The hoard of 875 bronze coins, of varying sizes and weights, which we have here to describe, was found on September 1st, 1931, at a level within the Roman fort of Richborough, which has been dated to the same age as the walls. These were probably erected within the years A. D. 275 and 296.
The evidence of the finder is to the effect that the coins, though found in a mass, were unaccompanied by any trace of purse, box or other container and showed no sign of having been secreted in a hole in a wall or in thatch. 1 The corrosion of some of the coins and traces of wood-fibre (?) on them suggest possible burial in a box with iron bands.
The site on which the coins were found seems to have carried a hut, with a foundation course to its walls of large rough pieces of Folkstone stone. The coins lay near an angle of this foundation, as they might if buried under a hearth. The general level of the site has yielded pottery of late third to fourth century date.
We begin by a general summary of the hoard followed by more detailed descriptions:
|Constantius II (or Constans)||1|
|Pax (branch and sceptre)||26|
|Pax (branch and cornucopiae)||5|
|Pietas Augg. (priestly emblems)||40|
|Victory to r||1|
|Victory ('COMES AVGG.' type)||6|
|Standing front ('male')||17|
|Standing front ('female')||6|
|Standing front, head r. ('male')||9|
|Standing front, head r. ('female')||4|
|Standing front, head l. ('male')||8|
|Standing front, head l. ('female')||4|
|Standing r. ('male')||20|
|Standing r. ('female')||14|
|Advancing r. ('male')||21|
|Advancing r. ('female')||3|
|Standing l. ('male')||25|
|Standing l. ('female')||119|
|Advancing l. ('male')||9|
|Advancing l. ('female')||4|
|'Fel. Temp. Reparatio' model||7|
|'Gloria Romanorvm' model||12|
|Various to front||6|
|Total of all classes||563|
There remain 312 coins, which were either illegible or, at least, seemed to add nothing to those here described, making up a grand total of 875.
The coins, when found, were on the whole in very fair condition. They were mainly loose, but, in a few cases, were stuck together in two's and three's. The incrustation varied from a soft, earthy covering to a hard nodular oxide of iron, either in patches or covering the whole surface. In some cases both faces of the coin had been corroded; in others, there were suggestions of possible burning by fire. All, without exception, were struck, not cast. The flans vary in thickness from paper-like flakes to an average 'radiate' size; they are often irregular in shape and occasionally have one or more projecting knobs of metal on the edge. Extensive clipping has in a few cases produced something like a triangular shape. The die is sometimes correctly adjusted to the flan, sometimes it fails to find room on it. Apart from this occasional failure of adjustment, the striking was fairly well done. In some cases there is a border of dots, that may degenerate into various arrangements of strokes, in others, no border at all. The coins vary in size from .35 to .85 inches (9 to 22 mm); in weight, from 4.8 gr. to 69.5 gr. (.31-4.5 gm).
An interesting feature of the hoard is the occurrence of die-identities, either on both sides or one only. The same obverse and reverse dies occur on Nos. 104 and 105; 265 and 266; 281, 282 and 292; 307 and 308; 407 and 412; 413 and 414A; 477, 508 and 509; 478 and 479: the same obverse dies occur on Nos. 414 and 414A; the same reverse dies on Nos. 178 and 179; Nos. 307, 308 and 309; 537 and 538. These identities are not numerous enough to suggest that our mass of coinage had come direct from a single mint; they are sufficiently numerous to convince us that we are not dealing with a chance mass of coin adrift on the market. We shall consider later what this may mean.
The great majority of the coins bear neither name of Emperor nor features to identify one; but notinfrequent exceptions occur and we are reminded at one point or another, by legend or portrait, of Gallienus, (Nos. 163, 172), Claudius II, (Nos. 23 ff, 166, 184, 346), Quintillus (Nos. 160, 316, 453), Tacitus, (Nos. 206, 359), Probus, (Nos. 245, 465, 492, 522, 550), Postumus, (Nos. 69, 298, 350, 396, 406, 553), Victorinus, (Nos. 187, 237, 357, 360), Carausius, (No. 451). Far commonest are the suggestions of Tetricus I (Nos. 51, 53, 85, 114, 293, 412, 430, 461, etc.) and of Tetricus II, with youthful features, (Nos. 77, 102, 163, 312, 401, 421, etc.). Examples of head to left occur, but they are even rarer than in the original series. The range of the imitation, then, is over the period of extreme debasement, from circa A. D. 258 to 274 and, less intensively, over the radiates of the reform of Aurelian, circa A. D. 274-296. There is more diversity, then, in the obverses than is usual in hoards of 'barbarous radiates.' In some cases, there is something in- definably alien in the look of the head; hardly anything but the radiation reminds us of a Roman coin.
The reverse types are, in some cases, copied with considerable fidelity from 3rd century models; but, even where the original type is preserved, the legend is seldom clear. Exceptions that prove the rule may be seen in Consecratio (Nos. 24 ff), Hilaritas (No. 62), PAX (Nos. 99, 119, 195), SPES (Nos. 181, 198), VIRTUS (No. 173). A remarkable feature of the reverse types is that many of them produce variations on the standing figures of their 3rd century originals, so marked as to appear deliberate rather than accidental or careless. Occasionally, the direction of the original type is reversed, as, for example, Sol Invictus to right, instead of to left (Nos. 83 ff). In so far as the reverses copy definite originals, the divergence from the normal may be studied under our careful classification, assisted by the Plates. The large class of coins not to be associated with specific originals has been arranged in formal groups, 'standing front' 'right' or 'left' 'figures undraped' or 'draped.' It may ultimately be possible, with the aid of further hoards, to trace the original of many types at present mysterious. That there should be mistakes in our descriptions of obscure and hitherto unknown types is inevitable. May the scholar of the future who corrects such errors judge us not too unkindly!
The most notable feature of our hoard remains still to be mentioned. It includes (1) a series of coins (Nos. 528-546) showing knowledge of originals of the fourth century,—c. A. D. 348-361 and c. A. D. 364-375; (2) another series (Nos. 547-563) showing types, often with more than one figure, of so original a character that they cannot be traced to any Roman model of the third century or later. Both series, though relatively small in the bulk of the hoard, contain a sufficient number of coins to assure us that it is no case of mere accident. Of series (1) we shall have to speak more fully later. Of series (2) we may say at once that it supplies full evidence that the makers of our coins were not copyists only, —that they actually had new ideas of their own, which they tried, with varying success, to express in the language of reverse types. Some of the twofigure types seem to aim at expressing scenes of combat or, possibly, in some cases, of ritual, which, however obscure to us, yet speak a language of their own. Of the other types of the group, some may well be derived ultimately from radiate models. The 'Cross with pellets,' for example, might arise either from the 'Altar' of Divus Claudius or from a completely formalized and degraded standing figure, such as Spes. But, in such cases, even if imitation be present, it has reached the point of new creation; the Roman types only serve as raw material for new.
We are now in a position to attack the problems that constitute the main interest of our hoard—the date at which it was buried and the conditions at Rutupiae which its burial would seem to imply. Our knowledge is still imperfect, a mere ray of light in the darkness, but, even so, its disclosures are exciting enough. As our hoard belongs, formally, to the large and much discussed class of 'barbarous radiates,' a glance at the history of these curious finds will be of value.
The 'barbarous radiates' have long been a battlefield of conflicting creeds. The idea that they might represent in some way or other the coinage of the Dark Age in Britain—the fifth to sixth century A. D.—was natural enough and seems to have been widely held in the early and mid-nineteenth century. 2 M. Adrien Blanchet, in a notable paper, repudiated the idea, as far as it affected Gaul, and declared that imitations of radiate coins, small as well as large, belonged to approximately the same age as the originals. 3 His arguments, based on some evidence of hoards and ably developed, have found general acceptance in France. In our island the fortunes of war have been more varied and successes have been recorded from time to time by both schools—early and late daters. 4 In a paper, written by the late Mrs. Mortimer Wheeler and now published after her death by Mr. O'Neil, 5 we have a description of a hoard of radiate imitations, found in the theatre at St. Albans. The coins are almost all very small, descending to 'minim' 6 size. They vary considerably from their models, and they are almost, if not completely, unmixed with regular radiate coinage. The hoard, then, is one which many numismatists, on general principles, 7 would have wished to place very late. The archaeological evidence, however, is definitely against this view. All competent archaeologists who have tested the evidence agree that the hoard could not have been buried much later than A. D. 300, and, from the numismatic side, it must be admitted that a close examination of details reveals nothing which requires a later date. We must admit, then, an important gain by the 'early' school, most appropriately won by one who was always a gallant fighter on that side. That there is still another view of the case, the present hoard will show. There is no likelihood of an immediate decision— perhaps of any decision—in favour of either extreme view. Radiate coins may have been imitated both early and late. If, in both cases, the imitations were the work of non-Roman, native artists, they might well have a general kinship of kind, which would tend to blur the distinctions of date. For the time being, we must check each hoard on its merits, accumulate evidence and, above all, treasure our exceptions— the points that do not harmonize with our own favourite theories.
The Richborough hoard of 1931 is beyond all question late. We leave out of account for the moment the Theodosian copper that was found with or near it. Even if we should end by believing that it was actually part of the hoard, there is at least a possibility that it was not, and the argument will be surer without it. The decisive evidence lies in the radiate coinage itself. Radiate heads, not to be distinguished from the general run of heads in the hoard, are combined in a number of cases with reverses that betray knowledge of fourth century types,—'Fel. Temp. Reparation 'Warrior driving spear at fallen horseman,' Constantius II, etc., c. A. D. 348 and 361, and 'Gloria Romanorum,' 'Emperor dragging captive right,' Valentinian I and colleagues, c. A. D. 364-375. These reverses are, on the whole, quite remarkably like the fourth-century models, and there are no third-century models to which they could, with any reason, alternatively be traced. Here, then, we have the evidence, which has hitherto been lacking, of the 'muling' of radiate obverses with later reverses. 8 The date of the later of the two reverses thus imitated, 'Gloria Romanorum,' takes us down to the very edge of the Theodosian age. This evidence is strong enough to stand by itself. If support were needed, we might point to the unusual freedom with which new types are here created from the limited stock of standing or walking figures in the third-century originals and, particularly, to a range of reverse types, already mentioned, that seems to exceed the bounds of 3rd century possibilities—the 'Cross' type and certain two-figure types in particular. As we have said, the die-cutter seems not so much to have been copying as creating new types. Two-figure types in the third century, except for a short period after Aurelian, were rare in the Western mints; as a matter of fact, they do not seem to have supplied models for our hoard.
The earliest possible date, then, for the burial of our hoard is circa A. D. 380-390. But this is only a theoretical possibility. Even without committing ourselves to any general theory of coin-drift, we must obviously allow some time to elapse for an imperial coin to become familiar enough to be imitated in an outlying province. Further, we know from the numerous site-finds of Richborough, that the actual circulation in the fort in the Theodosian age was the small bronze of Theodosius I and his colleagues, and of his predecessors. It is certainly possible that the masses of Theodosian coin did not reach Richborough till nearly the end of the fourth century; it is more than possible—a moral certainty—that they continued to accumulate there well into the fifth century. 9 There is Ao room, then, at Richborough, for a coinage of the extraordinarily irregular character of our hoard for some long years after the death of Theodosius the Great.
Before we take our next step, we shall find it useful to ask ourselves what the issue of 'barbarous' imitations may mean. We have little direct evidence and must rely on careful and sober deduction from general probabilities. Two general classes might be distinguished:
These might be in the nature of tokens, issued locally (in municipalities or camps) to supplement supplies of imperial money,—tolerated, perhaps, if not approved, by authority. The rebellion of a pretender might, in theory, give rise to some kind of 'barbarian imitation'; but, as a matter of fact, hardly a single actual example can be quoted. 10
These would naturally be made by peoples, bordering on the Empire and familiar with its money, who, needing an increase of supplies and, perhaps, desiring a coinage of their own, are yet compelled to begin with Roman models and betray all manner of misunderstanding both of types and legends. Imitation of models, obsolete or obsolescent in the Empire, would be more properly assigned to this than to the first class.
Between classes (1) and (2) would fall issues of communities, which, while loyal in intention, were temporarily or more permanently detached from the Empire.
