Richborough hoard of 'radiates' 1931

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THE RICHBOROUGH HOARD OF 'RADIATES,' 1931

By Harold Mattingly and W. P. D. Stebbing

The hoard of 875 bronze coins, of varying sizes and weights, which we have here to describe, was found on September 1st, 1931, at a level within the Roman fort of Richborough, which has been dated to the same age as the walls. These were probably erected within the years A. D. 275 and 296.

The evidence of the finder is to the effect that the coins, though found in a mass, were unaccompanied by any trace of purse, box or other container and showed no sign of having been secreted in a hole in a wall or in thatch. 1 The corrosion of some of the coins and traces of wood-fibre (?) on them suggest possible burial in a box with iron bands.

The site on which the coins were found seems to have carried a hut, with a foundation course to its walls of large rough pieces of Folkstone stone. The coins lay near an angle of this foundation, as they might if buried under a hearth. The general level of the site has yielded pottery of late third to fourth century date.

We begin by a general summary of the hoard followed by more detailed descriptions:

SUMMARY

A. REGULAR.

Gallienus 1
POSTUMUS 1
VICTORINUS 2
Claudius II l
Tetricus I 7
Tetricus II 4
Allectus 1
Constantius II (or Constans) 1
Theodosius I 2
Arcadius 1
Uncertain Theodosian 1
22

B. IRREGULAR.*

Imitations of Known Radiate Types.
Consecratio (eagle) 5
Consecratio (altar) 21
Felicitas 1
Fides Militum 10
Fortuna 2
Hilaritas 2
Invictus 21
Laetitia 6
Mars 1
Pax (branch and sceptre) 26
Pax (uncertain) 1
Pax (branch and cornucopiae) 5
Pietas Augg. (priestly emblems) 40
Pietas (sacrificing) 5
Providentia 2
Salus 10
Spes 22
Victory to r 1
Victory ('COMES AVGG.' type) 6
Virtus 3
190
Various Figure Types.
Standing front ('male') 17
Standing front ('female') 6
Standing front, head r. ('male') 9
Standing front, head r. ('female') 4
Standing front, head l. ('male') 8
Standing front, head l. ('female') 4
Standing r. ('male') 20
Standing r. ('female') 14
Advancing r. ('male') 21
Advancing r. ('female') 3
Standing l. ('male') 25
Standing l. ('female') 119
Advancing l. ('male') 9
Advancing l. ('female') 4
Seated r l
264
Various.
Animals 8
Birds 3
Temples. 3
Miscellaneous 4
Crosses, etc 5
Patterns 20
Notable obverses 8
51
Two Figure Types.
'Fel. Temp. Reparatio' model 7
'Gloria Romanorvm' model 12
Various—to r 8
Various—to l 3
Various to front 6
36
Total of all classes 563

There remain 312 coins, which were either illegible or, at least, seemed to add nothing to those here described, making up a grand total of 875.

The coins, when found, were on the whole in very fair condition. They were mainly loose, but, in a few cases, were stuck together in two's and three's. The incrustation varied from a soft, earthy covering to a hard nodular oxide of iron, either in patches or covering the whole surface. In some cases both faces of the coin had been corroded; in others, there were suggestions of possible burning by fire. All, without exception, were struck, not cast. The flans vary in thickness from paper-like flakes to an average 'radiate' size; they are often irregular in shape and occasionally have one or more projecting knobs of metal on the edge. Extensive clipping has in a few cases produced something like a triangular shape. The die is sometimes correctly adjusted to the flan, sometimes it fails to find room on it. Apart from this occasional failure of adjustment, the striking was fairly well done. In some cases there is a border of dots, that may degenerate into various arrangements of strokes, in others, no border at all. The coins vary in size from .35 to .85 inches (9 to 22 mm); in weight, from 4.8 gr. to 69.5 gr. (.31-4.5 gm).

An interesting feature of the hoard is the occurrence of die-identities, either on both sides or one only. The same obverse and reverse dies occur on Nos. 104 and 105; 265 and 266; 281, 282 and 292; 307 and 308; 407 and 412; 413 and 414A; 477, 508 and 509; 478 and 479: the same obverse dies occur on Nos. 414 and 414A; the same reverse dies on Nos. 178 and 179; Nos. 307, 308 and 309; 537 and 538. These identities are not numerous enough to suggest that our mass of coinage had come direct from a single mint; they are sufficiently numerous to convince us that we are not dealing with a chance mass of coin adrift on the market. We shall consider later what this may mean.

The great majority of the coins bear neither name of Emperor nor features to identify one; but notinfrequent exceptions occur and we are reminded at one point or another, by legend or portrait, of Gallienus, (Nos. 163, 172), Claudius II, (Nos. 23 ff, 166, 184, 346), Quintillus (Nos. 160, 316, 453), Tacitus, (Nos. 206, 359), Probus, (Nos. 245, 465, 492, 522, 550), Postumus, (Nos. 69, 298, 350, 396, 406, 553), Victorinus, (Nos. 187, 237, 357, 360), Carausius, (No. 451). Far commonest are the suggestions of Tetricus I (Nos. 51, 53, 85, 114, 293, 412, 430, 461, etc.) and of Tetricus II, with youthful features, (Nos. 77, 102, 163, 312, 401, 421, etc.). Examples of head to left occur, but they are even rarer than in the original series. The range of the imitation, then, is over the period of extreme debasement, from circa A. D. 258 to 274 and, less intensively, over the radiates of the reform of Aurelian, circa A. D. 274-296. There is more diversity, then, in the obverses than is usual in hoards of 'barbarous radiates.' In some cases, there is something in- definably alien in the look of the head; hardly anything but the radiation reminds us of a Roman coin.

The reverse types are, in some cases, copied with considerable fidelity from 3rd century models; but, even where the original type is preserved, the legend is seldom clear. Exceptions that prove the rule may be seen in Consecratio (Nos. 24 ff), Hilaritas (No. 62), PAX (Nos. 99, 119, 195), SPES (Nos. 181, 198), VIRTUS (No. 173). A remarkable feature of the reverse types is that many of them produce variations on the standing figures of their 3rd century originals, so marked as to appear deliberate rather than accidental or careless. Occasionally, the direction of the original type is reversed, as, for example, Sol Invictus to right, instead of to left (Nos. 83 ff). In so far as the reverses copy definite originals, the divergence from the normal may be studied under our careful classification, assisted by the Plates. The large class of coins not to be associated with specific originals has been arranged in formal groups, 'standing front' 'right' or 'left' 'figures undraped' or 'draped.' It may ultimately be possible, with the aid of further hoards, to trace the original of many types at present mysterious. That there should be mistakes in our descriptions of obscure and hitherto unknown types is inevitable. May the scholar of the future who corrects such errors judge us not too unkindly!

The most notable feature of our hoard remains still to be mentioned. It includes (1) a series of coins (Nos. 528-546) showing knowledge of originals of the fourth century,—c. A. D. 348-361 and c. A. D. 364-375; (2) another series (Nos. 547-563) showing types, often with more than one figure, of so original a character that they cannot be traced to any Roman model of the third century or later. Both series, though relatively small in the bulk of the hoard, contain a sufficient number of coins to assure us that it is no case of mere accident. Of series (1) we shall have to speak more fully later. Of series (2) we may say at once that it supplies full evidence that the makers of our coins were not copyists only, —that they actually had new ideas of their own, which they tried, with varying success, to express in the language of reverse types. Some of the twofigure types seem to aim at expressing scenes of combat or, possibly, in some cases, of ritual, which, however obscure to us, yet speak a language of their own. Of the other types of the group, some may well be derived ultimately from radiate models. The 'Cross with pellets,' for example, might arise either from the 'Altar' of Divus Claudius or from a completely formalized and degraded standing figure, such as Spes. But, in such cases, even if imitation be present, it has reached the point of new creation; the Roman types only serve as raw material for new.

We are now in a position to attack the problems that constitute the main interest of our hoard—the date at which it was buried and the conditions at Rutupiae which its burial would seem to imply. Our knowledge is still imperfect, a mere ray of light in the darkness, but, even so, its disclosures are exciting enough. As our hoard belongs, formally, to the large and much discussed class of 'barbarous radiates,' a glance at the history of these curious finds will be of value.

The 'barbarous radiates' have long been a battlefield of conflicting creeds. The idea that they might represent in some way or other the coinage of the Dark Age in Britain—the fifth to sixth century A. D.—was natural enough and seems to have been widely held in the early and mid-nineteenth century. 2 M. Adrien Blanchet, in a notable paper, repudiated the idea, as far as it affected Gaul, and declared that imitations of radiate coins, small as well as large, belonged to approximately the same age as the originals. 3 His arguments, based on some evidence of hoards and ably developed, have found general acceptance in France. In our island the fortunes of war have been more varied and successes have been recorded from time to time by both schools—early and late daters. 4 In a paper, written by the late Mrs. Mortimer Wheeler and now published after her death by Mr. O'Neil, 5 we have a description of a hoard of radiate imitations, found in the theatre at St. Albans. The coins are almost all very small, descending to 'minim' 6 size. They vary considerably from their models, and they are almost, if not completely, unmixed with regular radiate coinage. The hoard, then, is one which many numismatists, on general principles, 7 would have wished to place very late. The archaeological evidence, however, is definitely against this view. All competent archaeologists who have tested the evidence agree that the hoard could not have been buried much later than A. D. 300, and, from the numismatic side, it must be admitted that a close examination of details reveals nothing which requires a later date. We must admit, then, an important gain by the 'early' school, most appropriately won by one who was always a gallant fighter on that side. That there is still another view of the case, the present hoard will show. There is no likelihood of an immediate decision— perhaps of any decision—in favour of either extreme view. Radiate coins may have been imitated both early and late. If, in both cases, the imitations were the work of non-Roman, native artists, they might well have a general kinship of kind, which would tend to blur the distinctions of date. For the time being, we must check each hoard on its merits, accumulate evidence and, above all, treasure our exceptions— the points that do not harmonize with our own favourite theories.

The Richborough hoard of 1931 is beyond all question late. We leave out of account for the moment the Theodosian copper that was found with or near it. Even if we should end by believing that it was actually part of the hoard, there is at least a possibility that it was not, and the argument will be surer without it. The decisive evidence lies in the radiate coinage itself. Radiate heads, not to be distinguished from the general run of heads in the hoard, are combined in a number of cases with reverses that betray knowledge of fourth century types,—'Fel. Temp. Reparation 'Warrior driving spear at fallen horseman,' Constantius II, etc., c. A. D. 348 and 361, and 'Gloria Romanorum,' 'Emperor dragging captive right,' Valentinian I and colleagues, c. A. D. 364-375. These reverses are, on the whole, quite remarkably like the fourth-century models, and there are no third-century models to which they could, with any reason, alternatively be traced. Here, then, we have the evidence, which has hitherto been lacking, of the 'muling' of radiate obverses with later reverses. 8 The date of the later of the two reverses thus imitated, 'Gloria Romanorum,' takes us down to the very edge of the Theodosian age. This evidence is strong enough to stand by itself. If support were needed, we might point to the unusual freedom with which new types are here created from the limited stock of standing or walking figures in the third-century originals and, particularly, to a range of reverse types, already mentioned, that seems to exceed the bounds of 3rd century possibilities—the 'Cross' type and certain two-figure types in particular. As we have said, the die-cutter seems not so much to have been copying as creating new types. Two-figure types in the third century, except for a short period after Aurelian, were rare in the Western mints; as a matter of fact, they do not seem to have supplied models for our hoard.

The earliest possible date, then, for the burial of our hoard is circa A. D. 380-390. But this is only a theoretical possibility. Even without committing ourselves to any general theory of coin-drift, we must obviously allow some time to elapse for an imperial coin to become familiar enough to be imitated in an outlying province. Further, we know from the numerous site-finds of Richborough, that the actual circulation in the fort in the Theodosian age was the small bronze of Theodosius I and his colleagues, and of his predecessors. It is certainly possible that the masses of Theodosian coin did not reach Richborough till nearly the end of the fourth century; it is more than possible—a moral certainty—that they continued to accumulate there well into the fifth century. 9 There is Ao room, then, at Richborough, for a coinage of the extraordinarily irregular character of our hoard for some long years after the death of Theodosius the Great.

Before we take our next step, we shall find it useful to ask ourselves what the issue of 'barbarous' imitations may mean. We have little direct evidence and must rely on careful and sober deduction from general probabilities. Two general classes might be distinguished:

(1) Imitations inside the Empire.

These might be in the nature of tokens, issued locally (in municipalities or camps) to supplement supplies of imperial money,—tolerated, perhaps, if not approved, by authority. The rebellion of a pretender might, in theory, give rise to some kind of 'barbarian imitation'; but, as a matter of fact, hardly a single actual example can be quoted. 10

(2) Issues outside the Empire.

These would naturally be made by peoples, bordering on the Empire and familiar with its money, who, needing an increase of supplies and, perhaps, desiring a coinage of their own, are yet compelled to begin with Roman models and betray all manner of misunderstanding both of types and legends. Imitation of models, obsolete or obsolescent in the Empire, would be more properly assigned to this than to the first class.

Between classes (1) and (2) would fall issues of communities, which, while loyal in intention, were temporarily or more permanently detached from the Empire.

