Tripolis hoard of French seignorial and crusader's coins

Author
Cox, Dorothy Hannah, 1893-
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
Date
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works

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CC BY-NC

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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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THE TRIPOLIS HOARD French Seigniorial and Crusaders' Coins

D. H. Cox

In 1929 a hoard of deniers was purchased in Beyrout. It was said to have been found at Tripolis, a town in Syria about two miles from the Mediterranean coast and lying at the foot of a spur of Mt. Lebanon.* When purchased, the hoard was not complete, but we are assured that it contained no coin larger than the denier and that such coins as had been removed were chosen at random. The latter statement is no doubt true as the coins were so covered with corrosion that they were practically illegible until cleaned. The hoard consists of about 3500 silver and billon pieces; about 1700 were coins of the Crusaders and 1800 French feudal coins. Since the coins latest in date are those struck by John of Brienne at Damietta, the probable burial date of the hoard is 1221.

FRANCE: Royal

Philip II (1180–1223)

Number of coins
Obv. ·PHILIPVS REX. In field image 1
Rev. +ARRAS CIVIS. Cross pattée with fleur-de-lis in first and fourth quarters.
AR obol, (sim. to Hoffman, Pl. VIII, 4). Plate I, 1.

FRANCE: Feudal BRITTANY

Rennes: Alain IV (1084–1112)

Number of coins
Obv. +A(LA)NVS. imageV. Rosette. 1
Rev. +REDONIS CIV. Cross pattée.
AR denier (similar to Poey d'Avant 246 and Bigot 104).
Alain IV accompanied Robert duke of Normandy on the Crusades in 1093.

Rennes: XII Century

Number of coins
Obv. +DVX BRITANE. Cross ancrée. 1
Rev. +RED(O)NIS CIVI. Cross pattée.
AR denier (P. d'A. 292).

Rennes: Conan III (1112–1148)

Number of coins
Obv. +CONΛNV∾. IVS in field. 1
Rev. +(RE)DONI∾. Cross pattée.
Billon denier (Bigot 126). Plate I, 2.

Geoffroy II duke of Brittany (1171–1186)

Number of coins
Obv. +GAVFRIDVS. Cross with trefoil ends. 5
Rev. +DVX BRITANI. Fleur-de-lis with four annulets.
Billon deniers (Eng. & Ser. p. 386). Plate I, 3.

Guingamp: Counts of Penthièvre (1093–1205)

1046

Obv. +STEPɧAN COƆ. Cross pattée with stars in first and second quarters.

Rev. +image+VIΝimageΛMP. Barbarous head.

Billon deniers. Plate I, 4.

These coins, minted in great quantities, enjoyed wide commercial favor in the XII and early XIII centuries. It is, therefore, impossible to assign them to any particular person or persons who might be responsible for their appearance in the East.

The variety of these deniers in the hoard is very great and exact parallels for all cannot be found in either Poey d'Avant or Bigot (Monnaies de Bretagne).

The great majority, (ca. 750) belonging to the type illustrated by P. d'A., pl. XXVII, No. 9 and Bigot, pl. VIII bis, No. 5, are assigned by the latter to Geoffroy-Boterel III, who died in 1205. The state of preservation of these coins, which is on the whole excellent, would confirm the idea that they are of about that date. The next most common type, with variations, is found in P. d'A. XXVII, No. 8, and Bigot, VIII bis, No. 8 and is attributed by the same author to Henry I (1138–1184). Types represented in lesser quantities are P. d'A. XXVII, Nos. 4, 5, and Bigot, VIII bis, Nos. 2 and 3. There are other varieties which cannot be placed accurately in any of the accepted categories.

The problem now is to explain the presence of so many of these coins in the hoard. There seems to be general agreement that the cross with two stars which appears on all of our deniers indicates a date before 1200. Such dating would probably indicate that these coins were brought to the East in the Third Crusade. Had this been the case one would not expect them to make up the dominant element in a hoard buried after the Fifth Crusade.

If, however, we suppose these coins to be of later date and brought out on the Fifth Crusade, there remains the problem of why none of the coins of Alain is included.

On both the Third and Fifth Crusades Brittany was well represented.

Taking part in the Third Crusade we find:

Baron Raoul II de Fougères, seneschal of Brittany under Geoffrey Plantagenet.

Alain IV, Viscount of Rohan (son-in-law of Raoul II).

André de Vitry, nephew of the same, and brother-in-law to Pierre Mauclerc.

Viscount Adam de Léon.

On the Fifth Crusade:

Juhel, Count Mayenne.

Hérvé de Léon (Hérvé was at Damietta in 1218).

Eudes de la Roche Derien got money from Godefroy, Viscount de Rohan, when he went to Damietta in 1218.

ANJOU 1040–c.1246

In name of Geoffroy (5 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +GOSRFIDVS CO. Cross pattée, A and ω pendant in third and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. +VRBS°A°IDCCV. Monogram. (P. d'A. 1481.)
Obv. +GOSRFIDVS COS. Same type. 2
Rev. +VRBS AIDCCV. Same type. (P. d'A. 1482.)
AR deniers. Unclassified. 2

In name of Foulques (122 coins)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +FVLCO COMES. Cross pattée with A and ω pendant in second and fourth quarters. 2
Rev. +VRBS ANDEGΛVS. Monogram. (P. d'A. 1506.)
1a. Obv. Legend and type same. 15
Rev. Similar, but conjoined N and D (image). Plate I, 5.
Number of coins
2. Obv. Legend and type same. 10
Rev. +VRBS ANDEGΛVIS. Same type. (P. d'A. 1499.)
2a. Obv. Legend and type same. 15
Rev. image on reverse. Same type.
3. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. +VRBS ΛimageEGΛV. Same type.
4. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. +VRBS ΛimageEGΛVI. Same type. (Similar to P. d'A. 1500.)
5. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. +image. Monogram reversed. Plate I, 6.
6. Obv. Legend and type same. A and ω in third and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. Legend and type same as 1a.
7. Obv. Legend and type same as 6. 3
Rev. Legend and type same as 2.
8. Obv. Legend and type same as 1. 18
Rev. +VRBS ΛIDCCSV. Same type. (P. d'A. 1492)
8a. Obv. Legend and type same.
Rev. +VRBS ΛIDCCƧV. Same type. 1
8b. Obv. +FVLCO COMEƧ. Same type. 14
Rev. Legend and type same as 8.
8c. Obv. Legend and type same as 8b. 1
Rev. +VRBS·ΛIDCCS(V). Same type.
Number of coins
8d. Obv. +FVLCO COME∾. Same type. 2
Rev. +VRB∾ ΛIDCCSV. Same type. (P. d'A. 1507.)
9. Obv. +FVLCO COMES. With A and ω in fourth and second quarters. 5
Rev. +ΛNDEGΛVЄNSIS. Same type. (P. d'A. 1513.)
9a. Obv. Legend and type same. 8
Rev. +ΛNEGΛVЄNSIS. Same type. (P. d'A. 1512.)
9b. Obv. +FVLCO COMEƧ. Same type. 2
Rev. +ΛNEGΛVЄNSIƧ. Same type.
10. Obv. +FVLCO COMES. A and ω in third and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. +ΛNDEGΛVЄNSIS. With O at top of monogram.
11. Obv. +FVLCO COME∾. A and ω in third and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. +°ΛNDEGΛVЄNSIS. Same type. (P. d'A. 1494.)
12. Obv. +°FVLCO COMES. A and ω in third and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. +ΛNDEGΛVЄNSIS. Same type. Unclassified with many reverses of type 9. Billon deniers. 19

These coins were probably brought to the East during the Third Crusade when Richard the Lion-hearted was Count of Anjou.

BLOIS AND CHARTRES

Number of coins
Obv. +ΛRTIS CIVITAS. Plain cross, pellet in first quarter. 1
Rev. Barbaric head, r. Plate III, 6.
Obv. +CΛRTI(S CI)VITΛS, pellet in third quarter.
Rev. Same type. (P. d'A. 1738.) Billon obols. 1

These coins may have been taken on the Third Crusade by Thibaut V, Count of Blois, who was at Acre.

Louis, Count of Blois and Chartres took the Cross in 1199 and went on the Fourth Crusade.

CHATEAUDUN

Number of coins
Obv. +DVNIOSTIimage. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. Barbaric head.

Billon denier. (Similar to P. d'A. 1839 but of size of No. 1838.)

From general character and wear this would seem contemporary with the Chartres obols.

A viscount of Chateaudun was at Damietta in 1190. The editor of Ambroise' account of the Third Crusade gives the name Raoul but it may have been Hugh V.

DÉOLS

Raoul VI (1160–1176)

(See Rev. Num. 1883, p. 228)

Number of coins
Obv. +RimageDVLFVS. Cross pattée. 27
Rev. +DЄ DOLI∾ (or ∾). Six-pointed star with annulet in center.
Billon deniers. (P d'A. 1946.) Plate II, 1.