We can now return to the problems of our hoard with some general principles to guide us. Rutupiae was one of the last places—possibly the very last place—in Britain to be held officially by Rome, The Romano-British population, then, might confidently be expected to hold to its latest Roman— the Theodosian bronze—currency: the site-finds of the Fort prove that it actually did so. Only after the Roman troops and civil servants had departed can we imagine an abandonment of the imperial coinage and a return to obsolescent models. Such a relapse demands something more than the mere withdrawal of the Romans to explain it—it implies the intrusion of other, less civilized, elements in their place. Even the broken history of our island in the fifth century has preserved the essential fact for us here. What we have before us is the coinage of Hengist and Horsa with their Jutes, when Vortigern invited them to aid him against Picts and Scots and gave them the island of Thanet for their hire (A. D. 449). 11
Can we hazard a guess at the reason for the ap- pearance of third-century models—almost to the exclusion of fourth-century models—in this new coinage? Perhaps an observation long since made and developed by C. F. Keary 12 may give us the light we need. He noticed that the silver of Carausius had exercised a remarkably strong influence on the types of sceattas and explained it on the theory that, as comes littoris Saxonici and, afterwards, as Emperor by the grace of Saxons and other rebels, Carausius had circulated his money freely on both sides of the Channel. Developing this line of thought, we may suggest that, for about the last quarter of the third century, including the usurpations of Carausius and Allectus, the Western coasts of the Empire were exposed to Saxon raiders, who, amid the rest of their booty, must have carried off masses of radiate coinage. Constantius Chlorus, when he brought Britain back to the 'eternal light' of Rome, reorganized the coast defences and barred the door against the pirate. For many a long year the Saxon was held at bay. The Saxons, then, might well be familiar with the coinage of the late third century, as they never were with that of the fourth, might continue to use and imitate it in their homes in the Low Countries, and, finally, when they returned to Britain, as settlers not marauders, in the fifth century, might choose to copy it rather than the later Roman models. If this is the case, there should be some evidence of hoards. We cannot at the moment check them satisfactorily.
The theory that imitations of radiate coins in the fifth century belong to the Saxons, while imitations of diademed may belong rather to the RomanBritons, might clearly be pushed to absurd extremes. Mr. Sutherland, has already suggested some of the difficulties that might be involved. We can hardly imagine the Roman-Briton saying to himself "I am Roman: diademed for me," while the Saxon retorts "I am Saxon: I prefer radiates." But, we may be very near actual historical truth if we make our theory narrower and more precise and say that the surviving urban communities in Britain of the fifth century clung to Theodosian coinage, and, after that, to imitations of the early fourth-century coinage, but that the recrudescence of radiate imitations was due either to Saxon invaders or to Britons, who abandoned citylife and went 'native' again. Whether the radiate coinage was felt to be pagan, as the diademed was not, is best left undecided for the moment. Of the mint or mints of our coins we know nothing. The occurrence of several die-identities certainly suggest a mint or mints not far remote from the place of finding. Of the value represented by the coins we again know nothing. We might perhaps find in our hoard an 'average' coin, measuring about .7(19 mm) and weighing circa 20 gr. (1.3 gm), and suppose that it represented a standard value. But some few pieces, of greater module and weight, would represent higher values, the 'minims,' presumably, a lower.
The art of our hoard, if it may bear that name at all, is of a very humble order, but it is not entirely without shape or character of its own. If it cannot effectively be compared with the nobler products, in gold and enamel, of native British or Jutish artists, it finds frequent parallels in the series of sceattas and of Merovingian silver. This point is developed for us in a short Appendix (II), by Mr. Derek Allen. The bearing of these parallels on the question of date is obvious. They suggest a much longer run, and perhaps a later origin, for our imitations than we should at first have been inclined to assign to them.
The Richborough hoard of 1931 already stimulates, if it does not completely satisfy, our curiosity. It may have a permanent place in our historical study if it directs scholars to a place where they may hopefully search for some of the still buried secrets of Britain's Dark Age. "The imitation of Roman types by the moneyers of the Anglo-Saxon sceattas will no longer appear as a rather curious return to the past: it will simply be the continuation of a process that had been continuous." 13
The authors wish to thank Miss Anne Robertson of Glasgow most warmly for invaluable assistance with the descriptions.
A closer description of the 563 classified coins follows. The normal obverse is to be taken as a radiate head to r., without legend; anything beyond this is noted in the 'obverse' column. The reverse descriptions have given us much trouble, as we wished to describe as fully as possible what was to be seen, and yet often could not determine exactly what the die-cutter meant. We have had to resort to frequent marks of interrogation: 'holding? in r. hand,' for example, means 'holding uncertain object.' In the case of some coins of special interest and difficulty, drawings are added (cf. p. 108).
It is possible that the Bagaudae in Gaul, under Aeliamus and Amandus, A. D. 285-286, struck rude imitations of the Gallic radiates.
If coinage of this class really belongs to the Anglo-Saxon and Jutish invaders, it may easily be extensive and of more than one class. On Plate X, Appendix I, we add some examples from the British Museum of what may be late radiate imitations.
The Coinages of Western Europe, London, 1879, especially pp. 103 ff.
H. Mattingly and W. P. D. Stebbing, Paper to the International Archaeological Congress. Aug. 1932.
A late 4th century hoard, found by Mr. Stebbing towards the centre of the fort in 1926, had been thus concealed.
From this point on, the arrangement is by reverse types.
Cf. Thomas Wright, 'On Anglo-Saxon Antiquities, with a particular reference to the Faussett Collection,' 1854; C. Roach Smith, Arch. Cant. Vol. xviii, (1889) p. 72, 'Roman Coins found at Richborough' where he recants his previous belief in a late date for the imitations.
'Les monnaies barbares aux noms et types des deux Tetricus' (Congrèa intern, de Num., Bruxelles, 1910).
For the general question, cf. C. H. V. Sutherland in the Num. Chron. (International Numismatic Congress Volume, 1938): the same writer on 'The Hayle Hoard of Radiate Minimi' (Num. Chron. 1936, pp. 202 ff.), 'The Whitchurch Hoard of Radiate Minimi' (ibid. 1935, pp. 16 ff.); H. Mattingly, 'Three Hoards of Barbarous Roman Coins,' ibid. 1934, pp. 255 ff.; R. G. Collingwood 'Archaeology of Roman Britain,' 1930, p. 199.
Num. Chron. 1937, pp. 211 ff.
A convenient, if vague, description of tiny imitations, very much smaller than any originals.
The contemporary imitations naturally would be expected to mix freely with originals.
Imitations of radiates and diademed heads are, as a rule, quite distinct in hoards: for possible exceptions, cf. H. Mattingly. Num. Chron. 1934, pp. 255 ff.
Even when the supplies from Gaul and Italy dried up, what was to prevent the Roman-Britons from extending the life of their Theodosian coinage by skilful, official imitation? There is, as yet, no proof that they did so, but the possibility seems to be worth consideration.
Obv. [gall]ienvs [avg] Head radiate r.
Obv. [imp c postvmvs p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. pax avg Pax standing l. holding branch and vertical sceptre.
M. & S., V ii, p. 363, No. 318; Cp. C. 215.
Obv. imp c v[ictorinvs p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. prov[identia avg] Providentia standing l. holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
M. & S., V ii, p. 392, No. 61; C. 101.
Obv. [imp vic]torinvs [p f avg] Head or bust radiate r., lower part off flan.
5. Claudius II.
Obv. [imp clavdivs avg] Bust radiate r.
Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l. holding branch and vertical sceptre.
M. & S., V i, p. 217, No. 80; C. 201.
6. Tetricus I.
Obv. imp [c tetricv]s p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. hilaritas avgg Hilaritas standing l. holding palm and cornucopiae.
M. & S., V ii, p. 408, No. 79; C. 55.
7. Tetricus I.
Obv. im[p c tetricvs pf avg] Bust radiate and cuirassed r.
Rev. [hilar]itas avgg Hilaritas standing l. holding palm and cornucopiae.
M. & S., V ii, p. 408, No. 79; C. 55.
8. Tetricus I.
Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. [laetitia avg] Laetitia standing l., holding wreath and anchor. Small flan. M. & S., V ii, p. 408, Nos. 87ff; C. 7Iff.
9. Tetricus I.
Obv. imp c tetricvs p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. pax avg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.
M. & S., 100; C. 95.
10. Tetricus I.
Obv. imp c tetricvs [p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.
M. & S., V ii, p. 409, No. 100; C. 95.
11. Tetricus I.
Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f [avg] Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. [pax av]gg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.
M. & S., V ii, p. 409, No. 100; C. 95.
12. Tetricus I.
Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f avg Bust radiate r. Double-struck.
13. Tetricus II.
Obv. [c piv esv tetri]cvs caes Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev . pa[x avg] Pax standing l., holding branch and sceptre.
M. &. S., V ii, p. 422, No. 248; C. 34.
14. Tetricus II.
Obv. [c] piv tetricvs [p] a[vg] Bust radiate and draped r.
Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l., holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Not in M. & S. or C.
15. Tetricus II.
Obv. [c p e] tetricvs [caes] Bust radiate and draped r.
16. Tetricus II.
Obv. Legend off flan. Bust radiate and draped r. Rev. Illegible.
Obv. [imp] c allectvs p f avg Bust radiate, draped and cuirassed r.
M. & S., V ii, p. 565, No. 69; C. 8.
18. Constantius II or Constans. 14
Obv. d n [theodo]sivs p f avg Bust diademed and draped r.
Rev. [salvs reipvblicae] Victory advancing l. dragging captive: ᛡ l. (obliterated) Mint-mark illegible.
Obv. [d n theodo]sivs p f avg Bust diademed and draped r.
Rev. [victor]ia av[ggg] Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.
Obv. d n arcad[ivs]pf avg Bust diademed and draped r.
Rev. victoria [avggg] Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.
22. House of Theodosius.
Obv. Legend illegible. Bust diademed and draped r.
Rev. [victor]ia avggg. Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.
For the relation of Nos. 18-22 to this hoard, see p. 10.
Prototype: Claudius II. Consecration Issue.
Obv. DIVO CLAVDIO
|23||I, 1||.6||28.8 (1.87)||…. DIV|
|25||.55||17.6 (1.14)||divo …|
|26||.55||14.9 (.97)||d …. o|
|27||.55||21.6 (1.4)||No legend. Barbarous small head. Traces of border of dots.|
Prototype: Claudius II. Consecration Issue.
Obv. divo clavdio
|28||.6||16.3 (1.06)||… vdio|
|31||.6||22.5 (1.46)||…. VTV …|
a) Copying Recognizable Models
M. & S., V ii, p. 234, No. 266; C. 41 ff.
Rev. consecratio Eagle with head r. or l.
|23||Eagle standing front, head r.|
|24||Same type. consecratio|
|25||Same type. conse….|
|26||Same type … secra …|
|27||Eagle standing front, head l.|
M. & S., V i, p. 233, No. 261f; C. 50 ff.
Rev. consecratio Square altar.
|28||Plain altar with flames …. rati …|
|29||Same type… atio|
|30||Plain altar with double sides and top …. o ….|
|31||Double-topped altar with four panels, each containing pellet…. v … tv…|
|33||I, 2||.55||16.4 (1.06)|
|35||I, 3||.6||19.5 (1.26)|
|36||.65||12.8 (.83)||Almost smooth.|
|37||.6||21.4 (1.39)||… CLA …|
|38||I, 4||.5||21.4 (1.39)||Head very barbarous.|
|39||.5||16.7 (1.08)||Bust draped (?). … oΓ vδ ….|
|40||.55||9.1 (.59)||Small bust.|
|41||.6||20.0 (1.30)||Good workmanship. DIV …. DIO.|
|42||I, 5||.6||24.1 (1.56)||Very barbarous. Traces of letters.|
|43||.55||22.0 (1.42)||Traces of letters.|
|44||I, 6||.55||14.3 (.93)||Large head, neck off flan.|
Rev. Altar with
|45||I, 7||.55||26.5 (1.72)||Barbarous head with thin neck ending in row of dots…. pnoc|
|32||Altar with flames and palmettes, and four panels each containing pellet, con …|
|33||Altar with flames and panel, containing five pellets.|
|34||Altar with stylised flames, divided horizontally into two panels containing pellets … ecrati …|
|35||Double-sided altar with five pellets. Doublestruck.|
|36||Plain altar with panel. Flan thin and spread.|
|37||Plain altar with four panels cratio.|
|38||Small plain altar with panel.|
|39||Small altar with flames, roughly divided into six (?) panels.|
|40||Altar with flames and crescent in panel.|
|41||Altar with pellet and circle in panel. Nearly smooth.|
|42||Altar with lines, extended to end in arrows, and small panel containing pellet.|
|43||Square altar (?), containing irregular lines.|
|44||Lower part of male figure l. (?) To r., high in field, small altar with horizontal lines. Traces of border of dots.|
|45||Altar with incurved sides, three stylised flames and round feet. Border of dots. Flan has projecting tongue. s mi|
|46||I, 8||.75||27. (1.75)||Barbarous draped bust. … vs p h a vc|
|47||.75||12.0 (.78)||… apn d o|
|48||I, 9||.55||17.5 (1.13)||Line border.|
Rev. felicitas avg
Felicitas standing front, head l.,
|49||.5||21.4 (1.39)||Barbarous head, neck ending in straight line. Border of dots.|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. fides militvm
Fides standing l.,
|50||I, 10||.6||17.0 (1.1)|
|51||.65||23.5 (1.52)||… ti tri …|
|53||I, 11||.6||11.6 (.75)||… tetr i …|
|54||.45||8.2 (.53)||… A II …|
|46||Altar with incurved sides, from which rise two arrows and between them flames. Pellet in centre. Traces of letters.|
|47||Altar with incurved sides, round feet, raised panel and flames on l. … u …. mi|
|48||Altar with incurved sides. Two pellets and stylised flames all around. Border of dots and lines.|
(cp. Probus: M. & S., V ii, p. 55, No. 355 ff.) holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
