in rectangular depression. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Puente de San P . P. DE (conjoined) SN. | P. ISN. P. in rectangular depression with toothed border. Uniface. Irregular rectangular planchet. 19 × 25 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Puente de Santa Ana . PTD DE (conjoined) | *STA* | ANA*; the whole within ornate circle. Uniface. Octagonal. 21 × 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Puente de San Ynacio. PVENTE DE SAN.YNACIO; in the field, a rude bridge. Uniface. 21 mm. PLATE VI.
  • Puente de Solanto. PVE-TE (conjoined) | DE | SOLANTO. Uniface. 26 mm.
  • Puente de la Mariscala. PUENTE | DELA.MAR | ISCALA.GA | ONA. Oval die. Uniface. Oval with square ends. 22 × 29 mm.
  • Puente Lena. A crude bridge; below, LE | NA; above, 1773. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE VI. (Two specimens.)
  • Quemada. QVE (script) | MA (conjoined) DA in square die with scalloped border. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVI.
  • Queretaro. GRMIO | DE | PANA | DEROS (“Union of bakers”), Rev. DE. | QUERET = | ARO.DE | 1801; a crude wreath of leaves around the border both sides. Cast. 29 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XII.
  • Queretaro. BASILIO LOPEZ Y NIETO in three lines. Rev. QUERETARO MAYO DE 1806 in four lines. Border of ornaments either side. 32 mm. MRdeT.
  • Quitupan . QUITUPAN ... 1854 ... A bow and two arrows crossed within dotted border. Rev. YGNACIO BUENROSTR. In center, l/8. Countermarked with wreath within which conjoined letters YB and a leaf (?). 22 mm. PLATE XXI.
  • Ramirez . RAMIREZ in two lines within a circle. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Ramon Solorzano . RAMON. SOLORZANO within ornate border; in center, an ornament. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 28 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Ramos . RAMOS between ornaments above and below, within ornate border. Uniface. 30 mm. PLATE XI.
  • Ranaya. RANAYA in rectangular depression. Uniface. 22 mm. Die 3 × 15 mm.
  • Rastro. RAS | TRO in square depression; a small leaf-shaped countermark either side. Uniface. 22 mm.
  • Rea. REA within a border of large quatrefoils and pellets alternating. Uniface. Oval. 19 × 25 mm. Two varieties illustrated. PLATE XVI. (Two specimens.) Real. See No. 481.
  • Regia. REGLA in two lines, within a toothed circle. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Reinoso . REINO ZO. | 87 A. (1787); ornament below. Ornate border. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Relarde . RELARDE within a circle. Uniface. Pomegranate shaped planchet.
  • Resculi. RES | CVLI in very crude script. Uniface. Cast. 21 mm. Reveldes. See No. 239.
  • Reyes . REYES in script; above Q (quarto) incuse. Raised rim. Uniface. 22 mm.
  • Reyes (=Peres? Cf. No. 322). REYES in very crude script; 4 above, and 802 below. Uniface. 22 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE III.
  • Ribera . RIBE | RA. On heart-shaped flan with crude raised rim. PLATE IX.
  • Ribera . Q (quarto) | RIBE | RA in a very ornate lyre-shaped cartouche decorated with sprays of laurel and palm; the whole within a toothed border. Uniface. 36 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Rico. Within ornate border, RICO; above, a cross; below, a scroll. Uniface. Octagonal. 26 MRdeT.*
  • Rio. RIO in rectangular depression with toothed border. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 23 mm. PLATE XVII. Rios , Juan . See No. 209. Rivadeneyra . See No. 188.
  • Rivera . DE | RIVERA | ANO | 84 (1784), a small cross; the whole within a double circle of stars. Rev. PARA | LA between ornaments | PLAZA | ornament; circles as on obverse. 27 mm. Issued for use in the public market place or “plaza.” PLATE I.
  • Rivera . RIVERA in rectangular die-imprint. Flan rectangular with curved sides and knobs at corners. PLATE IX.
  • Robledo . ROVLEDO around an ornament in center. Uniface. 23 mm. MRdeT. Robles . See No. 162. Rodriguez . See No. 159.
  • Rodriguez . RODR | IGUES in rectangular depression. Uniface. Oval with forked protuberance at either end (a fruit?). 17 × 23 mm.
  • Rodriguez . RODRI | GUEZ. Uniface. Rectangular with clipped corners. 16 × 22 mm.
  • Rodriguez . RODRIGUEZ FELISIANO around 1804 in center. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.* Roma. See No. 305.
  • Roman . ROM | AN in crude script. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Romero . R-O-M-E and 6 in center; the whole within a cartouche of four arches. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XVII.
  • Romero . ROMERO in center above Q (quarto), between large eight-leaved rosettes; a large ornament below. Crude milling around the border. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Romero . RO | MERO within a border of pellets. Uniface. Irregular oval with a deep indentation at both sides. 26 × 27 mm. PLATE IX.
  • Romero de Terreros . A large monogram ROT (Romero de Terreros) ; above 8 RS: (8 reales). Uniface. Rectangular. 26 × 37 mm. Thickness 5 mm. MRdeT.* “One of the most important Haciendas of Colonial times, that of San Cristobal Acambaro, in what is now the State of Guanajuato. It formed part of an entail belonging to the second Marchioness de San Francisco, Dona Micaela Romero de Terreros, eldest daughter of the wealthy Conde de Regia, Don Pedro Romero de Terreros. She issued copper tokens of the value of 8, 4, 2, 1 and 1/2 reales, but in such small quantities that they have become ex- tremely rare at the present day.”—M. Romero de Terreros, “Mexican Hacienda Tokens,” in Spink’s Numismatic Circular, March, 1934, Col. 86.
  • Same. Monogram as last; to right, 4 with a small R above (4 reales). Uniface. Rectangular. 25 × 26 mm. MRdeT.
  • Same. Similar to last but 2 (2 reales) in place of 4. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT. PLATE III.
