Since the publication in 1921 of the present writer's The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, 1 and in 1927 of Dr. Roger's The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, 2 some additional specimens, including new varieties and even new types, have come to light. Their total number seems now to be sufficient to warrant their publication, if only to present a more complete picture of the Seleucid Tyrian issues from Antiochus III to Demetrius II.
In 1922 the present writer was fortunate enough to acquire by purchase the collection of Dr. Jules Rouvier of Beyrouth, who, as every one knows, had published a very complete catalogue of Phoenician coins in the Journal international d'Archéologie numismatique, Vols. III–VII, 1900–4. In comparing Dr. Rouvier's specimens with the material previously available, it was found desirable to make several corrections both in the writer's and Dr. Rouvier's descriptions. This opportunity is also taken of more nearly completing our statistics by correcting, or adding to, the already published weights of Dr. Rouvier's bronze specimens.
In the following catalogue the running numbers have been retained as they appeared in Numismatic Notes and Monographs Nos. 10 and 34. New varieties are designated by the addition of letters, such as 3a, 21b, and so forth.
The table at the end of the monograph endeavors to correlate the known varieties.
Supplement to The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre
Of this variety there is a very fine specimen, from the same obverse die, in the Berlin Collection, formerly part of the Imhoof-Blumer Collection. Its weight is Gr. 17.25.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus III to r., very similar to that found on No. 3.
Rev. Same inscription and type as on No. 3, except that, in this case, the prow's stolos has the long, swan-like curve, and is adorned with a fillet. Where the stolos joins the body of the prow may be seen, faintly, the Phoenician letter . Newell Coll. Gr. 4.82. Plate I, 1
Obv. Similar to the preceding.
Rev. Similar to the reverse of No.4, bearing the date PIE. In this case, too, the prow has the swan-like stolos with flying fillet ends. On the prow may be seen the Phoenician letter . Newell Coll. (Rouvier Coll., 1826). Gr. 4.48. Plate I, 2
Two specimens in the Rouvier Coll. (No. 1823) weigh grs. 3.18 and 2.65 respectively.
This, the first and last appearance on Seleucid coinages (so far as the writer is aware) of the peculiarly shaped prow described under Nos. 3a and 4a, is worthy of note. This particular form, with its "horn" rising high above the actual prow, swinging backwards and then forwards again in a graceful swan's neck curve, is typical of ancient war-galleys of the fourth century B. C. 3 Commencing with the third century B. C. a simpler form of prow—best known to numismatists from the reverse type of the Roman republican aes—gradually displaced the more elaborate type. After the middle of that century the elaborate form is almost never found again on coins. Hence its ephemeral and surprisingly late appearance, alongside of the simpler form, 4 on these Tyrian bronze coins may have some special significance.
Fortunately some of the pieces in question are dated, PIE of the Seleucid Era. That would place their issue between Oct. 1, 198 and Sept. 30, 197 B. C. We know that in the spring of 197 B. C. Antiochus III, having dispatched his main army to Sardes to await his arrival there, had placed himself at the head of an imposing fleet of one hundred "ships-of-the-line" and two hundred smaller craft. 5 With these he swept along the Cilician, Pamphylian, Lycian, Ionian, Aeolian and Hellespontine coasts receiving the submission of various cities there, or forcing their surrender when they proved recalcitrant.
Judging by the form of the prow on Nos. 3a and 4a, the ship depicted is doubtless a war galley. The fillet-ends, depending from the forward point of the acrostolion, clearly suggest a dedication, or a victory, or (if we are permitted to assume that the fillet might be something in the nature of a diadem) a representation of the royal flagship, bearing Antiochus himself. It is to be noted that it is only these particular horned and filleted prows upon which can be seen the Phoenician letters resh or aleph. Other explanations being lacking, these letters may be taken as perhaps representing the initials of the ship's name, or of the officer commanding them. The latter idea brings a suggestion which the writer, with very considerable diffidence, here proposes. Could it be that the Phoenician letters and might conceivably stand for some such expression as R(as) A(ntiochus)?