|49||Felicitas standing front, head l., holding caduceus and cornucopiae.|
M. & S. (Webb) V ii, p. 407, Nos. 68 ff.; C. 37 ff. holding two standards.
|50||Fides standing l., holding standard in either hand. MILI …|
|51||Same type (standard in r. hand, almost off flan)…. ΓΛ ғ …|
|52||Same type (standard in l. hand, almost off flan).|
|53||Fides, standing l., holding standard in either hand … v M (Fides is a short squat figure).|
|54||Same type (standards held close to sides).|
|55||Same type (standard in r. hand off flan: Fides is very broad in the chest).|
|56||I, 12||.7||31.9 (2.07)||… AVDIVS … Features like those of Claudius II.|
|57||I, 13||.6||26.3 (1.7)||Draped (?)|
|58||I, 14||.6||22.2 (1.44)||… T I V …|
|59||.55||11.0 (.71)||… T … V …|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Fortuna standing l., holding rudder
Rev. fortvna avg (Not
|60||.6||19.1 (1.24)||… A … V …|
|61||.55||12.0 (.78)||… V …|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. hilaritas avgg
Hilaritas standing l., holding
|62||I, 15||.7||21.7 (1.41)||Draped … p tvcs …|
|63||.6||23.6 (1.53)||Draped … avg|
|56||Female figure, draped, standing l., holding vertical trident (? broken at top) in r. hand and vertical sceptre (?) in l. C, low, left, in field.|
|57||Figure, undraped (?), radiate (?), advancing l., holding vertical object (sceptre?) in either hand … v …|
|58||Male figure, draped to knees, standing l., holding vertical spear in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.|
|59||Female figure, draped, standing l., holding vertical object (sceptre or standard?) in either hand.|
M. & S., V ii, p. 407, No. 73; C. 44.—Tetricus I. in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. common in this group).
|60||Fortuna standing l., holding rudder in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. …ΛIΛ…|
|61||Same type…. c …|
M. & S., V i, p. 408, Nos. 79 ff; C. 53 ff. long palm and cornucopiae.
|62||Hilaritas standing l., holding long palm in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. … ilari …|
|63||Same type. vi a …|
Sol walking l., r. hand raised,
|64||II, 1||.55||12.6 (.82)||… it ricvsi|
|65||.55||19.6 (1.27)||Draped. Curiously faint lines … in …|
|66||.6||18.3 (1.19)||Draped. Overstruck (?)|
|67||.6||12.7 (.8)||Curious loose drawing.|
|68||.6||22.2 (1.44)||… i …|
|69||II, 2||.65||21.7 (1.41)||… AV II OCT И … Features of Postumus.|
|71||.6||21.2 (1.37)||…CTETI …|
|72||.55||18.0 (1.17)||Draped … avg|
|74||II, 3||.65||22.2 (1.44)||… NISDIV …|
|77||.7||27.2 (1.76)||Draped. Youthful head.|
M. & S., V i, p. 396, Nos. 112 ff.; C. 46 ff.
1. holding whip (sometimes, star l., in field).
|64||Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in 1….x…|
|65||Same type (Sol radiate).|
|66||Same type. (r. hand off flan)|
|68||Same type…. I ̃|
|69||Same type (radiate: mantle across chest).|
|70||Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in l. Star l. in field … tv …|
|71||Same type. …vs|
|73||Same type (r. hand off flan) … I II I Radiate.|
|74||Same type…. ictvs|
|75||Same type. Radiate … cta ….|
|76||Same type. Star (?) l.|
|77||Same type (l. hand off flan, r. holding whip). NN…|
|78||II, 4||.75||19.2 (1.24)||Draped im…|
|79||II, 5||.55||19.6 (1.27)||Draped … izinn…|
|80||.6||15.8 (1.02)||Draped …ICV|
|81||II, 6||.6||20.7 (1.34)||… AVG …|
|82||II, 7||.6||18.1 (1.17)||Draped … avd|
Seven further worn coins seem to derive more or
|83||II, 8||.6||19.3 (1.25)||Draped. Youthful portrait (?)|
|84||.65||10.6 (.69)||Draped …v.|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. laetitia avg.
Laetitia standing l.,
|85||.6||27.6 (1.79)||Draped and cuirassed (?) … pctetrcvs …|
|86||.55||12.3 (.8)||…II. TETPIICVS …|
|87||.65||17.5 (1.13)||Draped. Youthful portrait …TETR|
|78||Same type (on l., x low on r.).|
|79||Same type (+ on l.), ᗭea …vav…|
|80||Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in l.: p., l., in field.|
|81||Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding globe in l.: above globe. … oti …|
|82||Sol walking l., raising both hands. Radiate …V… AI|
less closely from the 'Invictus' prototype.
|83||Sol running r., raising l. hand and holding whip in r. … cyot…|
|84||Sol walking r., raising l. hand, r. hand, holding whip (?), off flan … tv. … (r. to l., outwardly)|
M. & S., V ii, p. 408, Nos. 86 ff.; C. 70 ff. holding wreath and anchor.
|85||Laetitia standing l., holding wreath (?) in r. hand (off flan) and anchor on ground in l. … C V G|
|87||Same type (very worn, but traces suggest this type).|
|88||II, 9||.6||16.6 (1.08)||Draped …vt…icvi|
|89||II, 10||.55||20.7 (1.34)||… TIVZ|
|90||.55||23.0 (1.49)||… III…|
Mars advancing l., carrying spear
|91||II, 11||.65||36.6 (2.37)||Draped IMPCITRIC…|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. pax avg.
Pax standing l., holding
|93||.6||8.4 (.54)||… TETRICVSII …|
|94||.6||13.2 (.86)||…II IIIO …|
|95||II, 12||.6||21.9 (1.42)||Draped and cuirassed (?)|
|96||.6||18.8 (1.22)||… IIII.|
|97||.6||18.2 (1.18)||Draped …vr…|
|88||Laetitia standing front, head l., with knees slightly bent, holding up? (wreath?) in r. hand and holding anchor on ground in l. c.v.D….TI II|
|89||Laetitia (?) standing l., holding patera (or wreath?) in r. hand and anchor on ground in l. Low l., cross and [ (?) … Գ.┘ …|
|90||Laetitia (?) standing l., holding wreath in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. … vg|
M. & S., V ii, p. 244, No. 239; C. 314.
and trophy. Reverse of Diocletian.
|91||Mars advancing l., carrying trophy (?) over shoulder in r. hand and transverse spear in 1…. IV…|
M. & S., V ii, p. 409, Nos. 100 ff; C. 95 ff.
branch and vertical sceptre.
|92||Pax standing l., holding branch up in r. hand and vertical sceptre in 1….IIC|
|93||Same type. (Curly lines of figure) …v…|
|94||Same type (r. hand almost off flan).|
|95||Same type (r. hand almost off flan).|
|96||Same type. pa …|
|97||Same type… .e c c … c|
|98||.65||17.9 (1.16)||I III P CL …|
|100||.65||24.2 (1.57)||I И I P IIT …|
|101||II, 13||.6||14.8 (.96)||Youthful portrait …CS … TETRICV∫…|
|102||.65||19.2 (1.24)||Draped. Youthful portrait|
|103||.6||22.0 (1.42)||Draped. Youthful portrait …RICVSCA…|
|104*||II, 14||.7||17.6 (1.14)||Draped|
|105*||II, 15||.8||21.7 (1.41)||Draped I…CI…|
|107||III, 1||.55||18.0 (1.17)||Draped. Youthful portrait … АνƆΛνΙ …|
|108||.6||17.4 (1.13)||Draped dnocc… vg|
|109||.55||18.0 (1.17)||Draped (?)….saiac (overstruck?)|
|110||.55||15.1 (.98)||Youthful portrait … A I V Λ V I…|
|111||.55||12.9 (.84)||Youthful portrait …SAVC|
|98||Pax standing l., holding up branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.: a fold of drapery falls over her harm…. x A …|
|99||Same type. pa…|
|101||Same type. Ɔνχ …|
|102||Same type. (r. hand almost off flan)|
|103||Same type….xa …|
|104*||Same type. (r. hand almost obliterated) …X. …v…|
|105*||Same type. (r. hand off flan) …av.|
|106||Same type. (Curly lines of figures) …x…|
|107||As B. No. 1. (r. arm off flan)|
|108||Same type. (Indefinite object in r. hand) …o a xv… (r. to l., outwardly)|
|109||Same type. (l. arm almost off flan)|
|110||Same type. (r. arm off flan)|
|111||Same type. (r. arm off flan) … iva…|
|112||.6||22.3 (1.45)||…PC TETRIC …|
|113||.5||17.8 (1.15)||Draped. No legend (?)|
|114||.6||15.1 (.98)||…ETRIC … (r. to l.,|
115A III, 2 Nine other worn coins probably show
|116||.65||12.6 (.82)||Draped iiiiip…|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. pax avg.
Pax standing l., holding
Uncertain 'Pax' Type
|118||.65||19.3 (1.25)||Draped …vsc…|
rev. pax avg.
Pax standing l., holding
|119||.55||14.6 (.95)||Draped (?) …TETRI…|
|120||.6||22.4 (1.45)||…VSIC …|
|112||Same type. (r. arm obscure) ….A…|
|113||Same type. (Details of r. hand obscure) A…s . leg drawn back.|
|114||Same type. (r. arm off flan)|
|115||Same type. (details of l. arm obscure) A…|
the same reverse, of which one is illustrated.
|116||As B., No. 1 (r. hand almost off flan) Altar l.|
M. & S., V ii, p. 409, Nos. 100 ff.; C. 95 ff. branch and transverse sceptre.
|117||Pax standing l., holding branch in r. hand and transverse sceptre in l. (normal style—?)|
|118||Female figure standing l., holding? (rudder?) on ground in r. hand, in l….IIX…|
M. & S., V ii, p. 475, No. 130; C. 222.
branch and cornucopiae.
|119||Pax standing l., holding up branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l.: a fold of drapery falls over l. arm. pax avg.|
|120||Same type. … a xav.|
|122||III, 3||.5||23.8 (1.54)||Curious narrow portrait …IA…|
|123||.7||24.0 (1.55)||… RICVS PI.V.|
Two more worn coins
Prototype: Tetricus II.
Rev. pietas avgg (avgvsto etc.).
Priestly emblems variously arranged. (A big jug knife r. and l.)
|125||.5||10.4 (.67)||II … V c|
|127||III, 4 .6||12.5 (.81)||Youthful portrait (?)|
|130||.55||9.5 (.62)||Draped (?) … Λ|
|131||.5||9.8 (.64)||… ΙΛΙΤΙ…|
|132||.6||17.2 (1.11)||Draped … s …|
|122||As No. 119 above (r. arm off flan: cornucopiae (?) in l. hand).|
|123||As No. 119 above (r. arm off flan: corn ucopiae (?) in l. hand), v. l. in field.|
probably show the same reverse.