William I (1203–1233), (5 coins)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +imageVILERMVS. Cross pattée with fleur-de-lis in first and fourth quarters. 2
Rev. +DE DOLIS. Six-pointed star with fleur-de-lis in center.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 1963.)
2. Obv. Same legend and type, but with fleur-de-lis in second and third quarters. 3
Rev. Same legend and type.
Billon deniers. (Caron, 130.)

The two deniers of type P. d'A. 1963, show much greater wear than the Caron 130 variety.

André de Chauvigny who married the daughter of Raoul VI, and whose heirs became Lords of Chateauroux, was a companion of Richard on the Third Crusade. He became legendary for his deeds of valor.

ISSOUDUN

Raoul III (1199–1212)

Number of coins
Obv. +RADVLFV∾. Cross pattée. 2
Rev. +EXOLDVNI. Gothic M with bar above and cross below. Plate II, 3.

William of Chauvigny (1212-1220)

Number of coins
Obv. +imageVILERIIVS. Cross pattée with fleur-de-lis in second and third quarters. 1
Rev. +EXOLDVNI. Six-pointed star with fleur-de-lis in center.
AR deniers. (Similar to P. d'A. 1996.)

The deniers of William de Chauvigny for Déols (Caron 130) and the one listed above for Issoudun are entirely similar except for the reverse inscription. Can their rarity be explained as a special issue struck for the Crusades?

HOUSE OF DONZY

Hervé III (1160–1194) (259 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +GOSEDVS COS. Cross pattée, A in third and ω in second quarter. 259
Rev. +GIEMIS CA. Monogram of Foulques of Anjou with cross substituted for O.

Billon deniers. A. de Barthélemy (Rev. Num., 1885, p. 359.) (P. d'A. 1998.) Plate III, 5.

Hervé III claimed Gien and seems to have had St. Aignan as well. He had two sons, William Goeth who followed Philip to Acre where he was killed, and Hervé IV who also went on the Third Crusade. Renaud de Chatillon, prince of Antioch (1149–1159) and resident in the East till 1187 was also a native of Gien.

SAINT-AIGNAN (6 coins)

After 1160 and contemporary with Robert de Celles (1178–1189)

Number of coins
Obv. +SΛNCTI ΛΝΙΛΙ. Cross pattée with pellet center, pellets in all four quarters. 4
Rev. +CΛS T RVM. Castle surmounted by cross in legend.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A 2054 and Caron 150.) Plate II, 5.
Obv. +∾VNCTI ΛΝΙΛΙ. Type same. 2
Rev. +Cimage∾·T·RVM. Type same. Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2055.)

For explanation of these deniers in the East see above.

CELLES AND MEHUN (6 coins)

Robert de Celles (1178–1189)

Number of coins
Obv. +ROB' DE CELL'. Cross pattée, S in first and fourth quarters, pellets in second and third. 5
Rev. Crude helmeted head r. Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2057.) Plate II, 6.
Obv. +ROBERTV∾. Device obliterated. 1
Rev. +DЄ CЄLLI∾. Device obliterated. Billon denier. (P. d'A. 2058.) Plate II, 7.

As both E's on the reverse are round, this is more probably of the type illustrated by P. d'A. than that by Caron (Pl. VII, 4).

ROMORANTIN (2 coins)

Thibaut V, Count of Blois: ( –1191)

Number of coins
Obv. +T CO REMOR'. Cross pattée. 2
Rev. Barbaric helmeted head r.

Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 1896.) Plate II, 2.

The similarity of these coins to those of Robert de Celles (P. d'A. No. 2057) was remarked by E. Cartier (Rev. Num. 1845) and he suggests that these deniers were minted to pay the expenses of the Crusade undertaken by Thibaut together with Raoul, son of Robert de Celles. They were at the siege of Acre under Philip.

VIERZON (3 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +VIRSIONE. Cross with wedge-shaped arms radiating from annulet, fleur-de-lis in second and third quarters. 1
Rev. Y-shaped pattern with fleur-de-lis in the three spaces.
AR denier. (Similar to P. d'A. 2027.) Plate II, 4.
Obv. +VIRSIOΜE. Cross pattée, fleur-delis in first and annulet in fourth quarter. 2
Rev. Legend and type similar to above.
AR deniers. (P. d'A. 2026.)

The deniers of type P. d'A. 2026 show a good deal of wear and may be attributed to Hervé I (1144–1164) but the denier of type 2027 is so fresh that it seems more reasonable to attribute it to Hervé II who may well have minted some of this type in addition to those subscribed with his name, which are rare.

A Jean de Vierzon accompanied Louis de Blois on the Fourth Crusade, and a certain Hervé de Vierzon was killed at Damietta in the Fifth.

CHATEAU-MEILLANT (2 coins)

Ebbes de Déols, end of XII century

Number of coins
Obv. +ΕΒΟ·DΕ DOLIS. Cross pattée with little annulets at extremities. 1
Rev. MELIΛNVS. Facing head. Plate III, 2.
Obv. +EBO DE DOLIS. Type similar. 1
Rev. Legend and type same.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2063.)

These coins are conspicuous for their disparity of weight. The first weighs 0.7 gramme, the second 1.4 grammes. P. d'A. gives 0.9 gramme as average.

The House of Blois was further represented on

the Third Crusade, by a nephew of Thibaut's, Henry II of Champagne who married Amaury I's daughter Isabelle and became King of Jerusalem for a time.

PRIORY OF SOUVIGNY (1 coin)

1st period (994–1213)

Number of coins
Obv. SЄS·MᾹIOLVS. Facing head, crozier to left. 1
Rev. +SILVINIĀCO. Plain cross.
AR denier. (P. d'A. 2172.) Plate III, 1.

AUXERRE

Number of coins
Obv. +ALTISIODOR. Cross pattée, pellets in first and fourth quarters. 1
Rev. No inscription, cross pattée surrounded by beaded circle; between this circle and similar one at edge of coin are four groups of three pellets, at the extremities of the arms of the cross.
Billon denier. (P. d'A. 5893.)

The condition of this coin suggests that it may have been minted in the time of Agnès and Pierre de Courtenay (1181–1192)—who was emperor-elect of Constantinople—and that it may have found its way to the East in the Fourth Crusade.

NEVERS (16 coins)

Hervé de Donzy (1199–1223)

Number of coins
Obv. +ЄRVIS CONS. Plain cross. 16
Rev. +NITЄRSCIS. Fleur-de-lis and sickle.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2138.) Plate III, 3.

One of these coins has the device on both sides obliterated; the cross completely, the sickle not quite so thoroughly.

Hervé of Nevers and Hugh Lusignan sailed from Genoa August 1, 1218. In 1219, Hervé, suspected of treason at Damietta, was expelled from the Crusades.

MONTLUÇON

Guy de Dampierre (1202–1213), (18 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +GVIDONI∾. Cross pattée with A in first and ω in fourth quarter. 2
Rev. +MONLVCON. Monogram. (P. d'A. 2204.)
Obv. Same legend and type with A in fourth and ω in first quarter. 8
Rev. Legend and type same.
(P. d'A. 2205.) Plate III, 4.
Obv. Same legend and type with A in third and ω in second quarter. 8
Rev. Legend and type same.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2207.)

The Dampierre family seems to have been inbued with the spirit of the Crusades.

There is a record of Guy II, Lord of Bourbon, who took part in the Third Crusade. If the record was written after the fact this may refer to our Guy who became Lord of Bourbon in 1196 on his marriage to Matilde, or four years after Acre.

A Renaud de Dampierre went on the Fourth Crusade in the train of Thibaut de Champagne.

Before Damietta in 1219 we find three Dampierres listed as being from Champagne, Renard, Richard and Endes. Count Renard (probably the same as the Renaud of the Fourth) went to Acre in 1201 with about three hundred French knights.