We do not happen to know the Phoenician word for commander-in-chief, admiral, captain, or whatever the title might be. But we may be allowed to assume that the modern Arabic term for "captain," i. e. reis () is but the distant echo of the corresponding Phoenician word. As far back as the famous Moabite Stone (circa 850 B. C.) we have the word occurring in the sense of "chief." 6 The same term is used in Palmyra, in the third century A. D., as designating the head of the state. 7 It is still used to-day in Ethiopia for commander-in-chief or the governor of a province. We also know that in Punic the word ras, at least in its derivative meaning, indicates a "headland." 8 From these instances we may infer that the term ras occurred also in the Phoenician dialect and designated a leader, commander, or some similar title.
In the present case we know from Livy that Antiochus was himself actually at the head of his fleet, and thus his name might appropriately appear on the Tyrian galley. Until 201–200 B. C, when Antiochus had finally secured the Phoenician coast from the Ptolemies, we hear little of any Seleucid fleet. Now, within two or three years of that conquest, Antiochus is provided with a large and powerful armada. The obvious inference is that Tyre, as of old, had largely contributed to this result, and was not unreasonably boasting of this fact upon her coins.
Newell, The Coinages of Demetrius Poliorcetes, p. 36 ff.
The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, Plate I, 3.
Livy, XXXIII, 19. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides, Vol. I, pp. 178–9.
G. A. Cooke, North-Semitic Inscriptions, pp. 2, 3, 13.
Another specimen, from the same obverse and reverse dies, is now in the de Nanteuil Collection, No. 490, gr. 16.90, Pl. XXX. It came from Ciani's Vente d'un amateur Athenien, Paris, Dec. 1921. No. 82.
Of this variety there are two fine specimens in Berlin. The one, originally in the Imhoof-Blumer Collection (gr. 17.25), is struck from the same pair of dies as the published Paris specimen (No. 337). The other Berlin coin, originally in the Löbbecke collection, is from the same obverse but from another reverse die. Perhaps from the same pair of dies as this latter piece is the tetradrachm in Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 955 (gr. 17.22), now in the author's collection. Yet another specimen has been incorporated in the British Museum collection from a hoard found in Mesopotamia (Cf. Glendining Sale, August 1, 1934, lot no. 93). Yet a sixth specimen is in the Hunterian Collection in Glasgow, Vol. III, p. 31, No. 7, gr. 17.07.
A drachm corresponding to the tetradrachm No. 8, of the same style and with the same monograms, but without the symbol in the exergue, appeared in the Naville Sale X, June 1925, No. 997, gr. 4.23.
Ibidem, pp. 264, 285.
Cf. Ras-Melkarth (the Promontory of Melkarth, i. e. Herakles) in Sicily, the Kephaloidion of the Greeks, the Cephaloedium of the Romans, the modern Cefalu. For the attribution see Head's Historia Numorum,2 p. 136 and the references there given.
Another specimen, from the same pair of dies, is now in the author's collection. It weighs only gr. 15.50, as the coin was badly corroded and had to be cleaned.
Another specimen, from the same obverse but from another reverse die, is now in the author's collection. Gr. 17.22. Plate I, 3.
Another specimen but from a different pair of dies. Newell. Gr. 3.96. Plate I, 4.
The Rogers specimen of this variety is No. 953 of Naville Sale X, 1925. The Petrowicz specimen, from the same pair of dies, is No. 954 of the same sale and is illustrated there on Plate 34. Yet another specimen, also from the same pair of dies, is in the author's collection (gr. 17.29).
Another specimen in brilliant condition, from the Löbbecke collection, is now in Berlin.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus III to r. Circle of dots.
Obv. Same type as No. 16.
Rev. Same type and inscription as No. 16, except that the date reads PIH (= 195–194 B. C). Newell (ex P. Schroeder Coll.). Gr. 7.30.
The Rouvier specimen (No. 1828), now Newell Coll., weighs gr. 7.39.
Obv. Same type as No. 18.
Rev. Same type and inscription as No. 18, except that the date appears to read PKB (= 191–190 B. C). Berlin possesses a similar piece on which the date also is not absolutely beyond question. Newell. Gr. 8.18.
The Rouvier specimens (No. 1823) weigh gr. 2.34 and 2. 02, respectively.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus III to r., with the same sharp features as on the preceding coins. Circle of dots.
Rev. Club. ΒΑΣΙΛЕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟXΟϒ written circularly. Circle of dots around. Newell (Rouvier Coll.). Gr. 1.13. Plate I, 6.
