Kolophon and its coinage

Milne, J. G. (Joseph Grafton), 1867-1951
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
American Numismatic Society
New York
Worldcat Works




Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.


Table of Contents




By J. G. Milne

Before the interruption of international relations in Europe, I was collecting material for a monograph on the coinage of Kolophon: it seems improbable that I shall be able to complete it on the original plan; but it may be worth while to put on record the facts ascertained and the conclusions they suggest. I had examined the specimens at London, Oxford, Kopenhagen, Munich, and Vienna, and obtained lists and details from Cambridge, Glasgow, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Gotha, Athens, and Leningrad, as well as from America: and a review of this material gave reason for thinking that it was fairly representative, when taken in consideration with what has already been published. Many of the issues at Kolophon must have been small, as they are represented only by single specimens in my list; and it is probable that such single specimens of other varieties exist unpublished in collections of which I have no particulars; but on the whole it is not likely that these would affect the general conclusions reached. The most important of these collections is probably that at Stamboul, which contains the coins from the excavations of 1921-2: of these Mr. Noe has kindly furnished me with a summary from notes which he took, and, though these notes have not enabled me to include the specimens in the catalogue, they justify the opinion that there is nothing among them which would not fit into the scheme framed here. It is in the hope that some younger student may be able to put more flesh on the skeleton that I publish this study. While doing this, I have to express my thanks to the Keepers of the collections named, as well as to Mr. Noe, for their courtesy and kindness in supplying information, including casts: the latter are deposited at Oxford and are available for consultation.

Kolophon, unlike most of the early Greek settlements in the west of Asia Minor, lay at some distance —about eight miles—from the sea, in a position which looked east rather than west: it was evidently placed to command the fertile plain of the Kaystros, and its interests, so far as records of them exist, might be described as rural. There is no indication that any important manufacturing industry was pursued there, or that the city possessed any ships: the chief occupation seems to have been horse-breeding, and the main exports overseas were pitch, mastic, and resin. Its harbour, Notion, was a small one, and not situated where it could capture any part of the trade that came down the river-valleys from the interior of the country: though some of this trade may have passed through Kolophon, it probably went on to the gulf of Smyrna. The effects of this position can be traced in the coinage.

Kolophon claimed to be one of the first Greek foundations in Ionia: according to Pausanias (vii. 3), it was originally occupied by Cretans, who were joined by refugees from Thebes after the 'Dorian invasion' of Greece. This statement finds some support in the discovery of a necropolis with Geometric pottery in the American excavations on the site in 1921-2 (Picard, Ephèse et Claros, p. 729). But, though it is said to have joined in the foundation of Ephesos and Smyrna, it did not take any important part in colonisation far afield: the only permanent trading station which is ascribed to it is Myrleia, the later Apameia, in Bithynia (Mela, i. 99). After it was conquered by Gyges of Lydia, about the beginning of the seventh century B.C., refugees are said to have settled at Siris in Italy (Strabo, 264): others went to the mouth of the Strymon, to work the gold-mines (Suidas, s. v. Xρυσὸς Kολοφώνιος), and Thucydides (V. 2) mentions a Kολοφωνίων λιμήν, near Torone, in his account of the operations of Kleon: these settlements, however, do not seem to have maintained any close connexion with the mother-city. Kolophonians are mentioned in Egyptian documents from various localities and of various dates, from the mercenaries of Psamtik II, who scratched their names at Abu-simbel (Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions, 6. No. 4), to an associate of Apollonius, the finance-minister of Ptolemy II (P. Zeno, Cairo 59003, 20), but they do not appear to have been engaged in trade: Kolophon was not one of the twelve Greek cities which shared in the privileges of Naukratis. The only suggestion of a business connexion between Kolophon and Egypt is to be found in a measure known as Kολοφώνιον, which occurs in papyri of the Roman period: it is not mentioned elsewhere, and its origin is unexplained, but it may be derived from the import of pitch and resin: these were possibly shipped in containers of a standard size, which were used by the Egyptians as measures, like petroleum-tins today: a similar process can be traced in the measures known as 'Pόδια and Kνίδια, derived, no doubt, from the jars in which wine was imported. That Kolophonian resin still went to Egypt in Roman times appears from the mention of Kολοφωνίας μάλαγμα in a list of drugs of the third century A.D. (P. Grenf. i. 52, 6) : so the name of the measure may not have been of old standing.

The sack of the city by Gyges destroyed its prosperity for a considerable period: before that it could be compared for wealth with Sybaris (Aelian. V. H. i. 19), and it is quoted, with Magnesia and Smyrna, by Theognis (1103–4) as ruined by ὕβρις: Aristotle (Pol. 1290b) says that the bulk of the inhabitants were possessed of large property before the Lydian wars. The persistent policy of the Mermnad Kings of Lydia in favour of Ephesos was naturally detrimental to Kolophon, and the Persians were regarded there as liberators after their overthrow of the Lydian kingdom: this friendship with Persia evidently continued in the fifth century B.C.; and even after the Athenians had established their hold on the Ionian coast, their control of Kolophon seems to have been precarious. The trade with Persia was probably more important to the Kolophonians than that with Greece, which would account for their relue- tance to break with Persia: in the first flush of success of the Athenian Empire, the Greek party might control the city, but by the time of the Peloponnesian war it had passed over to the Persian. The first assessment of Kolophon in the tribute-lists at Athens was three talents, but in the third this was halved: in 429 B.C. the city was occupied by the Persian general Itamenes, on the invitation of one party of the citizens, and the others retired to the harbour-town of Notion, but there again quarrelled among themselves, with the result that Persian influence dominated Notion also until 427, when the Athenian fleet under Paches put in there and established the pro-Athenian Kolophonians in the government under Athenian leaders (Thuc., III. 34). There is, however, no suggestion that Kolophon was recovered for the Greeks, nor that they attempted to recover it, till 409, when Thrasyllus landed at Notion and marched up to Kolophon, where he was joined by some of the inhabitants and made a raid into Lydia; but when the Persian cavalry arrived on the scene, he withdrew to Ephesos, and presumably left Kolophon to its fate (Xen., Hell. i. 2).

The history of Kolophon in the fourth century B.C. is a blank, so far as literary sources are concerned: but the excavations conducted on the site in 1921-2 have shown that the city must have been flourishing. No detailed report has been published as yet, but the summary account in Bull. Corr. Hell. 1922, p. 549, indicates that there was extensive rebuilding in the old quarter and what may have been a new quarter on the north-east in the plain. Just before the end of the century the citizens determined to build a wall round the παλαιὰ πόλις, and an inscription edited by B. D. Meritt (Amer.Journ. Phil. 1935, 358 ff., No. 1), which may be dated to 307 or 306, gives an impressive list of subscriptions contributed for this purpose. This wall is probably the one of which considerable remains still stand: Schuchhardt (Athen. Mitth. 1886, 398 ff.) judged that it might have been built shortly before or after 300, and that it showed no signs of later reconstruction. At the time of the inscription the city was under the control of Antigonus, but in 302 Prepelaus, after reducing Ephesos, captured Teos and Kolophon for Lysimachus (Diod. Sic., xx. 107), and for the next twenty years it formed part of his Asiatic domain.

The strategic position of Lysimachus in Ionia was based on command of the sea-coast, and for this purpose Kolophon was unimportant: so he removed part of the inhabitants, together with some of those of Lebedos, to Ephesos, which, with Smyrna, furnished his keys for the district. There is no evidence that the city was completely depopulated: it was certainly of some importance later in the third century, and it may be suggested that when, after the defeat and death of Lysimachus in 281, it came into the hands of the Seleucid kings, whose authority was exercised from the interior of the country, it resumed the position which it had held in relation to the Persian kingdom as a station on the trade-route down to Smyrna, which would be the more valuable because communication with Smyrna by the road through Sardis would be open to possible interference from Pergamon in the event of disputes between Seleucids and Attalids. In the middle of the century it became even more essential to the Seleucids: when the Ptolemaic forces had occupied Miletos, Ephesos and Lebedos, Kolophon must have been an important frontier garrison-post protecting the road to Smyrna, Erythrai, and Klazomenai, which remained Seleucid. A further hint as to its relation to Smyrna is given in the account of Polybius (5.77.5) of the campaign of Attalus I against Achaeus: after Attalus had taken Smyrna, he did not advance further south, but ambassadors came to him from Teos and Kolophon.

It has frequently been stated that Kolophon was virtually destroyed by the depopulation under Lysimachus, and that the later Kolophon to which references are occasionally made by historians and geographers was a New Kolophon on the harbour: consequently that the Kolophonian coins of the second and first centuries B. C. and of the Roman Imperial period were really of this New Kolophon. This statement appears to be due to a misapprehension, as there is definite evidence that a city continued to exist on the old site of Kolophon: it may have had changes in its relationship to the harbourtown of Notion, and have lost some of its status in comparison to that town, but even this is not certain. In the fifth century B. C., Notion appears in the Athenian tribute-lists separately from Kolophon, and it is probable that Athenian policy would encourage the independence of the harbour-town, which they could control more effectively than the inland city, as the passage of Thucydides already quoted shows: but Aristotle evidently regards the two as being normally linked, in spite of occasional divisions. He takes Kolophon and Notion as an example of the difficulties which might arise where the country was not naturally adapted to preserve the unity of the state, and speaks of the quarrels of the two communities (Pol. 1303b). Theopompus also treats Notion as an outlying suburb of Kolophon —Xωρίον προκείμενον τῆς Kολοφωνίων πόλεως (Fr. Gr. Hist. II B 563): and in the third century, though Notion seems to have become known as Kolophon-on-the-sea, the old city still existed: an inscription of Magnesia (Kern, Inschr. von Magnesia 53) refers to Kολοφώνιοι οί τὴν ἀρχαίαν πόλιν οίkοῦντες and Kολοφώνιοι ἀπὸ θαλάσσης in the same manner. The ἀρχαία πόλις can hardly be a new term to designate the remnants left by Lysimachus, even if it is not the equivalent of the παλαιὰ πόλις of the building-inscription of 307-6 quoted above: and neither here nor elsewhere is there any mention of a New Kolophon: in fact, the language of these passages suggests a desire to emphasize the Kolophonian influence in Notion. Another inscription (B.C.H. xxxix. 36) of the same period, indicates that the two cities had a sympoliteia. The same trend of thought appears in the records of the action taken by the Roman commissioners after the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, when they declared the inhabitants of Notion free: Polybius, the best authority, speaks of τοὺς τὸ Nότιον οίκοῦντας (21.46.4), which Livy later modified to 'Colophoniis qui in Notio habitant' (xxxviii. 39). (The alteration of the text of Polybius to Kολοφωνίους τοὺς τὸ Nότιον οἰκοimageντας, to make him conform to Livy, has no MS. authority and is quite arbitrary: Polybius is far more reliable than Livy in regard to precision of terminology. The value of Livy's evidence about Kolophon can be judged by his statement that Notion was two Roman miles from old Kolophon (xxxvii. 26): this is about a quarter of the real distance.) The action of the Romans may have resulted in the administrative separation of Notion from Kolophon—possibly following the same policy as that of the Athenians in the fifth century, to secure their position on the coast, while they left the inland region under Attalus—but it did not convert Notion into Kolophon. There is nothing in the letter of L. Scipio to the Senate and people of Kolophon (S.E.G. I. 440) to suggest that it was addressed to Notion: nor is there any evidence that the administrative separation lasted after the formation of the province of Asia.

The last occasion, before the establishment of the Roman Empire, on which Kolophon is mentioned by ancient historians is the Mithradatic War. The city fell into his hands with the rest of the province of Asia: following the example of Ephesos, it tried to break away from him, together with Smyrna and other neighbouring cities, in the reaction of 86-5, but was reduced and apparently placed under the government of a 'tyrant,' Epigonus by name, who was expelled by Lucullus in 85 (Plutarch, Lucullus, 3).

Under the Empire, nothing is heard of Kolophon. It had then no military value, and the main lines of traffic passed at some distance from it. Presumably it still served as a market-town and centre for the rich agricultural district, from which it had formerly drawn its wealth, till the troubles which reduced the prosperity of all Asia Minor in the middle of the third century A. D.; but this can only be inferred from such indications as are given by such material evidence as coins.

The literary records quoted above do not give much information about the economic history of Kolophon, after the rather vague accounts of its early prosperity, and its ruin when the Lydian monarchs were supreme in Western Asia Minor: but something can be added from the archaeological evidence provided by coins and inscriptions from the beginning of the fifth century B. C. onwards. The issue of coins probably began soon after the Persians had conquered the Lydians, at first mainly in the form of small change for the convenience of the local markets: the Persian kings struck nothing smaller than the silver siglos, which passed as the equivalent of the Greek drachma, and this carried much too high a value to be useful in daily shopping. So there was a fairly large output of "halves" and "fourths," which were plainly marked on their faces with their denominations, as they had to serve a mixed Persian and Greek centre of trade. But, by the beginning of the fifth century the Greek merchants of Kolophon were able to stand on their own feet in regard to currency, and they struck considerable numbers of drachmas of approximately the same weight as the sigloi, besides smaller silver: the technical excellence of this coinage suggests that the city had attained once more to prosperity.

The establishment of the Athenian Empire in the Aegaean was not an advantage to Kolophon: it was too far from the sea for the Athenian fleet to guarantee its communications with the west, and the Kaystrian plain, from which its wealth was derived, was still more open to Persian interference. So it was natural that there should be a strong pro-Persian party there, especially among the landowners, and the currency became less Greek in form: the smaller denominations ceased to be issued, as there would be few visiting traders in the markets who wanted to settle small accounts exactly in cash, and the only coins struck were drachmas, for the wealthier inhabitants: at the same time the art of the die-engravers fell away from its former high standard to a more provincial type. This decline was increasingly manifest in the second half of the fifth century, and is paralleled by the reduction of the assessments of the city in the Athenian tribute-lists.

The fourth century saw a revival again: this is very evident in the coinage, which not only improved in artistic merit, but was expanded by the resumption of the issue of small silver and the inception of a bronze currency. The standard on which the silver was struck was changed from the Persian to the Asiatic Greek, which indicates a renewal of oversea trade with the Aegaean area. As already noted, the excavations of 1921-2 show that there was much building activity in the city, and the building inscription of 307 or 306 B. C. is worth some analysis in this connection. Only about half of it is preserved, but fortunately the opening section is sufficiently complete to give the chief details: the citizens had agreed to build a wall, and appointed a body of ten to raise contributions from outside, while each citizen should subscribe as he wished. As a result, the remains of the list of subscribers show about four hundred names, so that the original total may have been nearly eight hundred: they are arranged under headings of the sums given, and the later headings are lost, but it would appear probable that there were about a hundred and fifty who contributed three hundred drachmas and upwards, some of the contributions being from families: the ten commissioners gave ten thousand drachmas, one providing three hundred and seventy only and the rest making up the balance between them. These figures indicate the existence of a fairly wealthy body of citizens. The amounts received from outsiders are also interesting, as they would almost certainly be from men who had business connections with Kolophon: there are two Macedonians and one representative each from Abdera, Amphipolis, Maroneia, Pitane, Herakleia, Miletos, and Naukratis, all, except the last, among the large subscribers at the head of the list: the largest is one of the Macedonians, who gave fifteen hundred gold pieces (i.e. staters worth twenty silver drachmas): the other Macedonian gave a thousand drachmas, the six next named sums in gold from six hundred down to one hundred staters. The predominance of men from the north of the Aegaean is worth noting, in view of the early connexion of Kolophon with Thrace: this accords with the evidence given by the change of standard in the coinage as to the renewal of oversea trade in this century.

This period of prosperity was ended by Lysimachus, when he removed a part of the inhabitants of Kolophon to Ephesos: the coinage dwindled away, and apparently ceased altogether in the second century. If, as suggested above, the importance of Kolophon in the latter part of the third century was largely military, the stoppage of local coinage is understandable, since the kings who garrisoned it would pay their troops in their own currency, which would pass into the city shops: in the second century, after the battle of Magnesia, the great output of Smyrna could supply the circulation. There was a fresh issue of bronze in the first century, probably while the city was in the hands of the supporters of Mithradates: but this does not seem to have lasted long.

No literary evidence exists concerning the economic position of Kolophon under the Roman Emperors, and for the first century A. D. the coins give no help: in fact, there are hardly any known. A sudden outburst comes in the reign of Trajan, for which no reason can be suggested: there is nothing of Hadrian, and very little of Antoninus Pius and Commodus. But with Caracalla an activity commences, which continued for half a century, and may indicate a revival in the commercial importance of the city. If this is correct, the revival was possibly due to the northward shift of the trade routes from the interior, as the harbour of Ephesos got silted up, as had also that of Miletos: Smyrna was monopolising the shipments to the west, and the caravans that had gone down the valley to Ephesos would turn northwards to Smyrna through Kolophon and bring back business to its inhabitants.

Throughout the five centuries in which Kolophon issued an autonomous coinage, the types were predominantly Apolline: no silver was struck with any obverse type other than the head of Apollo, except at the beginning of Period II, when there were concurrent issues with heads of Apollo and of Artemis: and the same rule was observed in regard to the bronze till the closing years of the series. For reverse types, after Period I, when marks of value were used, the silver had only the lyre and the tripod of Apollo, and, on the latest issue of all, the spread tetradrachms of the second century B. C., a full-length figure of Apollo: the bronze began with the lyre, but soon non-Apolline types were admitted on the reverse, though the lyre and the tripod persisted, and the full-length figure was also used in the last period. Under the Empire, Apollo was still the most favoured reverse-type: a seated figure of him occurs in almost every reign when coins were struck at Kolophon from Augustus to Gallienus, with little variation in the pose: he normally holds a laurel-branch and rests his elbow on a lyre, and occasionally a tripod is added: the only notable exception is under Trajan, when he holds a small image of Artemis. On coins of Commodus, Caracalla, Maximinus, and Gordianus, his seated figure is grouped with two standing goddesses, one of whom is clearly Artemis: the other is more difficult to identify, but may be his mother Leto as suggested by Picard (Ephèse et Claros, p. 391): she is certainly not Nemesis, as has been supposed, since her right hand is lowered, not raised to her neck, and in her left she holds a sceptre. The only standing figure of Apollo in this period is on a coin of Domitia. None of the types can be associated with any known sculptured figure: the reason for the choice of Apollo was the existence on what was usually Kolophonian territory of the great temple of Apollo Klarios, near Notion; and on coins of Gallus and Valerian there is a summary representation of this temple, with representatives of the thirteen Ionian cities standing before it, and in it a seated figure in the same pose as the common reverse type: so this seated figure may be meant to show the temple-statue of the Imperial period: on the coins of Trajan it is given the title of Klarios. The earlier figures on the autonomous coinage are, however, standing ones: there is no instance of a seated type. As for the heads of Apollo on the obverses, there is no consistent tradition: the archaic head of the first silver has nothing in common with the fine severe type which succeeds it, and in the fourth century B. C. two entirely different conceptions were used concurrently for the same magistrates: so it is clear that (as commonly occurs in Greek numismatic art) each artist could design a head according to his own ideals.