POITOU

Richard the Lion-hearted (1169–1196), (66 coins)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée. 6
Rev. PIC TΛVIE NSIS. Inscription in three lines.
2. Obv. Type same. 3
Rev. Type same with dot at top.
3. Obv. Legend and type same. 3
Rev. Type same with dot at bottom.
4. Obv. Legend and type same. 4
Rev. Type same with dot top and bottom.
Number of coins
5. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. ·PIC·TAVIE NSIS
6. Obv. Legend and type same. 10
Rev. ·PIC·TΛVIE NSIṢ
7. Obv. Legend and type same. 15
Rev. P·IC·TΛVIE NSIS.
8. Obv. XRICΛRDVƧ REimage. Type same. 1
Rev. P·IC TAVIE NƧIS.
9. Obv. +RICΛRDVƧ REimage. Type same. 3
Rev. P.IC· TAVIE NSIS
10. Obv. Legend and type same as 1. 1
Rev. PİC TAVIĖ NSIƧ
11. Obv. Legend and type same as 1. 8
Rev. PIC TAVIE SIS˚
12. Obv. +RICΛ·RDV∾ REimage. Same type. 1
Rev. PIC T VIE NSI°S
13. Obv. +RICARDVS REimage. Cross pattée with annulet in second quarter. 1
Rev. Legend and type same as in 1.
14. Obv. Legend and type same, but annulet in third quarter. 5
Rev. Legend and type same as in 1.
15. Obv. +RICARDV∾ RE image. Annulet in third quarter. 2
Rev. Legend and type same. Plate IV, 2.
16. Obv. Inscription as in 1, annulet in third quarter. 1
Rev. ·PIC TAVIE NS·IS
Number of coins
17. Obv. imageRICΛRDV∾ REimage. Annulet in fourth quarter. 1
Rev. PIĊ TΛVIE NSIS
Billon deniers. For varieties see P. d'A. 2505–2568.

Following the classification given by G. Musset (Rev. Num. 1891 p. 239), type 1 above should be assigned to the mint at Montreuil-Bonnin, types 2–10 to the mint at Niort, types 11 and 12 to the mint at St. Jean-d'Angély and the remaining types, 13–17, to the mint at La Rochelle.

AQUITAINE

Richard the Lion-hearted

Number of coins
1. Obv. +AimageVITΛNIE. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. RICA RDVS in two lines, cross above, omega below.

Billon denier. (P. d'A. 2768.) Plate IV, 3.

In Le Monnayage de Richard Cæur-de-Lion, G. Musset assumes that the nail which appears on some of the deniers of Richard has a religious significance and indicates a mint at the Abbey of Charroux. None of these deniers appears in the hoard while all the other mints are represented. We might be justified therefore, in supposing that the mint was established after Richard's return from the Crusades, when he was sorely pressed for money, to pay ransom to Henry VI for his release from captivity.

LA MARCHE

Hugh IX (1199–1219), (5 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. HVimageONIS. Cross pattée with annulet in second quarter. 2
Rev. MET imageLO, in two lines, no device visible. Plate IV, 4.
Obv. +HVimageONIS. Type same.
Rev. MET ĀLO, in two lines, star above. Plate IV, 5. 1
Obv. +HVimageONI∾. Type same.
Rev. MET imageLO in two lines, star below. 1
Obv. +HV(image)ONIS. Type same.
Rev. LICI imageNĀ in two lines with crescent below. 1
Billon deniers. Plate IV, 6.

The C in the first line of the reverse is above the alignment of the LI and I and may be the upper half of an S the lower half of which is obliterated. The spelling LISIGNAN was a common form of the name Lusignan—and the final N we suppose omitted for lack of space.

De Cessac (Mélanges Num., 1878, p. 361) and Caron (p. 143) tentatively attribute coins reading LODOVICVS ECOLI∾∾IME (formerly attributed by P. d'A. to Angoulême) to Hugh IX de Lusignan count of La Marche.

Their reasons are that Hugh IX is known to have minted money which was not inscribed with the word MARCHE or MARCHIE, since that word did not appear on the coins until 1211 ; that coins reading LODOVICVS ECOLI∾∾IME are found in great numbers in the district of La Marche; and that the type was chosen because Hugh claimed heritance to Angoulème through his wife Matilde, daughter and heir of Vulgrin, Count of Angoulême.

The coins here illustrated are, I believe, unpublished. Except that they were not found in their home district, they fit admirably as coins of Hugh IX. They bear the name of Hugh and are similar in fabric and workmanship to the coins of Richard and of Savary de Manléon with which they are roughly contemporary.

P. de Cessac (Rev. Num., 1886, p. 61) states that Hugh went to the Crusades with Richard the Lion-hearted and was devoted to John Lackland during the first years of his reign, but became his mortal enemy when the King carried off Isabelle, only daughter and heir of Aimar count of Angoulême. Hugh then became a partisan of Philip Augustus to whom he remained loyal until 1214 when he again turned to John.

No charter has been found showing that Philip granted Hugh right of coinage. There is ample proof that he minted long before 1215. De Cessac concludes that he may have usurped this right, and, as was commonly done under the circumstances, started minting with an anonymous type, in this case the LODOVICVS ECOLI∾∾IME coins. If, however, we assume that Cartier and Lecointre-Dupont were correct in ascribing this privilege to a grant made by John Lackland, then we must date the concession as from the year 1199 or 1200.

The presence of these coins in the Holy Land in a condition showing as much or more wear than the deniers of Richard may indicate that, contrary to accepted ideas, Hugh IX received the right of coinage from Richard before 1191. Such a grant may have been made by Richard to Hugh as a bribe to join him on the Crusades and to furnish money to help defray the cost of the expedition, or he may have sold the right with the same purpose in mind.

A suitable type for Hugh to have minted under such a grant was the METALO type described above. It is the traditional type for Poitou, and bears the star. Melle, at which such coins would most logically be struck, probably belonged to the Lusignan family at that time. (Raoul, brother of Hugh IX was Lord of Melle.) The coin reading LISIGNA was probably struck at Lusignan itself where Poey d'Avant and Fillon (P. d'A II p. 43) believe there was a mint. Both of these types I believe were minted during the period in which the House of Lusignan was pro-English, since the METALO coins have a star and the LUSIGNAN coin a crescent, both accessory devices of the English coat-of-arms, and were meant originally as a Crusaders' issue. After John ran off with Isabella (1200) Hugh may have changed the type of his coins and minted the LODOVICVS ECOLI∾∾IME deniers.

Caron and Poey d'Avant, assuming that Hugh IX died in 1208, (according to L'art de verifier les dates) ascribe the following coin to Hugh X since it seems to be the coin described in the Chronique de Saint Martial de Limoges by Bernard Itier as the new money of La Marche dating from 1211.

Number of coins
Obv. +VGO COME∾˚ Cross pattée. 1
Rev. +MARCHIE. Two crescents and two annulets; at the center a crosslet.
Billon denier. (P. d'A. 2609.)

If, however, we follow de Cessac, Rev. Num. 1886 and Engel et Serrure Numismatique du Moyen Age and assume that Bernard Itier in his chronicle is correct in saying that Hugh IX sailed from Genoa in 1218 and was killed at Damietta August 2, 1219, then this coin must be ascribed to Hugh IX who was count of La Marche from 1211–1218 during which time Caron (p. 44) assumes these coins to have been issued.

MAULÉON

Savary (1215–1236), (2 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +∾ΛVΛRICV∾. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. MET ΛLO in two lines, crescent above, and below.
(P. d'A. 2602.)
Obv. +∾ΛVΛRICV∾. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. ·PIC TimageVIE IISIS in three lines.
Billon deniers. Both weighing .750 gramme. Plate IV, 7.

The coins of Savary are rare and only two types have been recorded, the METALO deniers listed here and coins with the name MALLEONIS in circular inscription and an ∾ in center (P. d'A. No. 2603). We add here a third type with the inscription PICTAVIENSIS.

There are two documents relating to this coinage, both coming from John Lackland and dating from May and August 1215. The first of these implies that Savary had already been minting and merely instructs the seneschals of Poitou, Anjou and Gascony to accept the deniers of Savary as legal tender if of Poitevin weight. The second confirms his right of coinage and grants it to his heirs in perpetuity.

In 1205 (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 ed. XVII p. 904) Savary was appointed seneschal of Poitou by John. In 1209 (Caron p. 141) he was granted the right of coinage. In 1212 his services were bought by Philip Augustus under whom he served until 1215, when he returned to John. In the same year Savary became Lord of Mauléon and Viscount of Thouars on the death of his brother William. In 1216 he took the Cross, left for the Holy Land with the Count of Chester in 1219, and was present at the taking of Damietta. He died in 1236.

Savary is supposed to have minted at both La Rochelle and Niort. I would ascribe the PICTAVIENSIS coin to the years 1209–1212, when Savary was seneschal of Poitou, and to the mint at La Rochelle, though coins of this type were minted at both Niort and La Rochelle under Richard. The METALO deniers may then have been struck 1212–1215 at Niort which is near Mauléon, the modern Chàtillon-sur-Sèvre, and in the district of Melle. After 1215 and the reconciliation with John and the inheritance of the title, Savary probably issued the MALLEONIS deniers abandoning the Poitevin type. It is worth noting that none of these later coins was found in the hoard.

PERIGORD

Number of coins
Obv. +LODOIimageV∾. Cross pattée, S in second quarter, V in third quarter. 2
Rev. +EGOLI∾∾IME. Five annulets in field.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 2676.) Plate V, 1.