M. & S., V ii, p. 423, Nos. 254 ff.; C. 48 ff. is always in the centre: simpulum, sprinkler, lituus and
|124||Jug with lip r. (Jug has two feet, one raised). … R …|
|125||Same type. (Only top of jug visible) иΟΙRC|
|126||Same type. (Jug is curiously stylized and looks almost like a standing figure)|
|127||Same type. (Around the jug, chain of indecipherable letters or border)|
|128||Jug with lip l. (?) ιυλ Double struck.|
|129||Jug with lip l. (?) …ΓΛ…|
|130||Same type…. s|
|131||Same type…. III …|
|132||Same type. (? Sprinkler on r.)|
|133||.6||26.9 (1.74)||Draped and cuirassed (?)|
|134||.5||15.1 (.98)||…TS …CON …|
|135||.7||27.0 (1.75)||Draped imte…|
|138||III, 5||.6||13.0 (.84)||…ΤΙ☉ΤΙC|
|141||III, 6||.6||27.0 (1.75)||… O~…|
|142||.65||30.6 (1.98)||Draped cuirassed (?) PC … VG|
|143||.55||15.0 (.97)||Draped. Youthful portrait (?)|
|144||III, 7||.55||17.7 (1.15)||Draped|
|145||.6||25.0 (1.62)||…SPIV …|
|146||III, 8||.55||9.7 (.63)|
|133||Same type. (? Sprinkler on 1.)|
|134||Same type. (Only top of jug visible) …A|
|135||Jug with lip r.: lituus on r.|
|136||Jug with lip l.: lituus (?) on r.|
|137||Jug (uncertain if lip is l. or r., as top is obliterated) : lituus (?) r. ƎCD …|
|138||Jug with lip r.: uncertain object attached to it on r. …XQ…|
|139||Jug with two handles (?) on two feet: uncertain emblem (?).|
|140||Jug with lip l.: lituus (?) on l.,? object lost on r. S D …|
|141||Jug with two handles: top is shaped like caduceus …; iicsiiii uncertain emblem, , with long stroke on l.|
|142||Jug with lip r.: lituus and knife on l., sprinkler on r… .ie … ΛS … 111 in ex.|
|143||Same type: uncertain emblem on l., lituus on r…. ~ …|
|144||Same type: sprinkler on l., lituus on r., + r. in field.|
|145||Jug with lip r.: uncertain emblem on l. and r.; in l. field, s.|
|146||Same type: lituus (?) on l., sprinkler on r.|
|148||III, 9||.65||31.1 (2.02)||Draped …VI…|
|149||.45||9.5 (.62)||Draped …~…|
|150||.5||8.7 (.56)||Draped. Youthful portrait … SUI|
|153||III, 10||.5||17.9 (1.16)||Draped (features like those of Claudius II?)|
|155||.6||18.5 (1.20)||Youthful portrait … IIVET ETRICVS|
|157||III, 11||.6||17.5 (1.13)||Draped … nvsp …|
|161||III, 12||.65||28.8 (1.87)||Draped small head …IIINAC|
|147||Same type: sprinkler (?) on l. lituus (?) on r.|
|148||Same type: (stylized almost as a figure): sprinkler on l., uncertain emblem on r.|
|149||Same type: (stylized as a figure) uncertain emblem on l. and r. (?)|
|150||Jug with lip l.: sprinkler and simpulum on l., knife on r.|
|151||Same type: lituus on l., uncertain emblem on r. Border of large dots.|
|152||Same type: (on two feet): sprinkler on l., lituus on r…. c. r. in field.|
|153||Jug with lip r.: uncertain emblem on l. and r….D T ̃ …|
|154||Same type: lituus on l., and lituus on r.|
|155||Same type: uncertain emblem on l., lituus on r. … .cacc + l. in field.|
|156||Same type: uncertain emblem on l. and r. …E P I …|
|157||Same type (with two feet): sprinkler on l., knife (?) on r.|
|158||Same type: sprinkler on l., lituus on r.|
|159||Same type (stylized): two objects, like litui attached to it by a bar on l. and r.|
|160||Jug with two lips: uncertain emblems on l. and r.; o above, vcqv on l.|
|161||Jug (or rather vase) with two handles: uncertain emblems on l. and r.|
|162||Jug with lip l. and r. (?), on two feet: round object (patera standing on edge) on l., uncertain emblem on r.|
|163||III, 13||.55||22.5||Features of Gallienus|
Other worn coins show similar types: class A. 2.
Prototype: Victorinus (?)
Rev. Pietas standing l., sacrificing at altar.
|164||.75||8.9 (.58)||… TETRI…|
|165||.6||25.4 (1.65)||…I N III …|
|166||III, 14||.75||20.8 (1.35)||Cuirassed … divs …|
|168||.6||19.5 (1.26)||Draped. Youthful portrait IMPC TE …|
Two more worn coins seem to
Rev. providentia avg.
Providentia standing l., holding
|169||.6||14.3 (.93)||Youthful portrait (?) …IA …|
|170||.6||21.9 (1.42)||…IPI … SCA …|
|163||Three larger and one smaller jug.|
class B. 2, class C. 2, class D. 4.
M. & S., V ii, p. 392, No. 58; C. 91.
Pietas holds spear.
|164||Pietas standing l., sacrificing out of patera in r., handover altar and holding vertical sceptre in l….S…V…|
|165||Same type: (but sceptre transverse)|
|166||Pietas standing l., as on No. 165: altar almost off flan ….I …|
|167||Same type: (but cornucopiae for sceptre). Altar almost off flan.|
|168||Same type. Altar distorted pa …|
show the same reverse.
M. & S., V ii, p. 392, pp. 61 ff.; C. 100 ff. wand over globe and cornucopiae.
|169||Providentia standing l., holding in r. hand wand over globe and cornucopiae in l.|
|170||Providentia standing l., holding patera and rudder on globe (?) in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. provid…|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. salvs avg.
Salus standing l., feeding from patera a
|172||III, 15||.6||26.5 (1.72)||Draped 1…lliev…|
Two very worn coins
|173||IV, 1||.65||20.9 (1.35)||Draped. Youthful portrait …sc…|
|174||IV, 2||.65||28.6 (1.85)||…VS AV …|
|175||.6||22.6 (1.46)||…VV …|
|176||.6||18.7 (1.21)||… CVSP …|
|177||.6||12.2 (.79)||Draped. Youthful portrait….ESVTET …|
|178||IV, 3||.6||22.7 (1.47)||Draped clii … dotindi|
|179||IV, 4||.5||13.9 (.9)||Draped … IvIƆI …|
|180||.45||12.6 (.82)||No legend|
M. & S., V ii, p. 410, Nos. 121 ff.; C. 148 ff.
snake coiled round altar and holding sceptre.
|171||Salus standing l., feeding out of patera in r. hand a snake coiled around altar, and holding vertical sceptre in l.|
|172||Same type… .t …|
show the same reverse.
173 As on No. 171 virtv…
from salvs type.
|174||As on No. 171, but altar off flan (?), cornucopiae half dissolved into a pattern. …va …|
|175||Same type (cornucopiae obscure on l.)|
|176||As on No. 171; r. arm and cornucopiae (?) off flan.|
|177||Same type. Detail of patera and altar obscure.|
|178||Woman standing l., r. hand extended, with a curved line from it to a mark in field l. (? remains of snake coiling up from altar): l. arm extended downwards at side NƎ >>|
|179||Same die as No. 178…. v …|
|180||Woman standing l., r. hand extended over altar (? no snake), arm extended downwards.|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. spes avg (etc.)
Spes standing l., holding
|181||IV, 5||.75||36.7 (2.38)||Draped …PCTE…vs…|
|182||.55||27.3 (1.77)||Draped. Youthful portrait …CSVID …|
|184||IV, 6||.65||19.0 (1.23)||… pivesv Features like those of Claudius II.|
|185||IV, 7||.6||12.2 (.79)||Draped. Youthful portrait? …ODVIV …|
|187||.7||17.8 (1.15)||Draped …VIC.|
|188||IV, 8||.45||12.0 (.78)|
|189||.6||16.8 (1.09)||… ƎS … e …|
|191||IV, 9||.6||21.8 (1.41)||Draped. Youthful portrait (?) … t … ricvs|
|192||.5||11.3 (.73)||Draped (?)|
|193||.6||18.4 (1.19)||Draped. Youthful portrait …vs|
|194||.45||4.8 (.31)||…II …|
M. & S., V ii, p. 411, Nos. 130 ff.; C. 158 ff.
up flower and gathering up skirt.
|181||Spes standing l., holding up flower in r. hand and gathering up skirt with l. spes …v …|
|182||Spes standing l., etc. (r. hand almost off flan)|
|183||Same type. ┫ on l.|
|184||Same type….s avgg|
|185||Same type: (only top of figure on flan) + l. in field….T Avii …|
|186||Same type: (only top part of figure on flan)|
|187||Same type. … avg …|
|188||Same type: (only top of figure on flan)|
|189||Same type: (r. hand off flan)|
|190||Same type: (flower off flan: lower part of figure obliterated). …Ɔ…|
|191||Spes standing l., etc. (flower off flan) … v …|
|193||Same type…. o…|
One more worn specimen
|195||IV, 10||.6||29.5 (1.91)||Draped …pf … Varied—|
|196||.6||31.7 (2.05)||IMP …|
|197||IV, 11||.6||16.1 (1.04)||…VIΛΙ …|
|198||.6||22.0 (1.42)||…VSA …|
|199||.65||17.1 (Ml)||Draped||…TETRI …|
|200||IV, 12||.55||19.4 (1.26)||Draped||…INV …|
Rev. Victory standing r.,
|203||IV, 13||.6||21.7 (1.41)||Draped|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. comes avg.
Victory standing l.,
|204||.7||26.7 (1.73)||… DV …|
showed the same type—
|195||As on No. 191. pax…|
|196||As on No. 191. (flower off flan). Altar (?) r. in field.|
|197||Same type, but patera in r. hand, (lower part of figure off flan).|
|198||Same type (but no trace of r. hand or flower). spe~ … CI… (l. up, outwardly)|
of 'Spes' type.
M. & S., V ii, p. 360, No. 287; C. 31.
holding wreath and palm.
|203||Victory, winged, standing r., holding up wreath (?) in extended r. hand. …titit|
M. & S., V ii, p. 407, Nos. 56 ff.; C. 16 ff.
holding wreath and palm.
|204||Victory, winged, standing l., holding up wreath (?) in r. hand and holding palm in l. …avg|
|205||.55||17.3 (1.12)||Draped imp …|
|206||IV, 14||.55||28.2 (1.83)||IMPCTA …|
|207||.6||13.4 (.87)||Draped. Youthful portrait (?)|
Prototype: Carinus (?)
Rev. Virtus standing, holding
|210||.6||21.8 (1.41)||… VSPFΛ …|
|211||IV, 15||.6||15.1 (.98)||… tricvs …|
Prototype: Tetricus I.
Rev. Virtus standing holding
|212||V, 1||.6||19.3 (1.25)|
Various Figure Types.*
|213||.45||12.7 (.82)||…CI …||… A|
|205||Same type. (Wreath clear) Star (?) l. in field.|
|206||Same type. (Wreath off flan;long transverse palm) …I….I…|
|207||Same type. (Wreath clear) av … Overstruck (?)|
|208||Same type. C O III …|
|209||Same type…. O … I C|
M. &. S., V ii, p. 167, Nos. 223 ff.; C. 172 ff.
spear and parazonium.
|210||Virtus standing front, holding vertical spear in r. hand and parazonium in l. vir …|
|211||Same type, iovi …|
M. & S., V ii, p. 411, Nos. 145 ff.; C. 199 ff.
spear and leaning on shield.
|212||Virtus standing front, head l., resting r. hand on shield set on ground. On l., z reversed.|
|213||holding? in raised r. hand, arrow (?) in l.|
|215||V, 2||.45||10.0 (.65)||Youthful head (?)|
|217||V, 3||.45||9.4 (.61)||Behind head, 8. No legend (?)|
|218||V, 4||.65||30.9 (2.0)||…I DI|
|220||.75||31.0 (2.01)||…. VGPIAI…|
|221||.6||22.9 (1.48)||ad … (outwardly on r. upwards)|
|222||V, 5||.45||10.2 (.66)||No legend|
|223||V, 6||.35||7.4 (.48)|
|224||.55||12.1||Youthful head. No leg|
|(.78)||end. Border of large dots.|
|225||V, 7||.45||10.8 (.7)||IM…|
|228||V, 8||.5||13.4 (.87)||Bearded|
|214||holding branch in raised r. hand, l. hand lowered. Border of large dots.|
|215||holding branch in raised r. hand, l. hand lowered.|
|216||holding branch (?) in lowered l. hand, r. hand raised.|
|217||holding caduceus in l. hand. No legend (?).|
|218||holding vertical palm in r. hand, l. hand lowered, with fingers extended….2320 on r.; ladderlike object, IIIIII in ex.|
|219||holding long vertical caduceus (?) in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.|
|220||holding sceptre, nearly vertical in r. hand and long crook, nearly vertical, in l.|
|221||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in l. In r. field, c.|
|222||holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, left hand lowered. No legend (?)|
|223||holding vertical sceptre with knob at top (?), in l. hand.|
|224||holding simpulum (?) downwards in l. hand, and? in r. hand.|
|225||holding wreath (?) downwards in l. hand, r. arm extended (short skirt (?), turned up)|
|226||r. hand raised, holding?….I … TO…|
|227||r. hand flung out and up, l. hand holding? … T T …|
|228||r. hand lowered, with fingers extended, l. hand holding? …VI…|
|229||both hands lowered. + + (?) l. and r. in field.|
|231||.55||15.5 (1.0)||Bust, draped.|
|234||V, 9||.6||17.1 (l.11)||Draped, cuirassed r.|
|235||V, 10||.5||13.5 (.87)||Draped: + on shoulder|
|236||.6||19.8 (1.28)||Caduceus (?) behind neck|
|237||V, 11||.6||11.1 (.72)||IM…ICTO…|
|239||V, 12||.6||20.5 (1.33)||…C TET.|
|243||.5||11.7 (.76)||V …|
|244||V, 13||.45||5.8 (.38)|
|230||holding branch in l. hand, r. hand raised. Two strokes to l., in field, … t …|
|231||holding cornucopiae (?) in r. hand and rudder (?) on ground in l.|
|232||holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended.|
|233||holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, r. hand lowered.|
|234||holding vertical sceptre (?) in extended r. hand: big fold of drapery on breast…. IISC|
|235||both arms extended and lowered. No legend (?) short drapery).|
|236||holding up branch in l. hand, r. hand raised. Helmeted. Low on r…. om … outwardly.|
|237||holding long palm (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered, l. arm extended and bent.|
|238||holding long palm (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered by side (?)|
|239||holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered, with fingers extended. Radiate. On l., cc (the first diagonally above the other).|
|240||holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, l. arm extended downwards. No legend (?)|
|241||holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended, holding? Radiate (?)|
|242||holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended downwards.|
|243||holding vertical spear in r. hand. Radiate.|
|244||with both arms extended, v on l.|
Standing front, head r.—
|245||V, 14||.7||24.2 (1.57)||…MAVP R O BVSP…|
|250||.6||22.9 (1.48)||Doublestruck or overstruck (?)|
|252||V, 15||.55||8.9 (.58)||… O …NV…|
|253||VI, 1||.6||28.9 (1.87)||No legend (?)|
|255||.6||20.9 (1.35)||Bust draped. Youthful head.|
|256||VI, 2||.55||23.7 (1.54)||Draped|
Standing front, head l.—
|257||VI, 3||.45||17.4 (1.13)||No legend. Large ear Necklace (?)|
|258||.45||11.2 (.73)||Youthful head (?)|
'Female' figures (draped).