We can now return to the problems of our hoard with some general principles to guide us. Rutupiae was one of the last places—possibly the very last place—in Britain to be held officially by Rome, The Romano-British population, then, might confidently be expected to hold to its latest Roman— the Theodosian bronze—currency: the site-finds of the Fort prove that it actually did so. Only after the Roman troops and civil servants had departed can we imagine an abandonment of the imperial coinage and a return to obsolescent models. Such a relapse demands something more than the mere withdrawal of the Romans to explain it—it implies the intrusion of other, less civilized, elements in their place. Even the broken history of our island in the fifth century has preserved the essential fact for us here. What we have before us is the coinage of Hengist and Horsa with their Jutes, when Vortigern invited them to aid him against Picts and Scots and gave them the island of Thanet for their hire (A. D. 449). 11

Can we hazard a guess at the reason for the ap- pearance of third-century models—almost to the exclusion of fourth-century models—in this new coinage? Perhaps an observation long since made and developed by C. F. Keary 12 may give us the light we need. He noticed that the silver of Carausius had exercised a remarkably strong influence on the types of sceattas and explained it on the theory that, as comes littoris Saxonici and, afterwards, as Emperor by the grace of Saxons and other rebels, Carausius had circulated his money freely on both sides of the Channel. Developing this line of thought, we may suggest that, for about the last quarter of the third century, including the usurpations of Carausius and Allectus, the Western coasts of the Empire were exposed to Saxon raiders, who, amid the rest of their booty, must have carried off masses of radiate coinage. Constantius Chlorus, when he brought Britain back to the 'eternal light' of Rome, reorganized the coast defences and barred the door against the pirate. For many a long year the Saxon was held at bay. The Saxons, then, might well be familiar with the coinage of the late third century, as they never were with that of the fourth, might continue to use and imitate it in their homes in the Low Countries, and, finally, when they returned to Britain, as settlers not marauders, in the fifth century, might choose to copy it rather than the later Roman models. If this is the case, there should be some evidence of hoards. We cannot at the moment check them satisfactorily.

The theory that imitations of radiate coins in the fifth century belong to the Saxons, while imitations of diademed may belong rather to the RomanBritons, might clearly be pushed to absurd extremes. Mr. Sutherland, has already suggested some of the difficulties that might be involved. We can hardly imagine the Roman-Briton saying to himself "I am Roman: diademed for me," while the Saxon retorts "I am Saxon: I prefer radiates." But, we may be very near actual historical truth if we make our theory narrower and more precise and say that the surviving urban communities in Britain of the fifth century clung to Theodosian coinage, and, after that, to imitations of the early fourth-century coinage, but that the recrudescence of radiate imitations was due either to Saxon invaders or to Britons, who abandoned citylife and went 'native' again. Whether the radiate coinage was felt to be pagan, as the diademed was not, is best left undecided for the moment. Of the mint or mints of our coins we know nothing. The occurrence of several die-identities certainly suggest a mint or mints not far remote from the place of finding. Of the value represented by the coins we again know nothing. We might perhaps find in our hoard an 'average' coin, measuring about .7(19 mm) and weighing circa 20 gr. (1.3 gm), and suppose that it represented a standard value. But some few pieces, of greater module and weight, would represent higher values, the 'minims,' presumably, a lower.

The art of our hoard, if it may bear that name at all, is of a very humble order, but it is not entirely without shape or character of its own. If it cannot effectively be compared with the nobler products, in gold and enamel, of native British or Jutish artists, it finds frequent parallels in the series of sceattas and of Merovingian silver. This point is developed for us in a short Appendix (II), by Mr. Derek Allen. The bearing of these parallels on the question of date is obvious. They suggest a much longer run, and perhaps a later origin, for our imitations than we should at first have been inclined to assign to them.

The Richborough hoard of 1931 already stimulates, if it does not completely satisfy, our curiosity. It may have a permanent place in our historical study if it directs scholars to a place where they may hopefully search for some of the still buried secrets of Britain's Dark Age. "The imitation of Roman types by the moneyers of the Anglo-Saxon sceattas will no longer appear as a rather curious return to the past: it will simply be the continuation of a process that had been continuous." 13

The authors wish to thank Miss Anne Robertson of Glasgow most warmly for invaluable assistance with the descriptions.

A closer description of the 563 classified coins follows. The normal obverse is to be taken as a radiate head to r., without legend; anything beyond this is noted in the 'obverse' column. The reverse descriptions have given us much trouble, as we wished to describe as fully as possible what was to be seen, and yet often could not determine exactly what the die-cutter meant. We have had to resort to frequent marks of interrogation: 'holding? in r. hand,' for example, means 'holding uncertain object.' In the case of some coins of special interest and difficulty, drawings are added (cf. p. 108).

End Notes
10
It is possible that the Bagaudae in Gaul, under Aeliamus and Amandus, A. D. 285-286, struck rude imitations of the Gallic radiates.
11
If coinage of this class really belongs to the Anglo-Saxon and Jutish invaders, it may easily be extensive and of more than one class. On Plate X, Appendix I, we add some examples from the British Museum of what may be late radiate imitations.
12
The Coinages of Western Europe, London, 1879, especially pp. 103 ff.
12
H. Mattingly and W. P. D. Stebbing, Paper to the International Archaeological Congress. Aug. 1932.

End Notes

1
A late 4th century hoard, found by Mr. Stebbing towards the centre of the fort in 1926, had been thus concealed.
*
From this point on, the arrangement is by reverse types.
2
Cf. Thomas Wright, 'On Anglo-Saxon Antiquities, with a particular reference to the Faussett Collection,' 1854; C. Roach Smith, Arch. Cant. Vol. xviii, (1889) p. 72, 'Roman Coins found at Richborough' where he recants his previous belief in a late date for the imitations.
3
'Les monnaies barbares aux noms et types des deux Tetricus' (Congrèa intern, de Num., Bruxelles, 1910).
4
For the general question, cf. C. H. V. Sutherland in the Num. Chron. (International Numismatic Congress Volume, 1938): the same writer on 'The Hayle Hoard of Radiate Minimi' (Num. Chron. 1936, pp. 202 ff.), 'The Whitchurch Hoard of Radiate Minimi' (ibid. 1935, pp. 16 ff.); H. Mattingly, 'Three Hoards of Barbarous Roman Coins,' ibid. 1934, pp. 255 ff.; R. G. Collingwood 'Archaeology of Roman Britain,' 1930, p. 199.
5
Num. Chron. 1937, pp. 211 ff.
6
A convenient, if vague, description of tiny imitations, very much smaller than any originals.
7
The contemporary imitations naturally would be expected to mix freely with originals.
8
Imitations of radiates and diademed heads are, as a rule, quite distinct in hoards: for possible exceptions, cf. H. Mattingly. Num. Chron. 1934, pp. 255 ff.
9
Even when the supplies from Gaul and Italy dried up, what was to prevent the Roman-Britons from extending the life of their Theodosian coinage by skilful, official imitation? There is, as yet, no proof that they did so, but the possibility seems to be worth consideration.

A. COINS OF REGULAR MINTAGE

1. Gallienus.

Obv. [gall]ienvs [avg] Head radiate r.

Rev. d[ianae] con[s avg] Stag walking l. image Mattingly and Sydenham, V i, p. 146, No. 179; Cohen 158.

2. Postumus.

Obv. [imp c postvmvs p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. pax avg Pax standing l. holding branch and vertical sceptre.

M. & S., V ii, p. 363, No. 318; Cp. C. 215.

3. Victorinus.

Obv. imp c v[ictorinvs p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. prov[identia avg] Providentia standing l. holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.

M. & S., V ii, p. 392, No. 61; C. 101.

4. Victorinus.

Obv. [imp vic]torinvs [p f avg] Head or bust radiate r., lower part off flan.

Rev. Illegible.

5. Claudius II.

Obv. [imp clavdivs avg] Bust radiate r.

Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l. holding branch and vertical sceptre.

M. & S., V i, p. 217, No. 80; C. 201.

6. Tetricus I.

Obv. imp [c tetricv]s p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. hilaritas avgg Hilaritas standing l. holding palm and cornucopiae.

M. & S., V ii, p. 408, No. 79; C. 55.

7. Tetricus I.

Obv. im[p c tetricvs pf avg] Bust radiate and cuirassed r.

Rev. [hilar]itas avgg Hilaritas standing l. holding palm and cornucopiae.

M. & S., V ii, p. 408, No. 79; C. 55.

8. Tetricus I.

Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. [laetitia avg] Laetitia standing l., holding wreath and anchor. Small flan. M. & S., V ii, p. 408, Nos. 87ff; C. 7Iff.

9. Tetricus I.

Obv. imp c tetricvs p f avg Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. pax avg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.

M. & S., 100; C. 95.

10. Tetricus I.

Obv. imp c tetricvs [p f avg] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.

M. & S., V ii, p. 409, No. 100; C. 95.

11. Tetricus I.

Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f [avg] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. [pax av]gg Pax standing l., holding branch and vertical sceptre.

M. & S., V ii, p. 409, No. 100; C. 95.

12. Tetricus I.

Obv. [imp c tet]ricvs p f avg Bust radiate r. Double-struck.

Rev. Uncertain.

13. Tetricus II.

Obv. [c piv esv tetri]cvs caes Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev . pa[x avg] Pax standing l., holding branch and sceptre.

M. &. S., V ii, p. 422, No. 248; C. 34.

14. Tetricus II.

Obv. [c] piv tetricvs [p] a[vg] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. [pax] avg Pax standing l., holding branch and transverse sceptre.

Not in M. & S. or C.

15. Tetricus II.

Obv. [c p e] tetricvs [caes] Bust radiate and draped r.

Rev. Illegible.

16. Tetricus II.

Obv. Legend off flan. Bust radiate and draped r. Rev. Illegible.

17. Allectus.

Obv. [imp] c allectvs p f avg Bust radiate, draped and cuirassed r.

Rev. [fi]des militvm Fides standing l. holding two standards. image

M. & S., V ii, p. 565, No. 69; C. 8.

18. Constantius II or Constans. 14

Obv. const … Bust diademed and draped r. Rev. [fel temp reparatio] Legionary l., spearing fallen horseman. image

19. Theodosius.

Obv. d n [theodo]sivs p f avg Bust diademed and draped r.

Rev. [salvs reipvblicae] Victory advancing l. dragging captive: ᛡ l. (obliterated) Mint-mark illegible.

20. Theodosius.

Obv. [d n theodo]sivs p f avg Bust diademed and draped r.

Rev. [victor]ia av[ggg] Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.

21. Arcadius.

Obv. d n arcad[ivs]pf avg Bust diademed and draped r.

Rev. victoria [avggg] Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.

22. House of Theodosius.

Obv. Legend illegible. Bust diademed and draped r.

Rev. [victor]ia avggg. Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm. Mint-mark illegible.

End Notes

14
For the relation of Nos. 18-22 to this hoard, see p. 10.

B. COINS OF IRREGULAR MINTAGE

Prototype: Claudius II. Consecration Issue.

Obv. DIVO CLAVDIO

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
23 I, 1 .6 28.8 (1.87) …. DIV
24 .6 15.5 (1.0)
25 .55 17.6 (1.14) divo
26 .55 14.9 (.97) d …. o
27 .55 21.6 (1.4) No legend. Barbarous small head. Traces of border of dots.

Prototype: Claudius II. Consecration Issue.

Obv. divo clavdio

28 .6 16.3 (1.06) vdio
29 .5 14.2 (.92)
30 .5 18.2 (1.18)

As above

31 .6 22.5 (1.46) …. VTV …

a) Copying Recognizable Models

M. & S., V ii, p. 234, No. 266; C. 41 ff.

Rev. consecratio Eagle with head r. or l.

No. Reverse
23 Eagle standing front, head r.
24 Same type. consecratio
25 Same type. conse….
26 Same type … secra
27 Eagle standing front, head l.

M. & S., V i, p. 233, No. 261f; C. 50 ff.

Rev. consecratio Square altar.

28 Plain altar with flames …. rati
29 Same type… atio
30 Plain altar with double sides and top …. o ….

but Stylised.

31 Double-topped altar with four panels, each containing pellet…. v … tv
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
32 .55 15.5 (1.0)
33 I, 2 .55 16.4 (1.06)
34 .6 19.9 (1.29)
35 I, 3 .6 19.5 (1.26)
36 .65 12.8 (.83) Almost smooth.
37 .6 21.4 (1.39) … CLA …
38 I, 4 .5 21.4 (1.39) Head very barbarous.
39 .5 16.7 (1.08) Bust draped (?). … oΓ vδ ….
40 .55 9.1 (.59) Small bust.
41 .6 20.0 (1.30) Good workmanship. DIV …. DIO.
42 I, 5 .6 24.1 (1.56) Very barbarous. Traces of letters.
43 .55 22.0 (1.42) Traces of letters.

Rev. Altar

44 I, 6 .55 14.3 (.93) Large head, neck off flan.

Rev. Altar with

45 I, 7 .55 26.5 (1.72) Barbarous head with thin neck ending in row of dots…. pnoc
No. Reverse
32 Altar with flames and palmettes, and four panels each containing pellet, con …
33 Altar with flames and panel, containing five pellets.
34 Altar with stylised flames, divided horizontally into two panels containing pellets … ecrati …
35 Double-sided altar with five pellets. Doublestruck.
36 Plain altar with panel. Flan thin and spread.
37 Plain altar with four panels cratio.
38 Small plain altar with panel.
39 Small altar with flames, roughly divided into six (?) panels.
40 Altar with flames and crescent in panel.
41 Altar with pellet and circle in panel. Nearly smooth.
42 Altar with lines, extended to end in arrows, and small panel containing pellet.
43 Square altar (?), containing irregular lines.

and Figure.

44 Lower part of male figure l. (?) To r., high in field, small altar with horizontal lines. Traces of border of dots.

Concave Sides.