  • Same. Similar but 1 (1 real) in place of 2. Uniface. Irregular, rectangular planchet. 18 × 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Same. Monogram. Rev. l/2 (half-real). Triangular. 18 mm. MRdeT.
  • Romero de Terreros (?). A large monogram, similar to the preceding issue but with a small “e” added; to left, 2 (2 reales). Uniface. Rectangular. 29 × 33 mm.
  • Rosales . ROSALES in ornate frame. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT. Rovledo . See No. 383.
  • Rubin . RUBI | N in script. Uniface. Leaf-shaped. 15 × 22 mm. MRdeT. PLATE IX.
  • Ruis . RUIS in script. Uniface. Cast. 22 mm.
  • Ruiz . RVIZ, an ornament (conventionalized lariat) below; the whole within a circle of dashes. Uniface with a trace of inscription and wreath on reverse side. Leaf-shaped planchet. 22 × 28 mm. PLATE IX.
  • Ruiz . Similar to last but on a round planchet. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • S.L.D.C. SLDC in monogram with ANO DE above, and 1806 beneath. 22 mm. MRdeT.*
  • Salas. SALAS | ORI | SAUA. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Salinas . SALI | NAS, a dotted line between, within a plain circle. Uniface. 28 mm. Die 20 mm. Salvatierra , E.C. See No. 23. San Alvaro . See No. 153.
  • Sanches . SANCHES in ornate panel; JM above; Q 806 (quarto 1806) below; the whole within a beaded circle. Rev. TORES in rectangular indent. (Probably a counterstamp). 31 mm.
  • Sanches . SAN | CHES; an ornament below. Milled border. Uniface. 21 mm. PLATE XVII.
  • Sanches . Similar to last but SANC HES.
  • Sanches . SAN | CHES within rectangular panel. Uniface. Irregular octagon. 20 × 21 mm. PLATE XVII.
  • Sanchis . SAN | CHIS in rude script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm. San Felipe . See No. 482.
  • San Felipe . ESQ. DE (conjoined) S. FELIPE DE (conjoined) JESUS. In center, a small animal; 99 (1799) above; the whole within an ornate circle. Uniface. 24 mm. San Francisco . See No. 483.
  • San Hipolito . Between two ornate circles, TIENDA D SN. HIPOLITO (a leaf); in center, a rosette. Octagonal die. Uni- face. 23 mm. San Jose . See No. 354.
  • S(an) Jose. S. JOSE DE AVINO in conventional wreath. Rev. at center, 1/4. Legend, ADMINISTRACION DE MINAS 1864. Diam. 20 mm. PLATE XXI.
  • San Juan . SAN JUAN; two crude branches crossed below. Rev. A swan (?) to left, in waves. Toothed border either side. Oval planchet. 17 × 28 mm. PLATE IX. San Nicolas . See No. 348. San P . See No. 355. Santa Ana . See No. 356.
  • Santa Cruz . SANT GRVS, in a die with toothed edge. Uniface. Planchet shaped distinctively—a vegetable (?). PLATE IX. S. Cruz . See No. 338.
  • Santa Efigenia . STA. EFYG within a toothed border. Octagonal die. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XVII.
  • Santa Vera Cruz . STA | VERA | GRVZ in square die-imprint on barrel-shaped planchet, 27 × 21 mm. PLATE IX.
  • Santos Barios . DE (conjoined) L COLEGIO DE (conjoined) SANTOS.BARIOS. In field, a monogram within a circle. Ornate border. Uniface. Countermarked ORTEGA in rectangular depression, on obverse. 21 mm.
  • Sanudo . SANUDO around a rosette in center; the whole within a wreath; below, star. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVII. San Ynacio. See No. 357.
  • Sayula . A.C.D. SAYULA. 1814.; in center, Q (quarto). Border of pellets. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XIII.
  • Sedano . SEDAN | O in script. Uniface. Cast. 20 mm.
  • Selaya . SELA | YA in script. Uniface. Cast. 19 mm. Senor . See No. 484.
  • Serbin Olbera . SERBIN | OLBERA | 1801; a spray with flowers and berries, above; rude milling around the border. Uniface. 29 mm. PLATE X.
  • Serna . SERNA, around a rosette. Uniface. Countermarked J. incuse.
  • Serra . SE | RA. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.
  • Servantes . SER | VAN | TES within a circle of dashes. Uniface. 19 mm.
  • Sicilia . SICILIA; below, a star. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT.
  • Simon Martines . SIMON | MARTI | NES in rectangular indent. Uniface. The planchet in form of an eight-leaved rosette. 31 mm. PLATE VIII.
  • Sires . SIRES between ornaments. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Soberano . SOBE | RANO in crude script, in square depression. Uniface. 26 mm. Sojo. See No. 437. Solanto . See No. 358.
  • Solar. ANTONIO | SOLAR in crude script, in rectangular de- pression. Uniface. Irregular rosette-shaped planchet. 26 mm. PLATE IX.
  • Solis . SOLIS in script, in rectangular depression with toothed border. Uniface. Oval. 25 × 28 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE IV. Solorzano . See No. 366.
  • Solorzano . SOLORSANO ANO DE 1807 between two ornate circles. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Sosa . SOSA between laurel branches. Uniface. MRdeT.
  • Soto. SO | TO in script, within a circle of pellets. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Soturo . SOTURO in script, in rectangular depression. Uniface. Struck over Mexican quarter-real.
  • Sourano . SOURANO between ornate bars above and below. Border of pellets. Uniface. 23 mm.
  • Soxo (Sojo). SOXO between ornaments, within a border of rays. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT. Susan . See No. 485.
  • Susari . SUSA | RI in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 21 mm.
  • Tagle . TAGLE only. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. Tagle . See No. 179.
  • Taretan. TARETAN UN OCTAVO. 1858. Head of man to right. Rev. FONDO MUNICIPAL. A tree. 19 mm. MRdeT. (Michoacán) 77. PLATE XXI.
  • Tellez . TE | LLES in very crude script. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT*
  • Teocaltiche . TEOCAL | TICHE, 1807 above. Uniface. 18 mm. MRdeT.
  • Te P. TE P. DE P. NA. Upright oblong die, 10 × 12 mm. on circular flan 23 mm. in diameter. PLATE XVII.
  • Tepec . TEPEC. Rev. Two countermarks, TI.N, and PN.
  • Tequila. PBO (Pueblo) DE TEQUILA 4. (1/4 real) 1814. Beaded border. Uniface. 19 mm. Terreros . See No. 391.