BESANÇON

(Archbishopric) : Anonymous, XII century

Number of coins
Obv. .PTH(OMAR)TIR. Hand raised in benediction. 1
Rev. +B(I)SV(NTIV)M. Cross pattée.
Billon denier. (Worn and double struck.) (P. d'A. 5374.)

BURGUNDY

Dijon: Hugh III (1162–1193) (180 coins)

Number of coins
Obv. +VGO DVX BVRGimageDIE. Double crozier, pellet above, annulet with billets to r. and l. below. 180
Rev. +DIVIONENƧIS. Cross pattée.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 5676, under Hugh V) Plate IV, 1.

For attribution to Hugh III see Maxe-Werly (Rev. Num. 1883 p. 232).

When Philip Augustus returned to France, in 1191, he left Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy in command in the East. In 1193 Hugh died at Acre.

ABBEY OF ST. MÉDARD

Near Soissons

Number of coins
Obv. +SЄS MЄDARDVS. Cross pattée with crescents in first and fourth quarters. 2
Rev. +'NAITSABЄS TS. (St. Sebastian retrograde) Crozier between two flags.
Billon deniers. (P. d'A. 6518.) Plate III, 7.

VALOIS

Crépy: Matthew de Beaumont (1177–1192)

Number of coins
Obv. +MĀDEVS COMES. Cross, with C in first and fourth quarters and pellets in second and third. 1
Rev. +CRISPETVM. In field CRE SP(I) in two lines, two annulets above and two below. Billon denier. (Similar to P. d'A. 6477.)
This makes a total of 1796 French coins.

OTHER EUROPEAN COINS SWABIA

Otto IV (1198-1218)

Number of coins
Obv. Emperor riding l. with falcon on l. hand. 1
Rev. Crowned horse r. with head turned back. Border of stars and dots.
AR denier. (Cappe I p. 151, 677.) Plate V, 2.

ITALY

Asti (ca. 1200)

Number of coins
Obv. +CVNRADV∾ II. REX in field. 1
Rev. +A∾TEN∾I∾. Small cross pattée.
Billon. (Corpus nummorum italicorum, Vol. II, p. 11, 16.) Plate V, 3.

Henry VI (1193–1197)

Number of coins
Obv. image ·IMPER'ATOR·. Cross pattée, stars in second and third quarters. 1
Rev. C·IMPER'ATRIX·. image in field. Probably struck in Brindisi. Billon denier.
(Spinelli p. 112, 1.) Plate V, 4.

Possibly brought to Cyprus at the investiture of Amaury I in 1197.

Frederick II, King of Sicily.

Number of coins
Obv. +FRЄDERICVS·R·. Eagle facing, head l. 1
Rev. +CONSTANTIA·R·. Cross pattée with pellets in corners and curved ornaments at ends of cross.
Billon denier. (Spinelli p. 122, 2.) Plate V, 5.
Division of French Coins by Crusades
Pre-third Crusade Third Crusade Fifth Crusade Uncertain Total
Philip Augustus 1* 1
Brittany:
Alain IV 1* 1
Rennes (Anon.) 2 2
Conan III 1 1
Geoffroy II 5 5
Guingamp 1046 1046
Anjou 127* 127
Chartres 2* 2
Chateaudun 1* 1
Déols:
Raoul VI 27* 27
William 5 5
Issoudun:
Raoul III 2 2
William 1 1
Donzy, Hervé III 259* 259
St. Aignan 6* 6
Celles, Robert 6* 6
Romorantin, Thibaut V 2* 2
Vierzon 3* 3
Chateau-Meillant 2 2
Souvigny 1 1
Auxerre 1 1
Nevers 16* 16
Montluçon 18* 18
Richard I 67* 67
La Marche, Hugh IX 5* 1* 6
Mauléon, Savary 2* 2
Perigord 2 2
Besançon 1 1
Burgundy, Hugh III 180* 180
Abbey of St. Médard 2 2
Valois 1 1
1 683 48 1064 1796

The asterisk indicates that the issuer of the coin or someone in his immediate family or entourage was present in the East.

There is also one silver denier which is illegible, but probably French.

Many of the French coins seem to have had the cross effaced by filing (sometimes the other device as well), leaving the inscription intact. This is possibly the work of Moslem fanatics. One occasionally sees the same thing on Byzantine coins which have been kept by Turks as "lucky pieces."

The table on page 28 shows the probable dates at which the various French coins of this hoard came to the East.

From this summary we see that with the exception of the deniers of Guingamp, the coins found in the greatest number all seem to date from the Third Crusade. I am, therefore, inclined to believe that the Guingamp coins also were brought out in the Third Crusade. A relatively small number of coins in the hoard belong to the Fifth Crusade. To account for this we must remember that though trade was increasingly active between the East and the West throughout the twelfth century it was not until the end of that century that commercial facilities were perfected. Letters-of-credit were by no means unknown in the twelfth century and earlier, but by the thirteenth they were much more widely current. It, therefore, seems probable that the earlier Crusaders brought out greater sums in specie than their followers.

From the extraordinary number of Cypriote coins in the hoard, we may not be far wrong in assuming that the owner of this hoard had his letter-of-credit to someone in Cyprus, where the great Italian bankers had some of their principal branches.

CRUSADERS' COINS

Before listing the coins of Cyprus and Jerusalem a few words about the history of these places will be necessary.

From 1186–1192, Guy de Lusignan was King of Jerusalem. In 1192, at the death of his wife, Queen Sibylle, and of his children, Guy's succession was disputed. First Conrad de Montferrat and then Henri de Champagne were chosen to succeed him. Disgusted by the course affairs had taken, Guy proposed to Richard the Lion-hearted, whom he had assisted in the conquest of Cyprus, that he be allowed to take over that island from the Templars who had failed in its government. To this the King consented, and Guy received the island for the same sum the Templars had agreed to pay, 100,000 besants, reimbursing the Templars the amount they had already paid Richard. With the island he was also granted the right of coinage.

From May 1192–April 1194 Guy was lord of Cyprus. Although he was no longer King of Jerusalem in fact, he retained the title. In documents of the time he is known as "Rex Guido de Luziniaco, Dominus Cypri." Guy persuaded other Crusaders to settle in the island by granting them large fiefs. When he died in 1194, the Latin population was considerable. His brother Amaury succeeded him.

Amaury was an excellent administrator. He increased the property of the state by reducing the possessions of the feudal lords to whom Guy had given dangerously large fiefs. He organized reforms in the clergy; he established import duties and by his energetic management put the country on a sound financial basis. From a simple fief bought for 100,000 gold besants he transformed it into an independent power with an annual revenue of 200,000 besants. (A revenue of 300 besants was deemed sufficient to constitute a Knight's fief.)

image

In his dealings with the lords Amaury showed himself more jealous of his sovereign authority than his brother. Yet he had no claim to the title of King as Guy had had. To remedy this, in 1195, he decided to ask the German Emperor, Henry VI, who was then the acknowledged suzerain of all Christian princes, for the crown and royal investiture of Cyprus. He received word that his request had been granted when, in the summer of 1197, the bishops of Brindisi and Trani arrived in Cyprus bringing the scepter. Late the following September, Conrad, Bishop of Hildesheim, came with the crown and the coronation took place. Almost immediately afterward in the same year, Amaury married Isabelle, Queen of Jerusalem. They were crowned (probably at Tyre) in 1198 and for the rest of his life he lived in Syria.

As King of Jerusalem he did not relinquish his title King of Cyprus, and on his death, April 1205, Hugh, his eldest son by his first wife, Eschive, inherited the Crown of Cyprus. Isabelle kept the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Hugh was only 10 years old when his father died, and in accordance with feudal law, his nearest relative was appointed regent for him. This was his brother- in-law Gautier de Montbéliard, husband of his older sister, Bourgogne de Lusignan. Gautier was in some ways an excellent administrator. Though strict, grasping and unpopular, commercially and financially the island prospered under his rule. When Hugh came of age he banished his brother-in-law because he resented his discipline. And when he left, Gautier carried off, it is said, 200,000 gold besants as legitimate profit of his tutelage and administration of the property of the Crown.

The remarkable thing about the history of Cyprus in relation to its known coinage is that for the period of two able administrations, the time of Amaury and Gautier, when Cyprus was growing more prosperous yearly, no coins are known to have been minted in the island. It is to fill this gap that I wish to reattribute some already known coins.

While King of Jerusalem, Guy issued a base billon denier having on the obverse the head of the King and the words REX GUIDO and on the reverse a domed building (the Dome of the Rock) and DE IERUSALEM. The Cyprus coins resemble these in size, in a rather broad flan, and in the character of the letters cut in similar low relief, and the deniers of this hoard are also of billon. There are, however, copper deniers of Cyprus in the name of Guy which are not represented in this hoard. These certainly belong to the reign of Guy. They have on one side a cross and on the other the star which appeared on the "Tour Davit" deniers of Jerusalem and would have been a logical device for him to adopt. Also, since Cyprus was not then a place of importance it is only to be expected that they should have been struck in copper.