|245||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, I.V…|
|246||holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, round shield (?) on l. arm. ia…|
|247||with both hands extended downwards: across body fold of drapery (?). Ɔ…VC …|
|248||both arms lowered: radiate. Double-struck.|
|249||holding branch (?) in r. hand,? in l.|
|250||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, and wreath (?) in lowered l. On l. ox on r. Ɛ (?)|
|251||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand at side.|
|252||holding vertical sceptre in both hands. No legend.|
|253||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand lowered VI (?) (large)|
|254||raising r. hand, and placing l. on side, l. elbow bent.|
|255||extending both arms.|
|256||both arms extended and lowered: lower part of figure off flan.|
'Female' figures (draped).
|257||holding branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.: curious treatment of figure.|
|258||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in l., to l., E|
|260||.6||15.5 (1.0)||Bust draped. iide… vc.; the "d" is crossed|
|263||VI, 4||.55||21.3 (1.38)||… OPIA (?)|
|264||.5||6.3 (.41)||…otro (?)…|
|265*||VI, 5||.5||13.8 (.89)|
|266†||VI, 6||.5||14.6 (.95)||Bust draped.|
|267||.65||17.3 (1.12)||…vaƆc …ai|
|268||.65||24.0 (1.55)||Youthful head. Bust draped. …it.ti …|
|269||VI, 7||.55||18.3 (1.19)||impcv … ic. (?)|
|270||.6||9.7 (.63)||…Ɔ~ …|
|271||VI, 8||.65||33.9 (2.2)||Head l. Traces of letters of unusual shape all around edge.|
|259||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. p a h … ii|
|260||holding shield (?) in r. hand, l. arm raised, as if brandishing a javelin. D, l., in field.|
|261||brandishing javelin in r. hand, l. arm extended.|
|262||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in r. ….cta|
|263||holding transverse spear upwards across body in both hands, - in loop of r. arm.|
|264||holding transverse spear upwards across body in both hands, x low in field l., large s (or snake) in field r.|
|265||Same type. Helmeted…A…|
|266||Same type. Helmeted. .via … l|
|267||holding transverse spear across body upwards in both hands, iiisi (?)…|
|269||Same type…. ⌟ …sis Helmeted (?) x, r. in field.|
|270||Same type (? spear not clearly seen). Helmeted.|
|271||holding transverse spear downwards across body in both hands …S…V…|
|272||.55||16.6 (1.08)||… it …|
|273||.5||14.0 (.91)||Bust draped. … ƆI|
|276||VI, 9||.55||15.8 (1.02)||IM. ….|
|277||.6||13.3 (.86)||Bust draped (?)|
|278||VI, 10||.6||29.5 (1.91)||…IXV …|
|281*||VI, 11||.6||16.3 (1.06)||Draped|
|282†||VI, 12||.55||22.5 (1.46)||Draped … avid …|
|285||.55||29.2 (1.89)||Draped impci … aac|
|272||holding horizontal sceptre across body in both hands.|
|263||holding vertical spear (?) in r. hand, round shield (?) on r. arm.|
|274||holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, and sword (?) across body in r.|
|275||holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, r. arm down.|
|276||holding sword (?) across body in r. hand and globe (?) in l. …acii…|
|277||holding sword (?) across body in r. hand and spear (?), nearly vertical, in l. v … ia|
|278||holding wreath in r. hand and palm (?) in l. (curious curved lines).|
|279||r. hand held down, l. arm extended …IC|
|280||both arms extended downwards, …c: knobs for fists (?)|
'Female' figures (draped).
|281||holding arrow (?) up in r. hand and bow in extended l.: quiver on shoulder. (Diana) Starin field outwardly (r. to l.), …AI┛ITAA|
|282||Same die as No. 281. No legend visible.|
|282||holding cornucopiae in both hands;? radiate …liia…|
|284||with r. hand gathering up drapery, holding palm in l.|
|285||holding? in lowered r. hand, long vertical palm in l. ….v…|
|287||.55||9.4 (.61)||Bust draped (?)|
|289||.6||16.4 (1.06)||Draped … VI|
|290||.6||9.6 (.62)||…ii …|
|292*||VI, 13||.6||20.8 (1.35)||…. iiiiii ….|
|293||.55||17.6 (1.14)||…tetric …|
|294||VI, 14||.65||22.2 (1.44)||…tetric …|
|296||VI, 15||.6||18.1 (1.17)||Bust draped. Slightly double-struck.|
|298||.65||17.4 (1.13)||? Imitation of Postumus.|
|286||holding transverse sceptre, pointing up to l. in r. hand, and extending l. hand.|
|287||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in r.|
|288||holding vertical spear in l. hand, r. hand raised. Helmeted c…|
|289||holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. arm bent, l. hand on hip (helmeted) …S C…|
|290||holding transverse spear (?) in r. hand, ↓ (?) in l.|
|291||raising r. hand, holding rudder (?) on ground in l.|
|292||raising r. hand, holding s in l. …1 iiin …|
|293||raising r. hand, holding?, l. hand extended.|
|294||holding? over body in r. hand, l. hand bent over altar (?).|
|295||brandishing javelin in r. hand, l. arm extended.|
|296||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand lowered holding? Slightly double-struck. No legend (?).|
|297||holding vertical sceptre and cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand lowered, holding?|
|298||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and? in l.|
|299||holding vertical spear in r. hand,? in l.|
|300||holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. hand off flan. Helmeted, wearing cloak to knees.|
|301||VII, 1||.55||21.8 (1.41)||… IIII|
|302||VII, 2||.55||19.2 (1.24)||Bust draped.|
|304||VII, 3||.55||24.4 (1.58)||Bust draped (?)xmn in front of head.|
|305||VII, 4||.55||22.3 (1.45)||di iio cliivpio|
|306||.55||24.5 (1.59)||Youthful head. Bust draped.|
|307*||VII, 5||.55||20.7 (1.34)||Bust draped …. IIIIC|
|308†||.55||18.9 (1.22)||Bust draped|
|309‡||.55||17.1 (1.61)||Bust draped (?).|
|310||.65||14.5 (.94)||Bust draped (?).? Overstruck on old reverse.|
|312||VII, 6||.5||15.3 (.99)||Youthful head. No legend.|
|301||holding round shield in r. hand, vertical spear in l. Helmeted. No legend (?).|
|302||holding vertical spear in l. hand, r. arm on hip, r. elbow bent. ʃ (?) l. in field. No legend.|
|303||holding transverse spear upwards across body with both hands.|
|304||Same type. и…м|
|305||Same type. dvti … Helmeted.|
|306||holding wreath (?) up in r. hand and vertical spear (?) in r.|
|307*||holding sword (?) in raised r. hand and axe (?) in l., right knee bent.|
|309||Same type, tla (?)…|
|310||? r. arm raised, as if brandishing javelin, l. arm thrust out.|
|311||r. arm raised, r. elbow bent, l. arm extended, knees bent, csl …|
|312||both arms extended downwards, l. with fingers extended, knees bent. No legend.|
|313||r. arm out, elbow bent, r. hand downward.|
|314||r. hand extended downwards, l. arm raised.|
|315||head turned back l., holding vertical? caduceus (with two tops?) in r. hand and? in l.|
|316||VII, 7||.5||11.0 (.71)||… I~TI…|
|318||VII, 8||.6||13.4 (.87)||Draped. … vspipav…|
|319||VII, 9||.65||15.8 (1.02)||… icvs pav Bust draped. In front (?)|
|322||VII, 10||.6||20.5 (1.33)||\ in front of head.|
|323||.6||18.3 (1.19)||…. avii|
|325||.55||28.5 (1.85)||… cvs …|
|326||.55||15.1 (.98)||…plivi~ (?)|
|327||VII, 11||.65||28.2 (1.83)||c e s a i etr…|
|328||VII, 12||.55||25.3 (1.64)||… ooo …|
|329||.7||23.2 (1.5)||… icv …|
'Female figures' (draped).
|316||holding wreath upwards in r. hand,? in l. … ii … ii|
|317||holding? in raised r. hand, vertical spear in l.|
|318||holding out drapery in both hands: uncertain object half obliterated r. in field.|
|319||holding club on ground in r. hand,? in l. Border of large dots.|
|320||holding patera (?) in r. hand over altar and? in l.|
|321||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand on hip.|
|322||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand down, with fingers extended. Radiate. Angular. No legend.|
|323||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (slightly tinny appearance)|
|324||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in extended r.|
|325||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in extended r.|
|326||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …ii|
|327||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand at side. ┌, low in field.|
|328||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, raising r. hand above altar.|
|329||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …geniva|
|330||.6||10.8 (.7)||… or … a …|
|331||.7||24.9 (1.61)||Bust draped.|
|332||.7||15.5 (1.0)||… o c|
|333||.6||24.0 (1.55)||No legend.|
|337||VII, 14||.5||11.3||… n …|
|339||.5||17.2 (1.11)||…. si ….|
|340||VII, 15||.8||29.2 (1.89)||Bust draped.|
|342||VIII, 1||.45||8.9 (.58)|
|343||.55||14.0 (.91)||Draped …rtia …|
|344||.75||19.6 (1.27)||…. vc …|
|330||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand.|
|331||resting r. hand on shield set on ground, l. hand lowered.|
|332||holding vertical spear in r. hand.|
|333||holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. arm extended, with fingers going out into circle of dots. No legend.|
|334||holding vertical spear in r. hand, patera downwards in l. a … t|
|335||holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, r. hand down.|
|336||raising r. hand, l. hand lowered, oa …|
|337||holding? in r. hand, l. arm lowered. Helmeted.|
|338||holding? in r. hand, l. arm lowered.|
|339||holding? in lowered r. hand, l. arm at side. a … ahii|
|340||holding both hands down, with fingers extended|
|341||r. arm lowered, l. arm raised, elbow bent.|
|342||r. arm at side, holding? (rudder) in lowered l.|
|343||extending r. hand to? on l.: uncertain object on r.|
'Female' figures (draped).