  • Tezcuco. R. | TEZ | CUCO; below, an ornament. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.*
    Tienda Baja . See No. 47.
    Tienda de la Campa . See No. 214.
    Tienda de la Cani . See No. 215.
    Tienda de la Victoria . See No. 225.
    Tienda del Rio . See No. 134.
    Tienda del Triunfo . See No. 135.
  • Tinoco . TINOCO in octagonal depression, within a circle. Uniface. 21 mm. MRdeT.
  • Tipitaro . TIPITARO in curved line above; in center, 1/8 above crossed branches. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Same. Above crossed branches, a building with pillared porch (?) and two spires or chimneys. HACIENDA DE TIPITARO. Rev. Within wreath at center, UN REAL. Legend: DESE EN EFFEGTOS—below FLORES. 24 mm. MRdeT. (Michoacán) No. 101. PLATE XXII.
  • Tizapan . *TIZAPAN. 1828. In the field, 1/8 above a sprig of laurel; the whole within a beaded circle. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Tlacomulco . GAVEZ | ERADE | TLAGO | MVLGO. Uniface. Octagonal. 24 × 24 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVII.
  • Tlazasalca (Michoacán). TLAZASALCA. Two wooded mountains. 1853 below. Rev. 1/8 within wreath. 22 mm. MRdeT. (Michoacin) No. 102. PLATE XXII.
  • Todosia . TODO | SI in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 21 mm.
  • Topete . L M DE TOPETE in script, within irregular circle. Uniface. 20 mm. MRdeT.
  • Torre . TORRE in a single line, crossing the inner of two circles of ornamental units repeated. Uniface. Diameter of die, 19 mm., of flan, 22 mm. PLATE XIII.
  • Torre de Jose . TORRE D. JOSE, around a target in center, within a circle of tiny leaves; the whole within an ornate border. Uniface. 21 mm.
  • Torres . TORRES in rectangular depression. Uniface. 24 mm. Die 8 × 17 mm.
  • Torrescano . TORRS (the R’s in form of X and the S above) KNO. Uniface. Cast. 24 mm. MRdeT * PLATE XVII. Totitan. See No. 136. Uciondo. See No. 113.
  • Udiaz . VDI AZ within ornate panel. Uniface. Rectangular with rounded corners. 18 × 25 mm. Die 15 × 18 mm.
  • Ul-ray. VL (a defaced letter) RAYS (last letter defaced). Uniface. Pomegranate-shaped. 24 × 28 mm.
  • Urado. URADO between stars, within pointed milling. Uniface. 24 mm.
  • Urive and Munoz. Q | VRIVE | Y | MVNOS | 1801 within ornate cartouche. Uniface, with a trace of a monogram countermarked on reverse. 32 mm. MRdeT.
  • Urquiza . URQUIZA in two lines. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 23 × 32 mm. MRdeT.
  • Uruapan . The Mexican eagle; above, URUAPAN; below, 1839. Uniface. 20 mm.
  • Valenzuela . VALENZUELA in crude script; in center, a large rosette within circle. Very crude die. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.
  • Valverde . Y | VALVER | DE | 1807 with a raised indented border. Uniface. 30 mm. MRdeT.
  • Vaquedano . VAQVEDANO ANO DE 1796., around a target in center. The Q is like a reversed P. (q). Ornamented border. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 32 mm. PLATE I. Vareda . See No. 54. Varela . See No. 236.
  • Vargas . VARGAS 798* (1798); in center, a star. Uniface. 28 mm. Die 17 mm. MRdeT.* Vasques . Juan . See No. 210.
  • Vasquez . VASQUEZ between two circles of rosettes. Uniface. 26 mm. MRdeT.
  • Vasquez . LVIS | VASQUE | S.; ornament above; crossed branches below; within a beaded circle. Rev. EN CELAYA DE 1803 within a wreath of leaves. 33 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XII.
  • Vega. DE LA | VEGA within ornate border. Uniface. Irregular planchet. 15 × 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Vega. JOSE | ANTONI | O in wreath. Rev. DE LA VEGA DE 1803. On thick flan. 34 mm. in diameter. PLATE XI.
  • Velasquez . VELASQUEZ; a head to left; below, two oak branches. Border of pellets. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT. Velasquez . See No. 57. Venancio Gutierrez . See No. 195.
  • Vence . VEN | CE in script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Vergara . VER*GARA. LA | GUNILLA within a cartouche of stars. Uniface. Rectangular, irregular planchet. 20 × 25 mm. MRdeT. Vergara . See No. 61.
  • Viderique . VIDERI | QUE | CELAYA | 1808. within a beaded circle. Uniface. 24 mm. MRdeT.* PLATE XIV.
  • Viderique . VIDER | QUE | CELAYA | 1814 in ornamental border. Uniface. 24 mm. PLATE XIV.
  • Vieques. VIEQUES; countermarked on a Mexican quarter real.
  • Villa Espumera. VILLA | DE LA ES | PVMER A. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVII.
  • Villa Nueva . VILLA | NUEBA. Uniface. Rectangular. 17 × 23 mm. MRdeT.
  • Villa Real . VILLA | REAL in rectangular depression. Uniface. 23 mm. Die 5 × 10 mm.
  • Villa San Felipe . VILLA.DE.SAN FELIPE.; in center, a rude Maltese cross in beaded circle. Uniface. 30 mm.
  • Villa San Francisco . V. DE S | FRAN | CISCO in toothed frame. Uniface. Rectangular. 20 × 21 mm. MRdeT. PLATE XVII.
  • Villa Senor . Q | VILLA | SENOR | 1801 within ornate wreath. Rev. A monogram (almost obliterated) in irregular depression. 31 mm. PLATE X.
  • Villa Susan . VILLA SVSAN 1783 around a fountain in center. Uniface. 28 mm. MRdeT. PLATE I.
  • Xalpa (Hacienda) . XALPA-OU*Z01 18. in very crude script, around a branding-iron in center; the whole within a circle of pellets. The digits may be 78. Uniface. 27 mm. MRdeT.* Ximenes . See No. 207.
  • Xolalco . XOLALCO around 1810 in center; within a wreath of laurel leaves. Uniface. 25 mm. MRdeT.
  • Zacoalco . ZA | COAL | CO in crude script. Uniface. Cast. 23 mm.
  • Zapotlan . ZAPO | TLAN 1813 in crude lettering. Uniface. 20 mm. PLATE XXI.
  • Zavaleta . Between ornaments, 1/4Z; below, MO Uniface. Octagonal. 22 mm. MRdeT. “This Hacienda belonged to Count de San Bartolome of Xala.”—MRdeT., p. 32.
  • Zarate . ZARA | TE in rectangular depression with toothed border. Uniface. Rectangular. 21 × 25 mm. PLATE XVII.
  • Zepeda . Between rosettes, YGO (Yglesio) Q (quarto) ZEPEDA above a wavy line with pellets in angles. 18.6 (1806); the whole within a circle of tiny leaves. Border of ornaments. Uniface. 35 mm.