While Apollo is always represented on the Kolophonian coins in purely Greek style, Artemis is not: in fact, her position in the Kolophonian theology is somewhat obscure. The female head on the obverse of some of the drachmas of Period II is surely Artemis, though at first sight it would rather suggest Aphrodite: there is, however, no trace of Aphrodite-worship at Kolophon: she is not named among the ancestral deities in the building inscription of 307-6 —where there is equally no mention of Artemis— and in the long catalogue of contributors given by that inscription there is not one name derived from Aphrodite, while there are twenty men named Artemidoros and four named Artemon. This early head of Period II is of the best Greek art: and the only other appearance of Artemis on the autonomous coinage, in the last period, shows her bust according to the usual Greek design, with bow and quiver at her shoulder. In the Imperial period, however, there is a reverse-type of an Asiatic cult-statue, resembling the well-known one of Ephesos, which on the coins of Trajan is labelled alternatively Artemis Kolophonia or Artemis Klaria: the same figure, in miniature, is that held by Apollo in a reverse-type of the same reign already mentioned. This Asiatic type was the most popular under Trajan, but afterwards is found only on coins of Otacilia Severa and of Volusian. The Greek form recurs in the group of Apollo, Artemis, and another goddess, of Commodus and three later reigns. Whether the Artemis Klaria worshipped at the sanctuary of Klaros was represented there (if at all) in Greek or Asiatic form cannot be decided, though the probability is in favour of an Asiatic statue: at Kolophon itself, in the autonomous period, she was evidently regarded as Greek, like her brother.

Athene Polias was one of the ancestral deities named in the building-inscription of 307-6 B. C., but it was not till five hundred years later that she appeared as a coin-type, on a reverse of Julia Domna: a similar type was used for Volusian and Gallienus.

Asklepios occurs on the coinage of Kolophon only once, associated with Hygieia and Telesphoros on a reverse of Caracalla. It is not obvious in what connection he was introduced, but, as the same magistrate, Tiberius Claudius Myron, who was responsible for this coin, also had the coin of Domna with the new type of Athene struck, he may have been casting round for novelties without particular regard for their local setting.

It is possible that the same man may have been the sponsor of Sarapis as a Kolophonian coin-type, since this first occurs in the same reign: it is, however, used on the smaller coins only, which have no magistrates' names, so the exact authority for it cannot be fixed. Sarapis had been growing in popularity as a coin-type in the cities of the Asiatic coast from the middle of the second century A. D., and might therefore be borrowed: after his introduction he recurred several times, down to the end of the coinage under Gallienus, and practically became one of the stock types for bronze of the third size.

Another introduction of the same reign was Tyche, the only figure of this class of personifications who appears on the coins of Kolophon; and she was probably regarded as the City goddess rather than as a mere personification of Fortune. She was such a common type that the only remarkable thing is that she had not occurred sooner: like Sarapis, she became a stock type for the third size of bronze, with one occurrence on the second size under Maximinus.

Another popular personification, of a different class, was the reclining figure of a river-god: but this is found only once at Kolophon, in the reign of Macrinus, on the smallest size of bronze. There was no important river at Kolophon: one stream, the Hales, flowed under the wall and southwards to Notion, another ran from inside the city northwards, but it is uncertain which, if either, of these was intended to be commemorated: the identification of this type on coins of Asiatic mints with any particular river is problematical, unless the name appears in the legend, and two rivers—for instance, at Ephesos the Kaystros and the Kenchreios—may be represented by identical types at one place. The comparative insignificance of the rivers at Kolophon may be the reason why the type was not used there more.

Though Kolophon was one of the cities which claimed to be the birthplace of Homer, it was not till late in the first century B. C. that his figure was introduced as a coin-type: it had appeared at Smyrna over a century earlier. Then, after a long interval, it was revived by the Kolophonian artists in their search for new types which began in the time of Caracalla: in order that there might be no doubt as to the poet who was represented, his name was inscribed on the scroll he held, in the first instance. This type was then appropriated to bronze of the second size.

For the same size another type was borrowed in a naked male figure, doubtless a boxer, which occurs in the reigns of Philip and Decius: it was one of the agonistic types which became common in Asia Minor in the third century, when the professional athlete was at the height of his glory. There is no record of any special games or school of training at Kolophon which might account for the adoption of this type.

The representation of a sacrifice by representatives of the thirteen cities of the Ionian Koinon before the temple of Apollo Klarios, which is found on the coins of Gallus and Valerian, was also borrowed. The earliest coins of the Koinon, which originally met on Mykale at the πανιώνιον, were struck under An- toninus Pius, and had no name of a city as the place of issue: later, Ephesos developed the idea of gathering the thirteen representatives before its temple, and Kolophon followed suit. This may perhaps indicate that the meetings of the Koinon were then held at different temples in turn.

All the types described so far have a religious or commemorative import: on the autonomous bronze there are some reverses of a different class, which refer to the fame of Kolophon as a home of horses and horsemen: the earliest is the forepart of a prancing horse, soon followed by a horseman charging with spear couched, and by a walking horse: towards the end of the autonomous coinage the horseman is transferred to the obverse of one set of issues, and Apollo relegated to the reverse. Under the horse, on the last-named coins, is an animal, probably a wolf: the reason for this addition is suggested later. There is no reference to horse breeding in the types of the Imperial period.

The only animal-type found under the Empire is the ram, the earliest instance of which is on coins of Antoninus Pius, of the smallest size. It continued to be the stock type for this denomination till the end of the mintage at Kolophon. The reason for the choice of the ram is not obvious: animal types were commonly used for small coins in this period, as they were artistically convenient, but the ram is not known to have had any connection with Kolophon or its deities.

The use of the caps of the Dioskouroi as a reverse- type on small bronze coins of the last autonomous period is also not explained, as there is no record of a Kolophonian cult of the Dioskouroi: they might of course be popular with the Kolophonian horsemen.

The artistic interest of the Kolophonian coinage, at any rate in the autonomous series, mainly lies in the apparent connection between the political fortunes of the city and the merits of the engravers employed to produce the dies used. There is no consistent tradition of style: it might have been expected that, when the head of Apollo was almost the only obverse type used from the beginning of the fifth till the end of the second century B. C., there would have been a standard conception of the treatment, even if it developed in sympathy with the general advance of Greek art. Instead of this, not only do fresh schemes appear from time to time, but two different ideals are found in vogue at the same time: the impression produced by a survey of the whole series might be described as a succession of artistic spasms.

There is no record of any local school of artists, in any branch of production, at Kolophon: it claimed some literary reputation in early times, not only as the birthplace of Homer, but as the home of Mimnermus and Xenophanes; but it had no parallel names in the artistic world. This may be explained, perhaps, as due to the economic status of the city: in the periods of its prosperity, it was the centre of a rich agricultural district, and the ruling class in the state may probably be conceived as a body of country squires, hard riders rather than hard thinkers: some of them might be patrons of art, but they would have to send abroad if they wanted to obtain objects of art: the lower classes would be grooms or husbandmen, or, if in any sense technicians, only concerned with the requirements of the staple industry. In such a community, it would be necessary to import die-engravers whenever there was a need for a supply of coins: as there were evidently gaps of some length when no coins were issued, the engravers might not find it worth while to stay on at Kolophon after they had provided the requisite dies; and next time that the need arose, engravers might be obtained from a different school.

Of the art of the sixth century coinage little can be said, as it consists almost entirely of tiny pieces, roughly struck, which can hardly be classified by schools: they are definitely archaic, and crude. There is a marked contrast in the first issues of the second period, which began with really fine, though severe, heads of Artemis and Apollo: there is nothing comparable to them in the contemporary coins of other cities in Ionia, and the technique suggests that of gem-engravers, who may have been imported for the occasion from Samos. These first dies are at an artistic level which none of the following ones reached: the general conception was copied, more weakly, in another, and a rather different and drier rendering appears in a second, which preserves more of the technique, but has lost the charm. After that comes a steady degradation: the head of Artemis ceases to appear as a type, and that of Apollo is much less skilfully handled; three styles can be distinguished, no one attributable to any particular school, and in each the workmanship of different dies varies in merit, but is never more than fair. The deterioration in the art of the coins may reflect a decline in the prosperity of Kolophon: at the beginning of the century it was in all probability flourishing; but the domination of the Ionian coast by the Athenian fleet would be detrimental to a place with considerable interests in Persian trade, and the alternations between Greek and Persian control in the second half of the century, which would almost certainly mean the transfer of the government of the city from one party to another—oligarchs and democrats securing the upper hand in turn—would be particularly disastrous in an agricultural community like Kolophon.

About the beginning of the fourth century there was a change in the standard to which the silver coinage was struck; and this was accompanied by changes in the technique of striking, a new form of reverse die being used, and in the artistic style of the devices engraved on the dies. The latter is the more noticeable, as there appear in the heads of Apollo on the obverse dies two distinct ideals, which have as little relation to one another as to any of the work of the preceding period. For a while the two continued side by side, dies of both schools being used for the same magistrates: then, one tradition, the less severe, was followed in the silver coinage, while the bronze, which started about this time, after a brief experimental period when dies seem sometimes to have been borrowed from the silver, settled down to the other tradition.

In the plentiful bronze coinage of the later years of the fourth century a fairly high level of execution is maintained: different hands can be discerned in the dies, but, as there is no basis for arranging the individual issues in a chronological series, it cannot be decided whether two or more artists were working at the same time: there is, however, no instance of coins with the same magistrate's name being struck from dies of different styles. The great majority of the coins belong to one or other of two denominations, and these two show distinct treatment: as the same names of magistrates are hardly ever found on both denominations, it may be that the denominations were struck at different shops, which employed different groups of artists, and were patronised by different magistrates: on the other hand, as the larger denomination began to be issued later than the other, and there was frequently a tendency in Greek coinages to adhere closely to the design set at the beginning of a series, the fact that the head on the larger coins is rather more advanced in treatment than that on the smaller may be explained by the change in artistic taste between the times when the two series were started. The close similarity between some of the heads of Apollo on the smaller coins and those on coins of Miletos of the same size and about the same date suggests that the same artist may have been the designer of both sets.

In the third century there is a rapid collapse in the art of the Kolophonian coinage: after the first quarter of the century there seems to have been little currency struck, and that was carelessly executed. A solitary issue of silver tetradrachms, early in the second century, has an exotic look, and there is no bronze which can certainly be ascribed to this century. When new series of bronze were started in the first century, both design and execution were poor, and the latest autonomous coins are miserable productions in every respect.

There is little to be said of the art of the Imperial period: the one coin known of Augustus is crude, the two of Domitian and Domitia not much better. The first considerable issue, under Trajan, shows a more practised hand, but little taste: some similarities to the coins of Smyrna of the same reign may indicate that men were brought from Smyrna to revive the mint at Kolophon, or that the authorities of Kolophon ordered a set of coins from the mint at Smyrna. The workmanship of the larger dies of the reigns of Antonius Pius and Commodus is more competent, but the issues were small: when they became more regular and extensive, from the time of Caracalla onwards, there was a dead level of mediocrity throughout, with no noticeable degeneration, but equally no improvement. Comparison with the issues of neighbouring cities shows no links, so it may be concluded that for the last half century of the coinage a local mint existed at Kolophon.

The dualism, if it may be so called, in the art of the Kolophonian coinage of the fifth and fourth centuries B. C. appears in another connexion as affecting the control of the issue. At the beginning of the issue of drachmas there is the unusual phenomenon of the use of the heads of two deities—Apollo and Artemis—as obverse types for the same denomination. As a rule, a Greek city which adopted for its coins obverse types of this class, instead of the city badge, either adhered to one deity for all denominations, or allotted different ones to different denominations: the most notable exception is in the coinage of the Eleians, where there are parallel series with heads of Zeus and of Hera. But the conditions of this case were peculiar: the two series were issued from two distinct shops, which show no links in dies or art, and might possibly be regarded as rivals, produced by the two chief temples of Olympia in competition for the custom of visitors to the Olympic games. At Kolophon the coins with the heads of Apollo and of Artemis must have come from the same shop, as the same reverse die is found associated with both obverses: and it is difficult to suggest an explanation for this, unless one can be derived from the coinage of the next century. In this, magistrates' names appear on the coins: and there was, in several cases, a joint user, not of reverse, but of obverse dies for as many as three magistrates: for instance, in one group one die was used in common by Hermonax, Zenodotos, and Platon, another by Hermonax, Platon, and Pythodoros: in another group Aristides, Zenes, and Nikias had two dies, both of which were used for all three. It is of course not uncommon in Greek cities to find an obverse die passed from one man to another, and possibly to a third, but in most cases it can be proved by the wear of the die that the different users were successive: at Kolophon the specimens examined, which in regard to the second group named are fairly numerous, do not show any indications of priority in use as between the three; and it would seem most probable that they were all having coins struck for them at the same time, and that an obverse die could be used indifferently with the reverse of any one of them as wanted.

A somewhat similar common use of obverse dies for three magistrates occurs at Smyrna in the second century B. C.: and I suggest (Num. Chron. Ser. 5. vii. 1) that there was possibly a board of three in control of the mint, each of whom could have coins struck in his own name: if there was a demand for a large supply of coins of one denomination, and all three were called on to meet this demand together, it would be quite likely that one obverse die would serve the turn of all three, and be followed by others similarly used. This explanation seems to suit the situation at Smyrna, where, after 190 B. C., there was such an extensive issue of bronze that some sort of mint might well have been kept in being: but at Kolophon there must have been many years, even in the period under discussion when the issues were largest, in which no coins were struck, and it would have been a work of supererogation to nominate a board to do nothing. Moreover, such a board of magistrates nominated for a particular service seems, in a Greek city, to imply a democratic constitution: and, though nothing is known of the constitution of Kolophon in the fourth century, it is highly probable, in view of the strong Persian influence there, that it was an oligarchy or a timocracy, as Aristotle describes it to have been at an earlier date. In this event, the action which would probably be taken by the governing body, when currency was wanted, would be to request some of its wealthier members to see to its provision: the inscription of 307 already quoted shows that, when funds were required for building the walls, a committee of ten was appointed to collect subscriptions and to head the list with substantial sums: the principle was that of the liturgy, familiar in most Greek cities. The chosen supervisors of the coinage would finance the issue from their own resources, and would presumably give their orders for the preparation of dies and the striking of coins to silversmiths; and this would explain the concurrent use of dies executed by different artists: one man might order an obverse die from one engraver, another from a second; but both could be employed in case of need for all the partners. It must be remembered that the minting arrangements of nearly all Greek cities, except Athens, seem to have been very casual: even at Alexandria in 258 B. C., when Apollonius, the finance minister of Ptolemy Philadelphus, directed his subordinate Demetrius to strike some gold coins, the latter pleaded that he was able only to restrike old coins of good weight, and would have to be provided with expert assistance if he was expected to assay the metal (P. Zeno Cairo 59021). If such conditions are found at Alexandria, with its highly organised civil service and its gathering of masters in all branches of knowledge, it is hardly likely that a smaller city would have more elaborate minting arrangements.

The probability, then, is that the issues of coin in the fourth century at Kolophon were made on the personal responsibility of the individuals nominated —for convenience they may be called magistrates, but they may have been only ad hoc magistrates. This would explain why the earliest issue of bronze bore no names of magistrates: it was possibly experimental, and was evidently not struck to an exact standard, so it did not require a personal guarantee, as the contemporary silver did: it was purely a token-coinage.

Under the Roman Empire, in view of what has been said in connection with the art of the coins, it may be doubted whether a mint existed at Kolophon before the reign of Caracalla: the coins that occasionally appeared may have been ordered from mints in other cities. After that, there may have been a local mint, but the output, though a good many reverse types were used, was probably small, as one obverse die not infrequently served for several reverses, and a reverse die was occasionally used with obverses of two members of the Imperial house: also few varieties are represented by more than two or three examples. There is only one instance of a 'pseudo-autonomous' coin, the nearest approach possible under Roman rule to a civic issue: and the general impression given by the coins of this period is that they were mainly epideictic in character.

In the descriptions which follow, the coins have been grouped mainly by style: the order of the groups is intended to be chronological, except that the silver and the bronze of each period are treated independently. There is not sufficient material for attempting a chronological arrangement of the issues in the groups.

The chief public collections from which examples are described have been indicated by their initials: these are:—A = Athens; B = Berlin; C = Cambridge; G = Glasgow; K = Kopenhagen; L = London; Len = Leningrad; M=Munich; NY = New York; O = Oxford; P = Paris; V = Vienna; other collections have their names given in full. Details are added, so far as I have been able to obtain them, of size, weight, and die-position: the last is important only in Period II, when the dies were evidently loose; later, they seem to have been almost always adjusted. Sale-catalogues are quoted when the specimens concerned were illustrated.

Abbreviations used in the description of types and listing of varieties are in most cases self-explanatory. Those most commonly used are as follows: ab., (above); bel., (below); BMC, (British Museum Catalogue); Ch. Ch., (Christ Church); cmk., (countermark);. comm., (commerce); ethn., (ethnic); ex., (exergue); i.l.f., (in left field); i.f., (in field); ins., (inside); l., (left); laur., (laureate); leg., (legend); Mi., (Mionnet); Mi. S., (Mionnet, Supplement); N.C., (Numismatic Chronicle); obv., (obverse); prob., (probably); r., (right); rev., (reverse); Wadd., (Waddington).

In the listing of specimens for each variety, the pieces illustrated on the plates have their enumerating letter in italics, as: (b) L. (BMC. 205/3), etc., under No. 3; letters enumerating specimens not illustrated herein appear in Roman type, as: (a) L. (BMC. 205/2; Imhoof, l.c. vii. 2), etc., under No. 3.