The "lepton" No. 20a is an unpublished denomination and type for the Tyrian issues of Antiochus III, though a similar piece of Antiochus IV was published by Dr. Rogers. 9 The design of the reverse, the club of Tyrian Herakles, assures the attribution to Tyre, which attribution is further confirmed by the identity of style and fabric between our coin and the remaining bronze issues described above. The sharp features, retreating forehead, pointed nose, high cheek bones of Antiochus III's later portrait 10 are distinctly visible here. The assignment to Antiochus III is confirmed by the presence of a similar coin in a Seleucid hoard from Dura 11 whose burial date must lie within the period of that king's reign.
The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, p. 4, Fig. 1.
Cf. the bronze coin No. 17, Plate V, The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre.
To be published shortly in Numismatic Notes and Monographs.
Obv. Head of Antiochus III similar to No. 21.
We here possess the drachm to accompany the final issue of tetradrachms under Antiochus III.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus III to r., with sharper and more emaciated features. Circle of dots around.
Both combinations of letters and monograms found on Nos. 21 and 21b continue to appear under Seleucus IV (Nos. 22 and 23). The combination of ΣΑ and is also found under Antiochus son of Seleucus (No. 28a) and Antiochus IV (Nos. 29 and 30).
The Rogers specimen of this coin appeared in Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 1016, gr. 16.73, Plate 37. A similar specimen, gr. 17.10, is in the Museo Archeologico, Turin. Cf. Fabretti, vol. III, p. 331, No. 4608.
Obv. Diademed head of Seleucus IV to r., fillet border around.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r. ΣΕΛΕϒΚΟϒ on 1. Apollo seated to 1. on omphalos. On 1., outside inscription, ΣΑ. On r., outside inscription, . In the exergue, Bow in case. Newell (ex Grabow Sale, July 1930, No. 552). Gr. 16.94. Plate II, 2.
Obv. Similar to the preceding.
Rev. Same types, inscription, monograms and symbol as the preceding. Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 1021, gr. 4.09, plate 37.
The Rogers specimen of this coin appeared in Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 1015, gr. 16.93, Plate 37. It is now in the author's collection. A similar specimen, gr. 16.95, is in the Museo Archeologico, Turin. Cf. Fabretti, vol. III, p. 331, No. 4607.
A specimen with the date CΛР, in the author's collection, weighs gr. 9.83. Plate II, 3.
Another specimen with the date РΛΙ, in the author's collection, weighs gr. 7.19.
A specimen from P. Schroeder's collection, now in the author's possession, weighs gr. 2.32.
The new variety of the tetradrachm (No. 22a) here recorded, shows for the first time at Tyre the fillet border around the obverse. The usual symbol (Club of Tyrian Herakles) is lacking on this coin, but its place is taken by the equally significant Bow in Case—exactly as on a previous issue (No. 10) of Antiochus III. The chief magistrate is still ΣΑ, but his subordinate's monogram is new for the series.
Obv. Head of Antiochus as a child to r.
The unique Berlin specimen here described represents an issue of the same child-king whose presence at Antioch the writer established 12 for the very outset of Antiochus IV Epiphanes' reign. As there are extant numerous varieties of this type from the mint at Antioch, 13 the writer at first accepted Sir George Macdonald's suggestion 14 that the child depicted on these coins was the infant son of Antiochus IV, who later ruled (164–2 B. C.) as Antiochus V Eupator. But further consideration of the matter rather favors Bevan's viewpoint 15 that the child is really the youngest son of Seleucus IV who was raised to the throne by the latter's prime minister Heliodorus. Apparently then, to assure his own po- sition during a period of uncertainty, Antiochus IV at first accepted his nephew as co-ruler and allowed coins to be struck—alongside of his own—bearing the child's name and portrait. A faint echo of this may also be found in the only two literary fragments 16 we possess which make mention of a son of Seleucus whom his uncle Antiochus (IV) later caused to disappear. 17
It is to be noted that the same two magistrates sign No. 28a as had signed the last silver issue (No. 23) of Seleucus IV, and the first issue (No. 29) of Antiochus IV.
The Seleucid Mint of Antioch, American Journal of Numismatics, Vol. LI, 1917, p. 16 ff.
Ibid, Nos. 45–53. Some further varieties have since come to light.