End Notes

* The abbreviation MRdeT used herein refers to the monograph Los Tlacos Coloniales by Manuel Romero de Terreros published in Mexico in 1935—cf. p. 5. Tokens illustrated in this work are asterisked. A second publication by the same author Las Monedas de Necesidad del Estado de Michoacán is referred to as MRdeT. (Michoacán).

PLATES

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE I

PLATE I - A

image

EARLY DATED ISSUES

A

PLATE I - 133

image

133

PLATE I - 282

image

282

PLATE I - B

image

B

PLATE I - 485

image

485

PLATE I - 381

image

381

PLATE I - C

image

C

PLATE I - 90

image

90

PLATE I - 467

image

467

PLATE I - D

image

D

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE II

PLATE II - A

image

MONOGRAMS

A

PLATE II - B

image

B

PLATE II - C

image

C

PLATE II - D

image

D

PLATE II - E

image

E

PLATE II - F

image

F

PLATE II - G

image

G

PLATE II - H

image

H

PLATE II - I

image

I

PLATE II - J

image

J

PLATE II - K

image

K

PLATE II - L

image

L

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE III

PLATE III - A

image

MONOGRAMS WITH NUMERALS OF VALUE

A

PLATE III - B

image

B

PLATE III - C

image

C

PLATE III - 393

image

393

PLATE III - D

image

D

PLATE III - E

image

E

PLATE III - F

image

F

PLATE III - G

image

G

PLATE III - 218

image

218

PLATE III - H

image

H

PLATE III - 379

image

379

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE IV

PLATE IV - A

image

MONOGRAMS

A

PLATE IV - B

image

B

PLATE IV - C

image

C

PLATE IV - D

image

D

PLATE IV - E

image

E

PLATE IV - F

image

F

PLATE IV - G

image

G

PLATE IV - 431

image

431

PLATE IV - H

image

H

PLATE IV - I

image

I

PLATE IV - J

image

J

PLATE IV - K

image

K

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE V

PLATE V - A

image

ANEPIGRAPHIC PIECES

A

PLATE V - B

image

B

PLATE V - C

image

C

PLATE V - D

image

D

PLATE V - E

image

E

PLATE V - F

image

F

PLATE V - G

image

G

PLATE V - H

image

H

PLATE V - I

image

I

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE VI

PLATE VI - 353

image

BRIDGES AND ESQUINAS

353

PLATE VI - 355

image

355

PLATE VI - 360

image

360

PLATE VI - 350

image

350

PLATE VI - 357

image

357

PLATE VI - 351

image

351

PLATE VI - 289

image

289

PLATE VI - 239

image

239

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE VII

PLATE VII - 1

image

SHAPED TOKENS

1

PLATE VII - 5

image

5

PLATE VII - 19

image

19

PLATE VII - 8

image

8

PLATE VII - 53

image

53

PLATE VII - 66

image

66

PLATE VII - 45

image

45

PLATE VII - 99

image

99

PLATE VII - 63

image

63

PLATE VII - 105

image

105

PLATE VII - 116

image

116

PLATE VII - 127

image

127

PLATE VII - 117

image

117

PLATE VII - 119

image

119

PLATE VII - 120

image

120

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE VIII

PLATE VIII - 185

image

SHAPED TOKENS

185

PLATE VIII - 194

image

194

PLATE VIII - 228

image

228

PLATE VIII - 427

image

427

PLATE VIII - 250

image

250

PLATE VIII - 281

image

281

PLATE VIII - 304

image

304

PLATE VIII - 294

image

294

PLATE VIII - 300

image

300

PLATE VIII - 338

image

338

PLATE VIII - 331

image

331

PLATE VIII - 341

image

341

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE IX

PLATE IX - 377

image

SHAPED TOKENS

377

PLATE IX - 382

image

382

PLATE IX - A

image

A

PLATE IX - 400

image

400

PLATE IX - 398

image

398

PLATE IX - 390

image

390

PLATE IX - 414

image

414

PLATE IX - 413

image

413

PLATE IX - 416

image

416

PLATE IX - 430

image

430

PLATE IX - B

image

B

PLATE IX - C

image

C

PLATE IX - D

image

D

PLATE IX - E

image

E

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE X

PLATE X - 484

image

DATED TOKENS — 1801-1806

484

PLATE X - 264

image

264

PLATE X - 164

image

164

PLATE X - 37

image

37

PLATE X - 422

image

422

PLATE X - 240

image

240

PLATE X - 12

image

12

PLATE X - 286

image

286

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XI

PLATE XI - 198

image

TOKENS EMPHASIZING NAMES

198

PLATE XI - 51

image

51

PLATE XI - 275

image

275

PLATE XI - 367

image

367

PLATE XI - 277

image

277

PLATE XI - 10

image

10

PLATE XI - 472

image

472

PLATE XI - 71

image

71

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XII

PLATE XII - 362

image

TOKENS EMPHASIZING NAMES

362

PLATE XII - 470

image

470

PLATE XII - 297

image

297

PLATE XII - 72

image

72

PLATE XII - A

image

A

PLATE XII - B

image

B

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XIII

PLATE XIII - A

image

COUNTERSTAMPED TOKENS

A

PLATE XIII - 221

image

221

PLATE XIII - 205

image

205

PLATE XIII - 419

image

419

PLATE XIII - 455

image

455

PLATE XIII - 4

