Silver Coinage of Cappadocia, Vespasian-Commodus

Author
Metcalf, William E.
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
Date
Source
Donum
Source
Worldcat
Source
Worldcat Works
Source
HathiTrust

License

CC BY-NC

Acknowledgement

Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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Table of Contents

FRONT

BODY

INTRODUCTION

In May 1983 a lot of over 900 silver coins was presented at the American Numismatic Society for examination. It consisted, with the exception of a single Domitianic denarius, of didrachms conventionally attributed to Caesarea in Cappadocia. The relative wear of the coins was consistent with the residue of a hoard and, indeed, it was so described by the vendor; he was unable or unwilling to provide reliable information regarding its findspot or point of export.

Coins of Caesarea as well as reports (unsubstantiated from our point of view) of a large hoard had been filtering through the trade for some time. After we saw these coins, Dr. Wolfram Weiser published a portion of what he called the Cappadocian find in Epigraphica Anatolica. 1 There can be little doubt that the present lot is part of the same aggregation as that published by Weiser and estimated by him at 2,500 coins, and as the one published in Coin Hoards 7 (1985), 156, reported to have been found near Kayseri in 1980. The hoard is said there to have amounted to ca. 2,000 silver coins of which over 100 were denarii; there were also two Lycian drachms. It appears that soon after discovery the lot was broken up and that the portion we examined was intended to include only didrachms, the Domitianic denarius having been included by accident. As the comparison on p. 2 makes clear, except for the reign of Commodus, there is little overlap between the lot published here and that published by Weiser.2

In the following catalogue, the coins are arranged chronologically by ruler, then by type; economy of presentation has combined with the mint's own practice to indicate that sometimes the obverse, sometimes the reverse type is the major control. Within each type, coins with significant die links are usually placed at the head. Other coins follow as die linkage suggests and in descending order of weight; no attempt has been made to trace die progressions. Weight and axis are given, and the "remarks" column notes all die links within the hoard and with Weiser. The hoard is illustrated as completely as possible on Plates 1 to 51. Plates 5254 include representative coins, mainly of denominations other than the didrachm, identified in the key on pp. 171–73.

To make clear certain aspects of the die linkage it has been necessary to use several different forms of numbering dies. These are noted as appropriate through the catalogue, where numbering of dies begins at 1 or A for each emperor or major discrete issue. An asterisk (*) adjacent to the running catalogue number indicates those coins which are now in the collection of the American Numismatic Society.

Table 1 Comparison of Caesarea and Weiser
Caesarea Caesarea Weiser Weiser
Didrachms Denarius Didrachms Drachms Hemidrachms Denarii
Tiberius 1 (1)
Vespasian 52 (1–52) 2 (5–6) 1 (7) 1 (8) 1 (2)
Domitian 98 (53–150) 1 (932) 1 (9) 1 (3)
Nerva 10 (151–160)
Trajan
Early 41 (161–201) 4 (14, 17–19) 10 (10–13, 15–16, 21–23) 1 (4)
111–114 255 (202–456) 9 (24–27, 40–41, 45–46, 64) 50 (28–39, 42–44, 47–63, 65–82)
114–116 53 (457–509) 28 (83–110)
Hadrian 18 (510–27) 12 (148–59) 37 (111–47)
Antoninus 5 (528–32) 34 (160–93)
M. Aurelius 161 (533–693) 1 (194)
L. Verus 101 (694–794)
Commodus
Undated 3 (795–97) 5 (195–199)
Yr. 3 36 (798–833) 24 (200–223)
Yr. 4 98 (834–931) 35 (224–258)
Total: 931 1 80 136 38 4

Partial List of Coins in Trade since Weiser 1984

Schulten (Cologne)

25–27 Oct. 1984: 192 (hemidrachm of Vespasian, rev. Nike r.); 208 (didrachm of Domitian, rev. "Apollo"); 282 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 298–99 (didrachms of Commodus, Weiser 201 and 220).