PERIOD I (c. 525 – c. 490 B. C.)


Staters. Obv. Head of Apollo to front, with long lock of hair on each side.

Rev. Irregular incuse, divided into two squares and three triangles, two of which are raised.

Half-obols. Obv. Similar head of Apollo, laur.

Rev. Mark of value in square incuse.

Quarter-obols. Obv. Similar to half-obols.

Rev. Mark of value in square incuse.

1. Stater.

(a) B. (Regling, Münze als Kunstw. pl. iii. 80)

(b) L. (N. C. 1899, 279, pl. xvi. 6) 5.62 g. (c) P. (Babelon, Traité ii. 1822) 5.55 g.

[(a) and (b) probably from same dies.]

2. Half-obol: on rev. image

(a) L. (BMC. Pelop. 205/1: Imhoof, N. C. 1895, 279, vii. 3) 8 mm., 0.54 g.

3. Half-obol: on rev. image

(a) L. (BMC. 205/2: Imhoof, l.c. vii. 2) 8 mm., 0.52 g. (b) L. (BMC. 205/3) 8 mm., 0.40 g. (c) Bompois cat. 1422. (Imhoof, l.c.) 8 mm., 0.49 g. (d) f. E. P. Warren. (Regling cat. 171/1101) 8 mm., 0.45 g. (e) f. H. Weber. (Forrer cat. 5807) 8 mm., 0.44 g. (f) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 e. (pl. 19) 0.51 g.

[(a) (c) (e) and (f) appear to be from the same obverse die.]

4. Half-obol: on rev. image

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 1) 8 mm., 0.44 g. (b) f. Six. (Imhoof, l.c.) 8 mm., 0.65 g.

5. Half-obol: on obv., laurel-leaf at each side; rev. as 4.

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 5) 8 mm., 0.48 g. (b) B. 8 mm., 0.45 g. (c) P. (Babelon, Tr. ii. 1900) 8 mm., 0.40 g.

6. Half-obol: as 3, with K O and laurel-leaf at each side in field of obv.

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 4) 8 mm., 0.43 g. (b) Borrell sale 148. (Imhoof, l.c.) 8 mm., 0.42 g.

7. Quarter-obol : on rev. image

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 6) 7 mm., 0.29 g. (b) B. Imhoof, l.c.) 7 mm., 0.19 g. (c) B. 7 mm., 0.23 g. (d) O. 7 mm., 0.28 g. (e) P. (Babelon, Tr. ii. 1903) 7 mm., 0.27 g. (f) V. (33439) 0.21 g. (g) E. T. Newell. 7 mm., 0.37 g. (h) E. T. Newell. 6 mm., 0.29 g. (i) f. H. Weber. (Forrer cat. 5808) 6 mm., 0.23 g. (k) Egger sale xlvi, 1827. 7 mm., 0.20 g. (1) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 f. (pl. 19) 0.22 g. (m) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 g. 0.23 g.


Quarter-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo to front, sometimes laur., hair short.

Rev. Mark of value in square incuse.

8. Quarter-obol: head not laur.: on rev. image

(a) f. Imhoof. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 7) 6 mm., 0.29 g.

9. Quarter-obol: head laur.: on rev. image

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 9) 6 mm., 0.23 g. (b) f. Gonzenbach. (Imhoof, l.c.) 6 mm., 0.23 g.

10. Quarter-obol: head laur.: on rev. image

(a) L. (BMC. Pelop. 205/4: Imhoof, l.c. vii. 8) 6 mm., 0.23 g. (b) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 h. (pl. 19) 0.24 g.


Quarter-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo three-quarters r., hair waved.

Rev. Square incuse, quartered.

11. Quarter-obol: in quarterings of rev. image

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 9a) 6 mm., 0.18 g. (b) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 k. (pl. 19) 0.16 g.

12. Quarter-obol: in centre of rev., pellet.

(a) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 j. (pl. 19) 0.21 g.

Probably the earliest coins that have been attri- buted to Kolophon are the two archaic staters discussed by Sir H. Weber in Num. Chron. 1899, p. 278: both have frontal heads as the obverse types, one a short-haired head, with a square incuse divided into six rectangular compartments, the first and last raised, on the reverse; the other a long-haired head, with an irregular incuse divided into two squares and three triangles, two of which are raised. Both heads were taken by Weber as of Apollo: he was, however, doubtful about the first, and his doubts seem justified, as the type looks much more like Pan than Apollo: in view of this, the ascription to Kolophon cannot be pressed. But the second is definitely Apolline, and the general style is near to that of the small pieces of fractional values which are certainly of Kolophon: the weight also is suitable to that city, being approximately that of the Persian siglos, which would be familiar at Kolophon after its liberation from Lydian control by the Persians. The technique is not Aeginetan or Aegaean, if the latter term can be taken to include the 'island' coins: even less is it like that of Caria and Rhodes: there are, however, some affinities with the coins of Teos. So it seems justifiable to give this stater to Kolophon.

The fractional pieces mentioned were first identified as Kolophonian by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer in Num. Chron. 1895, p. 279: there are three groups, the first with a frontal head with long hair, like that of the stater; the second a similar head, but with short hair; the third a head inclined three-quarters right, with waved hair. The first two groups have their values marked on the reverse, as halves or quarters, by the ligatures image or image in the third this practice disappears, and one variety bears instead the first four letters of the name of the city.

It may be assumed that the half and the quarter respectively were meant to refer to the Greek reckoning in obols. The market at Kolophon would be a meeting-place for Anatolian and Greek merchants: the stater, by its size, would be readily accepted as representing either the Persian siglos or the Ionian drachma, and the twelfth of the stater—a fraction familiar on the Ionian coast, as appears from the evidence of the electrum coinage—would equally serve for the half-obol. The average weight of the halves is .47 grammes, and that of the quarters .23, which fit in well with a nominal drachma of 5.5 grammes.

It is difficult to date the small coins by style with certainty: the stater might be assigned to about 525 B. C., and on economic grounds, it would not be unreasonable to think that the need of small change to supplement the Persian sigloi would be realised at Kolophon at the same time. The three groups probably followed in the order given, and the third might well be a quarter of a century later than the first, which would bring it down to shortly before the date assumed below for the beginning of the next period.

PERIOD II (c. 490 – c. 400 B. C.)


Drachmas. A. Obv. Head of Artemis r., laur., hair in thick mass behind, turned up and over and tied: necklace: leaves of wreath (six) paired: legend round.

Rev. Lyre of seven strings in square incuse: rim flat.

Drachmas. B. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short, in three bunches at back: leaves of wreath (four) paired: legend round.

Rev. As A.

Quarter-Drachmas. A. Obv. and rev. as drachmas A, but leaves of wreath above band only.

Quarter-Drachmas. B. Obv. as drachmas B (?).

Rev. Square incuse, quartered.

Half-obols. Obv. Head of Artemis r., laur., hair in queue turned up at end.

Rev. Square incuse, quartered:surface granulated.

Quarter-obols. Obv. and rev. as half-obols.

13. Drachma: A: leg. ↺ИΟΙИΩΦ ΛΟ image

(a) B. 16 mm., 5.32 g. (b) K. (KP. 1240) →, 18 mm., 5.33 g. (c) P. (Babelon, Tr. ii. 1898) 16 mm., 5.35 g. (d) P. (Wadd. 1484) 15 mm., 5.17 g. (e) E. T. Newell. ↗, 16.5 mm., 5.49 g.

[(a) (b) (c) and (e) same obv. die: (a) same rev. die as 14(c); (b) (c) (e) same rev. die as 14(a) (b) (d).]

14. Drachma: B: leg. ↺ИΟΙИΩΦΛΟ image

(a) B. 17 mm., 5.10 g. (b) L. (BMC. 2) ↙ 16.5 mm., 5.46 g. (c) O. ( = Pozzi sale 2408) ↗, 17 mm., 5.42 g. (d) Benson sale 683. 15.5 mm., 5.44 g.

[(a) (b) (c) and (d) same obv. die: (a) (b) (d) same rev. die as 13(b) (c) (e); (c) same rev. die as 13 (a).]

15. Drachma: B: obv., to r. laurel-leaf and berry, leg. ↻ΚΌΛ[ ]ΝΙΟΝ

(a) K. (GP. 866) ↓, 17 mm., 5.22 g.

16. Quarter-drachma: A: leg., traces only.

(a) Philipsen sale 2091. (pl. 24) 10 mm., 1.20 g.

(b) Philipsen sale 2092. 10 mm., 1.17 g.

17. Quarter-drachma: B: leg. image ΚΟΛ

(a) E. T. Newell. 10 mm., 1.36 g.

18. Half-obol: in centre of rev., pellet.

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 10) 8 mm., 0.39 g. (b) B. 8 mm., 0.26 g. (c) O. 7 mm., 0.34 g. (d) P. (Babelon, Tr. ii, 1904) 8 mm., 0.41 g. (e) Winterthur. (Imhoof, l.c.) 8 mm., 0.35 g. (f) E. T. Newell. 8 mm., 0.35 g. (g) f. Gonzenbach. (Imhoof, l.c.) 8 mm., 0.27 g. (h) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 1. 0.30 g.

[(a) and (b) same obv. die.]

19. Quarter-obol.

(a) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 m. (pl. 19) 0.15 g.


Drachmas. A. Obv. Head of Artemis r. laur., long lock of hair looped up behind: necklace: leaves of wreath (five) above band only: legend on 1.

Rev. Lyre of seven strings in square incuse: rim flat.

Drachmas. B. Obv. Head of Apollo r. laur., hair short, bunched over nape and bound across: leaves of wreath (four) paired: legend round. Rev. As A.

Quarter-drachmas. Obv. and rev. as drachmas A.

20. Drachma: A: leg. ↻ΚΟΛ ΦΩΝΙΟΝ

(a) B. 16 mm., 5.37 g. (b) O. (= Naville sale X, 683 = Naville sale iv, 845 = H. Weber 5806) ↗, 16.5 mm., 5.42 g. (c) P. (Babelon, Tr. ii. 1897) 15 mm., 5.42 g. (d) Naville sale xv, 943. 17 mm., 5.47 g. [(a) and (b) same obv. die: (c) and (d) same obv. die.]

21. Drachma: B: leg. ↻ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΟΝ

(a) K. (KP. 1466) →, 16 mm., 5.17 g. (b) L. (1895) ↑, 16 mm., 5.37 g. (c) Jameson. (2258) 16 mm., 5.45 g.

[(a) and (b) same obv. die.]

22. Drachma: B: leg. ⤻ ΝΩΙΝΩΦΟΛΟΚ

(a) L. (BMC. 1) ↑ , 16 mm., 5.37 g.

[The style of this coin raises some doubt of its genuineness.]

23. Quarter-drachma: leg. image ΟΚ

(a) K. (KP. 765) ↑, 10 mm., 1.26 g.


Drachmas. A. Obv. Head of Artemis r., laur., hair in thick mass behind, turned up and tied in knob: leaves of wreath (usually six) paired.

Rev. Lyre of seven strings in square incuse: legend round: rim flat.

Drachmas. B. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short in three bunches at back: leaves of wreath (usually four) paired.

Rev. As A.

Third-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short.

Rev. Mark of value in square incuse.

Quarter-obols. Obv. and rev. as third-obols.

24. Drachma: A: on obv., A behind head: leg. image ИΟΙ ИΩ Φ ΛΟ image

(a) Μ. (3) ↑ , 16.5 mm. (b) Ρ. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1899) 16 mm., 5.45 g. (c) E. T. Newell. ↑ , 16 mm., 5.20 g. [(b) and (c) same dies: reading of (a) not certain.]

25. Drachma: A: leg. image ИΟ ΙИ ΩΦΟ Λ Ο image

(a) B. 16 mm., 5.38 g.

26A. Drachma: A: leg. image Κ ΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟ Ν

(a) O. ↗, 18 mm., 5.45 g.

[(a) same rev. die as 28a (a) (b) (c).]

26B. Drachma: A: leg. image Κ ΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) M. (2) ←, 17 mm. (b) Jameson. (2257) 18.5 mm., 4.08 g.

[(a) prob. same rev. die as 28b (a) (b): (b) plated and chisel-cut.]

27A. Drachma: A: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) L. (1924) ↙ 18 mm., 5.29 g. (b) f. E. P. Warren. (Regling cat. 1102) 17 mm., 5.30 g.

[(a) and (b) same dies: same obv. as 27b (a).]

27B. Drachma: A: leg. image outwards ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) O. ↑, 16.5 mm., 5.35 g.

[(a) same obv. as 27a (a) (b).]

28A. Drachma: B: leg. image Κ ΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟ Ν

(a) Boston. (Regling, Warren cat. 1103) 16 mm., 5.26 g. (b) K. (KP. 658) →, 16 mm., 5.50 g. (c) Len. ↑, 16 mm., 4.74 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies: same rev. as 26a (a).]

28B. Drachma: B: leg. image Κ ΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) Len. ↗, 15.5 mm., 5.30 g. (b) Naville sale V, 2534. 15 mm., 5.46 g.

[(a) and (b) same dies: prob. same rev. as 26B (a).]

29. Drachma: B: on obv., astragalos below head: leg. [?] image —]Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) Philipsen sale 2089. (= Hirsch sale xxxii, 535) 16 mm., 5.51 g.

30. Third-obol: on rev. image

(a) P. (Imhoof, G.R.M. p. 70, 1) 7 mm., 0.28 g. (b) V. (34996) 0.28 g. (c) f. Imhoof. (Imhoof, l.c.) 7 mm., 0.28 g.

31. Quarter-obol: on rev., image

(a) B. (Imhoof, N.C. 1895, 281, vii. 11) 7 mm., 0.25 g. (b) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1911) 6 mm., 0.25 g. (c) V. (34995) 0.28 g.

32. Quarter-obol: on obv., symbol (?) behind head: on rev., image

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 12) 7 mm., 0.27 g.

33. Quarter-obol: on rev., image with cicada upwards on 1.

(a) f. W. T. Ready. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 14) 7 mm., 0.29 g.

34. Quarter-obol : on rev., image with grain of corn upwards on 1.

(a) B. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 13) 7 mm., 0.30 g. (b) B. (Imhoof, l.c.) 7 mm., 0.26 g. (c) B. (Imhoof, l.c.) 7 mm., 0.25 g.

[(a) and (c) same dies.]

35. Quarter-obol: on rev., image with astragalos on 1.

(a) B. 8 mm., 0.32 g. (b) L. (Imhoof, l.c. vii. 15 = H.Weber 5809) 7 mm., 0.29 g. (c) f. Gonzenbach. (Imhoof, l.c.) 7 mm., 0.27 g. (d) E. T. Newell, 0.25 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) prob. same dies.]

36. Quarter-obol: on rev., image with stork r. on 1.

(a) L. 7 mm. (b) f. Imhoof. (Imhoof, G.R.M. p. 70, 2) 6 mm., 0.20 g. (c) Cahn sale lxxi, 709 i. (pl. 19) 0.25 g.

37. Quarter-obol: on rev., image with two pellets on 1.

(a) K. (KP. 1134) ↓, 7 mm., 0.28 g. (b) M. (4a) (c) V. (34994) 0.29 g.


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short and curly.

Rev. Lyre of (usually) five strings in square incuse: rim flat: legend.

Obols. Obv. Head of Apollo 1., laur., hair short and rolled.

Rev. Lyre in square incuse: legend.

38. Drachma: on obv., behind head A; leaves of wreath hardly visible: on rev., lyre of six strings: leg. ↑↓ ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) Ρ. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1907) 16 mm., 5.20 g. (b) Basel sale viii, 356. 5.12 g.

[(a) and (b) prob. same dies.]

39. Drachma: on obv., wreath of four pairs of leaves, band across hair at back on nape: leg. ↑↓ ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) B. 16 mm., 5.41 g. (b) B. 15.5 mm., 5.61 g. (c) C. (Leake) 17 mm., 5.52 g. (d) C. (McClean 8047) ↑, 16 mm., 5.35 g. (e) L. (1922) ↑, 16 mm., 5.07 g. (f) New York. (Ward cat. 666) 17.5 mm., 5.48 g.

[(a) (b) (c) (d) and (e) same obv. and rev.]

40A. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟΦ Ω ИΙ Ο И

(a) C. (McClean 8046) ↓, 16.5 mm., 5.54 g. (b) Naville sale i, 2410 ( = E. F. Weber sale 2765) 18 mm., 5.30 g.

[(a) and (b) same obv. and prob. same rev.: same obv. as 40b (a) and 40c (a) (b) (c).]

40B. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟΦ Ω ИΙ ΟΝ

(a) Gotha. 17.5 mm., 5.38 g.

[Same obv. as 40A (a) (b) and 40c (a) (b) (c).]

40C. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ ΦΩ ΝΙΟΝ

(a) B. 17 mm., 5.33 g. (b) Gotha. 17.5 mm., 5.47 g. (c) R. Jameson. (2260) 17 mm., 5.40 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies: same obv. as 40a (a) (b) and 40b (a).]

41. Obol: leg. 1. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↑ [?]

(a) B. 10 mm., 1.13 g.


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short and curly: wreath of four pairs of leaves.

Rev. Lyre of seven strings in square incuse, rim flat: legend.

42. Drachma: on obv., laurel-twig behind head: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) Philipsen sale 2090. 16 mm., 5.30 g.

43. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΩΝ

(a) L. (BMC. 3) ↖, 16.5 mm., 5.40 g.

44. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) C. (Leake) 16 mm., 5.40 g.


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo r., wearing taenia, hair short and curly.

Rev. As group E.

45. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ ΩΝΙΟΝ

(a) P. (de Luynes 2590) 16 mm., 5.50 g. [(a) same obv. die as 47(a).]

46. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ

(a) B. ↓, 17 mm., 5.25 g. (b) L. (BMC. 4) →, 15.5 mm., 5.38 g. (c) M. (4) ( = Mi. iii. 75/108) ← , 16 mm., 5.43 g. (d) Naville sale iv, 846. ( = H. Weber 5810) 17 mm., 5.48 g. (e) Naville sale vii, 1444. (= Philipsen sale 2087 == Hirsch sale xxxi. 463) 18 mm., 5.15 g.

[(b) (c) (d) and (e) same dies: (a) same obv.]

47. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) Naville sale i, 2409. 16 mm., 5.43 g. [(a) same obv. die as 45(a).]

48. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟѴ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) V. (17076) ↓, 18 mm., 4.89 g.