45 Altar with incurved sides, three stylised flames and round feet. Border of dots. Flan has projecting tongue. s mi
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
46 I, 8 .75 27. (1.75) Barbarous draped bust. … vs p h a vc
47 .75 12.0 (.78) apn d o
48 I, 9 .55 17.5 (1.13) Line border.

Prototype: Probus.

Rev. felicitas avg

Felicitas standing front, head l.,

49 .5 21.4 (1.39) Barbarous head, neck ending in straight line. Border of dots.

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. fides militvm

Fides standing l.,

A. Reverse close to prototype.
50 I, 10 .6 17.0 (1.1)
51 .65 23.5 (1.52) ti tri
52 .65 19.9 (1.29)
B. Main details preserved, odd style.
53 I, 11 .6 11.6 (.75) tetr i
54 .45 8.2 (.53) … A II …
55 .5 14.5 (.94) Draped.
No. Reverse
46 Altar with incurved sides, from which rise two arrows and between them flames. Pellet in centre. Traces of letters.
47 Altar with incurved sides, round feet, raised panel and flames on l. … u …. mi
48 Altar with incurved sides. Two pellets and stylised flames all around. Border of dots and lines.

(cp. Probus: M. & S., V ii, p. 55, No. 355 ff.) holding caduceus and cornucopiae.

49 Felicitas standing front, head l., holding caduceus and cornucopiae.

M. & S. (Webb) V ii, p. 407, Nos. 68 ff.; C. 37 ff. holding two standards.

50 Fides standing l., holding standard in either hand. MILI …
51 Same type (standard in r. hand, almost off flan)…. ΓΛ ғ …
52 Same type (standard in l. hand, almost off flan).
53 Fides, standing l., holding standard in either hand … v M (Fides is a short squat figure).
54 Same type (standards held close to sides).
55 Same type (standard in r. hand off flan: Fides is very broad in the chest).
C. Derivation from prototype uncertain.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
56 I, 12 .7 31.9 (2.07) AVDIVS … Features like those of Claudius II.
57 I, 13 .6 26.3 (1.7) Draped (?)
58 I, 14 .6 22.2 (1.44) … T I V …
59 .55 11.0 (.71) … T … V …

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Fortuna standing l., holding rudder

Rev. fortvna avg (Not

60 .6 19.1 (1.24) … A … V …
61 .55 12.0 (.78) … V …

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. hilaritas avgg

Hilaritas standing l., holding

62 I, 15 .7 21.7 (1.41) Draped … p tvcs …
63 .6 23.6 (1.53) Draped … avg
No. Reverse
56 Female figure, draped, standing l., holding vertical trident (? broken at top) in r. hand and vertical sceptre (?) in l. C, low, left, in field.
57 Figure, undraped (?), radiate (?), advancing l., holding vertical object (sceptre?) in either hand … v …
58 Male figure, draped to knees, standing l., holding vertical spear in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.
59 Female figure, draped, standing l., holding vertical object (sceptre or standard?) in either hand.

M. & S., V ii, p. 407, No. 73; C. 44.—Tetricus I. in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. common in this group).

60 Fortuna standing l., holding rudder in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. …ΛIΛ…
61 Same type…. c …

M. & S., V i, p. 408, Nos. 79 ff; C. 53 ff. long palm and cornucopiae.

62 Hilaritas standing l., holding long palm in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. … ilari
63 Same type. vi a

Prototype: Victorinus.

Rev. invictvs

Sol walking l., r. hand raised,

A. Main type: no star.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
64 II, 1 .55 12.6 (.82) it ricvsi
65 .55 19.6 (1.27) Draped. Curiously faint lines … in …
66 .6 18.3 (1.19) Draped. Overstruck (?)
67 .6 12.7 (.8) Curious loose drawing.
68 .6 22.2 (1.44) i
69 II, 2 .65 21.7 (1.41) … AV II OCT И … Features of Postumus.
B. Main type: star (or other object) l., in field.
70 .6 22.5 (1.46)
71 .6 21.2 (1.37) …CTETI …
72 .55 18.0 (1.17) Draped … avg
73 .5 8.4 (.54) …vs…
74 II, 3 .65 22.2 (1.44) … NISDIV …
75 .5 17.2 (1.11)
76 .55 21.5 (1.39) Draped
77 .7 27.2 (1.76) Draped. Youthful head.

M. & S., V i, p. 396, Nos. 112 ff.; C. 46 ff.

1. holding whip (sometimes, star l., in field).

No. Reverse
64 Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in 1….x…
65 Same type (Sol radiate).
66 Same type. (r. hand off flan)
67 Same type.
68 Same type…. I ̃
69 Same type (radiate: mantle across chest).
70 Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in l. Star l. in field … tv
71 Same type. …vs
72 Same type.
73 Same type (r. hand off flan) … I II I Radiate.
74 Same type…. ictvs
75 Same type. Radiate … cta ….
76 Same type. Star (?) l.
77 Same type (l. hand off flan, r. holding whip). NN…
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
78 II, 4 .75 19.2 (1.24) Draped im…
79 II, 5 .55 19.6 (1.27) Draped … izinn…
C. Main type: P., l. infield.
80 .6 15.8 (1.02) Draped …ICV
D. Main type varied.
81 II, 6 .6 20.7 (1.34) … AVG …
82 II, 7 .6 18.1 (1.17) Draped … avd

Seven further worn coins seem to derive more or

E. Main type, but turned to r.
83 II, 8 .6 19.3 (1.25) Draped. Youthful portrait (?)
84 .65 10.6 (.69) Draped …v.

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. laetitia avg.

Laetitia standing l.,

A. Main types.
85 .6 27.6 (1.79) Draped and cuirassed (?) … pctetrcvs
86 .55 12.3 (.8) …II. TETPIICVS …
87 .65 17.5 (1.13) Draped. Youthful portrait …TETR
No. Reverse
78 Same type (on l., x low on r.).
79 Same type (+ on l.), ᗭea …vav…
80 Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding whip upright in l.: p., l., in field.
81 Sol walking l., raising r. hand and holding globe in l.: above globe. … oti
82 Sol walking l., raising both hands. Radiate …V… AI

less closely from the 'Invictus' prototype.

83 Sol running r., raising l. hand and holding whip in r. … cyot…
84 Sol walking r., raising l. hand, r. hand, holding whip (?), off flan … tv. … (r. to l., outwardly)

M. & S., V ii, p. 408, Nos. 86 ff.; C. 70 ff. holding wreath and anchor.

85 Laetitia standing l., holding wreath (?) in r. hand (off flan) and anchor on ground in l. … C V G
86 Same type….v
87 Same type (very worn, but traces suggest this type).
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
88 II, 9 .6 16.6 (1.08) Draped …vt…icvi
B. Main type varied.
89 II, 10 .55 20.7 (1.34) … TIVZ
90 .55 23.0 (1.49) … III…

Prototype: Diocletian

Mars advancing l., carrying spear

91 II, 11 .65 36.6 (2.37) Draped IMPCITRIC…

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. pax avg.

Pax standing l., holding

A. Main type: no drapery over l. arm.
92 .6 25.3 (1.64) …IIIII
93 .6 8.4 (.54) … TETRICVSII …
94 .6 13.2 (.86) …II IIIO …
95 II, 12 .6 21.9 (1.42) Draped and cuirassed (?)
96 .6 18.8 (1.22) … IIII.
97 .6 18.2 (1.18) Draped …vr…
No. Reverse
88 Laetitia standing front, head l., with knees slightly bent, holding up? (wreath?) in r. hand and holding anchor on ground in l. c.v.D….TI II
89 Laetitia (?) standing l., holding patera (or wreath?) in r. hand and anchor on ground in l. Low l., cross and [ (?) … Գ.┘ …
90 Laetitia (?) standing l., holding wreath in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. … vg

M. & S., V ii, p. 244, No. 239; C. 314.

and trophy. Reverse of Diocletian.

91 Mars advancing l., carrying trophy (?) over shoulder in r. hand and transverse spear in 1…. IV…

M. & S., V ii, p. 409, Nos. 100 ff; C. 95 ff.

branch and vertical sceptre.

92 Pax standing l., holding branch up in r. hand and vertical sceptre in 1….IIC
93 Same type. (Curly lines of figure) …v…
94 Same type (r. hand almost off flan).
95 Same type (r. hand almost off flan).
96 Same type. pa
97 Same type… .e c c … c
B. Main type: drapery over l. arm.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
98 .65 17.9 (1.16) I III P CL …
99 .65 18.8 (1.22)
100 .65 24.2 (1.57) I И I P IIT …
101 II, 13 .6 14.8 (.96) Youthful portrait …CS … TETRICV∫…
102 .65 19.2 (1.24) Draped. Youthful portrait
103 .6 22.0 (1.42) Draped. Youthful portrait …RICVSCA…
104* II, 14 .7 17.6 (1.14) Draped
105* II, 15 .8 21.7 (1.41) Draped I…CI…
106 .55 19.5 (1.26) Draped
C. Probably as B., but not quite certain.
107 III, 1 .55 18.0 (1.17) Draped. Youthful portrait … АνƆΛνΙ …
108 .6 17.4 (1.13) Draped dnocc… vg
109 .55 18.0 (1.17) Draped (?)….saiac (overstruck?)
110 .55 15.1 (.98) Youthful portrait … A I V Λ V I…
111 .55 12.9 (.84) Youthful portrait …SAVC
No. Reverse
98 Pax standing l., holding up branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.: a fold of drapery falls over her harm…. x A …
99 Same type. pa…
100 Same type….av…
101 Same type. Ɔνχ …
102 Same type. (r. hand almost off flan)
103 Same type….xa …
104* Same type. (r. hand almost obliterated) …X. …v…
105* Same type. (r. hand off flan) …av. image
106 Same type. (Curly lines of figures) …x…
107 As B. No. 1. (r. arm off flan)
108 Same type. (Indefinite object in r. hand) …o a xv… (r. to l., outwardly)
109 Same type. (l. arm almost off flan)
110 Same type. (r. arm off flan)
111 Same type. (r. arm off flan) … iva…
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
112 .6 22.3 (1.45) …PC TETRIC …
113 .5 17.8 (1.15) Draped. No legend (?)
114 .6 15.1 (.98) …ETRIC … (r. to l.,
115 .6 23.7 (1.54) outwardly)

115A III, 2 Nine other worn coins probably show

D. Probably as B, but altar l.
116 .65 12.6 (.82) Draped iiiiip…

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. pax avg.

Pax standing l., holding

117 .65 10.1 (.65)

Uncertain 'Pax' Type

118 .65 19.3 (1.25) Draped …vsc…

Prototype: Carausius.

rev. pax avg.

Pax standing l., holding

119 .55 14.6 (.95) Draped (?) …TETRI…
120 .6 22.4 (1.45) …VSIC …
121 .55 16.3 (1.06)
No. Reverse
112 Same type. (r. arm obscure) ….A…
113 Same type. (Details of r. hand obscure) A…s . leg drawn back.
114 Same type. (r. arm off flan)
115 Same type. (details of l. arm obscure) A…

the same reverse, of which one is illustrated.

116 As B., No. 1 (r. hand almost off flan) Altar l.

M. & S., V ii, p. 409, Nos. 100 ff.; C. 95 ff. branch and transverse sceptre.

117 Pax standing l., holding branch in r. hand and transverse sceptre in l. (normal style—?)
118 Female figure standing l., holding? (rudder?) on ground in r. hand, in l….IIX…

M. & S., V ii, p. 475, No. 130; C. 222.

branch and cornucopiae.

119 Pax standing l., holding up branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l.: a fold of drapery falls over l. arm. pax avg.
120 Same type. … a xav.
121 Same type.

Probably same

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
122 III, 3 .5 23.8 (1.54) Curious narrow portrait …IA…
123 .7 24.0 (1.55) … RICVS PI.V.

Two more worn coins

Prototype: Tetricus II.

Rev. pietas avgg (avgvsto etc.).

Priestly emblems variously arranged. (A big jug knife r. and l.)

A. Jug alone visible.
124 .5 7.0 (.45)
125 .5 10.4 (.67) II … V c
126 .5 17.2 (1.11) Draped
127 III, 4 .6 12.5 (.81) Youthful portrait (?)
128 .65 17.9 (1.16) Draped
129 .6 20.00 (1.3)
130 .55 9.5 (.62) Draped (?) … Λ
131 .5 9.8 (.64) … ΙΛΙΤΙ…
132 .6 17.2 (1.11) Draped … s …

reverse.

No. Reverse
122 As No. 119 above (r. arm off flan: cornucopiae (?) in l. hand).
123 As No. 119 above (r. arm off flan: corn ucopiae (?) in l. hand), v. l. in field.

probably show the same reverse.