The type with the gate which we have in this hoard, I think, was probably struck by Amaury in his brother's name, during the years 1194–1197. More coins of this type are known than of those with the star (Schlumberger lists eight varieties of the former and only two of the latter). Since we assume them struck over a longer period and during a time of greater activity, that is to be expected. The quantity of the coins with the name of Guy compared to the number bearing the name of Hugh found in this hoard (188–653) makes it unlikely that they were all issued (with another type not represented) during a reign of less than two years and at a date more than twenty years earlier than the burial of the hoard.

As for the reason for Amaury's striking coins in his brother's name, we must remember his jealous disposition and his ambition for the kingly title. The coins of Guy had a regal character (REX GVIDO) however misleading. This Amaury could not hope to maintain if his own name appeared on the coins. The change from "Rex" to "Dominus" would have been a reflection on his prestige as well as on that of the island. There was the necessity for a currency, and an improved one. This Amaury produced changing the type to distinguish the new coins of billon from the copper of the preceding reign, but leaving the inscription unaltered.

There are in this hoard eleven anonymous deniers of Cyprus, which, since they resemble the foregoing pieces in every particular except that DE CIPRO is repeated on both sides of the coin, must also be attributed to Amaury. If one does not assume them to be mere accidents, the most logical time in his reign to account for them is in the brief period after he was assured he would receive his investiture and before the coronation, that is the months of August and September 1197.

It is probable that when the coronation took place negotations were already under way for his marriage to Isabelle. In the interval between his coronation and marriage it is possible that there were coins inscribed with his name and title, King of Cyprus, and that none of these has come to light. It is also possible that knowing he would soon be able to call himself King of Jerusalem (which though a poorer kingdom was a more important title) he forebore making a change in the currency. After his marriage he minted only as King of Jerusalem and these coins were current in both kingdoms.

After Amaury's death Gautier de Montbéliard was regent; and again during an able administration the mint of Cyprus was supposedly idle. Both Schlumberger and de Vogue remark on this saying that "as is well known" the regent in the Levant had the right of coinage. De Mas Latrie in his "Histoire de l'île de Chypre," citing his authority (Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, 1re serie, t. V, p. 136-137) says the regent had every kingly privilege but the right of coinage. Hugh's deniers bear two types of inscription, some have the legend HVGONIS REX and the others read simply HVGO REX or REX HVGO. The first are cruder in workmanship and have on the reverse DE CIPRO as did the earlier coins of Cyprus. The deniers with REX HVGO read CYPRI on the reverse. I would attribute the former to the regency because of the possessive form of the name, the old form of the reverse and because of the smaller number of these coins found in the hoard.

All deniers bearing the name of Amaury for Jerusalem were attributed to Amaury II by de Saulcy in his Numismatique des Croisades. Subsequently, on evidence presented by de Voguë, Schlumberger attributed them to Amaury I. The evidence of this hoard, I believe, settles the question beyond doubt. The presence of coins of John of Brienne struck in Damietta (1219), the quantity of Cyprus coins (1194– 1218), together with only one worn coin of the Baldwins of Jerusalem (1173–1186) make it unreasonable to assign them to Amaury I (1162–1173). Apart from this, the evidence still seems to me in favor of de Saulcy's attribution which gives an uninterrupted series for Jerusalem and makes the use of each type continuous with no reversion to an earlier type after a period of twenty-five years, disuse.

De Voguë's argument (Rev. Num., 1864, p. 276) was based on his finding a seal, which, from the character of the lettering and style of engraving he attributed to Amaury I. Neither the engraving nor the lettering is remarkable nor easily dated, but the D's are of the Latin type appearing on the coins of Guy de Lusignan and following rulers, not the Gothic D of the deniers of the Baldwins. Having on this evidence attributed the seal to Amaury I, de Vogue then deduces from the fact that the Holy Sepulcher is similarly represented on both the seal and the coins that the coins must also belong to Amaury I, and points out that this convention for portraying the Holy Sepulcher was known as early as the time of Baldwin III. On this seal one will also notice the Tower of David and the Dome of the Rock, both in a form similar to that in which they appear on the coins of the Baldwins and of Guy. To find a personal seal with these three buildings each portrayed in the manner in which it appears on a coin, and to antedate the seal to the coins seems to be anticipating types to a remarkable and incredible degree. How much more likely that the seal was later than the coins, or contemporary with the last type.

There remain M. Schlumberger's two additional arguments. His objection that if these deniers were minted by Amaury II, his title, King of Cyprus, would appear on the coin as well as King of Jerusalem is sound and did not escape the notice of de Saulcy, who, though he could find no valid reason for the omission, still attributed the coins to Amaury II.

The third argument is more easily met. In the Numismatique de l'Orient Latin it is pointed out that the rare deniers of Guy as King of Jerusalem were of very base billon, almost pure copper, and that since the country was no more flourishing in the time of Amaury II than it had been ten or fifteen years earlier, one would expect his coins to be of similarly poor fabric. They are not; they are of fine quality billon. (Schlumberger says almost pure silver. An assay indicated 31–33% silver. See Appendix.) Guy's coins for Cyprus, which, we have previously attributed to Amaury were of good alloy (ca. 20% silver) but the greater weight of the Cyprus coins make the silver content of these deniers practically the same as the Jerusalem coins. (See Appendix). Whether one admits the attribution or not the fact remains that in Cyprus immediately before Amaury II became King of Jerusalem coins of good quality were being minted. When Amaury married Isabelle the resources of Cyprus automatically became the resources of Jerusalem. Consequently as good coins could be produced for Jerusalem as for Cyprus. In fact Amaury rather than Hugh of Tiberius was chosen as successful candidate for the hand of Isabelle and the title of King of Jerusalem, because the resources of Cyprus were greater than those of Champagne.*

And as we have shown deniers of the same standard were minted in the two places. The reason for the reduction in weight and the increase in the percentage of silver is difficult to account for unless it was due to the legal necessity or a personal desire to meet the standard of fineness of the coins of Baldwin IV which these deniers approximate.

The question as to whether these coins were current only for the mainland or for both the mainland and Cyprus is difficult to settle finally, although the uniform silver content of the coins of the two places make it seem probable that they were interchangable. Also since it was the wealth of the island which made the minting of these coins possible, it is probable that they were current there; certainly the island had no other contemporary currency. Of all the deniers of Jerusalem, those of Amaury are the most numerous today. To produce this quantity, it seems to me the mint at Cyprus may well have been used to supplement the one at Tyre, even if only to produce coinage for local use.

It is probable that Amaury raised the percentage of silver in order to mint coins of the same standard as those of Baldwin on the mainland and reduced the weight of those struck in Cyprus so that the amount of silver in the Cyprus denier would remain constant and the deniers formerly issued by him in the name of Guy would be on a par with the new currency.

The question as to whether these coins were current only for the mainland or for both the mainland and Cyprus has been much debated. Of the various writers who have concerned themselves with this period, Buchon alone has definitely attributed the deniers of Amaury II of Jerusalem to him as King of Cyprus. De Mas Latrie and de Saulcy attribute the coins to Amaury II but for Jerusalem only. In weighing deniers of Amaury whose provenence is known to be Jerusalem, we find an average weight of ca. 0.9 gramme. The heaviest of his coins in this hoard (which is certainly Cypriote in character) weighs 0.721 gramme; the average weight of these coins is .502 gramme. From these figures we must conclude that coins of this type were in use and minted both on the island and on the mainland but on two distinct standards of weight, and from the condition of the coins in this hoard (a large percentage of which are clipped) it would seem that where deniers of Jerusalem weight drifted to the island those coins were clipped, probably legally, also possibly by the enterprising merchant, to meet the lower Cypriote weight. Many of the deniers in this hoard which have undergone extensive clipping still exceed 0.6 gramme in weight which is impossible in case of coins whose original weight did not exceed 0.7 gramme.

In ascribing these coins to Amaury I, Schlumberger and de Voguë, as historians, were probably not uninfluenced by the fact that during the reign of Amaury I, Jerusalem reached the height of its prosperity. It is beyond the scope of this paper to account for an absence of coinage during that period, but it should be noted that it is an open question whether the Crusader States were then independent or whether during the reign of the Emperor Manuel and King Amaury I (approximately 1144–1176) they acknowledged the suzerainty of Byzantium. (See A. A. Vasiliev History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. II, p. 81 and J. L. La Monte, Byzantion, 1932, p. 253). To support this view one can point to a similar gap in the coinage of Antioch and the wide-spread use of the coins of Manuel. Perhaps no other Byzantine bronze struck after the VII century is found in so great an abundance, so generally scattered and in so many varieties. This statement is given weight by the fact that in a list of Byzantine coin hoards compiled by the American Numismatic Society the coins of Manuel appear in more hoards than the coins of any other emperor after Heraclius. The coinage of Tripolis presents no real stumbling block to this theory since the deniers of Raimond III with a reign of only thirteen years are much more plentiful today than those ascribed to Raimond II with a reign of thirty-six years (1151–1187). The numismatic evidence on this subject is at least interesting and a further study of the Crusaders' coins may well throw some light on the relation of those states to the Byzantine Empire.