Jour. Hell. Stud., Vol. 23, p. 111 ff; Cat. Hunterian Coll., Vol. III, p. 53.
Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol. II, p. 126, note 1.
A specimen from the same obverse and reverse dies as Paris No. 518 is in the Milan Collection. Another specimen of this variety, but from different obverse and reverse dies, occurred in the Luneau Sale, Paris, March 26, 1922, No. 727, gr. 16.65. It is now in the author's collection. Plate II, 5.
Obv. From the same obverse die as the author's specimen of No. 29.
Rev. Similar to No. 29, except that on the 1., outside the inscription, is the monogram above a Club. On the r., outside the inscription, . Turin (Museo Archeologico). Gr. 17.15. Fabretti, Vol. III, p. 330, No. 4585. Plate III, 1.
Obv. From the same obverse die as the preceding.
On the Rouvier specimen (No. 1840) the date is written L НΛΡ. Gr. 5.63.
The Rouvier specimen (No. 1845) is of later style and should be placed under Series II. See below, No. 40a.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus IV to r. Circle of dots.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟXΟϒ in circular inscription around the club of Tyrian Herakles. Circle of dots around. Newell (Rouvier Coll.), gr. 1.50; 1.04; Rogers (The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage, p. 4, Fig. 1), gr. 0.81. Plate III, 3.
The specimen in M. Jameson's collection (No. 1696) was most generously ceded by its former owner to the present writer. Careful inspection reveals that the monogram on the extreme left has the form . The coin is from the same obverse die as the author's specimen of No. 29, and also from the same obverse die as Nos. 32a and 32b. No. 36 should therefore be placed under Series I.
Diodorus XXX, 7, 2; Jo. Antioch., 58 (FGH., IV, p. 558). See also Bouché-Leclercq, p. 240.
Extant Babylonian tablets (cf. The Seleucid Mint of Antioch, pp. 20–1) in the joint names of "Antiochus and Antiochus" run from the 22d day of the 2d month, year 138 (= 174 B. C.) to the 29th day, 10th month, year 142 (= 170/69 B. C). Thereafter they bear the name of one Antiochus only. These are more easily explained by assuming a regency of Antiochus IV for Antiochus the son of Seleucus until the latter's "disappearance" in 169 B. C. It is less reasonable to suppose that Antiochus IV at first associated his own son Antiochus (V) with himself, only to reign alone, once more, from 169 to his death in 164 B. C.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus IV to r. Circle of dots.
Rev. Prow of galley to 1., ending in a dolphin swimming downwards. Above, written in a semicircle, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟXΟϒ. In a straight line, above the prow, ΤϒРΙΩΝ. Beneath prow, in two lines, and Newell. Gr. 4.02. Plate III, 4.
The specimen in the Rouvier Collection (No. 1844) is actually the half Chalkous with the reverse type of the prow. Newell (Rouvier 1844). Gr. 4.42. Plate III, 5.
No. 1846 Rouvier assigns to Antiochus V, but it really bears the portrait of Antiochus IV. Like so many of the latter's bronze coins it is undated. Newell (Rouvier Coll., J. I. N. Vol. VI, 1903, Plate XVIII, 23), gr. 2.31. Newell (Rouvier Coll. No. 1845), gr. 2.69. Plate III, 6, 8.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus IV to r.
A better preserved specimen shows that the monogram above the Wing, on the extreme left, actually has the form . On the British Museum specimen, the only one hitherto known, this monogram is largely off flan. Newell. Gr. 16.92. Plate III, 7.
Obv. Diademed head of Antiochus V to r. Fillet border.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r. ΑΝΤΙΟXΟϒ on 1. ΕϒΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ in the exergue. Apollo seated to 1. on omphalos. On 1., outside inscription, above Wing. On r., outside inscription, above Club. Newell (Naville Sale X, No. 1051). Gr. 15.41. Plate IV, 1.
The undated dilepton in the Rouvier Collection No. 1846, here No. 8 on Plate III, is really an issue of Antiochus IV, as the portrait shows.
No. 41a, which adds a new magistrate's monogram to the series, is struck from the same obverse die as both the known specimens of No. 41. Evidently the silver issues of Tyre under Antiochus V could not have been very extensive.