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair short: wreath of four pairs of leaves with berries. Rev. As group E.

49A. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟΛ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) B. 17 mm., 5.50 g. (b) Len. ↓, 16 mm., 5.47 g. (c) R. Jameson. (2259 = H. Weber 5805) 17 mm., 5.38 g. (d) E. T. Newell. ↑, 16 mm., 5.24 g. (e) Philipsen sale 2088. ( = Hirsch sale xxxii, 534) 16 mm., 5.26 g.

[(a) (b) (c) (d) and (e) same dies: same obv. as 49b (a).]

49B. Drachma: leg. image ΚΟѴ Φ Ω Ν ΙΟΝ

(a) O. ↑, 17 mm., 5.21 g.

[(a) Same obv. as 49A.]

The second period saw an important development of the coinage in the issue of larger silver coins in some quantity: these, like the single type of stater of the previous period, were approximately of the weight of the Persian siglos and were evidently intended to pass as the token either of that unit or of the Greek drachma. They may be termed drachmas, as it is probable that by the time when they appeared the Greek reckoning of values would be dominant at Kolophon. On grounds of style and technique they can be divided into seven groups: in the first two, comparatively few fractional pieces are associated with the drachmas, but the third includes a number of varieties, predominantly quarter-obols: after this, fractions of the obol apparently ceased to be issued: in the fourth group a single instance of an obol occurs, the remaining three consist solely of drachmas. The denominations of the small pieces are sometimes unusual: the third-obol, which is marked with its value, is a fraction presumably due to Asiatic influence, and would be indistinguishable from the quarter-obol but for this mark of value, as the type and weight are practically the same: whether types 16, 17, and 23 are correctly described as quarter-drachmas is uncertain, in view of the general irregularity of the weights, but they seem to be too light for diobols and too heavy for obols.

The first group is of fine archaic style, with parallel series of drachmas bearing as their obverse types heads of Artemis and of Apollo: this unusual duplication of types is discussed above: quarter-drachmas exist of both series, but, so far as is known, half- and quarter-obols of the Artemis series only. It might be dated by style to just after 500 B. C.: as Kolophon is not recorded to have taken part in the Greek intrigues against Persia which culminated in the Ionian revolt, and normally was friendly with Persia, it is probable that the revolt was indirectly a cause of the issue of drachmas at Kolophon, since the supply of Greek currency from the neighbouring cities, particularly Miletos, would be interrupted for some time. The ethnic is on the obverse—a relic of the old uniface technique: the form used is regularly ΚΟΛΦΩΝΙΟΝ, in which the omission of the second O must not be taken as an engraver's blunder.

The second group shows a marked contrast in style to the first: it has the two series of drachmas, with heads of Artemis and Apollo, and in both cases the treatment of the heads is much harder, especially in that of Artemis. The difference is probably due to the employment of another artist: this group need not on that account be regarded as later, since examples will be found subsequently of dies by two different artists being used simultaneously in striking coins at Kolophon: but, as the spelling of the ethnic in the form ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΟΝ begins to come in, this may be taken as an indication of later date. In some respects the work of the artist of Group B seems to have affinity with the Syracusan style of 490–480: it is very definitely not Ionian. The ethnic is still placed on the obverse.

The style of Group C shows a return in some respects to that of Group A, though the execution is inferior: it suggests an attempt to reproduce the earlier designs by less skilled engravers, especially in the head of Apollo. The ethnic is now transferred from the obverse to the reverse, and is spelt in the longer form, with only one exception. The issue seems to have been more extensive than either of the previous ones: for each of these only three obverse dies for drachmas are known, one of Artemis and two of Apollo: in the third group there are five of Artemis and three of Apollo: the quarter-obols are also more numerous.

There is a definite artistic break between the third and the fourth groups: the archaistic traits of the former disappear, and the whole treatment of the head of Apollo in Group D is softer and transitional: the Artemis series ceases with Group C. The technique is more careless, especially in regard to the striking of the coins.

Group E is very near to Group D in style, though by a different artist who had a rather freer hand, and the two may be practically contemporary.

Group F is again by a different artist, who belonged to a more severe school, and retained some archaic features in his head of Apollo, which is distinguished from the others by the substitution of a taenia for the laurel-wreath: the dies are better cut, and the striking more careful. A possible reminiscence of earlier traditions may be seen in the use of the shorter spelling of the ethnic in some of the reverses.

The last group of the period, G, seems to derive its model from F, but is distinctly inferior artistically: the whole effect is unpleasing, and suggests that the designer had no genuine Greek training: there may be a gap of some years between the two.

If these indications of the succession of the groups, given by the style of the coins, are considered with what is known of the history of Kolophon in the fifth century B. C., and the starting-point of the issue of drachmas is taken, as suggested above, at shortly after 500, an approximate chronology may be obtained. Group A may be connected with the reorganisation of the Ionian cities by Mardonius after the revolt, when it would be convenient to have a coinage of Greek denominations, but linked with the Persian standard, struck at a city which was under strong Persian influence. About this time the coinage of Erythrai, another city with Persian connexions, changed over from the Asiatic Greek standard to one nearer the Persian, though not so near as that of Kolophon: the two coinages, taken together, may indicate an attempt to divert some of the trade which had formerly gone down the Maeander valley from the interior to Miletos into a new route, across the Kaystrian valley by Kolophon to the gulf of Smyrna and Erythrai: the fact that the standard at Erythrai was lighter than that at Kolophon may result from the greater distance of Erythrai from the Persian centre. The advantage of a local currency at Kolophon would continue until the growth of Athenian power on the coast made the use of definitely Greek standards more popular, which seems to have become general by 460: this may account for the break after Group C; and the dates for the first three groups may be tentatively put at 490 for A, 480 for B, and 470 for C, as fitting both the artistic and the economic evidence.

The extent to which Athens actually controlled the city of Kolophon during the period of the Athenian Empire is not clear: though the name of Kolophon appears on the tribute-lists, it was probably only in regard to overseas trade that any dependency was recognized. This, however, would be sufficient to operate against the issue of a drachmacoinage at Kolophon; and the gap between the third and fourth groups might well extend from about 460 to 430. After the latter date, Kolophon had cer- tainly broken away: and the issue of coins may have been resumed with groups D, E, and F : D and E may have been concurrent, and F a little later. The style suggests a date of about 430 to 410: E is a comparatively small group, and with D may represent the output of 430 to 420, while F would cover the next decade. As already noted, there was probably a gap between F and G: the latter was a small issue, with only one obverse and two reverse dies known, and may have been struck about 400.

PERIOD III (c. 389 – c. 350 B. C.)


Tetradrachms. Obv. Head of Apollo l.. laur., hair rolled at back: leaves of wreath paired.

Rev. Lyre in slight square incuse: legend round.

Drachmas. Obv. As tetradrachms.

Rev. Lyre: legend on l. and r.: sometimes slight incuse.

Diobols. Obv. and rev. as drachmas.

50. Tetradrachm: leg. image ΚΟΛΟ Φ Ω ΝΙΟΝ: lyre of seven strings.

(a) P. (Wadd. 1485) 26 mm., 12.93 g.

51. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΕΡΜΩΝΑΞ: lyre of seven strings.

(a) O. ( = Naville sale xv, 947) ↑, 18 mm., 3.58 g. (b) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1917) 3.50 g. (c) V. (33900 = E. F. Weber sale 2766) ↑, 16 mm., 3.44 g. (d) Naville sale i, 2412. 17 mm., 3.48 g. (e) Cahn sale lxviii, 1463. 17 mm., 3.54 g.

[(a) (d) and (e) same obverse die, and same as 53 (a) (f), 56 (b), and 66B (a): (b) and (c) same obverse die, and same as 56 (a) (d) and 58 (a): (a) and (d) same rev. die.]

52. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΕΡΜΩΝΑΞ: lyre of five (?) strings.

(a) B. 10 mm., 0.89 g. (b) O. ↑, 11 mm., 0.90 g. [(a) same obv. die as 54 (a), 55 (c) (d), 57 (a), and 60 (a) (c): (b) same obv. die as 55 (a) and 59 (a).]

53. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΙΗΝΟΔΟΤ: lyre of five strings.

(a) B. 16 mm., 3.30 g. (b) Boston. (Regling, Warren cat. 1104) 17 mm., 3.57 g. (c) V. (38448) ↑, 17 mm., 3.13 g. (d) f. comm. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 264) 16 mm., 3.26 g. (e) Philipsen sale 2094. 15 mm., 3.18 g. (f) Cahn sale lxvi, 314. 17 mm., 352 g. [(a) and (f) same dies: same obv. die as 51 (a) (d) (e), 56 (a) (d), and 66B (a).]

54. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΙΗΝΟΔΟΤΟΣ: lyre of seven (?) strings.

(a) K. ↑, 11 mm., 0.90 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 52 (a), 55 (c) (d), 57 (a), and 60 (a) (c).]

55. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ: lyre of five strings.

(a) B. (? = Imhoof, Kl. M. 70/2) 10 mm., 0.86 g. (b) New York. (Ward cat. 668) 11 mm., 0.93 g. (c) O. (Boyne sale 413) ↑, 11 mm., 0.93 g. (d) Naville sale i, 2416. 11 mm., 0.98 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 52 (b) and 59 (a): (c) and (d) same dies, and same obv. as 52 (a), 54 (a), 57 (a), and 60 (a) (c).]

56. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓, ΠΛΑΤΩΝ: lyre of seven strings.

(a) L. (BMC. 7) ↑ , 16 mm., 3.31 g. (b) O. (Naville sale xv, 945) ↑, 16 mm., 3.59 g. (c) Philipsen sale 2094. 15 mm., 3.38 g. (d) Naville sale xv, 946. 17 mm., 3.57 g.

[(a) and (d) same obv. die, and same as 51 (b) (c) and 58 (a): (b) same obv. die as 51 (a) (d) (e), 53 (a) (f), and 66b (a).]

57. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΠΟΣΙΣ: lyre of six strings.

(a) K. (KP. 1051) ↑, 12 mm., 0.93 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 52 (a), 54 (a), 55 (c) (d), and 60 (a) (c).]

58. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) G. (Hunter cat. 2) 15 mm., 3.60 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 51 (b) (c) and 56 (a) (d).]

59. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) f. H. Weber. (5813: ? = Imhoof, Gr. M. 265) 10 mm., 0.98 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 52 (b) and 55 (a).]

60. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΤΗΛΕΦΑ: lyre of five (?) strings.

(a) L. (BMC. 11) ↑, 10 mm., 1.08 g. (b) M. (acc. 17885) ↑, 11 mm. (c) O.↑, 10 mm., 1.03 g.

[(a) and (c) same dies: same obv. die as 52 (a), 54 (a), 55 (c) (d), and 57 (a).]


Drachmas. Obv. and rev. as group A.

Diobols. Obv. and rev. as group A.

61. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΣ: lyre of seven strings.

(a) R. Jameson. (1261 = Egger sale xlvi, 828) 16 mm., 3.50 g.

[(a) prob. same obv. die as 63 (a).]

62. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦ ↓ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΣ

(a) L. ( = H. Weber 5814) ↑, 10 mm., 1.05 g. (b) Philipsen sale 2095. 10 mm., 1.01 g. (c) E. F. Weber sale 2769. 10 mm., 1.05 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) prob. same dies, and same obv. as 64 (a).]

63. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΑΣΤΥ

(a) P. (Wadd. 1486) 15 mm., 3.35 g.

[(a) prob. same obv. die as 61 (a).]

64. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΑΣΤΥ

(a) P. (Wadd. 1487) 11 mm., 1.02 g.

[(a) prob. same obv. die as 62 (a) (b) (c).]


Drachmas. Obv. and rev. as group A.

65. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΙΔΗΣ: lyre of five strings.

(a) B. 17 mm., 3.43 g. (b) C. (Leake) 15 mm., 3.41 g. (c) G. (Hunter cat. 1) 16 mm., 3.61 g. (d) L. (1913) ↑, 15 mm., 3.40 g. (e) M. (6) ↑, 16.5 mm. (f) P. (2865) 3.47 g. (g) E. T. Newell. ↑, 16 mm., 3.58 g. (h) Philipsen sale 2093. (pl. xxiv) 15 mm., 3.37 g. (i) Naville sale xv, 944. 17 mm., 3.59 g. (k) Cahn sale lxvi, 313. 16 mm., 3.66 g.

[(a) (b) and (h) same obv. die and same as 66a (a) and (f) and 67 (a) (g) (i) (k): (c) (0 (g) and (k) same obv., and same as 66A (C) and 67 (b) (c) (d): (a) and (b) same rev.: (f) (g) (h) and (k) same rev.]

66A. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΙΗΝΗΣ: lyre of five strings.

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/27) 16mm., 3.42 g. (b) L. (BMC. 5) ↑, 14 mm., 3.54 g. (c) New York. (Ward cat. 667) 16 mm. (d) Egger sale xlvi, 829. 17.5 mm., 3.59 g. (e) Naville sale i, 2411. 16 mm., 3.56 g. (f) Naville sale v, 2535. 15 mm., 3.29 g.

[(a) and (f) same obv. die, and same as 65 (a) (b) (h) and 67 (a) (g) (i) (k): (b) and (e) same obv.: (c) same obv. as 65 (c) (f) (g) (k) and 67 (b) (c) (d) : (a) and (f) same rev.: (b) (c) and (a) same rev.]

66B. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΙΗΝΗΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ: lyre of seven strings.

(a) E. T. Newell. ↑, 17 mm., 3.37 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 51 (a) (d) (e), 53 (a) (f), and 56 (b).]

67. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΝΙΚΙΑΣ: lyre of five or six strings.

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/26) 16 mm., 3.47 g. (b) B. 16 mm., 3.32 g. (c) C. (McClean 8048) ↑, 16.5 mm., 3.52 g. (d) L. (BMC. 6) ↑, 16 mm., 3.48 g. (e) K. (KP. 1112) ↑, 17 mm., 3.20 g. (f) M. (5) ↑, 16.5 mm. (g) P. (Wadd. 1488) 16 mm., 3.54 g. (h) V. (27462) ↑, 17 mm., 3.42 g. (i) f. H. Weber. (5811) 16 mm., 3.51 g. (k) Naville sale i, 2413. 17 mm., 3.46 g. (1) Cahn sale lxvi, 312. 3.52 g.

[(a) (g) (i) and (k) same obv., and same as 65 (a) (b) (h) and 66a (a) (f): (b) (c) and (d) same obv. and same as 65 (c) (f) (g) (k) and 66A (C): (b) (d) and (i) same rev.]


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair rolled at back.

Rev. Lyre: legend on l. and r.

Diobols. Obv. Head of Apollo l., laur., hair rolled at back.

Rev. Lyre: legend on l. and r.

68. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΑΚΑΣΤ[ ↑ ΚΟΛΟ

(a) B. 15 mm., 2.87 g.

69. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) f. Imhoof. (G.R.M. 70/3) 15 mm., 3.05 g.

70. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ: lyre of four strings.

(a) O. ↑, 10 mm., 0.89 g.

[(a) prob. same obv. die as 74 (a).]

71. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΔΙΟΔΩΡΟΣ ↑ ΜΥΤΑΔΟΣ (bel.)→ ΚΟΛΟ: lyre of five or six strings.

(a) K. (KP. 693) 15 mm., 2.98 g. (b) L. (BMC. 8) ↑, 15 mm., 2.98 g. (c) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1918) 15 mm., 2.72 g. (d) f. comm. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 264a) 16 mm., 2.95 g.

[(b) and (c) same obv. die.]

72. Diobol: leg. ↑ΙΗΝΟΔΩΡ[ [letters to r. off flan]

(a) B. 11 mm., 0.81 g.

73. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΠΛΑΤΩΝ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ: lyre of five strings.

(a) V. (17077) ↑, 16 mm., 3.00 g.

74. Diobol: leg. ↑ ΠΛΑΤΩΝ ↓ ΚΟΛΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/32) 10 mm., 0.91 g.

[(a) prob. same obv. die as 70 (a).]


Chalkoi. Obv. Head of Apollo r., bound with taenia: hair in slightly waved locks.

Rev. Lyre in linear square: leg. usually outside square.

75. Chalkous: leg. → Κ Ο

(a) B. 12 mm. (b) L. image ↑, 10 mm.

76. Chalkous: leg. r. ↓ ΚΟΛ

(a) O. ↑, 11 mm., 1.49 g.

77. Chalkous: no leg., to r. and 1. astragaloi.

(a) B. 12 mm.

78A. Chalkous: leg. (ab.)→K ↓ ΟΛ image ↑ ΦΩ: to r. and 1., astragaloi.

(a) B. 14 mm. (b) B. 13 mm. (c) B. 13 mm. (d) C. (McClean 8050) ↑, 12.5 mm., 1.81 g. (e) K. (KP. 1261) ↗, 13 mm. (f) O. ↑, 12 mm., 1.81 g.

78B. Chalkous: as 78A, but K inside square.

(a) B. 13 mm. (b) E. T. Newell. ↑, 12.5 mm., 1.99 g.

79. Chalkous: on obv., line border: leg. as 78A.

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/33) 11 mm., 1.35 g. (b) f. H. Weber. (5815) 11 mm., 1.49 g.

80. Chalkous: leg. on r. [ ? ]: to l., grain of corn.

(a) B. 12 mm.

81. Chalkous: leg. r. ↓ ΚΟΛ: to l., thyrsos (?).

(a) M. (7) ↑, 12 mm.

82. Chalkous: leg. r. ↓ ΚΟΛ, ab.→ПΡΟ(?): to 1. thyrsos (?).

(a) V. (32964) ↑, 13 mm., 2.00 g.


Chalkoi. Obv. Head of Apollo r., bound with taenia, hair in waved locks.

Rev. Lyre: legend image

83. Chalkous: leg. ΚΟΛΟ Φ ΩΝΙΩΝ: bel.→ Ι

(a) B. 11 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 16) ↑, 11 mm.

84. Chalkous: leg. ΚΟΛΟ Φ ΩΝΙΩΝ: bel.→ imageΗ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/35) 11 mm. (b) B. 10 mm.