End Notes

* Livre d'Eracles, p. 423.

CYPRUS

Amaury (1194–1197), (188 billon deniers)

Struck in the name of Guy.

Nunber of coins
1. Obv. +RЄX GVIDO. Gate with three battlements, six-pointed star inside.* 93
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Cross pattée, pellets in first and fourth quarters, crescents in second and third quarters.
(See Schlum., p. 184.)
2. Obv. Legend and type same. 56
Rev. Legend and type same but pellets in second and third quarters, and crescents in first and fourth quarters.
(Schlum., p. 184.)
3. Obv. Legend and type same. 5
Rev. Legend and type same but pellets in first and fourth quarters, and annulets in second and third.
4. Obv. +RЄX GVI°DO. Type same 6
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Type same as 1.
4a. Obv. +ЯEX G(VI)DO. Type same. 1
Rev. Legend and type same.
5. Obv. +RЄX GVI°DO. Type same. Rev. Legend and type same as 2. 4
Number of coins
6. Obv. +R·Є:·:X GVIDO. Type same. 1
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Type same as 2. Plate V, 6.
7. Obv. +image. Type same. 1
Rev. Legend and type same as 2. Plate V, 7.
8. Obv. +RЄX GVIDO. Type same as 1. 4
Rev. +image. Type same as 2.
(2 of these are from same die.)
(Schlum, p. 184.)
8a. Obv. Legend and type same. 2
Rev. Legend and type same, but pellets in first and fourth quarters, crescents in second and third.
9. Obv. (+R)ЄX° GVI°D(O). Type same. 1
Rev. (+)DЄ CI°PRO. Pellets in first and fourth quarters, crescents in second and third.
10. Obv. +REX GVI(D)O. Type same. 1
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Pellets in first and fourth quarters, crescents in second and third.
11. Obv. +REX GVIDO. Gate with four battlements and eight-pointed star. 3
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Pellets in first and fourth quarters, crescents in second and third.
12. Obv. +REX GVIDO. Gate with three battlements, but pellet in place of star. 4
Rev. Legend and type same as in 1, with dot or annulet. Plate VI, 1.
Number of coins
13. Obv. +RЄX GVIDO. Gate with three battlements, filled with grill, no star nor pellet. 5
Rev. Same as 1. Plate VI, 2.
13a. Obv. Legend and type same.
Rev. Same as 2. 1
End Notes
* Where obverse or reverse are not entirely legible I have assigned the coin to class 1 or 2 according to reverse arrangement.

Amaury (1197), (11 coins) (Anonymous)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +DЄ CI·PRO. Gate with three battlements and eight-pointed star. 3
Rev. +°DЄ CI·PRO°. Cross pattée, pellets in second and third quarters, crescents in first and fourth. Plate VI, 3.
2. Obv. +DЄ CI°PRO. Gate with three battlements and six-pointed star. 8
Rev. +DЄ CI°PRO. Type same as 1.

Hugh (1205–1210), (63 coins) Regency of Gautier.

Number of coins
Class I (63 coins) 37
1. Obv. VGONIS RЄ+. Cross pattée, crescents in first and fourth quarters, pellets in second and third.
Rev. +·DE·CI·PRO·. Gateway with three battlements and door.
Number of coins
2. Obv. Legend and type same. Varieties 1, 2 and 3.
Rev. +·DE CIPRO·. Typesame.
3. Obv. VGONIS RЄ+. Cross pattée, crescents in first and fourth quarters, pellets in second and third.
Rev. +·DE CIPR·O. Type same.
4. Obv. VGONIS RЄ+. Cross pattée, crescent and pellet in first and fourth quarters, pellet in second and third quarters. Varieties 4 and 5. 25
Rev. +·DE CIPRO·. Type same as 1. Plate VI, 4.
Probably the same as quoted by Schlumberger judging by illustration (Pl. VI, 5) the X of REX was not visible but supplied by him.)
5. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. +DE CIPRO. Type same.

Hugh (1210–1218), (588 coins)

Number of coins
Class II 70
6. Obv. +·RЄX ɧVGO:. Cross pattée, type 1.
Rev. +·DE·CI·PRO· Type same as 1.
7. Obv. +·RЄX ɧVGO. Type same as 1.
Rev. +·CẎPRI· Type same as 1.
8. Obv. +·RЄX·ɧVGO. Type same as 4.
Rev. +*CẎPRI· Type same as 4.
(Schlum., pl. VI, 4.)
Number of coins
Class III 248
9. Obv. +.ɧVGO· RЄX·. Cross pattée, crescents in first and fourth quarters, stars in second and third quarters.
Rev. +·CẎ·PRI·. Type same as 1.
10. Obv. Legend and type same.
Rev. +·CẎΡRΙ·. Type same as above. Plate VI, 5.
11. Obv. Legend and type same. Rev. +·CY·PRI· Type same.
12. Obv. +ɧVGO·RЄX. Type same. Rev. Legend and type same.

Three other coins of Class III

1 type 9 struck on obverse only.

1 type 11.

Rev. +·CY.Y.PRI. The two Y's struck by same punch.

1 in which I is substituted for R.

Obv. +·ɧVGO·IЄX.

Rev. +·CYPII.

Number of coins
Class IV (280 coins) 252
13. Obv. +·ɧVGO·REX·. Crescents in first and fourth quarters, pellets in second and third quarters.
Rev. +·CẎ·PRI·. Gateway with two battlements and door.
Number of coins
14. Obv. Same as 13 but dots and annulets indiscriminately used for punctuation and in quarters of the cross.
Usual form:
Obv. +·ɧVGO˚RЄX·. Crescents first and fourth quarters, annulets in second and third.
Rev. +˚CY˚P RI˚. Two battlements.
14a. Obv. All pellets (no annulets).
Rev. Three battlements on gate.
15. Obv. +·ɧVGO·RЄX·. Type same as 14a.
Rev. +·CYPRI·. Type same as 14a.
16. Obv. +RЄX ɧVCO. Type same.
Rev. Legend and type same as 15.
17. Obv. +.ɧVGO· RЄX·. Type same. 16
Rev. +·CẎ·PRI·. Gateway as in 13, with star in field above gate. Pl. VI, 6.
18. Obv. Legend and type same. 1
Rev. +·CYPRI·. Gateway with three battlements, flower in field below gate. Plate VI, 7.
19. Obv. +RЄX·ɧVGO. Type same as above. 1
Rev. +·C(YPR)I·. Type same as 18 but coin clipped and worn.

The classes into which the coins of Hugh are divided are arranged in their probable chronological sequence.

JERUSALEM

Baldwin III or IV (1144–1162 and 1173–1185)

Number of coins
Obv. BĀLimageVI NV(S) RЄX. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. +(image)Є IЄRVSĀLЄH. "Tower of David."
Billon denier. (Schlum., p. 87.)

Amaury II (1198–1205)

The 652 deniers of Amaury II included in this hoard are all of the type illustrated by de Saulcy in his Numismatique des Croisades, and by Schlumberger (under Amaury I) in the Numismatique de l'Orient Latin. Schlumberger examined about 200 specimens and found them all of one variety (No. 1 below) with insignificant variations. Here, too, the varieties are only minor ones but they are perhaps sufficiently marked to warrant the following classification:

Number of coins
Class I 465
1. Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX°. Cross pattée with annulets in second and third quarters.
2. Rev. +DЄ IЄRVSALЄM. A conventionalized representation of the Holy Sepulcher.
Obv. ΒĀALRICVS RЄX. Type same.
Rev. Legend and type same.
Number of coins
3. Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX. Type same.
Rev. Legend and type same.
Class II 86
4. Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX˚· Punctuation either pellet or annulet, cross pattée with pellets in second and third quarters.
5. Rev. Legend and type same.
Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX. Type same.
Rev. Legend and type same. Plate VII, 1.
Class III 47
6. Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX˚. Cross pattée with annulet in second and pellet in third quarter.
Rev. Legend and type same. Plate VII, 2.

(These coins may belong to class I and the pellet be the result of a worn punch; they might well have been so considered except for the fact that the relative position of annulet and pellet is constant.)

Number of coins
Class IV 52
7. Obv. Legend same. Punctuation either pellet or annulet. Annulets in first and fourth quarters.
Rev. Legend and type same.
Number of coins
8. Obv. Legend and type same. No punctuation.
Rev. Legend and type same.
9. Obv. Legend same as 2, annulets in first and fourth quarters.
Rev. Legend and type same. Pl. VII, 3.