image

4

PLATE XIII - 103

image

103

PLATE XIII - 266

image

266

PLATE XIII - 20

image

20

PLATE XIII - 81

image

81

PLATE XIII - 114

image

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XIV

PLATE XIV - 476

image

TOKENS WITH SIMILARITIES OF WORKMANSHIP

476

PLATE XIV - 477

image

477

PLATE XIV - A

image

A

PLATE XIV - 44

image

44

PLATE XIV - 35

image

35

PLATE XIV - 366

image

366

PLATE XIV - 145

image

145

PLATE XIV - 144

image

144

PLATE XIV - 122

image

122

PLATE XIV - 263

image

263

PLATE XIV - 316

image

316

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XV

PLATE XV - 6

image

TOKENS EMPHASIZING INDIVIDUAL NAMES

6

PLATE XV - 21

image

21

PLATE XV - 11

image

11

PLATE XV - 34

image

34

PLATE XV - 69

image

69

PLATE XV - 79

image

79

PLATE XV - 323

image

323

PLATE XV - 129

image

129

PLATE XV - 191

image

191

PLATE XV - 202

image

202

PLATE XV - 223

image

223

PLATE XV - 206

image

206

PLATE XV - 226

image

226

PLATE XV - 241

image

241

PLATE XV - 243

image

243

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XVI

PLATE XVI - 227

image

TOKENS EMPHASIZING INDIVIDUAL NAMES

227

PLATE XVI - 254

image

254

PLATE XVI - 246

image

246

PLATE XVI - 256

image

256

PLATE XVI - 299

image

299

PLATE XVI - 283

image

283

PLATE XVI - 298

image

298

PLATE XVI - 302

image

302

PLATE XVI - 301

image

301

PLATE XVI - 310

image

310

PLATE XVI - 344

image

344

PLATE XVI - 361

image

PLATE XVI - 370

image

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XVII

PLATE XVII - 380

image

TOKENS EMPHASIZING INDIVIDUAL NAMES

380

PLATE XVII - 159

image

159

PLATE XVII - 388

image

388

PLATE XVII - 408

image

408

PLATE XVII - 406

image

406

PLATE XVII - 418

image

418

PLATE XVII - 415

image

415

PLATE XVII - 458

image

458

PLATE XVII - 443

image

443

PLATE XVII - 451

image

451

PLATE XVII - 54

image

54

PLATE XVII - 491

image

491

PLATE XVII - 483

image

483

PLATE XVII - 479

image

479

PLATE XVII - 163

image

163

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XVIII

PLATE XVIII - A

image

SIMILARITIES OF NAME OR MONOGRAM

193

PLATE XVIII - B

image

B

PLATE XVIII - C

image

C

PLATE XVIII - D

image

D

PLATE XVIII - 324

image

324

PLATE XVIII - 170

image

170

PLATE XVIII - 169

image

169

PLATE XVIII - 177

image

177

PLATE XVIII - 179

image

179

PLATE XVIII - 178

image

178

PLATE XVIII - F

image

F

PLATE XVIII - 147

image

147

PLATE XVIII - 232

image

232

PLATE XVIII - G

image

G

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XIX

PLATE XIX - A

image

ORNATE LETTERS OR MONOGRAMS

A

PLATE XIX - B

image

B

PLATE XIX - C

image

C

PLATE XIX - D

image

D

PLATE XIX - E

image

E

PLATE XIX - F

image

F

PLATE XIX - G

image

G

PLATE XIX - H

image

H

PLATE XIX - I

image

I

PLATE XIX - J

image

J

PLATE XIX - K

image

K

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XX

PLATE XX - 106

image

TOKENS OF COLIMA AND AMECA

106

PLATE XX - 108

image

108

PLATE XX - 109

image

109

PLATE XX - 107

image

107

PLATE XX - 110

image

110

PLATE XX - 111

image

111

PLATE XX - 112

image

112

PLATE XX - 25

image

25

PLATE XX - 31

image

31

PLATE XX - 30

image

30

PLATE XX - 26

image

26

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XXI

PLATE XXI - 14

image

MUNICIPAL OR STATE ISSUES

14

PLATE XXI - 190

image

190

PLATE XXI - 489

image

489

PLATE XXI - 364

image

364

PLATE XXI - 98

image

98

PLATE XXI - 440

image

440

PLATE XXI - 347

image

347

PLATE XXI - 412

image

412

HACIENDA TOKENS

PLATE XXII

PLATE XXII - 32

MUNICIPAL OR STATE ISSUES

image

32

PLATE XXII - 33

image

33

PLATE XXII - 197

image

197

PLATE XXII - 136

image

136

PLATE XXII - 452

image

452

PLATE XXII - 121

image

121

PLATE XXII - 449

image

449

PLATE XXII - 309

image

309

image

245


BACK

PUBLICATIONS OF THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

Broadway at 156th Street, New York City 32, N. Y.

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 1866–1924

Vols. 1–3: Monthly, May, 1866–April, 1870.

Vols. 4–46: Quarterly, July, 1870–October, 1912.

Vols. 47–53: Annually, 1913–1924.

With many plates, illustrations, maps and tables. The numbers necessary to complete broken sets may, in many cases, be obtained. An index to the first fifty volumes has been issued as part of Volume LI. It may be purchased separately for $3.00.

NUMISMATIC NOTES AND MONOGRAPHS

The Numismatic Notes and Monographs is a series devoted to essays and treatises on subjects relating to coins, paper money, medals and decorations. Nos. 1–109 inclusive are approximately 4 1/2 × 6 5/8 inches in size. Beginning with No. 110 the size is 6 1/8 × 9 inches.