There is a very marked break between the coins of Period II and those of Period III, both in style and in technique: the former nearly always show traces of archaism in the heads on the obverse, and have a definite flat rim around the square incuse of the reverse: in the latter the heads are of a fully developed fine style, and the incuse has disappeared, or is only traceable by a slight rise around the edge of the flan. Magistrates' names appear regularly on the silver, though not often on the bronze, which began to be issued during this period. The standard of the silver coinage is changed: instead of a drachma approximately equal in metal content to the Persian siglos, the Asiatic Greek standard, commonly known as the Rhodian, was adopted, as it was, about the same time, by Ephesos and Erythrai, both commercially connected with Kolophon.

It is not necessary to assume that this break between the two periods involved a long interval in time: it could be explained as due to the reorganisation of the minting arrangements at Kolophon and the introduction of new artists. The most probable date for such a reorganisation would be after the 'Peace of Antalkidas' in 389 B. C., which gave the Ionian cities a chance of developing their trade under a settled government and on equal terms each with its neighbour. The style of the silver coins would suit this date very well: in Group A there were evidently two artists employed, one more severe in his treatment than the other; but there is nothing in their work to prevent their being regarded as contemporaries, and that they were so is confirmed by the fact that dies from both hands were used for the same magistrates. In this group there is a single tetradrachm, by its style one of the earliest coins in the period: it has no magistrate's name, and may be taken as an exceptional denomination struck to mark the commencement of a new series. There was a fairly large issue of drachmas and diobols, both with the same types, in the names of seven magistrates: they are linked together by the common use of obverse dies.

A second group, similarly linked, but much smaller, with only two magistrates' names, seems to have followed at no long interval: the obverse dies may have been executed by the severer of the two artists of A: there are the two denominations, the drachma and diobol.

Group C consists of drachmas only, struck by three magistrates, who jointly used two obverse dies, the style of which suggests the same artist as the one of Group B: exceptionally, there is a coin struck from an old die of Group A. This group also is practically contemporary in style with A and B.

In Group D the hand of a new artist can be seen: the head of Apollo is more effeminate and the lines softer. The obverse type, in the drachmas, is turned to right, and on the reverse the positions of the ethnic and magistrate's name are interchanged as compared with the previous groups. There is a drop in the weight of the drachma of about one-sixth.

The chronological relation of the bronze to the silver is not easy to determine: there are no similarities in style which would indicate the employment of the same artists, but rather a difference in technique which suggests that the two metals were struck at separate shops. The issues of bronze would not appear to have been large; there is only one variety which is represented here by more than two specimens: it is probable that the coinage was started on a small scale at Kolophon, where the use of bronze would be quite unfamiliar to the merchants from the interior, though the coastal cities had begun to strike it at the beginning of the fourth century. Group F is certainly later in style than Group E, but it is difficult to say whether it is necessarily much later in date of issue.

If the beginning of this period is fixed to shortly after 389, the first three groups may be taken to cover the next fifteen or twenty years, coming one after another in accordance with demands for currency. Then there may have been a gap, after which Group D may be put in the decade 360–350: unfortunately, nothing is known of the history of Kolophon about this time which might help to determine the date of Group D by suggesting a reason for the drop in weight of the drachma. The two groups of bronze may have been spread over the whole period 389–350: they cannot be correlated with any of the groups of silver.

PERIOD IV (c. 350– c. 330 B.C.)


Drachmas. Obv. Head of Apollo l., laur., hair rolled at back: wreath hidden behind ear by roll. Rev. Lyre: legend on 1. and r.

Half-drachmas. Obv. As drachmas.

Rev. Tripod: legend on l. and r.

Diobols. Obv. and rev. as drachmas.

85. Drachma: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΑΜΙΝΙΑΣ: lyre of five strings.

(a) Athens. 15 mm., 2.82 g. (b) V. (35940 = Egger sale xlvi, 830 = Merzbacher sale, Nov. 15, 1910, 686) 15 mm., 2.80 g.

86. Half-drachma: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΚΟΝΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/29) 12 mm., 1.50 g. (b) B. 11 mm., 1.51 g. (c) C. (Leake) 12 mm., 1.52 g. (d) C. (Leake) 12 mm., 1.53 g. (e) K. (BP. 1054) ↓, 12 mm., 1.42 g. (f) L. (BMC. 9) ↑, 10 mm., 1.56 g. (g) O. (Naville sale iv, 847 = H. Weber 5812) ↖, 11.5 mm., 1.46 g. (h) O. ↓, 12.5 mm., 1.21 g.

[(a) (b) (g) and (h) same obv. die: (c) (d) and (f) same obv.: (a) (b) and (h) same rev.: (c) and (f) same rev.: (d) and (g) same rev.]

87A. Half-drachma: leg. ↓ ΛΕΩΔΑΜΑΣ ↓ ΚΟΛ-ΟΦΩ

(a) Athens. 11 mm., 1.28 g. (b) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 284/31) 12 mm., 1.53 g. (c) C. (Leake) 13 mm., 1.49 g. (d) Gotha. 1.41 g. (e) O. ↖, 12 mm., 1.31 g. (f) E. T. Newell, ↖, 12 mm., g. 1.07.

[(b) (c) and (e) same obv. die: (b) and (c) same rev.]

87B. Half-drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↑ ΛΕΩΔΑΜΑΣ

(a) Cahn sale lxviii, 1464. 12 mm., 1.21 g. (? = Philipsen sale 2096).

88. Drachma: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΣΙΤΤΑΣ: lyre of five strings.

(a) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1917) 15 mm., 2.91 g. (b) Imhoof, M.G. 284/28. 16 mm., 3.50 g. (?) (c) Seyffer cat. 894. 15 mm., 3.05 g.

89. Half-drachma: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦ ↓ ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ

(a) O. (Naville sale v, 2536) ↑, 11 mm., 1.65 g. (b) P. (Dieudonné, Mél. l. ii) 1.40 g. (c) Imhoof, M.G. 284/30. 12 mm., 1.40 g. (d) E. F. Weber sale 2767. 11 mm. 1.37 g.

90. Diobol: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ: lyre of four strings.

(a) O. (Naville sale i, 2415) ↗, 9 mm., 0.99 g.

91. Half-drachma: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦ ↓ ΦΥΡΣΩΝ

(a) L. (BMC. 10) ↑, 11.5 mm., 1.56 g. (b) O. (Naville sale i, 2414) ↑, 12 mm., 1.51 g. (c) P. (de Luynes 2591) 12 mm., 1.52 g.

[(a) and (b) same obv. die.]

End Notes
This piece later described and illustrated on plates as 94(a) was inserted on the manuscript at this point in the hand of E. T. Newell. Cf. note to 94.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair rolled.

Rev. Tripod: legend on l. and r.

Chalkoi. A. Obv. Head of Apollo l., laur., hair rolled.

Rev. Tripod: legend on l. and r.

Chalkoi. B. Obv. Head of Apollo r. or l., laur., hair rolled.

Rev. Lyre: legend on l. and r.

92A. Half-obol : leg. ↓ ΑΓΑΜΗΔΗΣ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) V. (33567) ↑, 18 mm., 5.90 g.

92B. Half-obol: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ ↓ ΑΓΑΜΗΔΗΣ

(a) M. (17) ↗, 17 mm.

93. Half-obol: leg. ↓ ΠΡΩΤΑΓΟΡΑ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) K. (KP. 1202) ↗, 18 mm.

94 . Chalkous: A: leg. ↑ ΛΕΩΔΑΜΑΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) E. T. Newell. ↖, 12 mm., 1.07 g.

[(a) apparently same obv. die as 87b (a).]

95. Chalkous: B: head l.: leg. [on l. ?] ↓ ΚΟΛ: lyre of five strings.

(a) B. 14 mm.

96. Chalkous: B: head r.: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟ ↓ ΦΩΝ: lyre of five strings.

(a) E. T. Newell. ↑ , 11 mm., 1.32 g.

97. Chalkous: B: head r.: leg. [?]

(a) E. T. Newell. ↑, 11 mm., 1.38 g.

98. Chalkous: B: head r.: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ [on r. ?]: lyre of three strings.

(a) K. (BP. 825) ↓, 11 mm.

99. Chalkous: B: head l.: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑ

(a) V. (33901) ( = E. F. Weber sale 2770) ↑, 10 mm., 1.00 g.

100. Chalkous: B: head l.: leg. ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ [ on r. ? ].

(a) B. 11 mm., 0.95 g.

The coins in this period are a rather miscellaneous collection: the silver drachmas and diobols in Group A obviously continue from the previous period, but with a great degeneration in style, and a new denomination, the half-drachma with a new reverse type, appears. Two artists appear to have been employed, but there is not much difference in merit. The bronze in Group B includes some pieces with the same types as the bronze of Period III, though with a less severe treatment of the head of Apollo: but there are also some which have as their reverse type the tripod which comes in on the silver, and several show close similarity in the Apollo heads on the obverse to some of the silver of this and the preceding periods: the style of the obverse of 92A is exactly that of 71, that of 97 is very close to it, 96 might be from the same hand as 61 and 95 as 51, while 94 seems actually to be from the same obverse die as 87B, a silver half-drachma with the same magistrate's name. It would appear that the authorities were still experimenting with the bronze coinage, and using the types, and perhaps also the dies, of the silver: the sizes are rather varied, but there were certainly meant to be two denominations. The idea that the issues were experimental is perhaps supported by the rarity of the coins: of none of the varieties has more than a single specimen been recorded.

There is nothing in the coins themselves or in the history of Kolophon to help in fixing the limits of the period: but it seems certainly to follow on Period III, and no long interval need be assumed. The commencement of the next period can be put down with probability to about 330 B. C.: so Period IV may be taken as covering the few years from 350 to 330.

End Notes
Editor's Note: The comment "This is the silver specimen 87A (f)," appears on the manuscript in the hand of E. T. Newell. It has been so noted under 87A.

PERIOD V (c. 330 – c. 285 B. C.)


Dichalka. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in loose locks.

Rev. Forepart of horse r.: on l., magistrate's name, below, ethnic. [The horse is sometimes bridled, sometimes saddled also: specimens of the former are noted *, of the latter **.]

101. Dichalkon: leg. image ΑΙΣΧΡΙ → ΚΟΛΟ

(a) L. (BMC. 21) ↑, 13 mm. (b) O. ↑, 15.5 mm., 1.72 g. (ethn. KO). (c) V. (30915) ↑, 14 mm.

102. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΑΝΤΗΝΩΡ → ΚΟΛΟ

(a) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1926) 14 mm. (b) E. T. Newell. ↑, 15 mm., 1.97 g.

103. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) C. (Leake) 14 mm., 2.01 g. (b) P. (2876) 14 mm. (c) V. (17079) ↑, 15 mm.

104. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΦΑΝΗΣ → ΚΟ

(a) Gotha. (b) K. (KP. 420) ↑, 15 mm. (c) P. (Wadd. 1490) 14 mm.**

105. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΔΩΡΟΣ → ΚΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 267) 15 mm., 2.05 g.* (b) K. (KP. 773) ↑, 14 mm. (c) K. (KP. 921) ↑, 15 mm. (ethn. ΚΟΛ). (d) L. (BMC. 23) ↑, 14 mm. (e) O. ↑, 14 mm., 1.88 g.* (f) P. (2878).

106. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΔΙΟΦΑ → ΚΟΛΟ

(a) B. 14 mm. (b) P. (Wadd. 1491) 13 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 20) ↑, 14 mm.

107. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΕΚΑΤΑΙΟΣ → ΚΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 266) 14 mm., 2.20 g.* (b) K. (BP. 1106) ↖, 15 mm. (c) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1926) 15 mm.

108. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΕΞΗΚΕ → ΚΟΛΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 70/4) 15 mm., 2.30 g. (b) M. (13) 14 mm.*

109. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. 16 mm.** (b) C. (Leake) 14 mm., 2.00 g. (c) L. (BMC. 22) ↑, 15 mm. (d) P. (Wadd. 1492) 15 mm., 2.40 g.* (e) V. (32318) ↑ , 14.5 mm., 2.15 g.

110. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΕΡΜΟΘΕΣ → ΚΟ

(a) Gotha. (b) L. (BMC. 24) ↑, 14 mm. (c) O. ↑, 15 mm., 2.10 g.** (d) V. (33285) ↑, 15 mm., 2.15 g.

111. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ imageΗΝΗΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. 13 mm.*

112. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΘΡΑΣΥΚΛΗΣ → KO

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 70/5) 16 mm., 2.01 g.** (b) L. (1895) ↑, 15 mm. (c) O. ↑, 15 mm., 1.94 g.**

113. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΚΛΕΑΝΔΡΟΣ → ΚΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 70/6) 15 mm., 2.12 g.* (b) G. (Hunter cat. 3) 16 mm., 1.94 g. (c) K. (KP. 990) ↑, 14 mm.* (d) L. (BMC. 25) ↑, 14 mm. (e) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1926).

114. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΚΟΝΝΙΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. 16 mm.** (ethn. KO). (b) K. (KP. 921) ↑, 14mm.* (c) Μ. (11)↑, 14.5 mm. (d) P. (Wadd. 1493) 14 mm.**

115. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΛΕΩΔΑΜΑΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. 14 mm.** (b) B. 14 mm.** (c) C. (McClean 8051) ↑, 14 mm., 2.19 g. (d) K. (KP. 753) ↑, 14 mm.* (e) L. (BMC. 26) ↑, 14 mm. (f) M. (12) ↑, 14.5 mm. (g) E. T. Newell. ↑, 15 mm., 2.04 g.

116. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ → ΚΟ

(a) B. 15 mm.* (b) P. (Wadd. 1494) 15 mm.**

117. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΜΙΤΥΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. 13 mm.*

118. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΠΑΣΙ → ΚΟΛ

(a) P. (Wadd. 1495) 12 mm.

119. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΠΛΑΤΩΝ → ΚΟΛ

(a) f. H. Weber. (cat. 5819). 13 mm., 1.98 g.

120. Dichalkon: leg. image ΣΚΥΘΙ → ΚΟΛΟ

(a) K. (KP. 146) ↑, 14 mm. (b) P. (2878a) (ethnic KO).

121. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΣΩΚΡΑΤΗΣ → ΚΟΛ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 268) 15 mm., 2.20 g.** (b) C. (Leake) 14 mm., 1.99 g. (c) Gotha. (d) K. (KP. 1172) ↑, 14.5 mm. (e) P. (Wadd. 1496) 13 mm.** (f) V. (17078) ↑ , 14 mm. (g) E. T. Newell. ↑, 15 mm., 1.94 g. (h) f. H. Weber (5820) 14 mm., 2.07 g.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., bound with taenia, hair in close locks.

Rev. Lyre: legend and symbol variously arranged.

Chalkoi. Obv. As half-obols.

Rev. Lyre: ethnic in field, magistrate's name below.

122. Half-obol: [? symbol on l.], r. ↓ΑΚΑΣΤ[ [? bel. K O]

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. Μ. 71/9). 17 mm., 5.60 g.

123. Half-obol: i.f. → K O, to r. tripod, bel. → [Δ]ΙΟΝΥΣΙ[ΟΣ]

(a) B. 19 mm.

124. Half-obol: to l. tripod, r. ↓ ΕΚΑΤΑΙΟΣ, bel. → KO

(a) K. (KP. 765) ↗, 19.5 mm.

125. Chalkous: i.f. →K O, bel. →[Μ]ΗΝΙΣΚΟ[Σ].

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/10) 11 mm., 1.66 g.

126. Half-obol: i.f. → K O, to r. tripod, bel. → ΜΟΙΡΑΣ

(a) L. (BMC. 17) ↑, 18 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 18) →, 18 mm. (c) M. (9) ↓, 18 mm. (d) V. (28983) ←, 18 mm.

127. Chalkous: i.f. → K O, bel. → ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΑ[Σ]

(a) L. (BMC. 12) ↑, 11 mm.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in loose locks.

Rev. Horseman riding r. with spear couched: above, ethnic, and to l., lyre; bel., magistrate's name.

128. Half-obol: leg. → Κ Ο Λ ↺ΑΜΕΜΠΤΟΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 271) 19 mm., 5.38 g. (b) C. (McClean 8053) ↖, 17 mm., 5.48 g. (c) K. (KP. 1172) ↖, 18 mm. (d) L. (BMC. 27) ↖, 18 mm. (e) O. ↖, 19 mm., 4.13 g. (f) V. (34105) ↖, 19 mm., 5.03 g.

[(a) and (e) same dies.]

129. Half-obol: leg. → Κ Ο Λ ↺ΑΡΙΣΤΟΦΑΝΗΣ

(a) Aberdeen. (Calder) 18 mm., 3.97 g. (b) B. 19 mm. (c) K. (KP. 894) ↖, 18 mm. (d) L. (1890) ↑, 18 mm. (e) V. (36616) ↖, 19 mm., 5.18 g.

130. Half-obol: leg. →Κ Ο Λ ↺ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ

(a) B. 17 mm. (b) K. (KP. 1016) ↑, 18 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 28) ↑, 16 mm. (d) V. (29873) ↑, 18 mm.

131. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΔΗΙΚΛΟΣ

(a) K. (KP. 1202) ↖, 19 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 29) ↑, 19 mm. (c) O. ↖, 19 mm., 5.71 g. (d) f. H. Weber (5823) 17 mm., 5.18 g.

132. Half-obol: leg. →Κ Ο Λ ↺ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΦΑΝΗΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 285/36) 18 mm., 3.30 g. (b) K. (KP. 889) ↖, 18 mm. (c) K. (R. 4) ↖, 19 mm. (d) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1929) 18 mm. (e) V. (32134) ↖, 19 mm. (f) V. (32135) ↖, 19 mm. (g) E. T. Newell. ↑, 19 mm., 4.71 g.

133. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΕΡΜΙΠΠΟΣ

(a) L. (BMC. 30) ↑, 18 mm.

134. Half-obol: leg. →Κ Ο Λ ↺ΗΓΗΣΙΑΝΑΞ

(a) C. (Leake) 16 mm., 5.33 g. (b) K. (KP. 889) ↖ 18 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 31) ↖, 18 mm. (d) O. ↖, 18 mm., 5.18 g. (e) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1929) 18 mm. (f) V. (32133) ↖, 17 mm.