Unclassified

Number of coins
10. Obv. Inscription illegible, cross pattée with annulet in third quarter only. 1
Rev. Legend and type same.
11. Obv. AMALRICVS RЄX·. Simple cross pattée. 1
Rev. Legend and type same. Plate VII, 4.
Billon deniers.

Because of the poor striking, the extensive clipping and the wear, the majority of these coins can be divided only into general groups. All doubtful coins are assigned to Class I. In all classes A's and M's appear both with and without cross bars, but only in Classes I and IV do the A and M appear in monogram form (image) (varieties 2 and 9). In all classes the workmanship of the reverse varies from extremely crude, to good, careful cutting. The sides of the dome of the Holy Sepulcher, though usually and in the best instances, concave, are also represented by straight, and in one instance, by convex lines. The façade, which has three nicely drawn arches on the better coins, is indicated on the poorer ones as a grille; i.e., simple crossing of straight lines.

John of Brienne (206 coins) Damietta (November 1219–May 1221) Type I

Number of coins
1. Obv. +IOɧЄS⋮ RЄX⋮. Cross pattée, annulets in second and third quarters. 100
Rev. +DĀMIĀTĀ. Head of the king crowned, hair curled.
(Schlum., Pl. III, 31.)
2. Obv. +IOɧЄS⋮ RЄX⋮. Type same. 34
Rev. +DĀMI·ĀΤĀ. Type same.
3. Obv. +IOɧЄS⋮ RЄX⋮. Type same. 6
Rev. +DĀMI·ĀTĀ·. Type same.
4. Obv. +IOɧЄS RЄX. Type same. 4
Rev. +DĀMIĀTĀ. Type same. Plate VII, 5.

At least six other varieties in which number of dots in punctuation after IOɧЄS and RЄX varies from one to three in number. Plate VII, 6.

Thirty-three coins were too worn to be classified.

Total for this type is 194 billon deniers.

Number of coins
Type II
5. Obv. +IOHimageNNЄS RЄX. Head of king, crowned with two straight fillets hanging on each side.
Rev. +DimageMIЄTimage. Cross pattée, annulets in second and third quarters. 12
(Schlum., pl. XX, 4.) Plate VII, 7.

There is no variation in the twelve examples of this coin but they come from eight different dies—two each from four dies, and one each from four dies.

Billon deniers.

BEYROUT

John d'Ibelin (1198–1236) (21 coins)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +IOɧΑɳNЄS. Cross pattée, crescents in second and third quarters. 4
Rev. +DE BЄRITI. City gate coursed masonry and three battlements.
(Schlum. pl. V, 10.)
2. Obv. +IOɧAɳNES. Type same as above. 3
Rev. +DE BЄRITI⋮. Type same as above. Plate VIII, 1.
3. Obv. Inscription same, but crescents in first and fourth quarters. 6
Rev. Legend and type same as in 1.
4. Obv. +IOɧS DE IBЄLIɳO. Cross pattée, crescents in second and third quarters. 3
Number of coins
Rev. +CIVITĀS BERITI. Large gate, two flanking towers.
5. Obv. Legend and type same. 2
Rev. +CIVITĀS BERITI⋮. Type same.
6. Obv. +IOɧS DE BЄLIɧO. Type same. 1
Rev. +CIVITĀS BERETI⋮. Type same. Plate VIII, 2.
7. Obv. +IOɧS DE IBELINO⋮. Cross pattée crescents in first and fourth quarters, annulets in second and third. 1
Rev. +⋮CIVITĀS BERITI⋮. Same general type.
Unclassified. Plate VIII, 3. 1
Billon Deniers.

ANTIOCH

Bohemond IV (1201–1232)

Number of coins
1. Obv. +BOĀMVNDVS. Helmeted head r. with crescent and star in field r. and l. 1
Rev. +ΛNTIOCHIΛ. Cross pattée, crescent in second quarter.
(Schlum. Pl. III, 4.) Plate VIII, 4.
2. Obv. Variety with dots in center of O's on obverse and reverse. 1
3. Obv. +BOΛMVNDVS. Type same. 1
Rev. +ANTI°OCHIimage. Type same.
Billon deniers.

TRIPOLIS

Raymond III (1187–1200)

Number of coins
Obv. +RimageIMVNDVS COMS. Cross pattée. 1
Rev. +CIVITimageS TRIPOLIS. Eight-pointed star with annulets between rays.
(Schlum. Pl. IV, 16.) Plate VIII, 5.
Billon denier.

This makes a total of 1734 coins minted by the

Crusaders in the East.

There is one Arabic coin, silver, denier size probably belonging to Ayyub dynasty at Mayyafarikin, El Awhad Nejmeddin Ayyub (596–607 A.H.) or 1199–1210.* Plate VIII, 6.

From the number of French coins in this hoard, together with the quantity of coins from Damietta which show practically no wear, we may conclude that the owner was a French Crusader traveling north immediately after the fall of Damietta in 1221 and stopping in Cyprus to cash his letter-of-credit for expenses on the way. In anticipation of his return to France and travels through other foreign countries, he had got rid of his copper, which would not be current in Europe, and saved the silver and better billon. This would account for the absence of all deniers of Guy de Lusignan, both as King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, but does not account for the omission of coins of John de Brienne as King of Jerusalem, which were of silver. These coins are rare. It is, therefore, possible that they were not struck until after his return from Egypt.

It is impossible, at this date, to determine the reason for the burial of the hoard. Although found at Tripolis, only one coin of Tripolis was included among the 3537, so that it is incredible that this find represents the savings of a resident of that city. It seems more likely that the owner, overcome by sickness, or perhaps attacked by pirates off the coast of Tripolis buried his hoard with hopes of unearthing it at some future time, but was prevented, with the result that the hoard remained buried for seven hundred years.

End Notes
* Kindly identified for me by Mr. Wood of the American Numismatic Society.

End Notes

* I wish to express my thanks to Professor Alfred R. Bellinger who secured this hoard for me, to Mr. E. T. Newell and Mr. Howland Wood of the American Numismatic Society and to Professors A. B. West and John La Monte of the University of Cincinnati for their encouragement and advice.

APPENDIX

Because of the nature of this hoard and because, so far as I know, no exact analysis has ever been attempted when dealing with the coins of the Crusaders, a certain number of coins were weighed and analyzed.

To make the series more complete I have added a denier of an earlier Baldwin (Baldwin II or III) not represented in the hoard.

+RC(X) BALimageOINVS, cross pattée

imageCbICRVSimageIC, Tower of David

Weight 1.02 grammes (no analysis but copper content not obvious).

image

Four coins of Baldwin IV were weighed, two from the collection of the American Numismatic Society weighing .86 and .78 gramme, two from the author's collection weighing .82 gramme each, giving an average weight of .82 gramme. An assay* showed 34.7% silver, giving .285 gramme fine silver per denier.

Supposing the denier of Baldwin II to be of approximately the same fineness we get .354 gramme fine silver to the denier which corresponds closely to the current continental denier of the first half of the XII century, or ¼ of a sterling of 1.40 grammes. The deniers of Baldwin IV with their smaller content of fine silver follow the general trend of the European money which showed a gradual depreciation during the course of the century.

Two deniers of Amaury II assayed 33.3% and 31.37%, an average of 32⅓%.

Five deniers of Amaury II were weighed. The first two were bought by the author in Jerusalem; the others, from the American Numismatic Society's collection, also came from that city presumably. The weights are: .990, .920, .940, .800, and .875; average = .905 gr. Fine silver per denier = .2923 gr.

The discrepancy between this and the silver in the deniers of Baldwin (about 2½%) is not too great to suppose them to be of like standard.

The weights of the deniers of Amaury in this hoard in no wise correspond to those given above. Fifty undoubtedly complete coins were weighed and averaged .55 gr., varying from .290 gr. to .721 gr., only the one coin weighing .7 gr. or over. (In many cases it is difficult to state definitely whether a coin was struck on an irregular planchet or has been clipped. These coins have not been considered.) One hundred clipped deniers showed an average weight of .4799 gr. (varying from .275–645 gr.) which though less than the weight of the complete coins is by no means in proportion to the extent of the clipping. A number of badly clipped deniers weigh between .6 and .64 gr. The deniers of Amaury here illustrated weigh as follows: Plate VII, 1 weighs .56 gr.; 2, .45 gr.; 3, .54 gr.; 4, .565 gr.

There are two possible explanations for the difference in weight of the coins in this hoard and those from the collections. The first is that the heavier coins were issued by Amaury I and slavishly copied by Amaury II at a reduced weight. The alternative is that Amaury II minted coins on two standards, one, the heavier, for Jerusalem, and the lighter for Cyprus. The latter agree in silver content fairly well with the deniers in the name of Guy which we earlier attributed to Amaury.