M. & S., V ii, p. 423, Nos. 254 ff.; C. 48 ff. is always in the centre: simpulum, sprinkler, lituus and

124 Jug with lip r. (Jug has two feet, one raised). … R …
125 Same type. (Only top of jug visible) иΟΙRC
126 Same type. (Jug is curiously stylized and looks almost like a standing figure)
127 Same type. (Around the jug, chain of indecipherable letters or border)
128 Jug with lip l. (?) ιυλ Double struck.
129 Jug with lip l. (?) …ΓΛ…
130 Same type…. s
131 Same type…. III
132 Same type. (? Sprinkler on r.)
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
133 .6 26.9 (1.74) Draped and cuirassed (?)
134 .5 15.1 (.98) …TS …CON …
B. Jug and additional emblem r.
135 .7 27.0 (1.75) Draped imte…
136 .45 8.1 (.52)
137 .5 22.5 (1.46)
138 III, 5 .6 13.0 (.84) …ΤΙ☉ΤΙC
139 .65 17.8 (1.15) IM…VD
C. Jug and additional emblem l.
140 .6 20.3 Draped
(1.32) …STR …sc…
141 III, 6 .6 27.0 (1.75) … O~…
D. Jug and additional emblems r. or l.
142 .65 30.6 (1.98) Draped cuirassed (?) PC … VG
143 .55 15.0 (.97) Draped. Youthful portrait (?)
144 III, 7 .55 17.7 (1.15) Draped
145 .6 25.0 (1.62) …SPIV …
146 III, 8 .55 9.7 (.63)
No. Reverse
133 Same type. (? Sprinkler on 1.)
134 Same type. (Only top of jug visible) …A
135 Jug with lip r.: lituus on r.
136 Jug with lip l.: lituus (?) on r.
137 Jug (uncertain if lip is l. or r., as top is obliterated) : lituus (?) r. ƎCD …
138 Jug with lip r.: uncertain object attached to it on r. …XQ…
139 Jug with two handles (?) on two feet: uncertain emblem (?).
140 Jug with lip l.: lituus (?) on l.,? object lost on r. S D …
141 Jug with two handles: top is shaped like caduceus …; iicsiiii uncertain emblem, image, with long stroke on l.
142 Jug with lip r.: lituus and knife on l., sprinkler on r… .ieΛS … 111 in ex.
143 Same type: uncertain emblem on l., lituus on r…. ~ …
144 Same type: sprinkler on l., lituus on r., + r. in field.
145 Jug with lip r.: uncertain emblem on l. and r.; in l. field, s.
146 Same type: lituus (?) on l., sprinkler on r.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
147 .55 19.9 (1.29)
148 III, 9 .65 31.1 (2.02) Draped …VI…
149 .45 9.5 (.62) Draped …~…
150 .5 8.7 (.56) Draped. Youthful portrait … SUI
151 .5 23.3 (1.51)
152 .6 24.8 (1.61) Draped
153 III, 10 .5 17.9 (1.16) Draped (features like those of Claudius II?)
154 .65 12.5 (.81) Draped
155 .6 18.5 (1.20) Youthful portrait … IIVET ETRICVS
156 .55 18.3 (1.19) …CV…A…
157 III, 11 .6 17.5 (1.13) Draped … nvsp
158 .55 20.4 (1.32)
159 .55 20.6 (1.33)
160 .6 23.9 (1.55) …TILI…
161 III, 12 .65 28.8 (1.87) Draped small head …IIINAC
162 .55 14.3 (.93)
No. Reverse
147 Same type: sprinkler (?) on l. lituus (?) on r.
148 Same type: (stylized almost as a figure): sprinkler on l., uncertain emblem on r.
149 Same type: (stylized as a figure) uncertain emblem on l. and r. (?)
150 Jug with lip l.: sprinkler and simpulum on l., knife on r.
151 Same type: lituus on l., uncertain emblem on r. Border of large dots.
152 Same type: (on two feet): sprinkler on l., lituus on r…. c. r. in field.
153 Jug with lip r.: uncertain emblem on l. and r….D T ̃ …
154 Same type: lituus on l., and lituus on r.
155 Same type: uncertain emblem on l., lituus on r. … .cacc + l. in field.
156 Same type: uncertain emblem on l. and r. …E P I …
157 Same type (with two feet): sprinkler on l., knife (?) on r.
158 Same type: sprinkler on l., lituus on r.
159 Same type (stylized): two objects, like litui attached to it by a bar on l. and r.
160 Jug with two lips: uncertain emblems on l. and r.; o above, vcqv on l.
161 Jug (or rather vase) with two handles: uncertain emblems on l. and r.
162 Jug with lip l. and r. (?), on two feet: round object (patera standing on edge) on l., uncertain emblem on r.
E. Four jugs
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
163 III, 13 .55 22.5 Features of Gallienus
(1.46) ….IOI …

Other worn coins show similar types: class A. 2.

Prototype: Victorinus (?)

Rev. Pietas standing l., sacrificing at altar.

164 .75 8.9 (.58) … TETRI…
165 .6 25.4 (1.65) …I N III …
166 III, 14 .75 20.8 (1.35) Cuirassed … divs
167 .55 20.6 (1.33) Draped
168 .6 19.5 (1.26) Draped. Youthful portrait IMPC TE …

Two more worn coins seem to

Prototype: Victorinus.

Rev. providentia avg.

Providentia standing l., holding

169 .6 14.3 (.93) Youthful portrait (?) …IA …

Varied (exact

170 .6 21.9 (1.42) …IPI … SCA …
No. Reverse
163 Three larger and one smaller jug.

class B. 2, class C. 2, class D. 4.

M. & S., V ii, p. 392, No. 58; C. 91.

Pietas holds spear.

164 Pietas standing l., sacrificing out of patera in r., handover altar and holding vertical sceptre in l….S…V…
165 Same type: (but sceptre transverse)
166 Pietas standing l., as on No. 165: altar almost off flan ….I …
167 Same type: (but cornucopiae for sceptre). Altar almost off flan.
168 Same type. Altar distorted pa

show the same reverse.

M. & S., V ii, p. 392, pp. 61 ff.; C. 100 ff. wand over globe and cornucopiae.

169 Providentia standing l., holding in r. hand wand over globe and cornucopiae in l.

prototype uncertain).

170 Providentia standing l., holding patera and rudder on globe (?) in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. provid

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. salvs avg.

Salus standing l., feeding from patera a

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
171 .6 23.7 …TETRIC …
(1.54) Double struck
172 III, 15 .6 26.5 (1.72) Draped 1…lliev

Two very worn coins

173 IV, 1 .65 20.9 (1.35) Draped. Youthful portrait …sc…

Probably derived

174 IV, 2 .65 28.6 (1.85) …VS AV …
175 .6 22.6 (1.46) …VV …
176 .6 18.7 (1.21) … CVSP …
177 .6 12.2 (.79) Draped. Youthful portrait….ESVTET …
178 IV, 3 .6 22.7 (1.47) Draped clii … dotindi
179 IV, 4 .5 13.9 (.9) Draped … IvIƆI …
180 .45 12.6 (.82) No legend

M. & S., V ii, p. 410, Nos. 121 ff.; C. 148 ff.

snake coiled round altar and holding sceptre.

No. Reverse
171 Salus standing l., feeding out of patera in r. hand a snake coiled around altar, and holding vertical sceptre in l.
172 Same type… .t …

show the same reverse.

173 As on No. 171 virtv

from salvs type.

174 As on No. 171, but altar off flan (?), cornucopiae half dissolved into a pattern. …va
175 Same type (cornucopiae obscure on l.)
176 As on No. 171; r. arm and cornucopiae (?) off flan.
177 Same type. Detail of patera and altar obscure.
178 Woman standing l., r. hand extended, with a curved line from it to a mark in field l. (? remains of snake coiling up from altar): l. arm extended downwards at side NƎ >>
179 Same die as No. 178…. v …
180 Woman standing l., r. hand extended over altar (? no snake), arm extended downwards.

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. spes avg (etc.)

Spes standing l., holding

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
181 IV, 5 .75 36.7 (2.38) Draped …PCTE…vs…
182 .55 27.3 (1.77) Draped. Youthful portrait …CSVID …
183 .7 28.6 (1.85) Draped
184 IV, 6 .65 19.0 (1.23) … pivesv Features like those of Claudius II.
185 IV, 7 .6 12.2 (.79) Draped. Youthful portrait? …ODVIV …
186 .6 10.7 (.69)
187 .7 17.8 (1.15) Draped …VIC.
188 IV, 8 .45 12.0 (.78)
189 .6 16.8 (1.09) … ƎS … e
190 .6 16.4 (1.06) Draped
191 IV, 9 .6 21.8 (1.41) Draped. Youthful portrait (?) … t … ricvs
192 .5 11.3 (.73) Draped (?)
193 .6 18.4 (1.19) Draped. Youthful portrait …vs
194 .45 4.8 (.31) …II …

M. & S., V ii, p. 411, Nos. 130 ff.; C. 158 ff.

up flower and gathering up skirt.

No. Reverse
181 Spes standing l., holding up flower in r. hand and gathering up skirt with l. spes …v …
182 Spes standing l., etc. (r. hand almost off flan)
183 Same type. ┫ on l.
184 Same type….s avgg
185 Same type: (only top of figure on flan) + l. in field….T Avii
186 Same type: (only top part of figure on flan)
187 Same type. … avg …
188 Same type: (only top of figure on flan)
189 Same type: (r. hand off flan)
190 Same type: (flower off flan: lower part of figure obliterated). …Ɔ
191 Spes standing l., etc. (flower off flan) … v …
192 Same type.
193 Same type…. o…
194 Same type.

One more worn specimen

Varied.—Spes

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
195 IV, 10 .6 29.5 (1.91) Draped …pf … Varied—
196 .6 31.7 (2.05) IMP …
197 IV, 11 .6 16.1 (1.04) …VIΛΙ …
198 .6 22.0 (1.42) …VSA …

Pattern developments

199 .65 17.1 (Ml) Draped …TETRI …
200 IV, 12 .55 19.4 (1.26) Draped …INV …
201 .6 19.7 (1.28)
202 .6 14.5 (.94)

Prototype: Postumus.

Rev. Victory standing r.,

203 IV, 13 .6 21.7 (1.41) Draped

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. comes avg.

Victory standing l.,

204 .7 26.7 (1.73) … DV …

showed the same type—

type. pax.

No. Reverse
195 As on No. 191. pax…
196 As on No. 191. (flower off flan). Altar (?) r. in field.
197 Same type, but patera in r. hand, (lower part of figure off flan).
198 Same type (but no trace of r. hand or flower). spe~ … CI… (l. up, outwardly)

of 'Spes' type.

199

200

201

202

M. & S., V ii, p. 360, No. 287; C. 31.

holding wreath and palm.

203 Victory, winged, standing r., holding up wreath (?) in extended r. hand. …titit

M. & S., V ii, p. 407, Nos. 56 ff.; C. 16 ff.

holding wreath and palm.

204 Victory, winged, standing l., holding up wreath (?) in r. hand and holding palm in l. …avg
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
205 .55 17.3 (1.12) Draped imp …
206 IV, 14 .55 28.2 (1.83) IMPCTA …
207 .6 13.4 (.87) Draped. Youthful portrait (?)
208 .6 17.8 (1.15) Draped
209 .6 17.9 (1.16) image

Prototype: Carinus (?)

Rev. Virtus standing, holding

210 .6 21.8 (1.41) … VSPFΛ …
211 IV, 15 .6 15.1 (.98) tricvs

Prototype: Tetricus I.

Rev. Virtus standing holding

212 V, 1 .6 19.3 (1.25)

Various Figure Types.*

A. Standing front—'male' figures (bare or with
213 .45 12.7 (.82) …CI … … A
No. Reverse
205 Same type. (Wreath clear) Star (?) l. in field.
206 Same type. (Wreath off flan;long transverse palm) …I….I…
207 Same type. (Wreath clear) av … Overstruck (?)
208 Same type. C O III …
209 Same type…. O … I C

M. &. S., V ii, p. 167, Nos. 223 ff.; C. 172 ff.

spear and parazonium.

210 Virtus standing front, holding vertical spear in r. hand and parazonium in l. vir …
211 Same type, iovi

M. & S., V ii, p. 411, Nos. 145 ff.; C. 199 ff.

spear and leaning on shield.

212 Virtus standing front, head l., resting r. hand on shield set on ground. On l., z reversed.

short drapery).

213 holding? in raised r. hand, arrow (?) in l.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
214 .6 23.2 (1.5)
215 V, 2 .45 10.0 (.65) Youthful head (?)
216 .5 10.4 (.67)
217 V, 3 .45 9.4 (.61) Behind head, 8. No legend (?)
218 V, 4 .65 30.9 (2.0) …I DI
219 .4 9.5 (.62)
220 .75 31.0 (2.01) …. VGPIAI…
221 .6 22.9 (1.48) ad … (outwardly on r. upwards)
222 V, 5 .45 10.2 (.66) No legend
223 V, 6 .35 7.4 (.48)
224 .55 12.1 Youthful head. No leg
(.78) end. Border of large dots.
225 V, 7 .45 10.8 (.7) IM…
226 .56 15.5 (1.0) …CIICCI…
227 .6 18.1 (1.17)
228 V, 8 .5 13.4 (.87) Bearded
229 .45 14.4 (.93)
No. Reverse
214 holding branch in raised r. hand, l. hand lowered. Border of large dots.
215 holding branch in raised r. hand, l. hand lowered.
216 holding branch (?) in lowered l. hand, r. hand raised.
217 holding caduceus in l. hand. No legend (?).
218 holding vertical palm in r. hand, l. hand lowered, with fingers extended….2320 on r.; ladderlike object, IIIIII in ex.
219 holding long vertical caduceus (?) in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.
220 holding sceptre, nearly vertical in r. hand and long crook, nearly vertical, in l.
221 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in l. In r. field, c.
222 holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, left hand lowered. No legend (?)
223 holding vertical sceptre with knob at top (?), in l. hand.
224 holding simpulum (?) downwards in l. hand, and? in r. hand.
225 holding wreath (?) downwards in l. hand, r. arm extended (short skirt (?), turned up)
226 r. hand raised, holding?….I … TO…
227 r. hand flung out and up, l. hand holding? … T T …
228 r. hand lowered, with fingers extended, l. hand holding? …VI…
229 both hands lowered. + + (?) l. and r. in field.
A. 'Female' figures (draped)
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
230 .6 11.1 (.72)
231 .55 15.5 (1.0) Bust, draped.
232 .6 14.9 (.97)
233 .55 12.4 (.8)
234 V, 9 .6 17.1 (l.11) Draped, cuirassed r.
235 V, 10 .5 13.5 (.87) Draped: + on shoulder
B. Standing front, head r.— 'Male' figures (with
236 .6 19.8 (1.28) Caduceus (?) behind neck
237 V, 11 .6 11.1 (.72) IM…ICTO…
238 .55 12.0 (.78)
239 V, 12 .6 20.5 (1.33) …C TET.
240 .55 18.0 (1.17)
241 .6 7.5 (.49)
242 .55 24.3 (1.57)
243 .5 11.7 (.76) V …
244 V, 13 .45 5.8 (.38)
No. Reverse
230 holding branch in l. hand, r. hand raised. Two strokes to l., in field, … t
231 holding cornucopiae (?) in r. hand and rudder (?) on ground in l.
232 holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended.
233 holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, r. hand lowered.
234 holding vertical sceptre (?) in extended r. hand: big fold of drapery on breast…. IISC
235 both arms extended and lowered. No legend (?) short drapery).
236 holding up branch in l. hand, r. hand raised. Helmeted. Low on r…. om … outwardly.
237 holding long palm (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered, l. arm extended and bent.
238 holding long palm (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered by side (?)
239 holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, l. hand lowered, with fingers extended. Radiate. On l., cc (the first diagonally above the other).
240 holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand, l. arm extended downwards. No legend (?)
241 holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended, holding? Radiate (?)
242 holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand, r. arm extended downwards.
243 holding vertical spear in r. hand. Radiate.
244 with both arms extended, v on l.