135. Half-obol: leg. →Κ ΟΛ ↺ΗΛΙΑΝΑΞ

(a) L. (BMC. 32) ↖, 20 mm. (b) M. (15) ↑, 18 mm. (c) O. ↑ , 18 mm., 5.41 g. (ethnic ΚΟ Λ)

136. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΙΚΕΣΙΟΣ

(a) B. 19 mm. (b) K. (R. 3) ↑, 19 mm., 4.40 g. (c) L. (BMC. 33) ↖, 18 mm. (d) M. (14) ↑, 20 mm. (e) O. ↑, 17 mm., 6.12 g. (f) E. T. Newell. ↑, 18 mm., 4.62 g.

137. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΜΗΤΡΟ[

(a) L. (BMC. 34) ↑, 19 mm.

138. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΠΑΝΤΑΓΝΩΤΟΣ

(a) K. (KP. 990) ↖, 18 mm. (ethn. ΚΟ Λ) (b) K. (KP. 1134) ↖, 19 mm. (c) P. (Wadd. 1497) 20 mm. (d) Egger Sale xlvi, 831. 18 mm., 4.70 g.

139. Half-obol: leg. →ΚΟ Λ ↺ΠΛΑΤΩΝ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 285/37) 18 mm., 5.50 g. (b) B. 17 mm. (ethn. ΚΟ Λ) (c) Gotha. (d) K. (KP. 753) ↖, 18 mm. (ethn. ΚΟ Λ) (e) L. (BMC. 35) ←, 14 mm.

140. Half-obol: leg. →Κ Ο Λ ↺ΤΗΛΕΓΟΝΟΣ

(a) B. 18 mm. (b) L. ↖, 18 mm. (c) P. (Wadd. 1498) 17 mm.

141. Half-obol: leg. →Κ Ο Λ ↺ΦΑΝΑΙΟΜ[

(a) L. (1898) ↑, 18 mm.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair long.

Rev. Lyre: on l. magistrate's name, on r. ethnic and symbol.

142. Half-obol: leg. ↓ [Δ]ΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ, ↓ ΚΟ and spearhead upwards.

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/11) 18 mm., 6.12 g.

143. Half-obol: leg. ↑ ΛΕΟΝΤΙСΚΟС, ↓ ΚΟ and spearhead upwards.

(a) L. (BMC. 19) ↓, 19 mm.

144. Half-obol: leg. [on l. ?], ↓ ΚΟ and spearhead upwards.

(a) K. (KP. 765) ↑, 18 mm.


Dichalka. Obv. Head of Apollo three-quarters l., laur., hair long.

Rev. Lyre: on l., magistrate's name, bel., ethnic, to r., symbol.

145. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΕΡΑΣΙΝΙΔ ΗΣ, →Κ Ο, palm-tree.

(a) B. (Imhoof, A.G.M. 107) 16 mm., 1.93 g. (b) L. ↑, 15 mm.

146. Dichalkon: leg. ↑ ΘΡΑΣΥΚΛΗΣ, →Κ Ο, palm-tree.

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 70/3) 15 mm., 1.96 g. (b) Gotha.

The fifth period is marked by a material change in the general character of the coinage: the issue of silver came practically to an end, as there are no silver pieces which can be assigned to this period, and only two issues of later date, both apparently isolated, are known. The output of bronze, on the other hand, increased greatly, and new types were introduced: the old Apollo/lyre type lingered on, but the bulk of the coins had for reverse types either an armed horseman or a half-horse. These were presumably designed to provide two related denominations: the weights are irregular, as in most Greek bronze series, but the sizes are fairly constant. The coins with the lyre reverse are of more varied size, and it is difficult to determine in what precise relation they stand: it is noticeable that most have, in addition to the magistrate's name, a symbol in the field of the reverse, which is not a characteristic of the two new types, and may be intended to distinguish these, not only from the contemporary coins of other types, but from earlier series of the same type.

From the point of view of style, Group A—the type with the half-horse reverse—looks generally earlier than Group C: the head of Apollo on the obverse of the former is in the tradition of that of Group E of Period III, with a slightly more advanced treatment and general softening of the lines, while that of Group C is much less severe. Judged by the number of magistrates' names known, Group A seems to have covered more years than Group C: it is not unlikely that the two overlapped, though there are only two names common to both; but this may be explained on the assumption that colleagues on the monetary board took the responsibility of different denominations, as was almost certainly the case in other Greek minting cities. The apparent discrepancy in artistic style might then be due to Group A having started a few years earlier than Group C; and, the general type having been fixed, subsequent issues adhered as closely as possible to it: Group C began with a more advanced design, and that was similarly regarded as a standard for later artists.

Of the smaller groups, B looks contemporary with A, and D with C: E is, in style, somewhat later than any of the others. If the denominations assumed for the various sizes are correct, it seems likely that the new type of A was introduced for dichalka, and the lyre reverse, in two sizes, retained for half-obols and chalkoi: after a few issues of the latter, half-obols with the lyre type but with a different symbol, a spearhead instead of a tripod, were struck, forming Group D: but almost at once the new type of C was adopted for the half-obols: then, towards the end of the period, dichalka of Group E were substituted for those of Group A.

As regards the date, it would be reasonable on economic grounds to think that the conquest of Asia by Alexander would tend to revive trade between Kolophon and Greece, especially after the refoundation of Smyrna, with which Kolophon had tradi- tional links. There would not be a serious need for a local silver coinage, as that of Alexander was plentiful; but in bronze, small denominations would be wanted to supplement the Alexandrine issues: so far as can be judged by finds, the bronze of Alexander did not circulate in Ionia as fully as his silver. That Kolophon was a flourishing centre of trade at this time is certainly indicated by the inscription published in A.J.Ph. 1935, 358 ff., which gives a long list of subscriptions towards the walling of the old town about 307 B. C., and shows that there were overseas connexions with several places. The period may thus be taken to begin about 330, and probably ended with the removal of a substantial part of the population of Kolophon to Ephesos by Lysimachus about 285.

PERIOD VI (c.285 – 190B.C.)


Didrachms. Obv. Head of Apollo l., laur., hair in loose locks.

Rev. Lyre of five strings: legend on l. and r.

147. Didrachm: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ↓ ΔΙΝΑΡΧΟΣ

(a) V. (17075) ↗, 18 mm., 5.63 g.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in loose locks.

Rev. Horseman riding r. with spear couched: above, ethnic and to l. lyre, bel., magistrate's name.

Trichalka. Obv. As half-obols.

Rev. Horse walking r.: ab., ethnic, bel., magistrate's name.

Dichalka. Obv. As half-obols.

Rev. Forepart of horse r.: ab., ethnic, bel., magistrate's name.

148. Half-obol: leg. →K ΟΛ, ⤻ΑΓΑΜΗΔΗΣ

(a) P. (Bab., Tr. ii. 1929). 13 mm.

149. Trichalkon: leg. →KOΛ, ⤻ΑΓΑΜΗΔΗΣ

(a) K. (KP. 640) ↑ , 13 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 36) ↑, 11 mm.

150. Dichalkon: leg. →KOΛ ⤻ΑΓΑΜΗ[ΔΗΣ]

(a) Winterthur. (Imhoof, G.R.M. 70/4) 10 mm., 0.90 g.

151. Half-obol: leg. →KO Λ, ⤻ΔΩΣΙΘΕΟΣ

(a) K. (KP. 1016)↑, 15 mm.

152. Trichalkon: leg. →KOΛ, ⤻ΔΩΣΙΘΕΟΣ

(a) Gotha. (b) V. (30691) ↑, 13 mm.

153. Dichalkon: leg. →KO ⤻ΔΩΣΙΘΕΟΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/7) 11 mm., 1.12 g. (b) L. (1927) ↑, 10 mm.

154. Dichalkon: leg. →KOΛ, ⤻ΘΕΟΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) Gotha. 12 mm.

155. Half-obol: leg. →KO Λ ⤻ΙΚΕΣΙΟΣ

(a) B. 16 mm. (b) G. (Hunter cat. 324/4) 16 mm., 2.62 g. (c) K. (KP. 554) ↑, 15 mm., 2.72 g.

156. Trichalkon: leg. →KOΛ →ΛΙΧΑΣ

(a) O. ↑, 14 mm., 1.77 g.

157. Dichalkon: leg. →KOΛ →ΛΙΧΑΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 269) 12 mm., 1.25 g.

158. Dichalkon: leg. →KO ⤻ΜΗΤΡΟΔ

(a) B. 11 mm. (b) K. (KP. 1261) ↗, 10 mm. (c) V. (34891) ↗, 12 mm., 1.24 g.

159. Trichalkon: leg. →KOΛ ⤻ΤΗΛΕΓΟΝΟΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Gr. M. 270) 13 mm., 1.58 g. (b) K. (KP. 1158) ↑, 13 mm.

160. Dichalkon: leg. →KOΛ ⤻ΤΗΛΕΓΟΝΟΣ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/8) 11 mm., 0.90 g. (b) B. 12 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 37) ↖, 11 mm. (d) V. (36617) ↖, 12 mm. 1.10 g. (Ethnic KO)


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in loose locks.

Rev. Tripod: legend on 1. and r.

161. Half-obol: leg. ↓ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟ[ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) B. (Imhoof, A.G.M. 106a) 13 mm., 2.05 g.

162. Half-obol: leg. ↑ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔ[ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) V. (33618) ↓, 12.5 mm., 3.04 g.

163. Half-obol: leg. ↑ΑΦΘΟΝΗ[ ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/12) 12 mm., 2.50 g.

The issues of this period are almost entirely in Group B, which is of bronze in three sizes: other varieties are represented by single specimens, which are placed here on grounds of style, but do not appear to have any other link. The coins of Group B look like a continuation of two of the denominations of the previous period, the half-obols of Group C and the dichalka of Group A, with a new denomination of a new reverse type introduced between them, which would presumably be a trichalkon: there is a considerable drop in size and weight from the corresponding series of Period V, which may point to a decline in the prosperity of the city. This same reason may account for the fact that one magistrate might strike all three denominations, which is very rare in Period V: if, as suggested above, the issue of coins at Kolophon was of the nature of a liturgy, it might be difficult in an impoverished community to find many citizens able to undertake the responsibility, and each nominee might have to bear a more varied burden. This might well be the case after the city had been depleted of many of its inhabitants by Lysimachus: under his plan of aggrandising Ephesos and Smyrna, these would take away much of the trade from the interior which had previously passed through Kolophon: and for a considerable time thereafter, when it was apparently a frontier garrison post, it would derive most of its currency from the pay of the soldiers. This period therefore may be taken as commencing about 285 B. C.: it probably continued till the battle of Magnesia and the political rearrangement of the Ionian cities which followed. The solitary silver coin, which does not seem to be related to any of the earlier issues, looks to be of about this date, but no reason for its appearance can be suggested.

PERIOD VII (c. 190 B. C. – Imperial)


Tetradrachms. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in long curls.

Rev. Apollo standing r., in long robe, holding in r. hand branch with fillets, resting l. on lyre: legend on l.: in laurel wreath.

164. Tetradrachm: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) L. (Brit. Mus. Quart. iv. 35). (b) P. (Wadd. 1489) 34 mm., 15.25 g.


Obols. Obv. Head of Apollo r., laur., hair in stiff curls: b. d.

Rev. Horse walking r.: ab., on l., ethnic; bel., magistrate's name; between forelegs, letter.

Half-obols. Obv. As obols.

Rev. Tripod with lebes, fillet hanging at each side: legend on l. and r.

Dichalka. Obv. Horseman riding r., with spear couched: bel., wolf (?) running r.

Rev. Apollo standing r., in long robe, holding in r. patera over tripod, in l. lyre: legend on l. and r.

Chalkoi. Obv. Bust of Artemis r., wearing stephane, bow and quiver at shoulder.

Rev. Piloi surmounted by stars: legend below.


(a) B. 23 mm. (b) G. (Hunter cat. 325/6) 24 mm., 10.23 g. (c) K. (2) ↑, 22 mm.

166. Half-obol: leg. ↓ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΩΡΟΣ, ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 22 mm. (b) B. 21 mm. (c) B. 21 mm. (d) G. (Hunter cat. 325/5) 21.5 mm., 8.81 g. (e) Gotha. (f) K. (C.R. viii. l) ↑, 22 mm. (g) O. ↑, 21 mm., 8.22 g. (h) P. (Wadd. 1500) 20 mm. (i) V. (17082) ↑, 21.5 mm. (k) V. (20985) ↑, 21 mm. (l) V. (28986) ↑ , 22 mm. (m) V. (30914) ↑, 22 mm. [(a) and (g) same obv. die: (b) and (c) same obv. die.]

167. Chalkous: leg. → ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) E. T. Newell. ↑, 15 mm., 2.27 g.

168. Obol: leg. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩ, →ΕΚΑΤΟΔΩΡΟΣ, M ΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 23 mm. (b) O. ↑, 24.5 mm., 12.48 g. (c) E. T. Newell. ↑, 23 mm., 9.51 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) same obv. die and same as 171 (a): (a) and (c) same rev.]

169. Dichalkon: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ ↓ ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟΣ

(a) B. 19 mm. (b) B. 19 mm. (c) Gotha. (d) L. (BMC. 38) ↑, 20.5 mm. (e) L. (BMC. 39) ↑, 20.5 mm. (f) O. ↑ , 18 mm., 3.39 g. (g) V. (33566) ↑ , 20 mm., 5.87 g.

170. Chalkous: leg. → ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟΣ

(a) B. 16 mm. (b) Gotha. (c) K. (BP. 894) ↑, 15 mm. (d) L. (BMC. 40) ↑, 15.5 mm.

171. Obol: leg. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩ, →ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ, M ΝΙΩΝ

(a) O. (Godwyn) ↑, 25.5 mm., 12.09 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 168 (a) (b) and (c).]

172. Dichalkon: leg. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ ↓ MHTPOΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) B. 21 mm. (b) B. 20 mm. (c) C. (Leake) 20 mm., 5.66 g. (d) K. (KP. 990) ↑, 21 mm. (e) M. (20) ↑, 20 mm.

173. Chalkous: leg. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ

(a) B. 15.5 mm. (b) K. (BP. 1261) ↑, 15 mm. (c) Len. 15 mm., 4.04 g. (d) L. (BMC. 41) ↑, 15.5 mm. (e) L.↑ , 16 mm. (f) M. (19) ↑, 15 mm. (g) V. (17080) ↑, 15.5 mm.


Half-obols. Obv. Head of Apollo to front, slightly l., laur., hair long.

Rev. Tripod with lebes: legend on l. and r.

174. Half-obol: leg. ↑ ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΔΗΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) K. (KP. 1261) ↖, 18 mm. (b) M. (16) ↑, 19 mm. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (c) O. ↑, 19 mm. 4.96 g.

175. Half-obol: leg. ↑ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. (Imhoof, M.G. 285/38) 18 mm., 3.82 g. (b) B. 18 mm. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (c) B. 17 mm. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (d) L. (1920) ↑, 19 mm., 4.98 g. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (e) O. ↑, 17.5 mm., 6.02 g. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (f) P. (Wadd. 1501) 18 mm.

176. Half-obol: leg. ↑ ΙΚΕΣΙΟΣ ↑ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 17 mm. (b) B. 17 mm. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (c) C. (Leake) 16 mm., 4.77 g. (d) Gotha. 18 mm. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (e) K. (KP. 621) ↑, 17 mm., 4.28 g. [rev. cmk. lyre]. (f) E. T. Newell, ↑, 17 mm., 2.64 g.


Chalkoi. Obv. Head of Helios r., rad.

Rev. Lyre: legend on 1. and r.

177. Chalkous: leg. ↓ imageΗΝΩΝ ↓ ΚΟΛΟ

(a) B. (Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/13). 15 mm., 2.75 g.


Obols. Obv. Homor seated l. on high-backed throne, wearing himation, resting chin on r. hand, holding roll in l. on knee: to l., magistrate's name.

Rev. Apollo standing r., wearing long robe, holding in r. hand patera, in l. lyre: to l. ethnic.

178. Obol: leg. ↓ ΑΠΟΛΛΑΣ: ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 19 mm. (b) B. 20 mm. (c) B. 19 mm. (d) B. 18 mm. (e) C. (Leake) 18 mm., 5.40 g. (f) C. (Leake) 18 mm., 6.13 g. (g) C. 18 mm., 6.05 g. (h) G. (Hunter cat. 325/7) 19 mm., 6.60 g. (i) Gotha. (k) K. (Thomsen 1391) ↑, 17 mm. (l) K. (KP. 1010) ↑, 19 mm. (m) Len. 19 mm., 5.82 g. (n) L. (BMC. 42) ↑, 18 mm. (o) L. ↑, 20 mm. (p) M. (21) ↑, 20 mm. (q) O. (Godwyn) ↑, 17.5 mm., 5.25 g. (r) O. (Godwyn)↑, 18 mm., 5.42 g. (s) O. ↑, 18.5 mm., 5.01 g. (t) V. (17083) ↑, 20 mm. (u) V. (32131) ↑, 19 mm. (w) V. (32132) ↑, 19 mm. (x) V. Schottenst. (3222) 18 mm., 6.25 g. (y) V. Schottenst. (3223) 19 mm., 5.64 g. (z) E. T. Newell. ↑, 19 mm., 5.70 g. (aa) E. T. Newell. ↑ , 20 mm., 5.62 g. (bb) f. H. Weber. (5827) 18 mm., 7.12 g.

179. Obol: leg. ↓ ΠΥΘΕΟΣ : ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) Athens. 20 mm. (b) B. 19 mm. (c) B. 18 mm. (d) C. (Leake) 18 mm., 5.85 g. (e) C. (Leake) 19 mm., 5.19 g. (f) C. (McClean 8054) ↑, 19 mm., 4.30 g. (g) C. 19 mm., 6.59 g. (h) Gotha. (i) K. (4a) ↑, 17.5 mm. (l) K. (KP. 964) ↑, 19 mm. (m) Len. 16 mm., 5.56 g. (n) Len. 19 mm., 5.85 g. (o) L. (BMC. 43) ↑, 18 mm. (p) L. ↑, 19 mm. (q) L. ↑, 20 mm. (r) M. (22) ↑, 19.5 mm. (s) New York. (Ward cat. 669) 19 mm., 6.49 g. (t) O. ↑, 20 mm., 5.36 g. (u) V. (31403) ↑ , 20 mm. (w) E. T. Newell. ↑, 19 mm., 5.99 g. (x) f. H. Weber. (5828) 17 mm., 5.70 g.

[(b) and (d) same obv. die.]