22–23 April 1985: 398 (didrachm of Domitian, rev. Nike r.); 403 (didrachm of Domitian, rev. quadriga); 516 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 540–42 (didrachms of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus, including Weiser 212).

20–22 Oct. 1987: 462 (hemidrachm of Titus, rev. Nike r.); 473 (didrachm of Domitian, rev. Athena r.); 499 (didrachm of Trajan, rev. Artemis [?] bust); 559 (didrachm of Antoninus Pius, rev. Eusebeia); 583 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 599 (didrachm of L. Verus); 608–9 (didrachms of Commodus, Weiser 219 and 197).

1–3 April 1987: 753 (didrachm of Commodus, Weiser 236).

Müller (Sollingen)

45, 16–17 Mar. 1984: 233–34 (didrachms of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

47, 28–29 Sept. 1984: 217 (didrachm of Vespasian, rev. Nike r.); 220 (hemidrachm of Hadrian, rev. Nike r.); 221 (hemidrachm of Hadrian, rev. club); 223–24 (didrachms of L. Verus, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 225 (didrachm of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

52, 26–27 June 1986: 173 (didrachm of Antoninus Pius, rev. club); 174 (didrachm of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

55, 12–13 June 1987: 159–60 (didrachms of Domitian, rev. Athena and club); 161 (hemidrachm of Domitian, rev. Homonoia); 164 (didrachm of Antoninus Pius, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

56, 25–26 Sept. 1987: 248 (didrachm of Trajan, rev. Artemis [?] bust); 249 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 250 (didrachm of L. Verus, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 251 (didrachm of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

57, 27–28 Feb. 1988: 140–42 (didrachms of Trajan, rev. Artemis [?] bust, club, Mt. Argaeus); 143 (didrachm of Hadrian, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 144 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus).

Athena (Munich)

2: 4 Oct. 1988, 340 (didrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 346 (didrachm of L. Verus, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 348–49 (didrachms of Commodus, rev. Mt. Argaeus). This sale also includes the apparently unrelated Trajanic tridrachm and didrachm with standards and eagle respectively, 305–6.

Bankhaus Aufhäuser (Munich)

FPL 6, n.d. [Apr. 1988]: 306–7 (didrachms of Domitian, rev. quadriga, Athena); 309 (didrachm of Nerva, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 325–26 (drachms of Trajan, rev. "Artemis," clasped hands); 373–79 (didrachms of M. Aurelius, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 380 (tridrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. Mars); 381 (tridrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. altar); 382 (tridrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. eagle); 383 (tridrachm of M. Aurelius, rev. temple); 393–95 (didrachms of L. Verus, rev. Mt. Argaeus); 403 (tridrachm of Commodus Caesar, rev. altar); 404–5 (tridrachm of Commodus Caesar, rev. eagle); 406 (tridrachm of Commodus Caesar, rev. temple); 407–11 (didrachms of Commodus); 436, a drachm of Julia Domna of A.D. 197, is too worn to be considered part of the hoard.

End Notes

1 The name is useful insofar as it distinguishes his and this lot from Baldwin's 1927 Caesarea find.
2 Other coins probably or certainly from the find are listed by Weiser, p. 110, n. 3, and p. 114, n. 17. The list of Caesarean coins following Table 1 have appeared in the trade since Weiser wrote (including some published by him), but it is by no means comprehensive. There could be no more graphic demonstration of the velocity with which fragile hoard evidence can be lost, nor clearer justification for the kind of record attempted here and in Weiser.

ADDITIONAL NOTE 1995

Since this manuscript was sent to press there have been two significant additions to the bibliography of the period under discussion. In the first, Kevin Butcher takes up the question of overvaluation of provincial silver raised by D. R. Walker. He employs Walker's own analyses of denarii and Cappadocian silver, and concludes that if the Caesarean drachm is viewed as the equivalent of a Rhodian drachm (i.e. 3/4 of a denarius), there is no overvaluation at all.1

The second is more important, and has a direct bearing on the distinction made here, p. 48, between the Roman and local-style issues of Vespasian.2 Butcher, now in collaboration with M. Ponting, analyzes Flavian didrachms of Roman and provincial style. The authors conclude that while the silver content of the two groups is virtually identical, with a 50:50 silver:copper ratio being the goal, the Roman group has significantly higher lead content. Moreover, "the trace element profiles demonstrate that the copper and silver used to make this alloy differ significantly between the two numismatically defined issues by virtue of their impurity levels" and the trace element ratios are "basically the same for denarii issued at Rome and Caesarean coins of the Rome style."