Standing front, head r.—

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
245 V, 14 .7 24.2 (1.57) …MAVP R O BVSP…
246 .55 10.8 (.7) …AAA(?)…
247 .5 13.0 (.84)
248 .6 14.6 (.95) Draped
C. Standing front, head l.—'Male' figures (short
249 .55 21.7 (1.41)
250 .6 22.9 (1.48) Doublestruck or overstruck (?)
251 .65 19.1 (1.24)
252 V, 15 .55 8.9 (.58) … O …NV…
253 VI, 1 .6 28.9 (1.87) No legend (?)
254 .55 30.4 (1.97)
255 .6 20.9 (1.35) Bust draped. Youthful head.
256 VI, 2 .55 23.7 (1.54) Draped

Standing front, head l.—

257 VI, 3 .45 17.4 (1.13) No legend. Large ear Necklace (?)
258 .45 11.2 (.73) Youthful head (?)

'Female' figures (draped).

No. Reverse
245 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, I.V…
246 holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, round shield (?) on l. arm. ia…
247 with both hands extended downwards: across body fold of drapery (?). Ɔ…VC …
248 both arms lowered: radiate. Double-struck.
drapery).
249 holding branch (?) in r. hand,? in l.
250 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, and wreath (?) in lowered l. On l. ox on r. Ɛ (?)
251 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand at side.
252 holding vertical sceptre in both hands. No legend.
253 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand lowered VI (?) (large)
254 raising r. hand, and placing l. on side, l. elbow bent.
255 extending both arms.
256 both arms extended and lowered: lower part of figure off flan.

'Female' figures (draped).

257 holding branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.: curious treatment of figure.
258 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in l., to l., E
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
259 .6 22.8 (1.48) Draped.
260 .6 15.5 (1.0) Bust draped. iide… vc.; the "d" is crossed
D. Standing r. 'male' figures (short drapery).
261 .6 14.8 (.96)
262 .45 7.5 (.49)
263 VI, 4 .55 21.3 (1.38) … OimagePIA (?)
264 .5 6.3 (.41) otro (?)…
265* VI, 5 .5 13.8 (.89)
266 VI, 6 .5 14.6 (.95) Bust draped.
267 .65 17.3 (1.12) …vaƆc …ai
268 .65 24.0 (1.55) Youthful head. Bust draped. …it.ti
269 VI, 7 .55 18.3 (1.19) impcv … ic. image (?)
270 .6 9.7 (.63) …Ɔ~ …
271 VI, 8 .65 33.9 (2.2) Head l. Traces of letters of unusual shape all around edge.
No. Reverse
259 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. p a hii
260 holding shield (?) in r. hand, l. arm raised, as if brandishing a javelin. D, l., in field.
261 brandishing javelin in r. hand, l. arm extended.
262 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in r. ….cta
263 holding transverse spear upwards across body in both hands, - in loop of r. arm.
264 holding transverse spear upwards across body in both hands, x low in field l., large s (or snake) in field r.
265 Same type. Helmeted…A…
266 Same type. Helmeted. .via … l
267 holding transverse spear across body upwards in both hands, iiisi (?)…
268 Same type.
269 Same type…. ⌟ …sis Helmeted (?) x, r. in field.
270 Same type (? spear not clearly seen). Helmeted.
271 holding transverse spear downwards across body in both hands …S…V…
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
272 .55 16.6 (1.08) it
273 .5 14.0 (.91) Bust draped. … ƆI
274 .5 12.1 (.78) …AI…
275 .7 48.2 (3.12)
276 VI, 9 .55 15.8 (1.02) IM. ….
277 .6 13.3 (.86) Bust draped (?)
278 VI, 10 .6 29.5 (1.91) …IXV …
279 .7 21.4 (1.39)
280 .65 31.4 (2.03)

Standing r.—

281* VI, 11 .6 16.3 (1.06) Draped
282 VI, 12 .55 22.5 (1.46) Draped … avid …
283 .65 18.4 (1.19) …iio.v…
284 .6 6.6 (.43) Draped
285 .55 29.2 (1.89) Draped impci … aac
No. Reverse
272 holding horizontal sceptre across body in both hands.
263 holding vertical spear (?) in r. hand, round shield (?) on r. arm.
274 holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, and sword (?) across body in r.
275 holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, r. arm down.
276 holding sword (?) across body in r. hand and globe (?) in l. …acii
277 holding sword (?) across body in r. hand and spear (?), nearly vertical, in l. v … ia
278 holding wreath in r. hand and palm (?) in l. (curious curved lines).
279 r. hand held down, l. arm extended …IC
280 both arms extended downwards, …c: knobs for fists (?)

'Female' figures (draped).

281 holding arrow (?) up in r. hand and bow in extended l.: quiver on shoulder. (Diana) Starin field outwardly (r. to l.), …AI┛ITAA
282 Same die as No. 281. No legend visible.
282 holding cornucopiae in both hands;? radiate …liia…
284 with r. hand gathering up drapery, holding palm in l.
285 holding? in lowered r. hand, long vertical palm in l. ….v…
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
286 .6 19.9 (1.29)
287 .55 9.4 (.61) Bust draped (?)
288 .55 10.8 (.7)
289 .6 16.4 (1.06) Draped … VI
290 .6 9.6 (.62) …ii …
291 .5 12.8 (.83)
292* VI, 13 .6 20.8 (1.35) …. iiiiii ….
293 .55 17.6 (1.14) …tetric …
294 VI, 14 .65 22.2 (1.44) …tetric …
E. Advancing r. 'Male' figures (short drapery).
295 .5 16.1 (1.04)
296 VI, 15 .6 18.1 (1.17) Bust draped. Slightly double-struck.
297 .65 32.5 (2.11)
298 .65 17.4 (1.13) ? Imitation of Postumus.
299 .45 16.9 (1.1)
300 .55 20.0 (1.3)
No. Reverse
286 holding transverse sceptre, pointing up to l. in r. hand, and extending l. hand.
287 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in r.
288 holding vertical spear in l. hand, r. hand raised. Helmeted c…
289 holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. arm bent, l. hand on hip (helmeted) …S C…
290 holding transverse spear (?) in r. hand, ↓ (?) in l.
291 raising r. hand, holding rudder (?) on ground in l.
292 raising r. hand, holding s in l. …1 iiin
293 raising r. hand, holding?, l. hand extended.
294 holding? over body in r. hand, l. hand bent over altar (?).
295 brandishing javelin in r. hand, l. arm extended.
296 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand lowered holding? Slightly double-struck. No legend (?).
297 holding vertical sceptre and cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand lowered, holding?
298 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and? in l.
299 holding vertical spear in r. hand,? in l.
300 holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. hand off flan. Helmeted, wearing cloak to knees.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
301 VII, 1 .55 21.8 (1.41) … IIII
302 VII, 2 .55 19.2 (1.24) Bust draped.
303 .55 17.6 (1.14)
304 VII, 3 .55 24.4 (1.58) Bust draped (?)xmn in front of head.
305 VII, 4 .55 22.3 (1.45) di iio cliivpio
306 .55 24.5 (1.59) Youthful head. Bust draped.
307* VII, 5 .55 20.7 (1.34) Bust draped …. IIIIC
308 .55 18.9 (1.22) Bust draped
309 .55 17.1 (1.61) Bust draped (?).
310 .65 14.5 (.94) Bust draped (?).? Overstruck on old reverse.
311 .55 19.3 (1.25)
312 VII, 6 .5 15.3 (.99) Youthful head. No legend.
313 .5 7.9 (.51)
314 .5 10.3 (.67)
315 .5 11.0 (.71)
No. Reverse
301 holding round shield in r. hand, vertical spear in l. Helmeted. No legend (?).
302 holding vertical spear in l. hand, r. arm on hip, r. elbow bent. ʃ (?) l. in field. No legend.
303 holding transverse spear upwards across body with both hands.
304 Same type. и…м
305 Same type. dvti … Helmeted.
306 holding wreath (?) up in r. hand and vertical spear (?) in r.
307* holding sword (?) in raised r. hand and axe (?) in l., right knee bent.
308f Same type.
309 Same type, tla (?)…
310 ? r. arm raised, as if brandishing javelin, l. arm thrust out.
311 r. arm raised, r. elbow bent, l. arm extended, knees bent, csl
312 both arms extended downwards, l. with fingers extended, knees bent. No legend.
313 r. arm out, elbow bent, r. hand downward.
314 r. hand extended downwards, l. arm raised.
315 head turned back l., holding vertical? caduceus (with two tops?) in r. hand and? in l.

Advancing r.—

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
316 VII, 7 .5 11.0 (.71) … I~TI…
317 .6 16.1 (1.04)
318 VII, 8 .6 13.4 (.87) Draped. … vspipav
F. Standing l. 'male' figures (short drapery).
319 VII, 9 .65 15.8 (1.02) icvs pav Bust draped. In front image(?)
320 .65 18.8 (1.22)
321 .65 19.4 (1.26)
322 VII, 10 .6 20.5 (1.33) \ in front of head.
323 .6 18.3 (1.19) …. avii
324 .55 8.2 (.53)
325 .55 28.5 (1.85) cvs
326 .55 15.1 (.98) plivi~ (?)
327 VII, 11 .65 28.2 (1.83) c e s a i etr
328 VII, 12 .55 25.3 (1.64) ooo
329 .7 23.2 (1.5) icv

'Female figures' (draped).

No. Reverse
316 holding wreath upwards in r. hand,? in l. … iiii
317 holding? in raised r. hand, vertical spear in l.
318 holding out drapery in both hands: uncertain object half obliterated r. in field.
319 holding club on ground in r. hand,? in l. Border of large dots.
320 holding patera (?) in r. hand over altar and? in l.
321 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand on hip.
322 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand down, with fingers extended. Radiate. Angular. No legend.
323 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (slightly tinny appearance)
324 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in extended r.
325 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in extended r.
326 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …ii
327 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand at side. ┌, low in field.
328 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, raising r. hand above altar.
329 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …geniva
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
330 .6 10.8 (.7) ora
331 .7 24.9 (1.61) Bust draped.
332 .7 15.5 (1.0) … o c
333 .6 24.0 (1.55) No legend.
334 VII, 13 .55 13.1
(.85)
335 .6 22.3 (.45)
336 .6 19.3 (1.25)
337 VII, 14 .5 11.3 n
(.73)
338 .6 21.7 (1.41)
339 .5 17.2 (1.11) …. si ….
340 VII, 15 .8 29.2 (1.89) Bust draped.
341 .4 9.5 (.62)
342 VIII, 1 .45 8.9 (.58)
343 .55 14.0 (.91) Draped …rtia

Standing l.—

344 .75 19.6 (1.27) …. vc
No. Reverse
330 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand.
331 resting r. hand on shield set on ground, l. hand lowered.
332 holding vertical spear in r. hand.
333 holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. arm extended, with fingers going out into circle of dots. No legend.
334 holding vertical spear in r. hand, patera downwards in l. a … t
335 holding vertical spear (?) in l. hand, r. hand down.
336 raising r. hand, l. hand lowered, oa …
337 holding? in r. hand, l. arm lowered. Helmeted.
338 holding? in r. hand, l. arm lowered.
339 holding? in lowered r. hand, l. arm at side. a … ahii
340 holding both hands down, with fingers extended
341 r. arm lowered, l. arm raised, elbow bent.
342 r. arm at side, holding? (rudder) in lowered l.
343 extending r. hand to? on l.: uncertain object on r.

'Female' figures (draped).