The specimen of this variety in M. Jameson's Collection (No. 2350, Plate CXXIV) shows very clearly the beard which Demetrius is wearing on this coin. So far as the writer is aware, this is the only instance that Demetrius I is depicted bearded. Another specimen of this type was in the Naville Sale X, No. 1084, gr. 16.57, Plate 40.
Similar to No. 46 but on the reverse the symbol Wing has been moved from outside the inscription to the space between the inscription and the knee of Tyche. Similarly, the right-hand monogram has been moved to the space between the inscription and the back of Tyche. Newell (Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 1086, Plate 40). Gr. 4.05. Plate IV, 2.
Obv. Older head of Demetrius I, diademed, to r. within a laurel wreath.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟϒ on 1. Tyche enthroned to 1. holds short sceptre and cornucopiae. On 1., outside inscription, . Behind throne, Wing. On r., outside inscription, AC. In the exergue, Club. Newell. Gr. 16.70. Plate IV, 3.
One Rouvier specimen (No. 1850) weighs gr. 6.52. Two specimens from the Tyrian Hoard 18 weigh gr. 5.62 and 5.10 respectively.
See the next coin.
The prows on both Nos. 48 and 49 are ended off by the design of a dolphin swimming downwards. The two Rouvier specimens (Nos. 1848 and 1849), now in the author's collection, weigh gr. 3.81 and 4.13 respectively. Dr. Rouvier's weights are in error by about gr. 0.06. Plate IV, 4, 5.
Two Rouvier specimens (No. 1851) in the author's collection weigh gr. 6.64 and 4.855 respectively. Seven specimens from the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 7.07; 7.05; 6.92; 4.83; 4.47; 4.20 and 4.04 respectively.
Two Rouvier specimens (No. 1852) in the author's collection weigh gr. 7.90 and 7.07 respectively. Twelve specimens from the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 7.76; 7.55; 6.69; 6.65; 6.48; 6.27; 6.18; 5.71; 5.62; 5.24; 5.18 and 4.95 each.
Obv. Diademed head of Demetrius I to r. Circle of dots.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟϒ on 1. Palm tree. In the field, ΘΝΡ (= 154–153 B. C). Circle of dots. Newell (from the Tyrian Hoard). Gr. 2.69; 2.44. Plate IV, 6.
A specimen from the Tyrian Hoard weighs gr. 1.92.
Two specimens in the author's collection, one from the Petrowicz Coll. and the other from P. Schroeder Coll., weigh gr. 2.49 and 2.31 respectively.
The new tetradrachm No. 46b gives the initials AC of a magistrate who appears later, both as AC and ΑΣ, under Alexander Bala. One surmises that his name may have represented some compound of 'Aσϰληπιбς such, for instance, as the common form 'Aσϰληπιбδωρος. Similarly his companion official on No. 46b, the initial letters of whose name are obviously ΙΗΝ, may have borne some such common name as Zηνбδοτος.
For a description and discussion of the Tyrian Hoard see p. 22 ff. As the coins from this hoard were mostly more or less worn by circulation and, in addition, badly corroded, their weights are rather less than normal.
A specimen from the Tyrian Hoard weighs gr. 1.98.
28a Tetradrachm. Dated ΙΞΡ
29a Didrachm. Dated НΞΡ
29b Tetradrachm. Dated ΘΞΡ
This coin, in the Vienna Collection, was catalogued as a hemidrachm by Dr. Rogers, who accepted Sir George Macdonald's description of the piece in the Zeitschrift für Numismatik, Vol. XXIX, 1912, p. 97, No. 22, Pl. IV, 20. Type and weight, further supported by the general appearance of the piece, show it to be actually a copper Dilepton—either a cast in silver from an original specimen, or a genuine copper coin washed or plated with silver.
42 Dilepton. Dated LZ–ΞP
Three specimens in the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 2.41; 2.13; 2.08 respectively.
43 Chalkous. Dated L НΞΡ
Eleven specimens in the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 8.13; 6.76; 6.47; 6.43; 6.32; 6.07; 5.73; 5.54; 5.07; 4.58; 4.26 respectively.
45 Dilepton. Dated H – ΞP
Three specimens in the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 2.10; 2.06; 2.04 respectively.
46 Chalkous. Dated ΘΞΡ
Three specimens from the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 7.13; 5.91; 5.33 respectively.