This second contribution is based on analyses which differ significantly from Walker's (which showed somewhat higher silver content for both Roman and provincial issues) and which show a significantly lower standard deviation. They suggest that Walker's results were affected by the effectiveness of the blanching process in ancient times and subsequently by the effects of corrosion. In this respect they confirm skepticism expressed elsewhere regarding the utility of Walker's results.

End Notes

1 K. Butcher, "Rhodian Drachms at Caesarea in Cappadocia," NC 152 (1992), pp. 41–48.
2 K. Butcher and M. Ponting, "Rome and the East: Production of Roman Provincial Coinage for Caesarea in Cappadocia under Vespasian, A.D. 69–79," Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 14.1 (March 1995), pp. 63–77.

CATALOGUE OF THE HOARD

Vespasian, A.D. 69–79

Obv. AYTOKPA KAICAP OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOC. Head of Vespasian laureate r.

Rev. A. AYTO KAI OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOY YIOC. Head of Titus laureate r. Provincial style 1–26.

Undated

Coin Obv./Rev. Weight Axis Remarks
1. 1 /A1 6.61 12 Obv. of 2, 3.
2. 1 /A2 6.34 12 Obv. of 1, 3.
3. 1 /A3 5.83 12 Obv. of 1, 2. Rev. of 4.
*4. 2 /A3 6.36 12 Obv. of 5, 27 (Nike). Rev. of 3.
5. 2 /A4 6.92 12 Obv. of 4, 27 (Nike).
6. 3 /A5 6.33 12 Obv. of 7.
7. 3 /A6 5.97 12 Obv. of 6. Rev. of 8.
8. 4 /A6 5.65 12 Obv. of 9, 10? Rev. of 7.
9. 4 /A7 6.43 12 Obv. of 8, 10?
10. 4?/A? 6.50 12 Obv. of 8? 9?
11. 5 /A8 6.64 12 Dies of 12.
12. 5 /A8 6.52 12 Dies of 11.
13. 6 /A9 6.15 12 Obv. of 14.
14. 6 /A10 6.05 12 Obv. of 13.
15. 7 /A11 6.82 12
16. 8 /A12 6.82 12
17. 9 /A13 6.59 12
18. 10/A14 6.43 12
19. 11/A15 6.40 12
20. 12/A16 6.38 12
21. 13/A17 6.35 12
22. 14/A18 6.21 12
23. 15/A19 6.20 12
24. 16/A20 6.10 12
*25. 17/A21 5.97 12 Obv. of 28 (Nike), 29 (Nike).
26. 18/A22 5.91 12

Rev. B. NIKH CεBACTH

Rev. B1. Nike flying r., wreath in r., palm in l. Provincial style 27–40.

*27. 2/B1 6.38 12 Obv. of 4, 5 (Titus).
*28. 17/B2 6.96 12 Obv. of 25 (Titus), 29.
*29. 17/B3 6.43 12 Obv. of 25 (Titus), 28.
30. 18/B4 6.83 12
31. 19/B5 6.63 12
32. 20/B6 6.58 12
33. 21/B7 6.57 12
34. 22/B8 6.51 12
35. 23/B9 6.44 12
36. 24/B10 6.36 12
37. 25/B11 6.35 12
38. 26/B12 6.33 12
39. 27/B13 6.32 12
40. 28/B14 6.12 12

Rev. B2. Nike, on elongated base flying r. wreath in r., palm in l. Provincial style 41, Roman style 42.