Deniers in the name of Guy vary from .533–1.120 with an average weight of .771 gr. (though the norm seems to be ca. .8 gr.) 20.3% silver—fine silver, in one denier = .157 gr.

Unclipped denier of Amaury (.55 x 32.3%) = .178 gr.

Clipped and unclipped averaged together give silver in denier (.502 x 32.3%) = .162 gr.

The latter seems to be the intended weight for not only does it more nearly agree with the value of the earlier coins for Cyprus but also with the later.

Deniers of Hugh I vary from .455-1.035, average weight = .758 gr.

21.2% silver, silver per denier = .163 gr.

John of Brienne at Damietta vary from .589–.974, avg. wgt. = .739 gr.

22% silver, silver per denier = .163 gr.

These last figures are convincingly consistent. In relation to these it is interesting to bear in mind the use of the letter-of-credit. The principal issuers of these were Italian bankers in Genoa, Florence and Sienna, to their correspondents in Cyprus, Egypt and Syria (see Monnaies à légendes arabes frappées en Syrie par les Croises. Henri Lavoix, p. 1). Many French Crusaders set sail for the Holy Land from Genoa so that it was more convenient for them to do banking in that city than in the interior. It was, therefore, important for the countries for which they were bound to have a currency readily computed on a Genoese standard.

In an act of 1201 under Alberto Malaspina the Genoese pound = 82.355 gr., the Genoese sol = 4.11775 gr.

The sol had 3.97363 gr. fine silver and was worth 4.7 gr. bullion (La moneta Genoese, Pier Francesco Casaretto, p. 191). At twenty-four Cypriote or Damietta deniers to the sol and allowing for a slightly smaller per cent of silver to the smaller coin (.163gr. instead of 1.65 gr.) we have here a coin which can be calculated directly in Genoese pounds, thus avoiding a loss to the government which a more complicated system of exchange would entail.

Enough data on Crusaders' coins has not been available to make any conclusive statements about the varying weights of these coins, nor have I made any thorough study of existing material on Medieval standards. The above argument is offered only as a reasonable and possible explanation of the weight of Cypriote and Damietta deniers.

End Notes

* Mixture of alloy was extremely crude and in all cases the two halves of the coin were assayed separately and an average taken.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT

Bigot: A. Bigot, Essai sur les monnaies du royaume et duche de Bretagne, Paris 1857.
Cappe: Cappe, Heinrich Philipp: Die Münzen der deutsche Kaiser und Könige des Mittlealters, Dresden 1848.
Caron: E. Caron, Monnaies Féodales Françaises, Paris 1882.
Corpus Nummorum Italicorum. Vol. II.
DeMasLatrie: L. de Mas Latrie, Historei de l'île de Chypre sous le règne des princes de la maison de Lusignan.
de Saulcy: F. de Saulcy, Numismatique des Croisades, Paris 1847.
Eng. & Ser.: A. Engel & R. Serrure. Traité de Numismatique du moyen âge. Vol. II Paris, 1894.
Hoffman: H. Hoffman. Les monnaies de France depuis Hugues Capet jusqu'à Louis XVI. Paris 1818. 2 V.
P. d'A.: Faustin Poey d'Avant. Monnaies Féodales de France, Paris 1857.
Rev. Num.: Revue Numismatique.
Schlum.: Gustave Schlumberger. Numismatique de l'Orient Latin, Paris 1878.
Spin.: Spinelli, Domenico: Monete Cufiche battute da Principi Longobardi Normanni e Svevi nel Regno delle due Sicilie, Naples 1844.

BACK

THE TRIPOLIS H'D

PL. I

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PL. II

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PL. III

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PL. IV

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PL. V

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PL. VI

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PL. VII

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PL. VIII

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Numismatic Notes and Monographs

  • Howland Wood. Gold Dollars of 1858. 1922. 7 pp. 2 pls. 50c.
  • R. B. Whitehead. Pre-Mohammedan Coinage of N. W. India. 1922. 56 pp. 15 pls. $2.00.
  • George F. Hill. Attambelos I of Characene. 1922. 12 pp. 3 pls. $1.00.
  • M. P. Vlasto. Taras Oikistes (A Contribution to Tarentine Numismatics). 1922. 234 pp. 13 pls. $3.50.
  • Agnes Baldwin. Six Roman Bronze Medallions. 1923. 39 pp. 6 pls. $1.50.
  • Howland Wood. Tegucigalpa Coinage of 1823. 1923. 16 pp. 2 pls. 50c.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—II. Demanhur Hoard. 1923. 162 pp. 8 pls. $2.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Italian Orders of Chivalry and Medals of Honour. 1923. 146 pp. 34 pls. $2.00.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards—III. Andritsaena. 1924. 39 pp. 6 pls. $1.00.
  • C. T. Seltman. A Hoard from Side. 1924. 20 pp. 3 pls. $1.00.
  • R. B. Seager. A Cretan Coin Hoard. 1924. 55 pp. 12 pls. $2.00.
  • Samuel R. Milbank. The Coinage of Aegina. 1925. 66 pp. 5 pls. $2.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. A Bibliography of Greek Coin Hoards. 1925. 275 pp. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Mithradates of Parthia and Hyspaosines of Characene. 18 pp. 2 pls. 50c.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Mende (Kaliandra) Hoard. 1926. 73 pp. 10 pls. $2.00.
  • Agnes Baldwin. Four Medallions from the Arras Hoard. 1926. 36 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Some Unpublished Coins of Eastern Dynasts. 1926. 21 pp. 2 pls. 50c.
  • Harrold Ε. Gillingham. Spanish Orders of Chivalry and Decorations of Honour. 1926. 165 pp. 40 pls. $3.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Coinage of Metapontum. 1927 (Part I). 134 pp. 23 pls. $3.00.
  • Edward T. Newell. Two Recent Egyptian Hoards—Delta and Keneh. 1927. 34 pp. 3 pls. $1.00.
  • Edward Rogers. The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage of Tyre. 1927. 33 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Anonymous Byzantine Bronze Coinage. 1928. 27 pp. 4 pls. $1.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. Notes on the Decorations and Medals of the French Colonies and Protectorates. 1928. 62 pp. 31 pls. $2.00.
  • Oscar Ravel. The "Colts" of Ambracia. 1928. 180 pp. 19 pls. $3.00.
  • Howland Wood. The Coinage of the Mexican Revolutionists. 1928. 53 pp. 15 pls. $2.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. Alexander Hoards. IV. Olympia. 1929. 31 pp. 9 pls. $1.50.
  • Allen B. West. Fifth and Fourth Century Gold Coins from the Thracian Coast. 1929. 183 pp. 16 pls. $3.00.
  • Gilbert S. Perez. The Leper Colony Currency of Culion. 1929. 10 pp. 3 pls. 50c.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. Two Hoards of Attic Bronze Coins. 1930. 14 pp. 4 pls. 50c.
  • D. H. Cox. The Caparelli Hoard. 1930. 14 pp. 2 pls. 50c.
  • George F. Hill. On the Coins of Narbonensis with Iberian Inscriptions. 1930. 39 pp. 6 pls. $1.00.
  • Bauman L. Belden. A Mint in New York. 1930. 40 pp. 4 pls. 50c.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Küchük Köhne Hoard. 1931. 33 pp. 4 pls. $1.00.
  • Sydney P. Noe. The Coinage of Metapontum. Part II. 1931. 134 pp. 43 pls. $3.00.
  • D. W. Valentine. The United States Half Dimes. 1931. 79 pp. 47 pls. $5.00.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. Two Roman Hoards from Dura-Europos. 1931. 66 pp. 17 pls. $1.50.
  • Geo. F. Hill. Notes on the Ancient Coinage of Hispania Citerior. 196 pp. 36 dble. pls. $4.00.
  • Alan W. Hazelton. The Russian Imperial Orders. 1932. 102 pp. 20 pls. $3.00.
  • O. Ravel. Corinthian Hoards (Corinth and Arta). 1932. 27 pp. 4 pls. $1.00.
  • Jean B. Cammann. The Symbols on Staters of Corinthian Type (A Catalogue). 1932. 130 pp. 14 dble. pls. $3.00.
  • Shirley H. Weber. An Egyptian Hoard of the Second Century A. D. 41 pp. 5 pls. 1932. $1.50.
  • Alfred R. Bellinger. The Third and Fourth Dura Hoards. 1932. 85 pp. 20 pls. $1.50.
  • Harrold E. Gillingham. South American Decorations and War Medals. 1932. 178 pp. 35 pls. $3.00.
  • Wm. Campbell. Greek and Roman Plated Coins. 1933. 226 pp. 190 + pls. $3.50.
  • Edward T. Newell. The Fifth Dura Hoard. 1933. 14 pp. 2 pls. $1.00.