344 holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
345 .55 6.5 (.42)
346 VIII, 2 .55 18.9 (1.22) Draped. … av divs p e avg.
347 .6 15.2 (.98) riticvs
348 .75 13.4 (.87) lllc …. A Youthful head. Bust draped.
349 .7 21.7 (1.41) 350
.7 29.7 (1.92) Large head like Postumus (?)
351 .55 21.7 (1.41) cidivao
352 .65 14.2 (.92) 353
VIII, 3 .55 16.0 (1.04) Draped … mac …
354 .6 19.1 (1.24) Draped. Youthful portrait … e. t
355 .55 7.5 (.49) i l av t …
356 .7 23.1 (1.5) …A …N…cvs(?)
357 .55 13.1 (.85) pcvictor
358 .6 19.6 (1.27) s p
359 .6 20.3 (1.32) ivpcltacitvsp … Bust draped.
360 .6 7.4 (.48) cp
361 .5 15.3 (.99)
No. Reverse
345 holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. vda …. as
346 holding branch in r. hand and cornucopiae in 1. …TVGG.
347 holding branch in r. hand and transverse sceptre in l. vda … as
348 holding branch in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. Uncertain object, low l., in field.
349 holding branch in r. hand, and anchor on ground in ;l. Uncertain object, low l., in field.
350 Same type. v…
351 holding branch in r. hand and wreath in l. … i c i
352 holding caduceus downwards in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.
353 holding cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand off flan.
354 holding? in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. … s I a
355 holding cornucopiae in l. hand, transverse sceptre in r. …pil…
356 holding cornucopiae in l. hand,? (caduceus) in r. pva
357 holding cornucopiae in l. hand, r. hand lowered.
358 holding cornucopiae in l. hand, wreath (?) in r. c
359 holding cornucopiae in l. hand …. v
360 Same type. …c p …. o
361 Same type. con, outwardly, on r. upwards.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
362 .55 23.7 (1.54) Bust draped.
363 .6 16.5 (1.07) Bust draped.
364 .6 17.8 (1.15)
365 VIII, 4 .65 17.7 (1.15)
366 .6 18.3 (1.19) ost (?) …
367 .55 32.2 (2.09)
368 .6 24.4 (1.58)
369 .5 9.1 (.59)
370 .45 11.8 (.76) Bust draped.
371 VIII, 5 .6 32.9 (2.13) iiii … Bust draped.
372 .5 13.0 (.84) Draped … itec
373 .55 19.1 (1.24) . .ricvs . .
374 .55 20.1 (1.30) c iiiic …. Bust draped.
375 VIII, 6 .55 10.0 (.65) imp …. vs
376 .6 19.9 (1.29) Bust draped.
377 .6 25.4 (1.65) ricvsa (?).
No. Reverse
362 Same type, I, r. in field.
363 Same type. —
364 Same type, (double cornucopiae?) … iii
365 Same type, mivi … on r., upwards, outwardly.
366 Same type. r. hand raised, holding?
367 holding cornucopiae (?) in l. hand, patera (?) in lowered r. 2 on l.
368 Same type, vertical sceptre (?) in r. …avg
369 Same type. —
370 Same type. r. hand raised … x ii
371 holding corn-ears (?) downwards in r. hand over? (prow of ship?), l. hand lowered over modius and corn-ears.
372 holding palm in l. hand, wreath (?) off flan in r.: winged (? Victory).
373 holding patera in extended r. hand, l. arm at side, c… o …r …
374 holding patera in extended r. hand, vertical sceptre in l. e (?) low l.
375 holding patera in extended r. hand, vertical sceptre in l. In l. field, X.
376 holding patera (?) in lowered r. hand extended down with fingers spread. p
377 holding patera in extended r. hand,? in l.
No. Plate. Size Wt. Obverse
378 .6 19.2 (1.24) Draped. Youthful portrait….vc
379 .65 28.5 (1.85) iri..
380 .65 15.5 (1.0) rvs
381 .55 9.3 (.6)
382 .55 18.0 (1.17) Bust draped … …icimageiin
383 .55 14.5 (.94) Bust draped … imi
384 .4 12.3 (.8) … D (?) i cv…
385 .55 21.8 (1.41)
386 .65 14.7 (.95) ….in (?)
387 .6 21.9 (1.42) … ̃ii
388 .5 11.9 (.77)
389 .6 18.1 (1.17)
390 .55 14.1 (.91)
391 .55 15.3 (.99)
392 .55 13.8 (.89) Bust draped (?)
393 VIII, 7 .65 23.8 (1.54)
394 .65 26.3 (1.7)
No. Reverse
378 holding patera in extended r. hand and gathering up skirt with 1. … itpv
379 holding rudder on ground in l. hand,? (branch?) in r.
380 holding rudder on ground in r. hand, and cornucopiae in l. Drapery curling out.
381 holding vertical sceptre (or spear?) in r. hand, and anchor on ground in l. … IƆI
382 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. CΠN… imi
383 holding vertical sceptre (? and wreath) in r. hand and cornucopiae in 1. …C …
384 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand; l. Ɔ …
385 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.
386 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand.
387 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, cornucopiae in l.; low r., in field, x.
388 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, o on l., s on r.
389 holding sceptre (nearly vertical) in r. hand,? (branch?) in l. vv image on l.
390 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand.
391 holding vertical sceptre (or spear) in r. hand and vertical palm in 1….x
392 holding vertical sceptre (?) in r. hand and? (cornucopiae) in l.
393 holding vertical sceptre against l. arm, r. arm extended, knee bent. ….A.
394 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand,? in extended l.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
395 .5 9.2 (.6) Youthful head (?). Bust draped. pv … ricvscv. .
396 .6 12.9 (.84) ? Portrait like Postumus.
397 .6 10.8 (.7) icii … Youthful head (?) Bust draped.
398 .65 34.1 (2.21) i m p tet ….
399 .53 17.1 (1.11)
400 .6 15.2 (.98) …te(?)
401 .6 12.0 (.78) imptet
402 .6 9.3 (.6) .a v p ct…
403 .6 17.8 (1.15)
404 VIII, 8 .6 13.5 (.87)
405 .55 16.9 (1.1) ttΓ
406 .7 17.1 (l.11) ? Head like Postumus
407* VIII, 9 .6 22.8 (1.48) …. ̃ …
408 .6 12.9 (.84) Double-struck?
409 .45 10.4 (.67)
No. Reverse
395 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand.
396 Same type, p v … (up on r.)
397 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? in r.: (lower part of figure off flan) …IV
398 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in lowered and extended r. …va c
399 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand,? in lowered and extended r.
400 holding vertical sceptre (or anchor?) in l. hand.
401 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, r. hand raised. si … oi
402 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand …s
403 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand, l. knee slightly bent … VƆГ
404 holding vertical sceptre (?) in l. hand. Note curious treatment of drapery.
405 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (only top half of figure on flan).
406 holding? (shield on ground) in r. hand, and straight spear and round shield in l.? Helmeted.
407 holding vertical spear in r. hand and small round shield (?) in l. Helmeted … Λ v v ГI…
408 holding vertical spear and round shield (?) in l. hand, transverse sword (?) across body in r.
409 holding vertical spear reversed in l. hand.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
410 .6 12.8 (.83) Draped in
411 .65 13.3 (.86) Draped … vs.
412* VIII, 10 .6 19.8 (1.28) Traces of letters.
413 VIII, 11 .55 22.0 (.42) Traces of letters
414 VIII, 12 .55 25.3 (1.64) Traces of letters
414A§ VIII, 13 .6 20.2 (1.31) Traces of letters (…vviaa…)
415 .6 24.3 (1.57) avg.
416 .7 23.0 (1.49) iii
417 .65 23.4 (1.52) cvspia
418 .6 15.5 (1.0)
419 .6 20.4 (1.32) Draped impcv
420 .75 22.6 (1.46) Draped …v…
421 .55 11.6 (.75) Draped (?) youthful portrait …cvs av.
422 .55 21.3 (1.38) imp … v
No. Reverse
410 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, l. hand resting on?, r. on ground …s. v … c, l. in field.
411 holding vertical sceptre in r. hand, with knob at top,? in l. … viva
412 holding vertical spear in r. hand, l. hand lowered, fingers extended. Helmeted. Traces of letters.
413 Same type. Traces of letters.
414 Same type. No helmet. …iiiv
414A (? helmeted) … ii ivaii i
415 holding out r. hand over altar (?) l. in field, and holding vertical sceptre in l. hand … ni
416 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand i … Border of spikes.
417 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand and? (patera?) in r. …v c.
418 holding vertical sceptre in l. hand (sceptre apparently double).
419 holding transverse sceptre in l. hand …va …
420 raising r. hand (holding?) and holding transverse? (sceptre?) in 1. …vic
421 holding wreath (?) up in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l. x in field.
422 holding vertical spear in r. hand, round shield on l. arm (?). Helmeted. …nv pmn
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
423 .55 14.3 (.93)
424 .6 15.3 (.99) Bust draped (?) imp…
425 .7 18.2 (1.18) Bust draped
426 .6 22.0 (.43) ….titi
427 .55 13.6 (.88)
428 .6 17.8 (1.15) Bust draped, ci… Mᴒ
429 .6 12.0 (.78) Bust draped …sc
430 .55 13.2 (.86) Bust draped …ricv
431 .65 13.5 (.87) Bust draped impc te… avg
432 .6 17.4 (1.13) . .M. .p titricvs a…
433 .65 32.6 (2.11)
434 .6 26.4 (1.71) ….ƆC …
435 .6 19.3 (1.25)
436 VIII, 14 .6 15.3 (.99)
437 .65 20.7 (1.34) Youthful head … tricsv (?) …
438 .55 13.8 (.89) Bust draped … spfavg
No. Reverse
423 holding snake (?) in both hands across body….vpi
424 holding anchor on ground in l. hand,? (wreath?) in extended r.
425 ? holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? (wreath?) in extended r. … ʌʌ …. Double-struck.
426 holding anchor on ground in l. hand and wreath (?) in extended r.
427 holding anchor on ground in l. hand and wreath (?) in extended r.
428 holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? in r.
429 holding anchor on ground (or straight sceptre?) in l. hand.
430 holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand ia
431 holding up wreath in r. hand,? in lowered l.
432 holding anchor on ground in l. hand and? (wreath?) in extended r.
433 holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand,? in l.
434 holding wreath (?) in extended r. hand, l. arm lowered …I…
435 holding wreath (?) in raised r. hand, and palm in l.
436 holding °|° (?) in r. hand and? in l. Radiate. ᴗ high on r.
437 holding C in r. hand and ϧ in l.
438 holding wreath (?) in r. hand, anchor (?) in l. ̃ … C
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
439 .6 11.9 (.77)
440 .65 34.9 (2.26) … o Ш iiic
441 .55 6.3 (.41) Bust draped ….iiicc
442 .6 16.7 (1.08)
443 .6 17.8 (1.15) vsps
444 .65 16.7 (1.08) imp tericv …
445 VIII, 15 .45 10.1 (.65) Bust draped (?)
446 .6 19.3 (1.25) i i i i a n i • iii
447 .5 13.1 (.85)
448 .55 9.8 (.64) …. sp
449 .65 23.2 (1.5) vav
450 .6 27.4 (1.78)
451 .6 10.4 (.67) Bust draped and cuirassed…R (?) vsi
452 .6 13.3 (.86) Youthful head (?)
453 IX, 1 .6 11.1 (.72) … LL (?) VS (?) A… Features of Quintillus.
454 .55 21.6 (1.4) Bust draped …savg.
No. Reverse
439 holding? transversely (upwards to l.) across body in r. hand, l. arm extended, fingers spread. …i i i.
440 holding? in raised r. hand,? (cornucopiae?) in l.: (only part of figure showing) … c s i.
441 holding? in r. hand and? (long caduceus?) in l. (only lower part of figure showing).
442 holding? in r. hand, ;l. hand down with fingers extended, ixiiv…ivii.
443 holding? in r. hand and? (corn-ear) in l. … i c
444 holding? in r. hand and?, spear nearly vertical, in l.
445 holding? in lowered r. hand, arrow (?) in l. (curved lines)
446 holding? in r. hand, (wreath?) in lowered l. hand …. C
447 holding? (wreath) downwards in r. hand.
448 holding? (\\) in r. hand, l. hand lowered over altar (?)
449 holding? in r. hand, and? (snake?) in l. * l. in field, N …
450 holding up? (wreath) in r. hand, and ᴗ in l.
451 holding? across body in both hands …vs
452 holding? (torch?) across body in both hands.
453 both arms lowered (only top half of figure shown)
454 Same type.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
455 .65 25.6 (1.66) vtti
456 .55 16.5 (1.07)
457 .5 23.6 (1.53) Bust draped.
458 IX, 2 .65 21.0(1.36) Bust draped …aidiiiiispif
459 .65 24.3 (1.57) imp … Star (?) behind head.
460 .6 15.4 (1.0)
461 .6 13.8 (.89) i tric

Uncertain.

462 .65 13.0 (.84) Draped diademed (?) l. Traces of good lettering.
G. Advancing l.
463 .6 22.8 (.48) Draped Λdi…
464 .65 44.5 (2.88)
465 IX, 3 .55 14.9 (.97) ….p probus
466 IX, 4 .55 24.1 (1.56)
467 .55 22.1 (1.43) Doublestruck.
No. Reverse
455 holding? in extended r. hand,? (anchor) in l. hand.
456 raising r. hand, radiate (?) … iv
457 raising r. hand, holding? (≀ -bow) in l.
458 resting l. arm on column … VTƆ
459 holding? (patera?) in lowered l. hand and cornucopiae in r.
460 r. hand lowered, holding cornucopiae (?) in l.
461 holding? in extended r. hand, e (?) l. in field.
462 Juno standing l., holding patera in r. hand, and vertical sceptre in l.: peacock l.

'Male' figure (undraped).

463 extending r. hand, holding? and long palm in 1. …. IIƆ …
464 remains of Spes standing l., holding flower and raised skirt (?) … op.e
465 holding? in extended r. hand. ẋ in l., image on r. in field.
466 holding spear (?) across body in both hands.
467 r. hand lowered, l. arm extended pii… Double-struck (?)