The coins of this period are again a very miscellaneous collection: the one issue of spread tetradrachms not improbably came soon after 190 B. C., and may have been made as a demonstration of the liberation of Kolophon from regal control and its claim to rank alongside the other cities which struck similar coins: but it was evidently short-lived, and had no economic justification. The bronze coins are all, by style, to be placed a good deal later: none of them could reasonably be dated before the first century B. C., and they do not seem to have any close connection with any earlier series. Probably there was a complete break in the mintage of bronze at Kolophon in the second century: such importance as it had possessed in the third century, as a frontier post between competing rulers, Seleukids and Ptolemies, or Attalids and Seleukids, would disappear, and any bronze currency that it needed could be supplied by the abundant issues of Smyrna. It is noteworthy that the American excavations of 1921–2 produced only one or two autonomous coins of Kolophon of Periods VI and VII, though those of Period V were abundant.

The chief group is B, of four sizes, which are linked not only by style, but by names of magistrates. It is tempting to identify the Epigonos, who is one of the four magistrates whose names appear in this group, with the 'tyrant' who is mentioned by Plutarch as suppressed by Lucullus: in this case the group would represent an issue for local currency at the time of the Mithridatic revolt, when it would be not unlikely to find a city in the position of Kolophon putting out its own coins: the animal running under the horse on the obverse of the dichalkon may be a wolf, representing Rome, at which the Kolophonian horseman is striking. Group C seems rather later: it was evidently an issue which did not find much favour, as more than half the known specimens are countermarked, and probably date in the time of confusion about 50 B. C. The solitary coin in D cannot be placed exactly, but may be about the same date. The very crude style of the coins in Group E, which constitute a large output by two magistrates, points to their being the last of the autonomous issues of Kolophon, presumably just before the establishment of the Roman Empire.


The arrangement of the coins struck under the Roman Empire has been made on the general lines adopted in the Ashmolean Museum Catalogue of Alexandrian Coins. The obverse-legends of each Emperor are classified at the head of the entries for his reign, and referred to by letters in the descriptions of the individual types. The reverse-types are specified summarily in these descriptions, and a fuller account of each type is given in an Appendix.

Several coins described by Mionnet have been omitted, as it has not been possible to verify them. Of these, some, quoted on Vaillant's authority, may be correct—Suppl. vi. 100/130 of Domitian; Suppl. vi. 101/137 of Aurelius; iii. 78/127 and Suppl. vi. 103/149 of Caracalla and Geta; Suppl. vi. 104/151 of Macrinus; Suppl. vi. 105/157 of Gordian III; and Suppl. vi. 108/172 of Etruscilla: and similarly Suppl. vi. 102/142 of Caracalla; and iii. 79/130 of Macrinus, from Sestini. Suppl. vi. 100/129 of Nero (Mus. Sancl.); and Suppl. vi. 105/159 of Gordian III (Gessner), are not likely: and iii. 83/148 of Valerian (Banduri) is probably type 261 of Volusian.


Obverse Types

A. image ΣΕΒΑ ⤸ΣΤΟΣ

180. A. Head r. laur. l. ↓ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ Apollo seated r. ΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 20 mm.


Obverse Types


181. A. Head r. laur.

imageΚΟΛΟΦΩ[ΝΙΩΝ] Apollo seated l. (b): i.f.l. →ΚΛΑΡΙC

(a) L. ↗, 23 mm.


Obverse Types


182. A. Bust r. draped. imageΚΟΛΟΦΩ ⤸ ΛHTΩOC Apollo standing l.

(a) B. 20 mm.


Obverse Types


183. A. Head r. laur., drapery about neck. image ΚΟΛΟΦ image ΩΝΙ ↷ ΚΛΑ ⤸ P IOC Apollo seated l. (c).

(a) B. 30 mm. (b) M. 31 mm. [ = Mi. iii. 77/122]. [Both same dies; same obv. as 184c (a).]

184A. A. Head r. laur., drapery about neck. image APTƐMICKΛAP ⤸ ΙΑΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΑ Artemis standing to front.

(a) B. 31 mm. (b) O. ↗, 34 mm., 17.48 g. [round cmk. on rev., bee].

[Both same obv. die.]

184B. As 184a, but rev. leg. image APTƐMICKΛA ⤸ ΡΙΑΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΑ

(a) K. (KP. 1261). 30 mm. (b) V. (34198). 30 mm., 21.67 g.

184C. As 184a, but rev. leg. image APTƐMICKΛ ⤸ ΑΡΙΑΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΑ

(a) L. (BMC. 42/45). 32 mm.

[Same obv. die as 183 (a) and (b).]

185A. B. Head r. laur. image APTƐMICKΛAP ⤸ ΙΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΑ Artemis standing to front. . .

(a) B. 25 mm. [round cmk. on rev., bee.]. (b) B. 25 mm. [similar cmk.].

[Both same obv. die, and same as 185b (a), 185c (a), and 187a (a).]

185B. As 185A, but rev. leg. image APTƐMICKΛA ⤸ ΡΙΑΚΟΛ[ ]

(a) B. 25 mm.

[Same obv. die as 185a (a) and (b), 185c (a), and 187a (a).]

185C. As 185A, but rev. leg. imageAPTƐMICKΛ ⤸ ΑΡΙΑΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΑ

(a) O. (Raye). 24 mm., 8.23 g. (b) V. (34844). 25 mm. 6.97 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 185a (a) and (b), 185b (a), and 187a (a).]

186. C. Head r., laur. image APTƐMICKΛ ⤸ ΑΡΙΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ Artemis standing to front.

(a) B. 25 mm.

187A. B. Head r., laur. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ ⤸ ΙΩΝΚΛΑΡΙΑ Artemis standing to front.

(a) L. (BMC. 42/44). 25 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 185a (a) and (b), 185b (a), and 185c (a).]

187B. As 187a ? (obv. leg. uncertain), but rev. leg. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ) NIΚΛΑΡΙΑ

(a) Gotha. 24 mm.

188. D1. Head r., laur. image APTƐMIC ⤸ ΚΟΛΟΦΩ Artemis standing to front.

(a) B. 20 mm. [ = Imhoof, Kl. M. 71/14].

189. D2. Head r., laur. imageΑΡΤƐΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩΝΙΑ Artemis standing to front.

(a) B. 21.5 mm. (b) B. 20.5 mm. (c) M. 22 mm. (d) M. 19.5 mm.

[(a) and (b) same dies.]


Obverse Types


190. A. Head r., bare, drapery on l. of neck. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ ⤸ ΩΝ ΚΛΑΡΙ ⤸OC Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) O. (New College). 23.5 mm., 7.17 g.

191. B. Head r., bare. ab. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩ bel. →ΝΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) K. (KP. 1261). 19 mm. (b) ? V. (30647). 18 mm.

[obv. leg. obscure].

192. C. Head r., bare. ab. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩ bel. →ΝΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) P. 18 mm.


Obverse Types

  • image·AV·KAI·M·AVP· ⤸ ΚΟΜΜΟΔΟC·

193. A1. Bust r., laur., back view. image·EΠICTP ↷ Α·ΙΟV·ΦΑVC ⤸ TOV·TO·B (ex.)→·ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ· Apollo seated l. (d). ΩΝ

(a) P. 35 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 101/139].

194. A2. Head r., laur. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩNƐΠI ⤸ CTP·IOV· ΦΑVCTOV· ΤΟ·B· Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) O. (New College). 28 mm., 19.55 g.

195. B. Head r., laur. ab. →ΚΟΛΟΦΩ bel. →ΝΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) B. 17 mm. (b) P. 16 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 101/136]. (c) P. (Wadd. 1502). 16 mm. (d) V. (33902) [ = E. F. Weber sale 2773] ↙, 16 mm., 3.30 g.


Obverse Types


196. A. Bust r., draped. imageEΠICTPTIBKΛ ⤸ MVPΩNOCTOB (if.) →ΚΟΛ ΟΦ Athene standing l. (a). ΩΝΙ ΩΝ

(a) B. 28 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 42/46). 30 mm.


Obverse Types


197. A. Bust r., laur., slight beard, back view: star below bust in front. image ƐΠICTP. ↷AVPAΠOΛΛO ⤸ ΔOTOVimageΒ (ex.) →ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ Apollo seated l. (d). ·ΩΝ·

(a) B. 35 mm. (b) P. 35 mm. [ = Mi. iii. 78/124]. [Both same dies.]

198. B. Head r., laur. imageƐΠICTPTI ↷ΑΝΤΩΝΑΜΜΙ ⤸ ANOV image Β (ex.) →ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ Apollo seated l. (d). ·ΩΝ·

(a) L. (BMC. 42/47). 33 mm.

199. C. Head r., laur. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (b).

(a) P. 23 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 103/148]. (b) E. T. Newell. 23 mm.

[Same obv. die as 204 (a).]

200. D. Youthful bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ Φ ΩΝΙΩ (ex.)→N Apollo seated l. (b).

(a) B. 23 mm. (b) K. (KP. 1184). 22 mm.

[Both same dies.]

201. F. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ Φ ΩΝΙ (ex.)→ΩΝ Apollo seated l. (b).

(a) B. 22 mm. (b) K. 22 mm. (c) P. 23 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 103/144].

[All three same dies, and same obv. as 205 (a).]

202. F. (?) Bust r., laur. image ƐΠICTPTIB ↷KΛAV ⤸ MVPΩNOCTOB (ex.)→ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝI Asklepios and Hygieia. ΩΝ

(a) Cahn sale lxxi, 813. 35 mm.

203. E. Head r., laur. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) L. (BMC. 43/48). 22 mm.

204. C. Hesad r., laur. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ⤸ ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) O. 22 mm., 5.03 g.

[Same obv. die as 199 (a).]

205. F. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) K. (KP. 1051). 23 mm.

[Same obv. die as 201 (a) (b) (c).]


Obverse Types

A. image ΠOCƐ ⤸ ΓƐTACK

206. A. Byst r., bareheaded, back view. imageKΟΛΟ Φ (ex.) ←ΩΝΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) B. 18.5 mm. (b) L. (N.C. 1904. 302/21). 18 mm. [Both same dies.]


Obverse Types


207. A. Bust r., laur., wearing cloak and cuirass. imageƐΠICTPTIBKΛA ⤸ ΡΤƐΜΙΔΩΡΟV (ins.) image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 30 mm.


Obverse Types


208. A. Bust r., bareheaded, back view. imageΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩ (ex.)→ΝΙΩΝ River-god reclining l.

(a) B. 17 mm.

209. A. Bust r., bareheaded, back view. ↷ΚΟΛΟΦΩ N (ex.)→ΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) M. 17 mm. [ = Mi. iii. 79/132].


Obverse Types


210. A. Bust r., laur., back view. ↷ΚΟΛΟΦ Ω (ex.)→ΝΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) B. 18 mm. (b) V. (34469). 18 mm., 2.37 g.


Obverse Types


211. A. Bust r., draped. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) B. 22 m.


Obverse Types


212. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) Gotha. 18 mm.

213. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) O. 22 mm., 5.40 g.


Obverse Types

  • image AVT K·Γ·IOVH· ⤸ ·ΜΑΞΙΜƐIΝΟC·
  • imageΓ·I·OVH· ⤸ ΜΑΞΙΜƐIΝΟC

214. A. Bust r., laur., back view. (Ɛimage ·Cimage·Γ·Ι ↷OVH·MA ⤸ ΞIMOVKAI (ex.) →ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ Apollo seated l. (d). ΙΩΝ

(a) M. 35 mm. [ = Mi. iii. 80/153].

215A. B1. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) C. (Leake, Suppl. p. 40). 21 mm., 4.77 g. (b) L. (H. Weber 5831). 22 mm., 5.80 g.

[Both same obv. die.]

215B. B2. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) O. 21.5 mm., 4.27 g.

216. B1. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) V. (31861). 22 mm., 5.26 g.


Obverse Types

  • image·Γ IOVH·MA ⤸ ·ΞΙΜΟCΚΑΙC·
  • image ΓΙΟV ⤸ ΜΑΞΙΜΟC

217. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Homer stated r.: roll inscribed OMH image

(a) Aberdeen. (Davis 242). 30 mm., 11.49 g. (b) B. 30 mm. (c) C. Leake, As. Gr. p. 45). 29 mm., 9.67 g. (d) M. (29) 30 mm.

[(a) and (b) same dies.]

217A. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo advancing l.

(a) E. T. Newell. 30 mm., 10.92 g.

218. B. Bust r., laur., back view. ↷ΚΟΛΟΦ ΩΝ (ex.)←ΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) Gotha. (b) O. 16 mm., 1.93 g. (c) V. (35565) 17 mm., 2.85 g.


Obverse Types


219. A. Bust r., laur., wearing cuirass and cloak: star below. imageƐΠICT ↷PKOΛOΛ ⤸ONNƐIKOV (ex.)→ ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ Apollo seated l. (d).

(a) B. 35 mm.

[Same obv. die as 220 (a). The rev. leg. appears to be altered from – KAΛΛINƐIKOV – .]

220. A. Bust r., laur., wearing cuirass and cloak: star below. imageƐΠICTPAVP· ⤸ ·ΜΑΡΚimageΚΟΛΟ (ex.)←ΦΩΝ (ins.) image ΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 34.5 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 219 (a).]

221. B1. Bust r., laur., back view image ƐimageCimageΚΑΛΛΙΝƐΙΚΟVΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.) — ΝΙΩΝ. Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) K. (KP. 839). 28 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 43/49). 30 mm. (c) V. (30296). 30 mm.

222. B2. Bust r., laur., back view. (ƐimageCTP·AVPM ⤸ AP KOVKOΛ (ex.) ← ΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 31 mm. (b) C. (Leake, Suppl. p. 40). 29 mm., 8.68 g. (c) G. (Hunter cat. 325/8) 31 mm. (d) L. (BMC. 43/50). 30 mm. (e) M. (Acc. 34598). 30 mm. (f) V. (17084). 30 mm.

[(a) (b) and (d) same dies.]

223. C. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l

(a) Len. 20.5 mm., 3.75 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 224 (a).]

224. C. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ⤸ N ΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 21 mm. (b) V. (27671). 21 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 223 (a).]

225A. D. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) O. 21.5 mm., 4.77 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 225b (a).]

225B. As 225a, but rev. leg. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ Φ ΩΝΙΩΝ

(a) B. 22 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 225a (a).]


Obverse Types

  • imageAVT·K·M·IOVΛ· ⤸·ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC·
  • imageΑVΦΙ ⤸ ΛΙΠΠΟC

226. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐimage·CimageΑ·ΑVΡ·ΛΟVΚΙΩΝΦΙΛΟCƐΚΟVΟ (ex.)←ΦΩΜΙ (i.f.l.)→ΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 35.5 mm. (b) L. 35 mm.

227. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ƐimageCimageAVPAICΧΡΙΩΝimageΓΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.) → ΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) V. (35785). 35 mm., 15.99 g.

228A. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 21.5 mm. (b) K. 22 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 43/51). 21 mm. (d) O. 22 mm., 3.88 g. (e) V. (30356). 22 mm. (f) V. (30406). 22 mm. (g) H. Weber cat. 5830. 21 mm., 4.27 g.

[(a) and (d) same dies, and same obv. die as 230 (a).]

228B. As 228a, but rev. leg. imageΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ

(a) O. (Ch. Ch. 1008). 23.5 mm., 4.33 g.

229. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) Gotha. (b) V. (17085). 21 mm.

230. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 22 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 228A (a) (d).]

231. C. Bust r., laur., back view. imageΚΟΛΟΦ ΩΝ (ex.)←ΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) B. 17 mm. (b) Gotha, (c) M. 17 mm. (d) O. 17 mm., 2.28 g.

[(a) and (d) same dies; same rev. die as 245 (a) (b).]


Obverse Types

  • image·Μ·ΩΤΑ·CƐVΗ ⤸ PA·CƐBAC
  • image·Μ·ΩΤΑΚ· ⤸ imageEBHPA·

232. A. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCTΡ·ΑVΡ·ΛΟVΚΙΩΝ·ΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.)← ΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 29 mm.

233. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCimageΑVΡΑΙCΧΡΙΩΝimageΓΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ (ex.) ← ΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 29 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 234 (a) (b), 235 (a) (b) (c), 236 (a), 237 (a), 238 (a) (b) (e), 240 (b).]

234. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐΠICΤΑVΡΗΚΑΠƐΤΩΛƐΙΝimageΒΚΟΛΟ (ex.) ←ΦΩ (ins.) imageΝΙΩ⤸ N Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 31 mm. [obv. cmk. B]. (b) K. (KP. 1051) 30 mm.

[(a) and (b) same dies, and same obv. die as 233 (a), 235 (a) (b) (c), 236 (a), 237 (a), 238 (a) (b) (e), 240 (b).]

235. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCTPA·AVP Λimage ⤸ ΚΙΩΝΦΙΛΟCƐΒ (i.f.)→KO ΛO Artemis standing to front.



(a) B. 30 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 43/53) 31 mm. (c) O. 29 mm., 9.65 g. (d) V. (32317) 30 mm., 10.93 g. [(a) (b) and (c) same dies, and same obv. die as 233 (a), 234 (a) (b), 236 (a), 237 (a) 238 (a) (b) (e), 240 (b).]

236. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCimageΑ VPKA ⤸ ΠƐΤΩΛƐIΝΟV

(i.f.) → ΚΟΛ ΟΦΩ Artemis standing to front. NI ΩΝ

(a) O. 29 mm., 9.82 g. [obv. cmk. standing figure].

(b) V. (17087). 29 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 233 (a), 234 (a) (b), 235 (a) (b) (c), 237 (a), 238 (a) (b) (e), 240 (b).]

237. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageOMHPOCKO ⤸ ΛΟΦ ΩΝΙΩ (ex.)←N Homer seated r.

(a) B. 30 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 233 (a), 234 (a) (b), 235 (a) (b) (c), 236 (a), 238 (a) (b) (e), 240 (b).]

238. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Homer seated r.

(a) B. 29 mm. (b) C. (McClean 8055) 29 mm., 8.72 g. (c) K. (KP. 1261) 29 mm. (d) L. (BMC. 44/54). 28 mm. (e) P. 27 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 107/167].

[(a) (b) and (e) same dies, and same obv. die as 233 (a), 234 (a) (b), 235 (a) (b) (c), 236 (a), 237 (a) , 240 (b).]

239. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐΠICTPA AVP ΛOV ⤸ ΚΙΩΝ·ΦΙΛOCƐΒ

(i.f.) KO ΛO Boxer standing r.