  • Sydney P. Noe. Coin Hoards. 1921. 47 pp. 6 pls. 50¢.
  • Edward T. Newell. Octobols of Histiaea. 1921. 25 pp. 2 pls. Out of print.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—Introduction and Kyparissia Hoard. 1921. 21 pp. 2 pls. Out of print.
  • Howland Wood. The Mexican Revolutionary Coinage, 1913–1916. 1921. 44 pp. 26 pls. $2.00
  • Leonidas Westervelt. The Jenny Lind Medals and Tokens. 1921. 25 pp. 9 pls. Out of print.
  • Anges Balwdin. Five Roman Gold Medallions. 1921. 103 pp. 8 pls. $1.50.
  • Sydney P. Noe. Medallic Work of A. A. Weinman. 1921. 31 pp. 17 pls. Out of print.
  • Gilbert S. Perez. The Mint of the Philippine Islands. 1921. 8 pp. 4 pls. Out of print.
  • David Eugene Smith. Computing Jetons. 1921. 70 pp. 25 pls. $1.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre. 1921. 40 pp. 8 pls. Out of print.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. French Orders and Decorations. 1922. 110 pp. 35 pls. Out of print.
  • Howland Wood. Gold Dollars of 1858. 1922. 7 pp. 2 pls. Out of print.
  • R. B. Whitehead. Pre-Mohammedan Coinage of N. W. India. 1922. 56 pp. 15 pls. Out of print.
  • George F. Hill. Attambelos I of Characene. 1922. 12 pp. 3 pls. Out of print.
  • M. P. Vlasto. Taras Oikistes (A Contribution to Tarentine Numismatics). 1922. 234 pp. 13 pls. $3.50.
  • Howland Wood. Commemorative Coinage of the United States. 1922. 63 pp. 7 pls. Out of print.
  • Anges Balwdin. Six Roman Bronze Medallions. 1923.39 pp. 6 pls. $1.50.
  • Howland Wood. Tegucigalpa Coinage of 1823. 1923.16 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—II. Demanhur Hoard. 1923. 162 pp. 8 pls. $2.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Italian Orders of Chivalry and Medals of Honor. 1923. 146 pp. 34 pls. Out of print.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—III. Andritsaena. 1924. 39 pp. 6 pls. $1.00.
  • G. T. Seltman. A Hoard from Side. 1924. 20 pp. 3 pls. Out of print.
  • R. B. Seager. A Cretan Coin Hoard. 1924. 55 pp.12 pls. $2.00.
  • Samuel R. Milbank. The Coinage of Aegina. 1925. 66 pp. 5 pls. $2.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. A Bibliography of Greek Coin Hoards. 1925. 275 pp. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Mithradates of Parthia and Hyspaosines of Characene. 1925. 18 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Mende (Kaliandra) Hoard. 1926. 73 pp. 10 pls. $2.00.
  • Anges Balwdin. Four Medallions from the Arras Hoard. 1926. 36 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • H. Alexander Parsons. The Earliest Coins of Norway. 1926. 41 pp. 1 pl. 50¢.
  • Edward T. Newell. Some Unpublished Coins of Eastern Dynasts. 1926. 21 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Spanish Orders of Chivalry and Decorations of Honor. 1926. 165 pp. 40 pls. $3.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Coinage of Metapontum. (Part I). 1927. 134 pp. 23 pls. $3.00.
  • Edward T. Newell. Two Recent Egyptian Hoards—Delta and Keneh. 1927. 34 pp. 3 pls. $1.00.
  • Edward Rogers. The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage of Tyre. 1927. 33 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Anonymous Byzantine Bronze Coinage. 1928. 27 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Notes on the Decorations and Medals of the French Colonies and Protectorates. 1928. 62 pp. 31 pls. $2.00.
  • Oscar Ravel. The “Colts” of Ambracia. 1928. 180 pp. 19 pls. $3.00.
  • Howland Wood. The Coinage of the Mexican Revolutionists. 1928. 53 pp. 15 pls. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—IV. Olympia. 1929. 31 pp 9 pls $1.50.
  • Allen B. West. Fifth and Fourth Century Gold Coins from the Thracian Coast. 1929. 183 pp. 16 pls. $3.00.
  • Gilbert S. Perez. The Leper Colony Currency of Culion. 1929. 10 pp. 3 pls. 50¢.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. Two Hoards of Attic Bronze Coins. 1930. 14 pp. 4 pls. 50¢.
  • D. H. Cox, The Caparelli Hoard. 1930. 14 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • Geo. F. Hill. On the Coins of Narbonensis with Iberian Inscriptions. 1930. 39 pp. 6 pls. $1.00.
  • Bauman L. Belden. A Mint in New York City. 1930. 40 pp. 4 pls. 50¢.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Küchük Köhne Hoard. 1931. 33 pp. 4 pls. $1.00.
  • We , Sydney P. Noe. The Coinage of Metapontum. Part II. 1931. 134 pp. 43 pls. $3.00.
  • D. W. Valentine. The United States Half Dimes. 1931. 79 pp. 47 pls. $5.00.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. Two Roman Hoards from Dura-Europos. 1931. 66 pp. 17 pls. $1.50.
  • Geo. F. Hill. Notes on the Ancient Coinage of Hispania Citerior. 1931. 196 pp. 36 double pls. $4.00.
  • Alan W. Hazelton. The Russian Imperial Orders. 1932. 102 pp. 20 pls. $3.00.
  • O. Ravel. Corinthian Hoards (Corinth and Arta). 1932. 27 pp. 4 pls. $1.00.
  • Jean B. Gammann. The Symbols on Staters of Corinthian Type (A Catalogue). 1932. 130 pp. 14 double pls. $3.00.
  • Shirley H. Weber. An Egyptian Hoard of the Second Century A. D. 1932. 41 pp. 5 pls. $1.50.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Third and Fourth Dura Hoards. 1932. 85 pp. 20 pls. $1.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. South American Decorations and War Medals. 1932. 178 pp. 35 pls. $3.00.
  • Wm. Campbell. Greek and Roman Plated Coins. 1933. 226 pp. 190+pls. $3.50.