Advancing left:

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
468 IX, 5 .65 18.3 (.19) Draped vi …v
469 .65 33.0 (2.14) Draped. Mullet (?) in front of nose adacii
470 .6 19.1 (1.24)
471 IX, 6 .6 26.3 (1.7) … IAƆ …

'Female' figures

472 .6 15.2 (.98)
473 .6 9.5 (.62) Draped … tetric
474 .7 16.9 0.1) pe
475 .65 20.6 (1.33) Draped impc

Seated

476 IX, 7 .55 20.3 (1.32)

Various

477* IX, 8 .75 28.9 (1.87) p(?) ilv (?)s
478 IX, 9 .65 24.7 (1.6) evn…v

'male figure (undraped).

No. Reverse
468 holding round object in raided l. hand, o on l., s. on r. (derived from invictvs?)
469 holding round object (?) in extended r. hand and? in l. on … ϟ
470 both arms extended, holding? in r. hand.
471 Female figure (draped) holding? (wreath with bands) in r. hand,? on shoulder in l.

(draped).

472 holding up flower (?) in r. hand and gathering up skirt with l.; in r. field, image.
473 holding out? in r. hand; l. arm seems to rest on rim of shield set on ground … avg
474 holding? (wreath) in r. hand and? (palm) in l. (Victory?)
475 Same type. (Victory?)

Right.

476 on throne, radiate. Position of hands uncertain …CPC …

Animals, etc.

477 Horse with pole, as if harnessed to chariot (?), r.
478 Stag r.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
479* IX, 10 .5 15.0 (.97) rvʅ
480 IX, 11 .55 22.1 (1.43) …roc…
481 IX, 12 .5 18.5 (1.2)
482 IX, 13 .55 21.3 (1.38)
483 .55 11.4 (.74)
484 .55 8.7 (.56) Double-struck
485 .4 9.8 (.64)
486 IX, 14 .55 27.5 (1.78)
487 .55 6.5 (.42)

Temple.

488 IX, 15 .65 34.3 (2.22) iiidic ciix
489 .6 17.3 (1.12) … r …
490 X, 1 .6 10.9 (.71)

Uncertain.

491 .55 8.8 (.57)
492 X, 2 .55 26.3 (1.7) … obvs …
No. Reverse
479 Stag r.
480 Stag r. … co
481 Stag (?) r.
482 Stag 1…. ia
483 Stag l.
484 Stag l. (?) … co vv vi . .
485 Bird r.
486 Bird front, head r. (?)
487 Bird r. (?)
488 Tetrastyle temple with pediment. Traces of legend.
480 Distyle temple. Altar (?) and standing figure (?) in front.
490 Distyle temple: within, altar. Above, iiia
491 remains of standing figure (?) or galley r. (?)
492 remains of standing figure (?) or galley r. (?) cvp
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
493 X, 3 .55 16.9 (1.1) imp … tricv2
494 X, 4 .45 12.1 (.78)

Crosses, etc.

495 X, 5 .55 31.2 (2.02) Bust draped. No legend.
496 .55 16.8 (1.09)
497 X, 6 .55 22.3 (1.45)
498 X, 7 .55 19.4 (1.26) …ieaiic …
499 X, 8 .65 15.9 (1.03) Bust draped ap … ivg

Patterns.

500 .5 16.6 (1.08) Border of large dots.
501 X, 9 .55 23.3 (1.51) … ic …
502 .6 12.4 (.8) …cuia (?)
503 .55 9.4 (.61) oΛ x
504 .6 23.1 (1.5)
505 .5 10.5 (.68)
506 .35 10.8 (.7)
No. Reverse
493 Altar (?) In the place of legend, ]]]] on all sides.
494 Uncertain object (Hand l.?) IIIIIIII round edge.
495 Cross with a pellet in each angle. No legend.
496 Cross (Latin) in wreath.
497 Cross (Latin), partly in circle.
498 Figure like cross (Greek), with additional lines attached to limb, (? a broken-up figure, stylized).
499 Figure standing l., in process of being stylized as a cross-like pattern …t(?). .v. .
500 p. 109, fig. 1 (Peculiar)
501 p. 109, fig. 2 (Peculiar) Figure derived from trophy and captives (?) … tv
502 p. 109, fig. 3 (Peculiar) Spidery design.
503 p. 109, fig. 4 (Peculiar) Part of standing figure and border (?).
504 p. 109, fig. 5 (Peculiar) Derived from standing figure (?) … vit(?)…iii
505 p. 109, fig. 6 (Peculiar) Top part of figure (?)
506 p. 109, fig. 7 (Peculiar) Top part of figure (?)
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
507 X, 10 .6 22.1 (1.43) Head 1…. iits
508* X, 11 .55 25.4 (1.68) Draped. Youthful portrait … cvs.
509 X, 12 .5 18.3 (1.19)
510 X, 13 .55 26.8 (1.74) … cpcidc (r. to l. outwardly)
511 .5 21.8 (1.41) Draped, youthful portrait
512 .45 15.4 (1.0) Draped … isnc.

Stylized

513 .6 17.5 (1.13)
514 X, 14 .6 30.6 (1.98)
515 .55 12.1 (.78)
516 .5 14.9 (.97)
517 .45 9.7 (.63) v(?)vv
518 .55 11.4 (.74) oi Γ(?)c…
519 X, 15 .5 17.1 (1.11) divspfc
No. Reverse
507 p. 109, fig. 8 (Peculiar)
508 p. 109, fig. A Peculiar A. Same rev. die as 509.
509 p. 109, fig. A Peculiar A. Same rev. die as 508.
510 p. 109, fig. B Peculiar B. Stylized figure standing l. holding up branch. Border of strokes.
511 p. 109, fig. C Peculiar C. Remains of Fides standing l., holding standards.
512 p. 109, fig. D Peculiar D. Remains of stylized figure holding branch (?);? E l. in field.

Figures.

513 p. 109, fig. 9 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)
514 p. 109, fig. 10 (Peculiar) Pattern-like treatment of body of standing figure.
515 p. 109, fig. 11 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)
516 p. 109, fig. 12 (Peculiar) Standing figure (?)
517 p. 109, fig. 13 Linear treatment of figure advancing l. (?)
518 p. 109, fig. 14 (Peculiar) Stiff standing figure (?) s m (?) … iv
519 p. 109, fig. 15 (Peculiar) Figure standing r. c iiiiiiiiii

A few coins show some features of interest on obverse,

No. Plate. Size Wt. Obverse
520 .65 24.0 (1.55) Long bust (radiate?) i …ici …
521 .75 22.1 (1.43) Longhead cd … d(?) vs high in field r., i. Double-struck.
522 .7 35.5 (2.30) Bust draped. Features of Probus (?)
523 .65 20.0 (1.27) …cii (?) csnv.
524 .55 7.7 (.50) Youthful head (?) cpivi
525 .55 7.8 (.51) Small head, with curious angular features. Two pellets below bust.
526 .5 13.9 (.90) oriv
527 .55 22.1 (1.43) impt

Two-Figure Types.

1. (a) Warrior spearing horseman

528 XI, 1 .55 20.4 (.32) …ivii …

(b) obv. Radiate.

529 XI, 2 .55 33.2 (2.15) iti

but no reverses that can be accurately described.

No. Reverse
520 …CIimage … (outwardly)
521 Female figure standing l.: altar l. (?) Doublestruck.
522
523
524 …. sv (?)…
525
526
527 (spear held in r. hand of figure?)

('Fel. Temp. Reparatio' type).

528 Warrior standing l., driving down spear at some object at his feet l. Broken border of large dots.

Derived types on rev.

529 Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear, with two points (?): round shield (?) on l. arm… .oh … (It is uncertain whether there was any object at his feet l.)
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
530 XI, 3 .55 20.9 (1.35) oooo
531 XI, 4 .55 19.9 (1.29) vm
532 XI, 5 .55 17.6 (1.14)
533 .55 22.4 (1.45) Radiate head r. overstruck (? on figure standing or advancing l.)
534 XI, 6 .55 15.6 (1.01) pvs

Two other coins, very badly worn

2. (a) Warrior dragging captive l.

535 XI, 7 .65 24.4 (1.58) …v.ct.a…
536* XI, 8 .65 21.3 (1.38)
537 XI, 9 .55 25.6 (1.66)
538 XI, 10 .7 24.4 (1.58) nidh
No. Reverse
530 Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear at prostrate figure (captive or animal) at feet l., and holding branch downwards in l. hand.
531 As on No. 530, but no trace of prostrate figure, though it might be off the flan, C on r. image
532 Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear and holding stick (or club) in l. …. ⌒ … (It is uncertain whether there was any object at his feet)
533 Warrior standing l., with r. hand driving down spear. (Very worn, but the r. hand and spear seem certain: it is uncertain whether there was object at his feet l.)
534 Small figure to l. of flan, raising l. arm, r. arm downwards; traces of horse's head. (There seems to be room for warrior on the r.)

perhaps show similar reverse types.

('Gloria Romanorum' type).

535 Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure and holding vertical spear in l.
536 As on No. 535, but badly worn.
537 As on No. 535, but there are only faint traces of captive….V…
538 Warrior advancing r., holding vertical spear in l. hand; with r. hand he carries captive, held off the ground (?)
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
539 .6 30.3 (1.96)
540 XI, 11 .55 18.7 (1.21)
541 .45 13.9 (.9)

(b) Warrior dragging captive l.

542 XI, 12 .55 20.8 (1.35) Doublestruck
543 XI, 13 .65 35.4 (2.29)
544 XI, 14 .5 9.4 (.61)
545 XI, 15 .55 14.2 (.92)

One other worn coin possibly

3. Warrior dragging or leading smaller figure (Derived

546 XII, 1 .6 14.6 (.95)
No. Reverse
539 As on No. 535 (?), but details obscure
540 Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure, r. hand raised. *, r. in field.
541 Warrior advancing r., with r. hand dragging small figure (?) l. hand lowered (?) …. ᴖ …

(derived from 2a.—?).

542 Warrior advancing l., r. hand raised, holding? (off flan) and dragging animal (?) with l. hand.
543 Warrior advancing l., r. foot raised, r. knee bent, holding vertical spear in r. hand and dragging captive (?) with l.
544 Warrior advancing l., r. hand extended, holding? (off flan) and dragging captive (?) in l. Large star (?) r., in field.
545 Warrior advancing l., r. hand extended, holding? and dragging captive (?) with l. (The interpretation of this type is uncertain. There is an obscure object,? l. in field, and the captive (?) is quite uncertain.)

shows a similar reverse.

from 'Gloria Romanorum' or 'Fel. Temp. Reparatio.')

546 Warrior advancing r., l. hand raised, r. elbow bent; with r. hand dragging or leading smaller figure r. (details very obscure: the pose is not quite that of the ordinary 'Gloria Romanorum')

4. Various.

No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
547 XII, 14 .65 27.7 (1.79) vsvica … av
548 XII, 3 .55 15.8 (1.02) Bust draped: l. (?)
549 XII, 4 .51 10.5 (.68)
550 XII, 5 .5 9.2 (.6) imp c prob (?)
551 XII, 6 .45 7.5 (.49)
552 XII, 7 .55 11.7 (.76)
553 XII, 8 .55 14.9 (.97) ….ia. Features of Postumus (?)
554 XII, 9 .6 26.4 (1.71)

5. Various.

555 XII, 10 .85 69.5 (4.5) iit iiavi

To right.

No. Reverse
547 Large figure standing r., r. hand lowered, l. hand raised; on l., animal (?); on r., smaller figure standing r., holding? in raised r. hand…. dc. Double-struck.
548 Warrior standing r., r. hand lowered, in front of him, on r., figure kneeling front, head r. (?), extending r. hand and holding? (round shield) on l.….v…
549 Warrior advancing r., r. hand lowered, holding? (arrow) in l.; at his feet r. helmeted figure sprawling on ground (?).
550 Warrior standing r., holding vertical sword (?) in r. hand; to r., smaller figure kneeling (?).
551 Man advancing r.; facing him, on r., bird standing l.….11
552 Man advancing r., driving smaller figure, with arms outstretched, before him.
553 Warrior advancing r., holding? in lowered r. hand and bow (?) in l.; to r., smaller figure kneeling r. Traces of worn letters.
554 Man standing front, head r., with r. hand thrusting down figure sprawling on ground l., l. arm lowered. Uncouth linear figure, with long arms like an ape.

To left.

555 Warrior standing l., raising r. hand and holding vertical standard with vexillum (or labarum?) in l.: to l., captive kneeling on ground (?) v. ͽ under standard.
No. Plate Size Wt. Obverse
556 XII, 11 .6 31.3 (2.03) ncivo
557 XII, 12 .6 17.8 (1.15)

6. Various.

558 XII, 13 .55 16.8 (1.09)
559 XII, 2 .6 24.4 (1.58) Large features …v
560 .55 23.6 (1.53) vict
561 .55 25.4 (1.65)
562 .6 28.9 (1.87)
563 .6 36.5 (2.37)
No. Reverse
556 Warrior standing l. (?) holding small figure (?) off ground in r. hand and vertical spear in l. Traces of uncertain letters.
557 Warrior standing l., r. hand raised (?) holding vertical spear in l.: to l. serpent (?)

Frontal.