|344||holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l.|
|346||VIII, 2||.55||18.9 (1.22)||Draped. … av divs p e avg.|
|347||.6||15.2 (.98)||… riticvs|
|348||.75||13.4 (.87)||lllc …. A Youthful head. Bust draped.|
|.7||29.7 (1.92)||Large head like Postumus (?)|
|351||.55||21.7 (1.41)||cidivao …|
|VIII, 3||.55||16.0 (1.04)||Draped … mac …|
|354||.6||19.1 (1.24)||Draped. Youthful portrait … e. t …|
|355||.55||7.5 (.49)||… i l av t …|
|356||.7||23.1 (1.5)||…A …N…cvs(?)|
|357||.55||13.1 (.85)||…pcvictor …|
|358||.6||19.6 (1.27)||…s p|
|359||.6||20.3 (1.32)||ivpcltacitvsp … Bust draped.|
|360||.6||7.4 (.48)||…cp …|
|345||holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. vda …. as|
|346||holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in 1. …TVGG.|
|347||holding branch in r. hand and transverse sceptre in l. vda … as|
|348||holding branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. Uncertain object, low l., in field.|
|349||holding branch in r. hand, and anchor on ground in ;l. Uncertain object, low l., in field.|
|350||Same type. v…|
|351||holding branch in r. hand and wreath in l. … i c i …|
|352||holding caduceus downwards in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.|
|353||holding cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand off flan.|
|354||holding? in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. … s I a …|
|355||holding cornucopiae in l. hand, transverse sceptre in r. …pil…|
|356||holding cornucopiae in l. hand,? (caduceus) in r. pva …|
|357||holding cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand lowered.|
|358||holding cornucopiae in l. hand, wreath (?) in r. c …|
|359||holding cornucopiae in l. hand …. v|
|360||Same type. …c p …. o …|
|361||Same type. con, outwardly, on r. upwards.|
|362||.55||23.7 (1.54)||Bust draped.|
|363||.6||16.5 (1.07)||Bust draped.|
|365||VIII, 4||.65||17.7 (1.15)|
|366||.6||18.3 (1.19)||… ost (?) …|
|370||.45||11.8 (.76)||Bust draped.|
|371||VIII, 5||.6||32.9 (2.13)||iiii … Bust draped.|
|372||.5||13.0 (.84)||Draped … itec|
|373||.55||19.1 (1.24)||. .ricvs . .|
|374||.55||20.1 (1.30)||…c iiiic …. Bust draped.|
|375||VIII, 6||.55||10.0 (.65)||imp …. vs|
|376||.6||19.9 (1.29)||Bust draped.|
|377||.6||25.4 (1.65)||…ricvsa (?).|
|362||Same type, I, r. in field.|
|363||Same type. —|
|364||Same type, (double cornucopiae?) … iii …|
|365||Same type, mivi … on r., upwards, outwardly.|
|366||Same type. r. hand raised, holding?|
|367||holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, patera (?) in lowered r. 2 on l.|
|368||Same type, vertical sceptre (?) in r. …avg|
|369||Same type. —|
|370||Same type. r. hand raised … x ii …|
|371||holding corn-ears (?) downwards in r. hand over? (prow of ship?), l. hand lowered over modius and corn-ears.|
|372||holding palm in l. hand, wreath (?) off flan in r.: winged (? Victory).|
|373||holding patera in extended r. hand, l. arm at side, c… o …r …|
|374||holding patera in extended r. hand, vertical sceptre in l. e (?) low l.|
|375||holding patera in extended r. hand, vertical sceptre in l. In l. field, X.|
|376||holding patera (?) in lowered r. hand extended down with fingers spread. p …|
|377||holding patera in extended r. hand,? in l.|
|378||.6||19.2 (1.24)||Draped. Youthful portrait….vc…|
|380||.65||15.5 (1.0)||… rvs …|
|382||.55||18.0 (1.17)||Bust draped … …iciin …|
|383||.55||14.5 (.94)||Bust draped … imi|
|384||.4||12.3 (.8)||… D (?) i cv…|
|386||.65||14.7 (.95)||….in (?)|
|387||.6||21.9 (1.42)||… ̃ii …|
|392||.55||13.8 (.89)||Bust draped (?)|
|393||VIII, 7||.65||23.8 (1.54)|
|378||holding patera in extended r. hand and gathering up skirt with 1. … itpv …|
|379||holding rudder on ground in l. hand,? (branch?) in r.|
|380||holding rudder on ground in r. hand, and cornucopiae in l. Drapery curling out.|
|381||holding vertical sceptre (or spear?) in r. hand, and anchor on ground in l. … IƆI|
|382||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. CΠN… imi|
|383||holding vertical sceptre (? and wreath) in r. hand and cornucopiae in 1. …C …|
|384||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand; l. Ɔ …|
|385||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.|
|386||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand.|
|387||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.; low r., in field, x.|
|388||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, o on l., s on r.|
|389||holding sceptre (nearly vertical) in r. hand,? (branch?) in l. vv on l.|
|390||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand.|
|391||holding vertical sceptre (or spear) in r. hand and vertical palm in 1….x|
|392||holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand and? (cornucopiae) in l.|
|393||holding vertical sceptre against l. arm, r. arm extended, knee bent. ….A.|
|394||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in extended l.|
|395||.5||9.2 (.6)||Youthful head (?). Bust draped. pv … ricvscv. .|
|396||.6||12.9 (.84)||? Portrait like Postumus.|
|397||.6||10.8 (.7)||icii … Youthful head (?) Bust draped.|
|398||.65||34.1 (2.21)||i m p tet ….|
|400||.6||15.2 (.98)||…te(?) …|
|401||.6||12.0 (.78)||imptet …|
|402||.6||9.3 (.6)||.a v p ct…|
|404||VIII, 8||.6||13.5 (.87)|
|405||.55||16.9 (1.1)||…ttΓ …|
|406||.7||17.1 (l.11)||? Head like Postumus|
|407*||VIII, 9||.6||22.8 (1.48)||…. ̃ …|
|395||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand.|
|396||Same type, p v … (up on r.)|
|397||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in r.: (lower part of figure off flan) …IV|
|398||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in lowered and extended r. …va c|
|399||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in lowered and extended r.|
|400||holding vertical sceptre (or anchor?) in l. hand.|
|401||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand raised. si … oi|
|402||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …s|
|403||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, l. knee slightly bent … VƆГ|
|404||holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand. Note curious treatment of drapery.|
|405||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (only top half of figure on flan).|
|406||holding? (shield on ground) in r. hand, and straight spear and round shield in l.? Helmeted.|
|407||holding vertical spear in r. hand and small round shield (?) in l. Helmeted … Λ v v ГI…|
|408||holding vertical spear and round shield (?) in l. hand, transverse sword (?) across body in r.|
|409||holding vertical spear reversed in l. hand.|
|410||.6||12.8 (.83)||Draped in …|
|411||.65||13.3 (.86)||Draped … vs.|
|412*||VIII, 10||.6||19.8 (1.28)||Traces of letters.|
|413†||VIII, 11||.55||22.0 (.42)||Traces of letters|
|414‡||VIII, 12||.55||25.3 (1.64)||Traces of letters|
|414A§||VIII, 13||.6||20.2 (1.31)||Traces of letters (…vviaa…)|
|416||.7||23.0 (1.49)||…iii …|
|417||.65||23.4 (1.52)||…cvspia …|
|419||.6||20.4 (1.32)||Draped impcv …|
|420||.75||22.6 (1.46)||Draped …v…|
|421||.55||11.6 (.75)||Draped (?) youthful portrait …cvs av.|
|422||.55||21.3 (1.38)||imp … v|
|410||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand resting on?, r. on ground …s. v … c, l. in field.|
|411||holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, with knob at top,? in l. … vi … v … a|
|412||holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. hand lowered, fingers extended. Helmeted. Traces of letters.|
|413||Same type. Traces of letters.|
|414||Same type. No helmet. …iiiv …|
|414A||(? helmeted) … ii ivaii i …|
|415||holding out r. hand over altar (?) l. in field, and holding vertical sceptre in l. hand … ni|
|416||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand i … Border of spikes.|
|417||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? (patera?) in r. …v c.|
|418||holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (sceptre apparently double).|
|419||holding transverse sceptre in l. hand …va …|
|420||raising r. hand (holding?) and holding transverse? (sceptre?) in 1. …vic|
|421||holding wreath (?) up in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. x in field.|
|422||holding vertical spear in r. hand, round shield on l. arm (?). Helmeted. …nv pmn…|
|424||.6||15.3 (.99)||Bust draped (?) imp…|
|425||.7||18.2 (1.18)||Bust draped|
|426||.6||22.0 (.43)||….titi …|
|428||.6||17.8 (1.15)||Bust draped, ci… Mᴒ|
|429||.6||12.0 (.78)||Bust draped …sc|
|430||.55||13.2 (.86)||Bust draped …ricv…|
|431||.65||13.5 (.87)||Bust draped impc te… avg|
|432||.6||17.4 (1.13)||. .M. .p titricvs a…|
|434||.6||26.4 (1.71)||….ƆC …|
|436||VIII, 14||.6||15.3 (.99)|
|437||.65||20.7 (1.34)||Youthful head … tricsv (?) …|
|438||.55||13.8 (.89)||Bust draped … spfavg|
|423||holding snake (?) in both hands across body….vpi …|
|424||holding anchor on ground in l. hand,? (wreath?) in extended r.|
|425||? holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? (wreath?) in extended r. … ʌʌ …. Double-struck.|
|426||holding anchor on ground in l. hand and wreath (?) in extended r.|
|427||holding anchor on ground in l. hand and wreath (?) in extended r.|
|428||holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? in r.|
|429||holding anchor on ground (or straight sceptre?) in l. hand.|
|430||holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand ia …|
|431||holding up wreath in r. hand,? in lowered l.|
|432||holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? (wreath?) in extended r.|
|433||holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand,? in l.|
|434||holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand, l. arm lowered …I…|
|435||holding wreath (?) in raised r. hand, and palm in l.|
|436||holding °|° (?) in r. hand and? in l. Radiate. ᴗ high on r.|
|437||holding C in r. hand and ϧ in l.|
|438||holding wreath (?) in r. hand, anchor (?) in l. ̃ … C|
|440||.65||34.9 (2.26)||… o Ш iiic …|
|441||.55||6.3 (.41)||Bust draped ….iiicc|
|443||.6||17.8 (1.15)||… vsps …|
|444||.65||16.7 (1.08)||imp tericv …|
|445||VIII, 15||.45||10.1 (.65)||Bust draped (?)|
|446||.6||19.3 (1.25)||i i i i a n i • iii …|
|448||.55||9.8 (.64)||…. sp …|
|449||.65||23.2 (1.5)||… vav …|
|451||.6||10.4 (.67)||Bust draped and cuirassed…R (?) vsi|
|452||.6||13.3 (.86)||Youthful head (?)|
|453||IX, 1||.6||11.1 (.72)||… LL (?) VS (?) A… Features of Quintillus.|
|454||.55||21.6 (1.4)||Bust draped …savg.|
|439||holding? transversely (upwards to l.) across body in r. hand, l. arm extended, fingers spread. …i i i.|
|440||holding? in raised r. hand,? (cornucopiae?) in l.: (only part of figure showing) … c s i.|
|441||holding? in r. hand and? (long caduceus?) in l. (only lower part of figure showing).|
|442||holding? in r. hand, ;l. hand down with fingers extended, ixiiv…ivii.|
|443||holding? in r. hand and? (corn-ear) in l. … i c|
|444||holding? in r. hand and?, spear nearly vertical, in l.|
|445||holding? in lowered r. hand, arrow (?) in l. (curved lines)|
|446||holding? in r. hand, (wreath?) in lowered l. hand …. C|
|447||holding? (wreath) downwards in r. hand.|
|448||holding? (\\) in r. hand, l. hand lowered over altar (?)|
|449||holding? in r. hand, and? (snake?) in l. * l. in field, N …|
|450||holding up? (wreath) in r. hand, and ᴗ in l.|
|451||holding? across body in both hands …vs|
|452||holding? (torch?) across body in both hands.|
|453||both arms lowered (only top half of figure shown)|
|455||.65||25.6 (1.66)||… vtti …|
|457||.5||23.6 (1.53)||Bust draped.|
|458||IX, 2||.65||21.0(1.36)||Bust draped …aidiiiiispif…|
|459||.65||24.3 (1.57)||imp … Star (?) behind head.|
|461||.6||13.8 (.89)||… i tric …|
|462||.65||13.0 (.84)||Draped diademed (?) l. Traces of good lettering.|
|463||.6||22.8 (.48)||Draped Λdi…|
|465||IX, 3||.55||14.9 (.97)||….p probus …|
|466||IX, 4||.55||24.1 (1.56)|
|455||holding? in extended r. hand,? (anchor) in l. hand.|
|456||raising r. hand, radiate (?) … iv…|
|457||raising r. hand, holding? (≀ -bow) in l.|
|458||resting l. arm on column … VTƆ|
|459||holding? (patera?) in lowered l. hand and cornucopiae in r.|
|460||r. hand lowered, holding cornucopiae (?) in l.|
|461||holding? in extended r. hand, e (?) l. in field.|
|462||Juno standing l., holding patera in r. hand, and vertical sceptre in l.: peacock l.|
'Male' figure (undraped).
|463||extending r. hand, holding? and long palm in 1. …. IIƆ …|
|464||remains of Spes standing l., holding flower and raised skirt (?) … op.e|
|465||holding? in extended r. hand. ẋ in l., on r. in field.|
|466||holding spear (?) across body in both hands.|
|467||r. hand lowered, l. arm extended pii… Double-struck (?)|
|468||IX, 5||.65||18.3 (.19)||Draped vi …v|
|469||.65||33.0 (2.14)||Draped. Mullet (?) in front of nose adacii …|
|471||IX, 6||.6||26.3 (1.7)||… IAƆ …|
|473||.6||9.5 (.62)||Draped … tetric|
|475||.65||20.6 (1.33)||Draped impc …|
|476||IX, 7||.55||20.3 (1.32)|
|477*||IX, 8||.75||28.9 (1.87)||…p(?) ilv (?)s|
|478†||IX, 9||.65||24.7 (1.6)||evn…v …|
'male figure (undraped).