  • E. T. Newell. The Fifth Dura Hoard. 1933. 14 pp. 2 pls. $1.00.
  • D. H. Cox. The Tripolis Hoard. 1933. 61 pp. 8 pls. 2 maps. $1.50.
  • E. T. Newell. Two Hoards from Minturno. 1933. 38 pp. 5 pls. $1.00.
  • Howland Wood. The Gampola Larin Hoard. 1934. 84 pp. 10 double pls. $3.00.
  • J. G. Milne. The Melos Hoard of 1907. 1934. 19 pp. 1 pl. $1.00.
  • A. F. Pradeau. The Mexican Mints of Alamos and Hermosillo. 1934. 73 pp. illus. 3 pls. $1.50.
  • E. T. Newell. A Hoard from Siphnos. 1934. 17 pp. 1 pi. 50¢.
  • C. H. V. Sutherland. Romano-British Imitations of Bronze Coins of Claudius I. 1935. 35 pp. 8 double pls. $2.00.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Ephemeral Decorations. 1935. 40 pp. 11 pls. $2.00.
  • Sawyer McA. Mosser. A Bibliography of Byzantine Coin Hoards. 1935. 116 pp. $1.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Five Greek Bronze Coin Hoards. 1935. 67 pp. 9 double pls. $2.00.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Sixth, Seventh and Tenth Dura Hoards. 1935. 75 pp. 5 pls. $1.00.
  • Frederick O. Waage. Greek Bronze Coins from a Well at Megara. 1935. 42 pp. 3 pls. $1.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Thurian Di-Staters. 1935. 68 pp. 11 double pls. $2.00.
  • John Walker. The Coinage of the Second Saffarid Dynasty in Sistan. 1936. 46 pp. 4 double pls. $1.00.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Seleucid Coinage of Tyre. 1936. 34 pp. 5 pls. $1.00.
  • Margaret Crosby and Emily Grace. An Achaean League Hoard. 1936. 44 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Agnes Baldwin Brett. Victory Issues of Syracuse after 413 B. C. 1936. 6 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Pergamene Mint under Philetaerus. 1936. 34 pp. 10 pls. $2.50.
  • Charles C. Torrey. Aramaic Graffiti on Coins of Demanhur. 1937. 13 pp. 2 pls. $1.00.
  • Sidney P. Noe. A Bibliography of Greek Coin Hoards. (Second Edition). 1937. 362 pp. $4.00.
  • Naphtali Lewis. A Hoard of Folles from Seltz (Alsace). 1937. 81 pp. 5 pls. $2.00.
  • Harold Mattingly and W. P. D. Stebbing. The Richborough Hoard of ‘Radiates,' 1931. 1938. 118 pp. 15 pls. $2.50.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. Coins from Jerash. 1928–1934. 1938. 141 pp. 9 pls. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Miscellanea Numismatica: Cyrene to India. 1938. 101 pp. 6 pls. $2.00.
  • David M. Bullowa. The Commemorative Coinage of the United States 1892–1938. 1938. 192 pp. 10 pls. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Late Seleucid Mints in Ake-Ptolemais and Damascus. 1939. 107 pp. 17 pls. $2.00.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Eighth and Ninth Dura Hoards. 1939. 92 pp. 13 pls. $2.00.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Counterfeiting in Colonial Pennsylvania. 1939. 52 pp. 2 pls. $1.00.
  • George C. Miles. A Byzantine Weight Validated by al-Walid. 1939. 11 pp. 1 pl. 50¢.
  • Jaime Gonzalez. A Puerto Rican Counterstamp. 1940. 21 pp. 2 pls. $1.00.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Mexican Decorations of Honour. 1940. 53 pp. 17 pls. $2.00.
  • Donald F. Brown. Temples of Rome as Coin Types. 1940. 51 pp. 9 pls. $1.50.
  • Eunice Work. The Early Staters of Heraclea Lucaniae. 1940. 40 pp. 8 pls. $2.00.
  • D. H. Cox. A Tarsus Coin Collection in the Adana Museum. 1941. 67 pp. 12 pls. $2.00.
  • Herbert E. Ives. Foreign Imitations of the English Noble. 1941. 36 pp. 5 pls. $1.50.
  • Louis C. West. Gold and Silver Coin Standards in the Roman Empire. 1941. 199 pp. $1.50.
  • Arthur D. McIlvaine. The Silver Dollars of the United States of America. 1941. 36 pp. 1 folded pl. $1.00.
  • J. G. Milne. Kolophon and its Coinage. A Study. 1941. 113 pp. 19 double pls. $2.50.
  • Sawyer McA. Mosser. The Endicott Gift of Greek and Roman Coins. 1941. 65 pp. 9 pls. $1.50.
  • Edgar Erskine Hume. The Medals of the United States Army Medical De- partment and Medals Honoring Army Medical Officers. 1942. 146 pp. 23 pls. $3.00.
  • Phraes O. Sigler, Sycee Silver. 1943. 37 pp. 6 pls. $1.00.
  • Sydney P.Noe. The Castine Deposit: An American Hoard. 1942.37 pp. 4 pls. $1.00.
  • H. F. Bowker. A Numismatic Bibliography of the Far East. 1943. 144 pp. $1.50.
  • Sydney P.Noe. The New England and Willow Tree Coinages of Massachusetts. 1943. 56 pp. 16 pls. $3.00.
  • Nai Chi Chang. An Inscribed Chinese Ingot of the XII Century A. D. 1944. 9 pp. 2 pls. 50¢.
  • George L. McKay. Early American Currency. 1944. 85 pp. 27 pls. Out of print.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Byzantine Hoard of Lagbe. 1945. 22 pp. 8 pls. $1.00.
  • James C. Risk. British Orders and Decorations. 1945. 124 pp. 76 pls. $4.00.
  • Bluma L. Trell. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. 1945. 71 pp. 28 pls. $2.00.
  • Karel O. Castelin. The Coinage of Rhesaena in Mesopotamia. 1946. 11 pp. 17 pls. $2.00.
  • Aline A. Boyce. Coins of Tingi with Latin Legends. 1947. 27 pp. 5 pls. $1.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Oak Tree Coinage of Massachusetts. 1947. 23 pp. 10 pls. $1.50.
  • George C. Miles. Early Arab Glass Weights and Stamps. 1948. 168 pp. 14 pls. $5.00.
  • Philip V. Hill. "Barbarous Radiates": Imitations of Third-Century Roman Coins. 1949. 44 pp. 4 pls. $2.00.
  • Richard N. Frye. Notes on the Early Coinage of Transoxiana. 1949. 49 pp. 1 pl. $2.00.