47 Dilepton. Dated ΘΞΡ
Two specimens in the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 2.15, and 1.63 respectively. Plate V, 3.
48 Chalkous. Dated OP
Eight specimens from the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 6.89; 6.62; 5.79; 5.76; 5.32; 5.24; 4.79; 4.24 respectively.
48a Dilepton Dated OP
Similar to Nos. 42, 45, 47 except that the date is o–P. Six specimens from the Tyrian Hoard weigh gr. 1.98; 1.97; 1.86; 1.79; 1.54; 1.21 respectively. Plate V, 4.
Of the Tyrian issues of Antiochus VII no new varieties have come to light since Dr. Rogers' publication.
116a Tetradrachm. Dated ΙΠΡ
Since the publication of Dr. Rogers' study, the late group of Tyrian coins with regal types and of Attic weight has received the following important addition.
Obv. Diademed head of the young Demetrius II to r. Circle of dots.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟϒ in two lines on r. ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟϒ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on 1. Apollo, with bow and arrow, seated to 1. on omphalos. In 1. field, . In the exergue, LZΞP . Newell. Gr. 16.28. Plate V, 6.
This coin now comes to show that in the very first year of his reign Demetrius II re-commenced the coinage of Attic tetradrachms at Tyre, alongside those of Phoenician weight and types. 19 We find the Tyrian monogram in the field, but in the exergue appears the monogram () of a certain mint official 20 who had not only been active at Tyre since the third year of Alexander's reign, but was destined to continue in office through both the reigns of Demetrius II, as well as the intervening one of Antiochus VII. There is no doubt, therefore, that this coin originated in the Tyrian mint. It follows a precedent already set at the neighboring mint of Sidon, where, under Alexander I, in 148–7 B. C. an issue of Attic tetradrachms with royal types was issued alongside the usual Phoenician series. At the commencement of Demetrius II's reign another regal issue 21 of similar Attic tetradrachms was coined at Sidon, thus corresponding with the Tyrian coin now under discussion. Apparently the demand at Tyre for coins of Attic weight was not large, for the next recorded issue does not occur until six years later (in ΔΟΡ), and is then followed, at greater or lesser intervals, by further issues in the years НΟΡ, ΠΡ, ΑΠΡ, ΒΠΡ and ΕΠΡ. All of these coins are rare, as if they had been coined in small quantities only.
Cf. Nos. 26–41.
The present writer finds himself unable to follow Dr. Rogers in his attempt to prove that this monogram cannot be that of a magistrate. Cf. Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 34, pp. 6–13.
Unfortunately on both of the known specimens (author's collection and Naville Sale X, 1925, No. 1193) the unit of the date is off flan. The Naville specimen, however, has been assigned to the year НΞΡ (= 145–4 B. C).
In May, 1935, a Syrian acquaintance informed the present writer that a peasant from the neighborhood of Tyre had recently unearthed a small hoard of eighty-five Tyrian bronze coins of regal types. Eventually sixty-seven coins were secured from the peasant and forwarded with the statement that the remaining eighteen coins belonging to the find were so badly worn and corroded as to be quite illegible and hence not worth securing. This latter information is all the more probable, as even the coins which were sent were for the greater part in a deplorable condition.
The sixty-seven coins received, to judge by their types and general appearance (color, kind of corrosion, wear, etc.), had obviously been found together. They were all regal issues of Tyre, comprising two denominations, and had been struck in the reigns of Demetrius I, Alexander I, and the first reign of Demetrius II. As stated above, these coins were all badly corroded. In order to read the dates it was necessary to clean them electrolytically, which served to bring out the fact that, for the most part, the coins had been very much worn by circulation previous to their interment.
|1–2||ΔNP||Ch.||N. 47 22||Worn to good.|
|3–9||HNP||Ch.||N. 50||Very worn to good.|
|10–21||ΘNP||Ch.||N. 52||Very worn to good.|
|24||ΞP||Dil.||N. 54||Very worn.|
|25||CΞP(?)||Dil.||R. 25 23||Very worn.|
|26–28||ZΞP||Dil.||R. 42||Worn to good.|
|29–39||НΞΡ||Ch.||R. 43||Worn to very good.|
|40–42||НΞΡ||Dil.||R. 45||Worn to good.|
|43–45||ΘΞΡ||Ch.||R. 46||Good to very good.|
|48–55||OP||Ch.||R. 48||Good to very good.|
|56–61||OP||Dil.||—||Worn to good.|
|62–64||(?)||Ch. 24||—||Worn to good.|
|65–67||(?)||Dil. 25||—||Worn to good.|
The weights of the coins bearing legible dates have been recorded, under their respective varieties, in Parts I and II. The weights of the coins with illegible dates are, for Nos. 60–2: gr. 5.98, 5.66, 3.67; for Nos. 65–7; gr. 2.21, 2.19, 1.97.