|468||holding round object in raided l. hand, o on l., s. on r. (derived from invictvs?)|
|469||holding round object (?) in extended r. hand and? in l. on … ϟ|
|470||both arms extended, holding? in r. hand.|
|471||Female figure (draped) holding? (wreath with bands) in r. hand,? on shoulder in l.|
|472||holding up flower (?) in r. hand and gathering up skirt with l.; in r. field, .|
|473||holding out? in r. hand; l. arm seems to rest on rim of shield set on ground … avg|
|474||holding? (wreath) in r. hand and? (palm) in l. (Victory?)|
|475||Same type. (Victory?)|
|476||on throne, radiate. Position of hands uncertain …CPC …|
|477||Horse with pole, as if harnessed to chariot (?), r.|
|479*||IX, 10||.5||15.0 (.97)||… rvʅ …|
|480||IX, 11||.55||22.1 (1.43)||…roc…|
|481||IX, 12||.5||18.5 (1.2)|
|482||IX, 13||.55||21.3 (1.38)|
|486||IX, 14||.55||27.5 (1.78)|
|488||IX, 15||.65||34.3 (2.22)||iiidic c … iix|
|489||.6||17.3 (1.12)||… r …|
|490||X, 1||.6||10.9 (.71)|
|492||X, 2||.55||26.3 (1.7)||… obvs …|
|480||Stag r. … co …|
|481||Stag (?) r.|
|482||Stag 1…. ia …|
|484||Stag l. (?) … co vv vi . .|
|486||Bird front, head r. (?)|
|487||Bird r. (?)|
|488||Tetrastyle temple with pediment. Traces of legend.|
|480||Distyle temple. Altar (?) and standing figure (?) in front.|
|490||Distyle temple: within, altar. Above, iiia …|
|491||remains of standing figure (?) or galley r. (?)|
|492||remains of standing figure (?) or galley r. (?) cvp|
|493||X, 3||.55||16.9 (1.1)||imp … tricv2|
|494||X, 4||.45||12.1 (.78)|
|495||X, 5||.55||31.2 (2.02)||Bust draped. No legend.|
|497||X, 6||.55||22.3 (1.45)|
|498||X, 7||.55||19.4 (1.26)||…ieaiic …|
|499||X, 8||.65||15.9 (1.03)||Bust draped ap … ivg|
|500||.5||16.6 (1.08)||Border of large dots.|
|501||X, 9||.55||23.3 (1.51)||… ic …|
|502||.6||12.4 (.8)||…cuia (?)…|
|503||.55||9.4 (.61)||… oΛ x|
|493||Altar (?) In the place of legend, ]]]] on all sides.|
|494||Uncertain object (Hand l.?) IIIIIIII round edge.|
|495||Cross with a pellet in each angle. No legend.|
|496||Cross (Latin) in wreath.|
|497||Cross (Latin), partly in circle.|
|498||Figure like cross (Greek), with additional lines attached to limb, (? a broken-up figure, stylized).|
|499||Figure standing l., in process of being stylized as a cross-like pattern …t(?). .v. .|
|500||p. 109, fig. 1 (Peculiar)|
|501||p. 109, fig. 2 (Peculiar) Figure derived from trophy and captives (?) … tv…|
|502||p. 109, fig. 3 (Peculiar) Spidery design.|
|503||p. 109, fig. 4 (Peculiar) Part of standing figure and border (?).|
|504||p. 109, fig. 5 (Peculiar) Derived from standing figure (?) … vit(?)…iii|
|505||p. 109, fig. 6 (Peculiar) Top part of figure (?)|
|506||p. 109, fig. 7 (Peculiar) Top part of figure (?)|
|507||X, 10||.6||22.1 (1.43)||Head 1…. iits …|
|508*||X, 11||.55||25.4 (1.68)||Draped. Youthful portrait … cvs.|
|509†||X, 12||.5||18.3 (1.19)|
|510||X, 13||.55||26.8 (1.74)||… cpcidc (r. to l. outwardly)|
|511||.5||21.8 (1.41)||Draped, youthful portrait|
|512||.45||15.4 (1.0)||Draped … isnc.|
|514||X, 14||.6||30.6 (1.98)|
|518||.55||11.4 (.74)||…oi Γ(?)c…|
|519||X, 15||.5||17.1 (1.11)||… divspfc …|
|507||p. 109, fig. 8 (Peculiar)|
|508||p. 109, fig. A Peculiar A. Same rev. die as 509.|
|509||p. 109, fig. A Peculiar A. Same rev. die as 508.|
|510||p. 109, fig. B Peculiar B. Stylized figure standing l. holding up branch. Border of strokes.|
|511||p. 109, fig. C Peculiar C. Remains of Fides standing l., holding standards.|
|512||p. 109, fig. D Peculiar D. Remains of stylized figure holding branch (?);? E l. in field.|
|513||p. 109, fig. 9 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)|
|514||p. 109, fig. 10 (Peculiar) Pattern-like treatment of body of standing figure.|
|515||p. 109, fig. 11 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)|
|516||p. 109, fig. 12 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)|
|517||p. 109, fig. 13 Linear treatment of figure advancing l. (?)|
|518||p. 109, fig. 14 (Peculiar) Stiff standing figure (?) s m (?) … iv …|
|519||p. 109, fig. 15 (Peculiar) Figure standing r. c iiiiiiiiii|
A few coins show some features of interest on obverse,
|520||.65||24.0 (1.55)||Long bust (radiate?) i …ici …|
|521||.75||22.1 (1.43)||Longhead cd … d(?) vs high in field r., i. Double-struck.|
|522||.7||35.5 (2.30)||Bust draped. Features of Probus (?)|
|523||.65||20.0 (1.27)||…cii (?) csnv.|
|524||.55||7.7 (.50)||Youthful head (?) cpivi …|
|525||.55||7.8 (.51)||Small head, with curious angular features. Two pellets below bust.|
|526||.5||13.9 (.90)||… oriv …|
|527||.55||22.1 (1.43)||impt …|
1. (a) Warrior spearing horseman
|528||XI, 1||.55||20.4 (.32)||…ivii …|
(b) obv. Radiate.
|529||XI, 2||.55||33.2 (2.15)||…iti …|
but no reverses that can be accurately described.
|520||…CI … (outwardly)|
|521||Female figure standing l.: altar l. (?) Doublestruck.|
|524||…. sv (?)…|
|527||(spear held in r. hand of figure?)|
('Fel. Temp. Reparatio' type).
|528||Warrior standing l., driving down spear at some object at his feet l. Broken border of large dots.|
Derived types on rev.
|529||Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear, with two points (?): round shield (?) on l. arm… .oh … (It is uncertain whether there was any object at his feet l.)|
|530||XI, 3||.55||20.9 (1.35)||…oo…oo…|
|531||XI, 4||.55||19.9 (1.29)||… vm …|
|532||XI, 5||.55||17.6 (1.14)|
|533||.55||22.4 (1.45)||Radiate head r. overstruck (? on figure standing or advancing l.)|
|534||XI, 6||.55||15.6 (1.01)||… pvs …|
Two other coins, very badly worn
2. (a) Warrior dragging captive l.
|535||XI, 7||.65||24.4 (1.58)||…v.ct.a…|
|536*||XI, 8||.65||21.3 (1.38)|
|537†||XI, 9||.55||25.6 (1.66)|
|538||XI, 10||.7||24.4 (1.58)||… nidh …|
|530||Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear at prostrate figure (captive or animal) at feet l., and holding branch downwards in l. hand.|
|531||As on No. 530, but no trace of prostrate figure, though it might be off the flan, C on r.|
|532||Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear and holding stick (or club) in l. …. ⌒ … (It is uncertain whether there was any object at his feet)|
|533||Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear. (Very worn, but the r. hand and spear seem certain: it is uncertain whether there was object at his feet l.)|
|534||Small figure to l. of flan, raising l. arm, r. arm downwards; traces of horse's head. (There seems to be room for warrior on the r.)|
perhaps show similar reverse types.
('Gloria Romanorum' type).
|535||Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure and holding vertical spear in l.|
|536||As on No. 535, but badly worn.|
|537||As on No. 535, but there are only faint traces of captive….V…|
|538||Warrior advancing r., holding vertical spear in l. hand; with r. hand he carries captive, held off the ground (?)|
|540||XI, 11||.55||18.7 (1.21)|
(b) Warrior dragging captive l.
|542||XI, 12||.55||20.8 (1.35)||Doublestruck|
|543||XI, 13||.65||35.4 (2.29)|
|544||XI, 14||.5||9.4 (.61)|
|545||XI, 15||.55||14.2 (.92)|
One other worn coin possibly
3. Warrior dragging or leading smaller figure (Derived
|546||XII, 1||.6||14.6 (.95)|
|539||As on No. 535 (?), but details obscure|
|540||Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure, r. hand raised. *, r. in field.|
|541||Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure (?) l. hand lowered (?) …. ᴖ …|
(derived from 2a.—?).
|542||Warrior advancing l., r. hand raised, holding? (off flan) and dragging animal (?) with l. hand.|
|543||Warrior advancing l., r. foot raised, r. knee bent, holding vertical spear in r. hand and dragging captive (?) with l.|
|544||Warrior advancing l., r. hand extended, holding? (off flan) and dragging captive (?) in l. Large star (?) r., in field.|
|545||Warrior advancing l., r. hand extended, holding? and dragging captive (?) with l. (The interpretation of this type is uncertain. There is an obscure object,? l. in field, and the captive (?) is quite uncertain.)|
shows a similar reverse.
from 'Gloria Romanorum' or 'Fel. Temp. Reparatio.')
|546||Warrior advancing r., l. hand raised, r. elbow bent; with r. hand dragging or leading smaller figure r. (details very obscure: the pose is not quite that of the ordinary 'Gloria Romanorum')|
|547||XII, 14||.65||27.7 (1.79)||vsvica … av|
|548||XII, 3||.55||15.8 (1.02)||Bust draped: l. (?)|
|549||XII, 4||.51||10.5 (.68)|
|550||XII, 5||.5||9.2 (.6)||imp c prob (?)…|
|551||XII, 6||.45||7.5 (.49)|
|552||XII, 7||.55||11.7 (.76)|
|553||XII, 8||.55||14.9 (.97)||….ia. Features of Postumus (?)|
|554||XII, 9||.6||26.4 (1.71)|
|555||XII, 10||.85||69.5 (4.5)||…iit iiavi…|
|547||Large figure standing r., r. hand lowered, l. hand raised; on l., animal (?); on r., smaller figure standing r., holding? in raised r. hand…. dc. Double-struck.|
|548||Warrior standing r., r. hand lowered, in front of him, on r., figure kneeling front, head r. (?), extending r. hand and holding? (round shield) on l.….v…|
|549||Warrior advancing r., r. hand lowered, holding? (arrow) in l.; at his feet r. helmeted figure sprawling on ground (?).|
|550||Warrior standing r., holding vertical sword (?) in r. hand; to r., smaller figure kneeling (?).|
|551||Man advancing r.; facing him, on r., bird standing l.….11|
|552||Man advancing r., driving smaller figure, with arms outstretched, before him.|
|553||Warrior advancing r., holding? in lowered r. hand and bow (?) in l.; to r., smaller figure kneeling r. Traces of worn letters.|
|554||Man standing front, head r., with r. hand thrusting down figure sprawling on ground l., l. arm lowered. Uncouth linear figure, with long arms like an ape.|
|555||Warrior standing l., raising r. hand and holding vertical standard with vexillum (or labarum?) in l.: to l., captive kneeling on ground (?) v. ͽ under standard.|
|556||XII, 11||.6||31.3 (2.03)||ncivo…|
|557||XII, 12||.6||17.8 (1.15)|
|558||XII, 13||.55||16.8 (1.09)|
|559||XII, 2||.6||24.4 (1.58)||Large features …v…|
|556||Warrior standing l. (?) holding small figure (?) off ground in r. hand and vertical spear in l. Traces of uncertain letters.|
|557||Warrior standing l., r. hand raised (?) holding vertical spear in l.: to l. serpent (?)|
|558||Two small figures, both with arms raised above heads, standing front, side by side … im … Star r., in field.|
|559||Female figure standing l., holding corn-ears in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.; to l., a smaller figure standing front, with arms extended and slightly raised, dxe…a…|
|560||Figure on extreme l. of the flan, standing r., apparently requiring to be balanced by similar figure on r. (obliterated). ('Gloria Exercitus' type (?) )|
|561||p. 109, fig. 16 Confused type, representing two warriors meeting in combat (?). (Peculiar)|
|562||p. 109, fig. 17 Confused type, representing two warriors meeting in combat, one holding spear, one round shield (?). (Peculiar)|
|563||Man standing front, on r., holding vertical spear in r. hand. Doubtful traces of what was perhaps a second figure on l.|
Same obv. and rev. dies.