MUSEUM NOTES

"The American Numismatic Society Museum Notes" is a publication consisting principally of brief notes and papers on items in the Society’s collections.

I—1946. 106 pp. 23 pls. $1.50

II—1947. 118 pp. 19 pls. $1.50

III—1948. 154 pp. 26 pls. $5.00

NUMISMATIC STUDIES

This series accommodates works of full book length, 7 3/4 × 10 3/4 inches in size.

  • Edward T. Newell. The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III. 1938. 307 pp. 56 pls. $6.00.
  • George C. Miles. The Numismatic History of Rayy. 1938. 240 pp. 6 pls. $4.00.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Syrian Tetradrachms of Caracalla and Macrinus. 1940. 116 pp. 26 pls. $5.00.
  • Edward T. Newell, The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III. 1941. 450 pp. 86 pls. $10.00.
  • Jocelyn M. G. Toynbee. Roman Medallions. 1944. 268 pp. 49 pls. Out of print.

NUMISMATIC LITERATURE

A quarterly listing of current numismatic publications with abstracts of their content. Subscription price to non-members is $2.00 per year postpaid. Single current issues, $.50 each.

  • George H. Clapp and Howard R. Newcomb. The United States Cents of the Years 1795, 1796, 1797 and 1800. 1947. 74 pp. 4 photographic pls. Bound in cloth. $10.00.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Coinages of Demetrius Poliorcetes. London. Oxford University Press. 1927. 174 pp. 18 pls. $5.00.