41. V?/B? 6.68 12
42. 29/B15 6.52 6

Rev. C. TITOC AYTOKPATωP KAICAP ETOYC Θ. Titus standing front, head l.; spear in r., sheathed sword in l. Provincial style 43–45, Roman style 46.

Year 9, A.D. 77/8

43. 30/C1 6.47 12
44. 31/C2 6.39 12
45. 32/C3 6.24 12
46. 33/C4 5.95 6

Rev. D. ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CEB YIO ET Θ, Domitian, togate, standing front, head l., olive branch in l. Provincial style.

47. 34/D1 6.88 12
48. 35/D2 6.71 12
49. 36/D3 6.61 12
50. 37/D4 6.57 12
*51. 38/D5 6.44 12
52. 39/D6 6.27 12

Domitian, A.D. 81–96

Obv. AYT KAI ΔOMITIANOC CEBACTOC ΓEPM. Head laureate r.

Rev. ETO IΓ

Rev. A. Mt. Argaeus; on summit, Helios radiate standing 1., globe in r., scepter in l.

Year 13, A.D. 92/3.

53. 1/A1 6.60 Rev. of 54, 55.
54. 2/A1 6.67 Rev. of 53, 55.
*55. 3/A1 6.51 6 Obv. of 91 (Athena). Rev. of 53, 54.
*56. 4/A2 6.56 6 Rev. of 57.
57. 5/A2 6.38 Rev. of 56.
58. 6/A3 6.65
*59. 7/A4 6.65 6
*60. 8/A5 6.66 6
*61. 9/A6 6.50 6
*62. 15/A7 6.35 6 Obv. of 72 (Athena).

Rev. B. Apollo (?) bust laureate draped l., scepter in r., cup or patera in l.

*63. 10/B1 6.44 6 Obv. of 66–68 (Athena), 131 (Nike).

Rev. C. Athena standing r., owl in r., spear in l.

*64. 11/C1 6.34 6 Obv. of 65, 98 (club), 129, 130 (Nike).
*65. 11/C2 6.34 6 Obv. of 64, 98 (club), 129, 130 (Nike).
*66. 10/C3 6.66 6 Obv. of 63 (Apollo), 67, 68, 131 (Nike).
67. 10/C4 6.77 6 Obv. of 63 (Apollo), 66, 68 (Athena), 131 (Nike).
*68. 10/C5 6.46 6 Obv. of 63 (Apollo), 66, 67 (Athena), 131 (Nike). Rev. of 69.
*69. 12/C5 6.51 6 Obv. of 133 (Nike). Rev. of 68.
*70. 13/C6 6.64 7 Obv. of 132 (Nike). Rev. of 87, 88.
71. 14/C7 6.05 Obv. of 134 (Nike). Rev. of 72.
*72. 15/C7 6.52 6 Obv. of 62 (Mt. Argaeus). Rev. of 71.
73. 16/C8 6.44 6 Obv. of 135 (Nike).
74. 17/C9 6.72 Obv. of 119 (club).
*75. 18/C9 6.47 6 Obv. of 76, 77, 148 (Nike). Rev. of 74.
76. 18/C10 6.70 6 Dies of 77. Obv. of 75, 148 (Nike). Rev. of 78.
*77. 18/C10 6.63 6 Dies of 76. Obv. of 75, 148 (Nike). Rev. of 78.
78. 19/C10 6.81 Rev. of 76, 77.
*79. 20/C11 6.63 6 Obv. of 80, 101 (club).
*80. 20/C12 6.54 6 Obv. of 79, 101 (club). Rev. of 81.
81. 21/C12 6.49 6 Rev. of 80.
*82. 22/C13 6.09 6 Obv. of 83, 84, 103, 104 (club).
83. 22/C14 6.53 6 Dies of 84. Obv. of 82, 103, 104 (club). Rev. of 86.
*84. 22/C14 6.39 6 Dies of 83. Obv. of 82, 103, 104 (club). Rev. of 85, 86.
*85. 23/C14 6.83 6 Dies of 86. Obv. of 87, 88. Rev. of 83, 84.
*86. 23/C14 6.20 6 Dies of 85. Obv. of 87, 88. Rev. of 83, 84.
*87. 23/C6 6.57 6 Dies of 88. Obv. of 85, 86. Rev. of 70.
*88. 23/C6 6.51 6 Dies of 87. Obv. of 85, 86, 88. Rev. of 70.
*89. 24/C15 6.46 6 Dies of 90.
*90. 24/C15 6.46 6 Dies of 89.
*91. 3/C16 6.44 6 Obv. of 55 (Mt. Argaeus). Rev. of 92.
*92. 25/C16 6.96 6 Rev. of 91.
*93. 26/C17 6.36 6 Dies of 94, 95.
*94. 26/C17 6.34 7 Dies of 93, 95.
*95. 26/C17 6.32 7 Dies of 93, 94.
*96. 27/C18 6.69 6
97. unc./unc. 6.35 6 No photographic record.