Some of these types will recall known models, but they are placed here because the resemblance is imperfect or uncertain.
Same obv. (?) and rev. die as No. 266.
Same obv. (?) and rev. die as No. 265.
Same obv. and rev. die as Nos. 282 and 292.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 281 and 292.
Same obv. and rev. die as Nos. 281 and 282.
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 308. Same rev. die as No. 309.
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 307. Same rev. die as No. 309.
Same rev. die as Nos. 307, 308.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 412.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 407.
Same obv. die as Nos. 414 and 414A. Same rev. die as No. 414A.
Same obv. die as Nos. 413 and 414A.
Same obv. die as Nos. 413 and 414. Same rev. die as No. 413.
Same obv. (?) and rev. dies as Nos. 508 and 509.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 479.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 478.
Same obv. (?) and rev. dies as No. 477. Same obv. die (?) as No. 509.
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 477. Same obv. die (?) as No. 508.
Same rev. die (?) as No. 538.
Same rev. die (?) as No. 537.
Plates XII(end)-XIV(beginning) illustrate a number of barbarous radiates in the British Museum, which, at one point or another, seem to touch the Richborough hoard. The provenance of Pl. XIII, 3—the only one for which we have information— was Richborough. It seems unnecessary to add full descriptions where all are illustrated. The obverse of Pl. XII, 15, has part of the name of Victorinus; the obverses of Pl. XIII, 2, 5, and XIV, 4, make some kind of an attempt at the name of Tetricus I. Many of the reverses cannot be referred to any known original. But Pl. XIII, 1, shows a Pax type, Pl. XIII, 2, a Pietas, Pl. XIII, 3 and 4, Priestly Emblems (pietas avgg. type), Pl. XIII, 5, a Spes, Pl. XIV, 2, a cross, Pl. XIV, 4, a temple. Pl. XIII, 9, and XIV, 7, are of peculiar interest. Pl. XIII, 9, shows a radiate head l., with an obscure reverse, traces of barbarous lettering on both sides, overstruck on a gloria exercitus, two soldiers, type of the late Constantinian period, c. A. D. 330-340. Pl. XIV, 7, shows a crude head, r., apparently radiate, with rev. Warrior on horseback r., brandishing spear, overstruck on what was probably, but not quite certainly, a coin of about the same date as the original of Pl. XIII, 9. A comparison of these Plates with Plates I to XII will reveal noteworthy similarities of style in a number of points. The time is nearly ripe for a full discussion of this fascinating, but enigmatic coinage.
In their analysis of the Richborough radiate hoard, Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have pointed out that there occur in it types which do not go back to any Roman prototype. They have suggested that these coins may be the earliest attempts at original design by the Jutes who accompanied Hengist and Horsa. The evidence which Mr. Mattingly has brought forward from the side of Roman coins is strikingly confirmed on the side of Anglo-Saxon.
If the date proposed is correct, it would be reasonable to expect some relationship between the types of the Richborough coins and of the earliest of the Anglo-Saxon thrymsas and sceattas. Although a general date for the whole series from 600 to 750 A. D. 15 is well established, it is unfortunate that the fifty or sixty known types have never been arranged chronologically within these limits; it is as yet impossible to say precisely which of them are the earliest. An appendix such as this is not the place to indulge in new and speculative classifications. It may, however, fairly be said that the majority of thrymsa and sceatta types use decorative motives which occur on other Anglo-Saxon objects. 16 There are, nevertheless, a few types whose designs cannot be found elsewhere in contemporary art; most of these designs are derived directly or mediately from Roman coin types. Those which are directly derived do not concern us here; but there exist sceattas which, though they obviously stand in some relation to Roman coins, are so far from the original as to imply a lost intermediate stage. It is more than a fortunate coincidence that the Richborough hoard provides us with some of these intermediate stages.
Against this view it might be urged that the heads on the majority of sceattas are derived from Constantinianor Theodosian models. I do not think that the objection is valid because in the sixth and seventh centuries the only silver coins with which the inhabitants of England are likely to have been familiar, are siliquae. 17 When striking a silver coinage, they may well have preferred diademed heads, while for copper coins they copied the commoner radiate models. A few thrymsas and sceattas actually have radiate heads, and on the earlier specimens of this class, (Pl. XV, 8 and 9), the head is represented in a manner extraordinarily similar to that on one coin in this hoard, Pl. V, 10.
In preparing their lists Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have wisely refrained from recording the fabric of the coins, since no verbal description is ever adequate. There are, however, considerable differences in fabric in the hoard, differences so marked as to be visible even in the plates. It was most noticeable in handling the coins that those which were most closely related to the sceattas in design were of a distinctive fabric. The coins were rounder, flatter and perhaps thicker than the majority of the hoard. Their designs were indicated more by line drawing than by relief. In almost every case a beaded circle had replaced the traces of the legends on obverse and reverse, a feature which recurs on sceattas. These circles were often considerably narrower than the diameter of the coin, and became an important part of the design. See for example, Pl. VI, 10; VII, 6, 10; X, 5.
On Plates XIV-XV are twenty examples of gold and silver Anglo-Saxon and Merovingian coins, chosen for the relationship they bear to the Richborough coins.
The first series, Pl. XIV, 8-12, have been chosen to illustrate the use of radiate heads on thrymsas and sceattas. The obverse of Pl. XIV, 8, a thrymsa, 18 is remarkably similar to Pl. V, 10, though one is beardless and the other bearded. This type of head occurs also on sceattas such as Pl. XIV, 9; the earliest bear the meaningless legend tic, though this is later replaced by Runic legends, as on Pl. XIV, 10 and 11. 19 Pl. XIV, 12 is possibly a Merovingian coin; it is included to show how confused the derivation of the obverse had become in the sixth century. The obverse of this coin clearly belongs to the same class as the others in the row. It even has the same legend as Pl. XIV, 9. There is, however, no trace of the radiate crown.
The sceatta, Pl. XV, 1 represents on the obverse a female centaur holding two palm branches. This curious subject is derived probably from the leg ii parth coins of Carausius, and is without parallel in Anglo-Saxon art. The type has, however, diverged somewhat widely from the original, and the presence of the palm branches may have been suggested by the horns of a stag on a coin such as Pl. IX, 13, itself derived from one of the legionary coins of Gallienus. It would then be an instance of the conflation of two earlier types, a process which often occurs on sceattas.
Pl. XV, 2, is an example of the well-known wolf and twins sceatta. The obverse is clearly copied directly from a Roman original. The reverse, however, which depicts a bird in an upright position between two vines, has no Roman prototype. The arrangement of the design is similar to that of the standing figures in the rest of the row. A bird pecking at grapes is a well-known Christian emblem and occurs somewhat later on the Ruthwell Cross. The general design, however, appears to be taken from a coin such as Pl. III, 11 where the sacrificial jug has assumed a form almost identical with this bird. A similar treatment of the human body occurs on Pl. XV, 4.
The next five sceattas, Pl. XV, 3-7, illustrate varieties of standing figures, some of which have remarkable analogies with the Richborough coins. Compare, for instance, Pl. VI, 10 with Pl. XV, 6 for the curled arms; Pl. VII, 6 and 7 with Pl. XV, 5 and 6 for the body and dress; Pl. VII, 10 with Pl. XV, 7 and 8 for the breasts; Pl. I, 14 with Pl. XV, 3; Pl. VII, 12, with Pl. XV, 5; Pl. X, 15 with Pl. XV, 4 for the exergual line, with Pl. XV, 6 for the arms. Pl. XV, 8 shows a two figure type such as Pl. XII, 15.
Pl. XV, 9, is a thrymsa and is presumably amongst the earliest coins of the series. Though very different in style from the other representations of the human body in this plate, it too has analogies in the Richborough hoard. Compare for instance Pl. V, 10 or Pl. IX, l.
Pl. XV, 10 was included to illustrate from sceattas the tendency to revolving designs which is shown on some of the Richborough coins such as Pl. V, l.
The Richborough coins provide an important link in the derivation of the "altar" or "standard" type of sceatta reverse, illustrated in Pl. XIV, 9, 10, 11, and XV, 8. It has always been known from the inscription totxx or totii, which appears on the less barbarous varieties, that the type was derived from either the altar or the standard of various Roman coins. On sceattas, however, the type is both stereotyped and far from the original. The Richborough coins show how this may have come about; Pl. I, 2-5 illustrate various misunderstandings of the altar. Pl. I, 2 even shows five pellets arranged precisely as are the letters in Pl. XIV, 9.
Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have stressed the importance of the cross which occurs on the reverse of the coins Pl. X, 5, 6 and 7. This type, though undoubtedly un-Roman, does not in fact occur in the same form on sceattas. There is a common type, Pl. XV, 13, on which a cross occurs surmounted by a bird. 20 Similar crosses, however, occur on gold Merovingian coins of the seventh century, of which Pl. XV, 11 and 12 are examples; they also occur on some of the earliest thrymsas such as Pl. XV, 14 and 15. 21
It must be admitted, then, that some relationship exists between the designs of the Richborough coins and the sceattas. So marked is this that it would not, to my mind, be adequate to say that the two series were struck at widely different points in the same artistic period. The artists of the thrymsas and sceattas must, I think, have seen and handled coins similar to those in this hoard. If this is so, it has somewhat drastic consequences on the dating of the hoard.
The hoard which is the subject of this monograph is not the only barbarous hoard from Richborough. There has also been found in the uppermost layer a hoard of 'minimissimr derived from Constantinian and Theodosian types. 22 These coins are of extraordinarily small size, and some of them are of metal so debased as to be barely distinguishable from lead. Fragments cut from earlier coins were found with them. There can be no doubt that these coins represent the last stage in the direct tradition of Roman coinage. They must have been struck at a time when metal was of almost fabulous scarcity. By the time the radiate hoard was buried, conditions had completely altered. Copper was no longer scarce and the continuous tradition of Roman coinage had now been broken. Moneyers copied not the last coins in circulation, but any chance coins they found. There must therefore have been some gap in time between the burial of the two hoards. Given such a gap, the degree of fidelity to Roman models provides no indication of its length. The only internal evidence of date which the hoard presents, is the relationship which some coins in it bear to sceattas. It would be impossible to date any Anglo-Saxon thrymsas or sceattas much before 600 at the earliest. There is no intrinsic reason why the coins in this hoard should have been struck nearer 500 A. D. than 600 A. D. It has often been supposed that the peoples of England in the fifth and sixth centuries used Roman copper coins which they had dug up or imitated. 23 The analogies between the Richborough coins and the sceattas suggest very strongly that this hoard provides a sample of the coins in question. Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have suggested that the hoard represents the money which Hengist and Horsa brought with them. I prefer the bolder hypothesis that the latest of these coins belong to the age of Augustin.
Brooke, " English Coins." p. 5.
Baldwin Brown, "The Arts in Early England," pp. 56-113.
In the British Museum collection there are no barbarous copies of radiate coins in silver, whereas Constantinian silver was frequently copied.
The reverse type of this coin, the clasped hands, also occurs on barbarous radiates from Richborough, though none occurred in this hoard.
The obverse of Pl. XIV, 11 has been mounted on the plate at the wrong angle.
The reverse of this coin has been mounted on the plate at the wrong angle.
The majority of thrymsas in the Crondall Hoard, buried not long after 610 A. D., have crosses on the reverse.
Unpublished; kindly shown me by Mr. Stebbing, the finder.
Brooke, "English Coins," p. 2:—"In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Roman copper coins, whether surviving as currency or dug up as treasure from the earth, doubtless circulated with barbarous imitations to serve the monetary requirements of the invading and invaded peoples."
Pl. XIV, 8. AV. Thrymsa; Num. Chron. 1922, p. 215, no. 2.
9. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 12.
10. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 37.
11. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 49.
12. AR. Merovingian Silver coin; uncertain mint.
Pl. XV, l. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 189.
2. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 77.
3. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 88.
4. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 97.
5. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 16, var.
6. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 105.
7. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 113.
8. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 51.
9. AV. Thrymsa; Num. Chron. 1922, p. 215, no. 3.
10. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 37.
11. AV. Merovingian Triens; Pfalzel.
12. AV. Merovingian Triens; Compreignac.
13. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 135.
14. AV. Thrymsa found at Warminster, Wilts.
15. AV. Thrymsa; B. M. C. no. 7.
All these coins are in the British Museum.
The references are to the British Museum Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Coins. Vol. I. pp. 1-22.