(a) P. (Wadd. 1503). 29 mm. (b) V. (17086) 30 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 106/164].

240. B. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCimageAVPAICX ⤸ ΡΙΩΝΟCΚΟΛΟΦ (ins.) imageΩ Ν ⤸ ΙΩΝ Boxer standing r.

(a) Gotha. (b) L. (1893). 30 mm. [obv. cmk. Δ]. [(b) same obv. die as 233 (a), 234 (a) (b), 235 (a) (b) (c), 236 (a), 237 (a), 238 (a) (b) (e).]

End Notes
Due to the fact that 228B was added after the plates were printed, 228A.a appears on the plates as 228a.


Obverse Types


241. A. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. image image ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) V. (33903). 21 mm., 4.34 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2774.]

242A. A. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) C. (Leake). 21 mm., 5.03 g. [obv. cmk. A]

(b) E. T. Newell. 21 mm., 5.00 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 243 (a).]

242B. As 242A, but obv. bust laureate.

(a) K. (KP. 773). 22 mm.

243. A. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 22 mm. (b) M. 21.5 mm. (c) V. (35374). 22 mm., 4.55 g.

[(a) same obv. die as 242a (a).]

244. B. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. imageΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩ (ex.)←N Ram walking r.

(a) B. 17 mm.

245. C. Bust r., laur., back view. ↷ΚΟΛΟΦ ΩΝ (ex.)←ΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) B. 16 mm. (b) K. (KP. 1185) 17 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 43/52) 15 mm. (d) V. (33904) 16 mm., 2.37 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2774].

[(a) and (b) same dies; same rev. die as 231 (a) (d).]


Obverse Types


246. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐΠΙΠΟΑΙΛΑΤ ⤸ TIKOVΚΟΛΟΦ (ex.) → ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) M. 29 mm. [? = Mi. iii. 80/136].

247. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ƐΠIAVPAΛƐΞAN ⤸ ΔΡΟVΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ins.) image NI ⤸ ΩΝ Boxer standing r.

(a) B. 30 mm. [ = Imhoof, Kl. M. 72/17]. (b) V. (35305). 29 mm., 9.17 g.

248. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) K. (KP. 1134). 22 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 44/55). 21 mm. (c) Len. 21.5 mm., 4.78 g. (d) Len. 21 mm., 4.70 g. (e) M. (Acc. 34608). 21 mm.

[(c) and (d) same dies.]


Obverse Types


249. A. Bust r., draped, with stephane. image ƐimageCimageΑΦΛΑΓΑΘΟ ⤸ ΚΛƐΟVCΟΛΟΦ (ex.) ←ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 28 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 44/56) 29 mm.

[(a) and (b) same obv. die as 250 (a) and 251 (a); same rev. as 252 (a) (b) (c).

250. A. Bust r., draped, with stephane. image ƐimageCimageΑΦΛΑΓΑΘΟ ⤸ KΛƐOVCΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.) ←ΝΙΩΝ Homer seated r.

(a) K. (KP. 1051) 28 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 249 (a) and (b) and 251 (a).]

251. A. Bust r., draped, with stephane. imageƐimageCimageΑΦΛΑΓΑΘΟ ⤸ ΚΛƐΟVΟΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ins.) image NI ⤸ ΩΝ Boxer standing r.

(a) L. (BMC. 44/57) 29 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 249 (a) and (b) and 250 (a).]


Obverse Types


252. A. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. imageƐimageCimageΑΦΛΑΓΑΘΟ ⤸ ΚΛƐOVCΚΟΛΟΦ (ex.) ←ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 30 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 44/58) 31 mm. (c) P. (Wadd. 1504) 29 mm.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies: same rev. die as 249 (a).]

253. A. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak. imageƐimageCimageΑΦΛΑΓΑΘΟ ⤸ ΚΛƐOVCΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ins.) image NI ⤸ ΩΝ Boxer standing r.

(a) M. 29 mm. [ = Mi. iii. 82/146).

254. B. Bust r., bareheaded, wearing cuirass and cloak.

image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 22 mm. (b) M. 22 mm. (c) M. 20.5 mm. (d) V. (33905) 19.5 mm., 4.13 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2775].


Obverse Types

  • imageAVK·Γ·OVIΒ·ΤΡΕΒΩΝΙ ⤸ ΑΝΟimageΓΑΛΛΟimage

255. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageΕΠΙimageΤΡΚΑΛΛΙimage TO ⤸ VIΕΡΕΩimageΙΩΝΩΝ (bel.) ⤻ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩ Temple-precinct (a): across field, below temple, → ΤΟΚΟΙΝΟΝΙΩ


(a) B. 35 mm. (b) B. (36 mm.), (c) C. (McClean 8057) 33.5 mm., 16.85 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2776]. (d) G. (Hunter cat. 325/9). 35 mm. (e) V. (17088). 34 mm.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies.]

256. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 22 mm. (b) C. (McClean 8056) 21.5 mm., 5.57 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2777]. (c) O. (New College). 21 mm., 4.39 g.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies: same obv. die as 258 (a).]

257. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated 1.

(a) V. (34186). 21 mm., 3.86 g.

258. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦΩ ⤸ N ΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) O. 21 mm., 4.40 g. (b) P. (Wadd. 1505) 20 mm. (c) V. (30550) 21 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 256 (a) (b) (c).]


Obverse Types


259. Bust r., laur., back view. image ƐΠICTP·KΛKAΛΛICTimageKOΛO (ins.) imageΦΩΝΙ ⤸ ΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 28 mm. (b) C. (McClean 8058) 28.5 mm., 10.17 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2777]. (c) G. (Hunter cat. 326/10). 32 mm. (d) P. (Wadd. 1506) 28 mm. (e) V. (17089) 30 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi 109/176].

[(a) and (b) same dies: same obv. die as 260 (a), 262 (a) (b).]

260. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐΠICTP·KΛ·K ⤸ AΛΛICTimageKOΛO (i.f.)→ ΦΩ NI (ex.) →·ΩΝ· Artemis standing to front.

(a) P. (Wadd. 1507). 30 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 259 (a) (b), 262 (a) (b).]

261. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐΠICTP·KΛ ⤸ KAΛΛICTimageKOΛ (ex.) O (ins.) image ΦΩΝΙ⤸) Ω N Athene standing r.

(a) V. (31860) 30 mm., 10.38 g. [obv. cmk. ς].

262. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ƐΠICTPAVPAΘ ⤸ HΝΑΙ imageΚΟΛ (ex.) ·O· (ins.) image ΦΩΝ ⤸ ΙΩΝ Homer seated r.

(a) B. 29 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 45/59). 30 mm.

[(a) and (b) same dies: same obv. die as 259 (a) (a) , 260 (a).]


Obverse Types


263. A. Bust r., laur., wearing cuirass and cloak. imageƐΠΙCimageΠΑΙΛΚΑΛ ⤸ ΛΙΝƐIΚimageΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Temple-precinct (b): across field, below temple, →ΤΟΚΟΙΝΟΝΤΩΝΙ ΩΝ ΩΝ

(a) B. 33 mm. (b) B. 33 mm. (c) L. (BMC. 45/60) 32 mm.

[(a) (b) and (c) same dies.]

264A. B. Bust r., laur., wearing cuirass and cloak. imageƐΠΙ·image·Π·ΑΙΚΑΛΛΙΝƐΙΚOVΚOΛOΦΩ (ex.) ←ΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 27 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 45/61). 26 mm. [obv. cmk. B]. (c) O. 27.5 mm., 8.27 g.

[(a) and (c) same dies: same obv. die as 264b (b) and 265 (a) (c).]

264B. As 264a, but rev. leg. (ƐimageCimage imageAIKAΛΛ imageΙimageΙΚimageΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.)←NIΩN

(a) L. (BMC. 45/62) 27 mm. [obv. cmk. B]. (b) P. 26 mm. [ = Mi. S. vi. 109/177].

[(b) same obv. die as 264a (a) (c) and 265 (a) (c).]

265. B. Bust r., laur., wearing cuirass and cloak. imageƐimageCΤΡΠΟΑΙCƐ ⤸ BH PƐINimageKO (ex.) ← ΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Homer seated r.

(a) B. 28 mm. (b) L. (BMC. 46/63) 27 mm. [obv. cmk. B]. (c) Len. 26 mm., 7.61 g.

[(a) and (c) same dies: same obv. die as 264a (a) (c) and 264b (b); same rev. as 271 (b) (d).]


Obverse Types

  • imageAVΓΑΛ ⤸ ΛIΗNOC

266. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐimage imageΠΑΙΚΑΛΛΙimageΙΚimageΚΟΛΟΦ (ex.) ← ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a)

(a) K. (KP. 933) 26 mm. [obv. cmk. B]. (b) P. (Wadd. 1508) 25 mm. (c) V. (17090). 27 mm.

[ = Mi. S. vi. 109/178].

267. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐimage imageΑΙCƐΒΗΡƐΙΝOVΚΟΛΟΦΩΝ (ex.) ← ΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) L. (1894). 26 mm. [obv. cmk. B].

[(a) same obv. die as 268 (a), 269 (b), 270 (a), and 271 (b) (c) and (d).]

268. A. Bust r., laur., back view. imageƐimageCimageΠOAIKAΛΛI ⤸ ΝƐΙΚΟVΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙ (ex.)←ΩΝ Athene standing l. (b).

(a) B. 25.5 mm. (b) P. (Wadd. 1509). 25 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 267 (a), 269 (b), 270 (a), and 271 (b) (c) and (d).]

269. A. Bust r., laur., back view. (ƐimageCimage imageAICƐBHPE ⤸ ΙΝimageΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩ (ex.)←N Athene standing l. (b).

(a) K. (KP. 1051) 25 mm. [obv. cmk. B.]. (b) L. (BMC. 46/64) 26 mm. [obv. cmk. B].

[(b) same obv. die as 267 (a), 268 (a), 270 (a), and 271 (b) (c) and (d).]

270. A. Bust r., laur., back view. (Ɛimage imageΠΑΙΚΑΛΛΙ ⤸ ΝƐΙΚimageΚΟΛΟΦΩ (ex.) ←ΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) P. (Wadd. 1510) 25 mm.

[(a) same obv. die as 267 (a), 268 (a), 269 (b), and 271 (b) (c) and (d).]

271. A. Bust r., laur., back view. (ƐimageCTPΠOAICƐ ⤸ BH PƐINimageKO (ex.) ΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Homer seated r.

(a) G. (Hunter cat. 326/11) 27.5 mm. (b) Gotha. 28 mm. (c) L. (1927) 27 mm. (d) O. 26.5 mm., 8.03 g.

[(b) (c) and (d) same dies: same obv. die as 267 (a), 268 (a), 269 (b), and 270 (a); same rev. as 265 (a) (c).]

272. B. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ Φ ΩΝΙΩΝ Tyche standing l.

(a) B. 20 mm. (b) C. (McClean 8059). 19.5 mm., 4.81 g. [ = E. F. Weber sale 2777]. (c) Gotha. (d) K. (KP. 893) 19 mm.

[(a) and (b) same dies.]

273. C. Bust r., laur., back view. ↷ΚΟΛΟΦ ΩΝ (ex.)← ΙΩΝ Ram walking r.

(a) O. 17 mm., 3.02 g.


Obverse Types


274. A. Bust r., draped, with stephane, crescent behind shoulders. image ƐΠimageΠΑΙΚΑΛΛΙ ⤸ imageΙΚΟVΚΟΛΟΦ (ex.) ← ΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 27 mm. [ = Imhoof, Gr. M. 272].


Obverse Types


275A. A. Bust r., laur., back view. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ Ω ΝΙΩΝ Apollo seated l. (a).

(a) B. 20 mm. (b) G. (Hunter cat. 326/12) 21 mm. (c) K. (KP. 1046) 19 mm. (d) M. (Acc. 32092) 20 mm. (e) V. (29874) 20 mm.

275B. As 275a, but rev. leg. image ΚΟΛΟ ⤸ ΦΩ ΝΙΩΝ

(a) K. (KP. 1202) 19 mm. (b) V. (30747) 20 mm.


276. imageIƐPACV ⤸ NKΛHTOC Bust r. image ΚΟΛΟΦ ⤸ ΩΝΙΩΝ Sarapis seated l.

(a) B. 23 mm. [ = Imhoof, Kl. M. 72/16]. (b) O. (Ch. Ch. 1007). 22 mm., 5.18 g. (c) V. (32963). 22.5 mm., 3.68 g.

The coinage of Kolophon in the Imperial period presents no difficulties in chronology: there is only a solitary specimen of the "pseudo-autonomous" class, and this can be assigned with probability to the reign of Gordian III or Philip I. Hardly anything was issued in the first century of the Empire: a considerable output appeared under Trajan, a motive for which it is not easy to suggest, as Trajan is not known to have exhibited any particular interest in this part of Ionia. Hadrian's reign is a blank in the series: there was a slight activity under Pius and Commodus, and much more under Caracalla: then it slackened, though most reigns are represented in the list, till the time of Gordian III. After that the mint was fairly continuously at work until the general cessation of coinage in Ionia under Gallienus.

Though there are many different reverse-types in this latest period, the number of coins struck from each type would not appear to have been large, as one obverse die was used with several reverses: for instance, all the coins of Severa of obverse-type B which it has been possible to compare from illustrations or casts were struck with the same obverse-die, though there are eight different reverses; and probably all other specimens would prove to be from the same. A reverse-die might also be used for more than one member of the Imperial house: for instance, 231 of Philip I and 245 of Philip II have the same reversedie; so have 249 of Etruscilla and 252 of Etruscus, and 265 of Valerian and 271 of Gallienus. These facts suggest that the issue of coins was governed more by a desire for display than by any economic demand.




  • Apollo standing l., himation over l. shoulder and round legs, r. hand hanging down, l. resting on sceptre.
  • Apollo seated r. on high-backed throne, wearing long robe, holding in r. laurel branch, lyre (held in l. ?) on knee.
  • Apollo seated l., (a) on low throne, naked to waist, holding in r. laurel-branch, resting l. on lyre beside him on seat.
  • Apollo seated (b) as (a), but to l. tripod.
  • Apollo seated (c) as (b), but holding on r. cult-statue of Artemis to front.
  • Apollo seated (d) as (a), with, on l., Artemis standing l., head r., wearing long chiton with diplois and resting r. on sceptre; on r., Leto (?) standing l., wearing long chiton and peplos, holding sceptre in l.
  • Artemis standing to front, in form of cult-statue, wearing high polos and veil, body draped, lower arms outstretched at right angles to body, with fillet pendent from each arm ending in a knob.
  • Asklepios standing to front, head l., wearing himation, resting r. hand on serpent-staff, l. wrapped in himation, and Hygieia standing to front, head r., wearing long chiton and peplos, carrying serpent in both arms, facing: between them, small figure of Telesphoros to front, hooded and cloaked.
  • Athene standing r., wearing crested helmet, aegis, long chiton, and peplos, resting r. hand on spear, shield in l.
  • Athene standing l. (a) wearing crested helmet, aegis, long chiton, and peplos, holding phiale in r. hand, spear upright in l.; shield on l. arm.
  • Athene standing (b) as (a), but no peplos, and l. hand resting on shield on ground, by which spear.
  • Boxer stepping r., naked, arms hanging down, fists clenched.
  • Homer seated r. on low throne, naked to waist, holding out in l. hand half-open roll.
  • Ram walking r.
  • River-God reclining l., drapery over legs, holding in r. hand reed, in l. cornucopiae: under l. elbow urn.
  • Sarapis seated l. on high-backed throne, wearing modius and himation, r. shoulder bare, r. hand outstretched over Kerberos seated at his feet, l. resting on sceptre.
  • Temple-Precinct (a) containing tetrastyle shrine with disk in pediment: within it, statue of Apollo seated l. holding laurel in r. hand, resting l. on lyre: in front, humped bull walking l. towards altar, and around in semicircle thirteen figures, each with r. hand raised holding wreath.
  • Temple-Precinct (b) as (a), but bull walking r.
  • Tyche standing l., wearing kalathos, long chiton, and peplos, resting r. hand on rudder, holding cornucopiae in l.



ΑΓΑΜΗΔΗΣ 92. 148–50
ΑΚΑΣΤ(ΟΣ) 68. 122
ΑΡΤΕΜIΔΩΡΟΣ 162. 165–7
ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ 69–70. 130
ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ 103. 123. 142
ΕΚΑΤΑΙΟΣ 107. 124
ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟΣ 109. 169–70
Ι( ) 83
ΙΗ( ) 84
ΙΗΝΗΣ 66. 111
ΘΡΑΣΥΚΛΗΣ 112. 146
ΙΚΕΣΙΟΣ 136. 155. 176
ΛΕΩΔΑΜΑΣ 87. 94. 115
ΛΙΧΑΣ 156–7
ΜΗΤΡΟ( ) 137
ΜΗΤΡΟΔ( ) 158
ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ 55. 116. 171–3
ΠΑΣΙ(ΩΝ) 118
ΠΛΑΤΩΝ 56. 73–4. 119. 139
ΠΡΟ( ) 82
ΤΗΛΕΓΟΝΟΣ 140. 159–60
ΦΑΝΑΙΟΜ( ) 141


  • (Etruscilla). 249. 250. 251. (Etruscus). 252. 253.
  • (Volusian). 262.
  • AICXPIΩN, AVP., (Γ).
  • (Philip) 227. (Otacilia) 233. 240.
  • (Decius) 247.
  • (Caracalla) 198.
  • (Caracalla) 197.
  • (Macrinus) 207.
  • (Decius) 246.
  • (Gordian III) 219. 221.
  • (Valerian) 263. 264. (Gallienus) 266. 268. 270.
  • (Salonina) 274.
  • (Gallus) 255. (Valerian) 259. 260. 261.
  • (Otacilia) 234. 236.
  • (Philip) 226. (Otacilia) 232. 235. 239.
  • (Maximinus) 214.
  • (Gordian III) 220. 222.
  • MVPΩN, TIB. KΛ., (TO B).
  • (Domna) 196. (Caracalla) 202.
  • (Valerian) 265. (Gallienus) 267. 269. 271.
  • ΦAVCTOC, IOV., (TO B).
  • (Commodus) 193. 194.




Period I



Period II


Period II



Period II


Period III



Period III


Period III



Period III


Period IV



Period IV


Period V



Period V


Period V



Period V


Period V (to 146)



Period VI


Period VII



Period VII


Period VII



Period VII