558 Two small figures, both with arms raised above heads, standing front, side by side … im … Star r., in field.
559 Female figure standing l., holding corn-ears in r. hand and vertical sceptre in l.; to l., a smaller figure standing front, with arms extended and slightly raised, dxe…a…
560 Figure on extreme l. of the flan, standing r., apparently requiring to be balanced by similar figure on r. (obliterated). ('Gloria Exercitus' type (?) )
561 p. 109, fig. 16 Confused type, representing two warriors meeting in combat (?). (Peculiar)
562 p. 109, fig. 17 Confused type, representing two warriors meeting in combat, one holding spear, one round shield (?). (Peculiar)
563 Man standing front, on r., holding vertical spear in r. hand. Doubtful traces of what was perhaps a second figure on l.

End Notes

*
Same obv. and rev. dies.
*
Some of these types will recall known models, but they are placed here because the resemblance is imperfect or uncertain.
*
Same obv. (?) and rev. die as No. 266.
Same obv. (?) and rev. die as No. 265.
*
Same obv. and rev. die as Nos. 282 and 292.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 281 and 292.
*
Same obv. and rev. die as Nos. 281 and 282.
*
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 308. Same rev. die as No. 309.
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 307. Same rev. die as No. 309.
Same rev. die as Nos. 307, 308.
*
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 412.
*
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 407.
Same obv. die as Nos. 414 and 414A. Same rev. die as No. 414A.
Same obv. die as Nos. 413 and 414A.
§
Same obv. die as Nos. 413 and 414. Same rev. die as No. 413.
*
Same obv. (?) and rev. dies as Nos. 508 and 509.
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 479.
*
Same obv. and rev. dies as No. 478.
*
Same obv. (?) and rev. dies as No. 477. Same obv. die (?) as No. 509.
Same obv. and rev. die as No. 477. Same obv. die (?) as No. 508.
*
Same rev. die (?) as No. 538.
Same rev. die (?) as No. 537.

BACK

APPENDIX A (See Plates XII-XIV)

Plates XII(end)-XIV(beginning) illustrate a number of barbarous radiates in the British Museum, which, at one point or another, seem to touch the Richborough hoard. The provenance of Pl. XIII, 3—the only one for which we have information— was Richborough. It seems unnecessary to add full descriptions where all are illustrated. The obverse of Pl. XII, 15, has part of the name of Victorinus; the obverses of Pl. XIII, 2, 5, and XIV, 4, make some kind of an attempt at the name of Tetricus I. Many of the reverses cannot be referred to any known original. But Pl. XIII, 1, shows a Pax type, Pl. XIII, 2, a Pietas, Pl. XIII, 3 and 4, Priestly Emblems (pietas avgg. type), Pl. XIII, 5, a Spes, Pl. XIV, 2, a cross, Pl. XIV, 4, a temple. Pl. XIII, 9, and XIV, 7, are of peculiar interest. Pl. XIII, 9, shows a radiate head l., with an obscure reverse, traces of barbarous lettering on both sides, overstruck on a gloria exercitus, two soldiers, type of the late Constantinian period, c. A. D. 330-340. Pl. XIV, 7, shows a crude head, r., apparently radiate, with rev. Warrior on horseback r., brandishing spear, overstruck on what was probably, but not quite certainly, a coin of about the same date as the original of Pl. XIII, 9. A comparison of these Plates with Plates I to XII will reveal noteworthy similarities of style in a number of points. The time is nearly ripe for a full discussion of this fascinating, but enigmatic coinage.

image

APPENDIX B On the Relation of Sceattas to the Richborough Coins

by Derek Allen

In their analysis of the Richborough radiate hoard, Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have pointed out that there occur in it types which do not go back to any Roman prototype. They have suggested that these coins may be the earliest attempts at original design by the Jutes who accompanied Hengist and Horsa. The evidence which Mr. Mattingly has brought forward from the side of Roman coins is strikingly confirmed on the side of Anglo-Saxon.

If the date proposed is correct, it would be reasonable to expect some relationship between the types of the Richborough coins and of the earliest of the Anglo-Saxon thrymsas and sceattas. Although a general date for the whole series from 600 to 750 A. D. 15 is well established, it is unfortunate that the fifty or sixty known types have never been arranged chronologically within these limits; it is as yet impossible to say precisely which of them are the earliest. An appendix such as this is not the place to indulge in new and speculative classifications. It may, however, fairly be said that the majority of thrymsa and sceatta types use decorative motives which occur on other Anglo-Saxon objects. 16 There are, nevertheless, a few types whose designs cannot be found elsewhere in contemporary art; most of these designs are derived directly or mediately from Roman coin types. Those which are directly derived do not concern us here; but there exist sceattas which, though they obviously stand in some relation to Roman coins, are so far from the original as to imply a lost intermediate stage. It is more than a fortunate coincidence that the Richborough hoard provides us with some of these intermediate stages.

Against this view it might be urged that the heads on the majority of sceattas are derived from Constantinianor Theodosian models. I do not think that the objection is valid because in the sixth and seventh centuries the only silver coins with which the inhabitants of England are likely to have been familiar, are siliquae. 17 When striking a silver coinage, they may well have preferred diademed heads, while for copper coins they copied the commoner radiate models. A few thrymsas and sceattas actually have radiate heads, and on the earlier specimens of this class, (Pl. XV, 8 and 9), the head is represented in a manner extraordinarily similar to that on one coin in this hoard, Pl. V, 10.

In preparing their lists Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have wisely refrained from recording the fabric of the coins, since no verbal description is ever adequate. There are, however, considerable differences in fabric in the hoard, differences so marked as to be visible even in the plates. It was most noticeable in handling the coins that those which were most closely related to the sceattas in design were of a distinctive fabric. The coins were rounder, flatter and perhaps thicker than the majority of the hoard. Their designs were indicated more by line drawing than by relief. In almost every case a beaded circle had replaced the traces of the legends on obverse and reverse, a feature which recurs on sceattas. These circles were often considerably narrower than the diameter of the coin, and became an important part of the design. See for example, Pl. VI, 10; VII, 6, 10; X, 5.

On Plates XIV-XV are twenty examples of gold and silver Anglo-Saxon and Merovingian coins, chosen for the relationship they bear to the Richborough coins.

The first series, Pl. XIV, 8-12, have been chosen to illustrate the use of radiate heads on thrymsas and sceattas. The obverse of Pl. XIV, 8, a thrymsa, 18 is remarkably similar to Pl. V, 10, though one is beardless and the other bearded. This type of head occurs also on sceattas such as Pl. XIV, 9; the earliest bear the meaningless legend tic, though this is later replaced by Runic legends, as on Pl. XIV, 10 and 11. 19 Pl. XIV, 12 is possibly a Merovingian coin; it is included to show how confused the derivation of the obverse had become in the sixth century. The obverse of this coin clearly belongs to the same class as the others in the row. It even has the same legend as Pl. XIV, 9. There is, however, no trace of the radiate crown.

The sceatta, Pl. XV, 1 represents on the obverse a female centaur holding two palm branches. This curious subject is derived probably from the leg ii parth coins of Carausius, and is without parallel in Anglo-Saxon art. The type has, however, diverged somewhat widely from the original, and the presence of the palm branches may have been suggested by the horns of a stag on a coin such as Pl. IX, 13, itself derived from one of the legionary coins of Gallienus. It would then be an instance of the conflation of two earlier types, a process which often occurs on sceattas.

Pl. XV, 2, is an example of the well-known wolf and twins sceatta. The obverse is clearly copied directly from a Roman original. The reverse, however, which depicts a bird in an upright position between two vines, has no Roman prototype. The arrangement of the design is similar to that of the standing figures in the rest of the row. A bird pecking at grapes is a well-known Christian emblem and occurs somewhat later on the Ruthwell Cross. The general design, however, appears to be taken from a coin such as Pl. III, 11 where the sacrificial jug has assumed a form almost identical with this bird. A similar treatment of the human body occurs on Pl. XV, 4.

The next five sceattas, Pl. XV, 3-7, illustrate varieties of standing figures, some of which have remarkable analogies with the Richborough coins. Compare, for instance, Pl. VI, 10 with Pl. XV, 6 for the curled arms; Pl. VII, 6 and 7 with Pl. XV, 5 and 6 for the body and dress; Pl. VII, 10 with Pl. XV, 7 and 8 for the breasts; Pl. I, 14 with Pl. XV, 3; Pl. VII, 12, with Pl. XV, 5; Pl. X, 15 with Pl. XV, 4 for the exergual line, with Pl. XV, 6 for the arms. Pl. XV, 8 shows a two figure type such as Pl. XII, 15.

Pl. XV, 9, is a thrymsa and is presumably amongst the earliest coins of the series. Though very different in style from the other representations of the human body in this plate, it too has analogies in the Richborough hoard. Compare for instance Pl. V, 10 or Pl. IX, l.

Pl. XV, 10 was included to illustrate from sceattas the tendency to revolving designs which is shown on some of the Richborough coins such as Pl. V, l.

The Richborough coins provide an important link in the derivation of the "altar" or "standard" type of sceatta reverse, illustrated in Pl. XIV, 9, 10, 11, and XV, 8. It has always been known from the inscription totxx or totii, which appears on the less barbarous varieties, that the type was derived from either the altar or the standard of various Roman coins. On sceattas, however, the type is both stereotyped and far from the original. The Richborough coins show how this may have come about; Pl. I, 2-5 illustrate various misunderstandings of the altar. Pl. I, 2 even shows five pellets arranged precisely as are the letters in Pl. XIV, 9.

Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have stressed the importance of the cross which occurs on the reverse of the coins Pl. X, 5, 6 and 7. This type, though undoubtedly un-Roman, does not in fact occur in the same form on sceattas. There is a common type, Pl. XV, 13, on which a cross occurs surmounted by a bird. 20 Similar crosses, however, occur on gold Merovingian coins of the seventh century, of which Pl. XV, 11 and 12 are examples; they also occur on some of the earliest thrymsas such as Pl. XV, 14 and 15. 21

It must be admitted, then, that some relationship exists between the designs of the Richborough coins and the sceattas. So marked is this that it would not, to my mind, be adequate to say that the two series were struck at widely different points in the same artistic period. The artists of the thrymsas and sceattas must, I think, have seen and handled coins similar to those in this hoard. If this is so, it has somewhat drastic consequences on the dating of the hoard.

The hoard which is the subject of this monograph is not the only barbarous hoard from Richborough. There has also been found in the uppermost layer a hoard of 'minimissimr derived from Constantinian and Theodosian types. 22 These coins are of extraordinarily small size, and some of them are of metal so debased as to be barely distinguishable from lead. Fragments cut from earlier coins were found with them. There can be no doubt that these coins represent the last stage in the direct tradition of Roman coinage. They must have been struck at a time when metal was of almost fabulous scarcity. By the time the radiate hoard was buried, conditions had completely altered. Copper was no longer scarce and the continuous tradition of Roman coinage had now been broken. Moneyers copied not the last coins in circulation, but any chance coins they found. There must therefore have been some gap in time between the burial of the two hoards. Given such a gap, the degree of fidelity to Roman models provides no indication of its length. The only internal evidence of date which the hoard presents, is the relationship which some coins in it bear to sceattas. It would be impossible to date any Anglo-Saxon thrymsas or sceattas much before 600 at the earliest. There is no intrinsic reason why the coins in this hoard should have been struck nearer 500 A. D. than 600 A. D. It has often been supposed that the peoples of England in the fifth and sixth centuries used Roman copper coins which they had dug up or imitated. 23 The analogies between the Richborough coins and the sceattas suggest very strongly that this hoard provides a sample of the coins in question. Messrs. Mattingly and Stebbing have suggested that the hoard represents the money which Hengist and Horsa brought with them. I prefer the bolder hypothesis that the latest of these coins belong to the age of Augustin.

End Notes

15
Brooke, " English Coins." p. 5.
16
Baldwin Brown, "The Arts in Early England," pp. 56-113.
17
In the British Museum collection there are no barbarous copies of radiate coins in silver, whereas Constantinian silver was frequently copied.
18
The reverse type of this coin, the clasped hands, also occurs on barbarous radiates from Richborough, though none occurred in this hoard.
19
The obverse of Pl. XIV, 11 has been mounted on the plate at the wrong angle.
20
The reverse of this coin has been mounted on the plate at the wrong angle.
21
The majority of thrymsas in the Crondall Hoard, buried not long after 610 A. D., have crosses on the reverse.
22
Unpublished; kindly shown me by Mr. Stebbing, the finder.
23
Brooke, "English Coins," p. 2:—"In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Roman copper coins, whether surviving as currency or dug up as treasure from the earth, doubtless circulated with barbarous imitations to serve the monetary requirements of the invading and invaded peoples."

LIST OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS

ILLUSTRATED ON PLATES XIV and XV

Pl. XIV, 8. AV. Thrymsa; Num. Chron. 1922, p. 215, no. 2.

9. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 12.

10. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 37.

11. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 49.

12. AR. Merovingian Silver coin; uncertain mint.

Pl. XV, l. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 189.

2. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 77.

3. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 88.

4. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 97.

5. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 16, var.

6. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 105.

7. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 113.

8. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 51.

9. AV. Thrymsa; Num. Chron. 1922, p. 215, no. 3.

10. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. type 37.

11. AV. Merovingian Triens; Pfalzel.

12. AV. Merovingian Triens; Compreignac.

13. AR. Sceatta; B. M. C. no. 135.

14. AV. Thrymsa found at Warminster, Wilts.

15. AV. Thrymsa; B. M. C. no. 7.

All these coins are in the British Museum.

The references are to the British Museum Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Coins. Vol. I. pp. 1-22.


RICHBOROUGH HOARD

PLATE I

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PLATE II

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PLATE III

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PLATE IV

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PLATE V

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PLATE VI

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PLATE VII

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PLATE VIII

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PLATE IX

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PLATE X

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PLATE XI

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PLATE XII

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PLATE XIII

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PLATE XIV

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PLATE XV

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