Thirty-three of the coins were struck from dies adjusted ↑, thirty-three from dies adjusted ↗, one (No. 25) from dies adjusted →. They are thus typical of all the Seleucid issues of Tyre which, from first to last, are almost invariably struck from dies adjusted ↑ or ↗. The die position of No. 25 is exceptional.
The blanks used for these copper coins were all made by casting, and possess bevelled edges. Because of this bevelling, one side of the blank necessarily presents a larger surface than the other. In the process of coining, however, the blanks were evidently placed more or less indiscriminately between the dies. The result is, that of the sixty-seven coins before us, forty have their obverses on the smaller surface, twenty-seven on the larger surface of the blank.
The hoard, as it reached the writer, contained only specimens of the so-called Chalkoi and Dilepta—the intermediate size (Hemichalkoi?) being entirely lacking. That particular denomination, however, appears to have been but very sparsely coined at Tyre under Demetrius I, and not at all either under Alexander I or during the first reign of Demetrius II. Their absence from the present hoard, therefore, need not be a matter for great surprise.
With but one exception, all the known dates from ΔNP (the first issue under Demetrius I) to OP (the last issue but one in the first reign of Demetrius II) are represented in our hoard. The one exception is the Dilepton of Demetrius I for the year AΞP (N. No. 55). The hoard ends with the date OP as the Chalkous for AOP is not present—which need not surprise us as the coin must be very rare, only one specimen (in Dr. Rogers' collection) being known.
More interesting is the fact that not a single example of the not uncommon bronze coins of Antiochus VII was present in the hoard. 26 This fact suggests that the hoard was probably buried during the troubled years between BOP and ΓOP (141/0–139 B. C.) when Demetrius II had gone to Mesopotamia and fallen into the hands of the Parthians. At this juncture Tryphon, regent for the young Antiochus VI, got rid of his protégé and proclaimed himself king. Revolts immediately broke out everywhere against the usurper. Among numerous others, we hear of a Sarpedon and a Palamedes setting up standards of revolt in Coele-Syria, and of a battle in which the forces of Tryphon were worsted on the sea shore near Ptolemais, just to the south of Tyre. Antiochus VII landed in Syria, there was a battle, and Tryphon was thrown back upon Phoenicia. He was besieged in Dora, managed to escape and landed at Orthosia, whence he fled to Apamea. What with revolts, invasions, battles, sieges, etc., the whole country, especially the Phoenician district, was in a very disturbed state, bordering on anarchy.
Apparently Tryphon never succeeded in occupying Tyre, at least no coins of his are known to have been struck in her mint, 27 while silver issues of Demetrius II, though very rare indeed, are known for the years AOP, BOP, and ΓOP. But none the less, the country side round about must at this time have been filled with wars and rumors of war.
As our hoard comes from the environs of Tyre, and as it is composed only of the humblest copper, it was probably buried by some small farmer or peasant, fearful in such evil times of losing even his pitiful savings. The fact that he never was able to retrieve his hoard would seem fully to have justified his fears.
Reference is to Newell, The First Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 10. 1921.
Reference is to Edgar Rogers, The Second and Third Seleucid Coinage of Tyre, Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 34, 1927.
These coins are all of Demetrius II.
As both name and portrait on these coins are either off flan or too worn to distinguish, it is uncertain to whom these dilepta belong.
To be sure, we do not know what the eighteen specimens, which were not sent, may not have contained. But it must be remembered that these were all stated to have been illegible because of wear. If any Antiochus VII issues at all had been in the hoard, it is almost certain that, as the latest of all the coins, they would have been in at least a moderately good condition—and so legible. Also, these bronze coins of Antiochus VII, because of their bold portrait and their reverse type (a complete galley), are fairly distinctive. Yet my correspondent, who knows his coins quite well, categorically stated that the hoard contained only coins of Demetrius I and II. The Alexander Dilepton (No. 25) was not discovered until the coins had been cleaned, as it differs but little in type and general appearance from the similar pieces of the two Demetrii.
Rogers, loc. cit., p. 21.
|Series I, Circa 201–196 B. C.|
|3||Chal.||Prow with simple curve.|
|3a||Chal.||Prow with swan's-neck curve.|
|4||Chal.||Dated PIE. swan's-neck curve.|
|4a||Chal.||Dated PIE. on prow.|
|Series II, Circa 196 B. C.|
|8||Tetr.||— . Exergue, Bull.|
|Series III, Circa 196–188 B. C.|
|10||Tetr.||— . Exergue, Bow-case.|
|11||Tetr.||and Torch—. Exergue, Club.|
|14||Tetr.||— Exergue, Club.|
|15||Tetr.||and Club — .|
|15a||Tetr.||and Club — .|
|Series IV, Circa 188–187 B. C.|
|21||Tetr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|21a||Dr.||ΣΑ (no club) —|
|21b||Tetr.||ΣΑ (no club) — .|
|SELEUCUS IV, 187–175 B. C.|
|22||Tetr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|22a||Tetr.||ΣΑ — . Exergue, Bow-Case.|
|22b||Dr.||ΣΑ — . Exergue, Bow-Case.|
|23||Tetr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|25||Chal.||Dated CΛР (sometimes SΛP).|
|ANTIOCHUS, Son of SELEUCUS|
|Circa 175–170 B. C.|
|28a||Tetr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|ANTIOCHUS IV, 175–164 B. C.|
|29||Tetr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|30||Dr.||ΣΑ above Club — .|
|31||Dr.||Club in the exergue. On r., .|
|32||Dr.||Club on 1.|
|32a||Tetr.||above Club — .|
|32b||Tetr.||above Club — .|
|33||Chal.||Dated L PΛH or L HΛP.|
|34||Chal.||Dated L ΘΛP.|
|36||Tetr.||above Club — .|
|37||Tetr.||above Wing — . Exergue, Club.|
|39a||½ Chal.||(Diademed head).|
|40||½ Chal.||(Radiate head).|
|ANTIOCHUS V, 164–162 B. C.|
|41||Tetr.||above Wing — above Club.|
|41a||Tetr.||above Wing — above Club.|
|42||2 Lep.||(See No. 40a).|
|43||2 Lep.||Dated N P.|
|DEMETRIUS I, 162–151 B. C.|
|44||Tetr.||above Club — above Wing.|
|45||Tetr.||above Wing — Exergue, Club.|
|46||Dr.||above Wing — Exergue, Club.|
|46a||Dr.||Wing — Exergue, Club.|
|46b||Tetr.||— Wing — AC. Exergue, Club.|
|48||½ Chal.||Dated LΔNP.|
|49||½ Chal.||Dated LΔNP. (variety).|
|50||Chal.||Dated L HNP.|
|51||½ Chal.||Dated L HNP.|
|52||Chal.||Dated L ΘNP.|
|53||½ Chal.||Dated L ΘNP.|
|53a||2 Lep.||Dated ΘNP.|
|54||2 Lep.||Dated ΞP.|
|55||2 Lep.||Dated L AΞP.|
|ALEXANDER I, 150–145 B. C.|
|DEMETRIUS II (First Reign), 146–138 B. C.|
|97||39||Tetr.||BOP||↑ (Special Issue)|
|98||40||2 dr.||BOP||(Special Issue)|
|—||(41)||—||—||See text, p. 16, No. 41.|
|101||44||Chal.||LНΞΡ||Date beneath the prow.|
|ANTIOCHUS VII, 138–129|
|108||50||Tetr.||ΔΟΡ||(With IE and ).|
|109||51||2 dr.||ΔΟΡ||(With IE and ).|
|111||53||2 dr.||ΔΟΡ||(With and|
|138||80||2 dr.||AΠP||Σ (or ?)|
|DEMETRIUS II (Second Reign), 130–125 B. C.|
|DEMETRIUS II (First Reign), 146–138 B. C.|
|ANTIOCHUS VII, 138–129 B. C.|
|DEMETRIUS II (Second Reign), 130–125 B. C.|
Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 10.
Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 34.