Rev. D. Club, handle at top.

*98. 11/D1 6.86 6 Obv. of 64, 65 (Athena), 129, 130 (Nike). Rev. of 99, 100.
*99. 28/D1 6.59 7 Rev. of 98, 100.
*100. 29/D1 6.34 6 Rev. of 98, 99.
*101. 20/D2 6.54 6 Obv. of 79, 80 (Athena). Rev. of 102.
*102. 30/D2 6.64 6 Rev. of 101.
*103. 22/D3 6.56 6 Dies of 104. Obv. of 82–84 (Athena). Rev. of 105–7.
*104. 22/D3 6.41 6 Dies of 103. Obv. of 82–84 (Athena). Rev. of 105–7.
*105. 31/D3 6.72 6 Rev. of 103, 104, 106, 107.
*106. 32/D3 6.89 6 Rev. of 103–5, 107.
*107. 33/D3 6.35 6 Obv. of 122 (quadriga). Rev. of 103–6.
108. 34/D4 6.77 6 Dies of 109, 110.
109. 34/D4 6.74 Dies of 108, 110.
*110. 34/D4 6.46 6 Dies of 108, 109.
*111. 35/D5 6.92 6 Dies of 112, 113.
*112. 35/D5 6.83 6 Dies of 111, 113.
*113. 35/D5 6.53 6 Dies of 111, 112.
*114. 36/D6 6.33 6
*115. 37/D7 6.35 6 Rev. of 116.
116. 38/D7 6.35 6 Rev. of 115.
*117. 39/D8 6.57 6 Obv. of 118.
*118. 39/D9 6.87 6 Obv. of 117.
*119. 17/D10 6.25 6 Obv. of 74 (Athena).
*120. 40/D11 5.62 6 Double struck.
*121. 41/D12 6.80 6

Rev. E. Anepigraphic. Domitian in quadriga r., holding laurel branch and scepter.

*122. 33/E1 6.66 6 Obv. of 107 (club).
123. 42/E2 6.43 Obv. of 124.
124. 42/E3 6.47 Obv. of 123.
*125. 43/E4 6.58 6 Dies of 126.
*126. 43/E4 6.47 6 Dies of 125.
*127. 44/E5 6.61 6 Dies of 128. Obv. of 149 (Nike).
*128. 44/E5 6.40 6 Dies of 127. Obv. of 149 (Nike).

Rev. F. Nike running r., wreath in r., palm in l.

*129. 11/F1 6.59 7 Dies of 130. Obv. of 64, 65 (Athena), 98 (club).
*130. 11/F1 6.10 6 Dies of 129. Obv. of 64, 65 (Athena), 98 (club).
*131. 10/F2 6.41 6 Obv. of 63 (Apollo), 66–68 (Athena). Rev. of 132.
132. 13/F2 6.32 6 Obv. of 70 (Athena). Rev. of 131.
*133. 12/F3 6.26 6 Obv. of 69 (Athena).
*134. 14/F4 6.30 7 Obv. of 71 (Athena). Rev. of 135.
*135. 16/F4 6.14 7 Obv. of 73 (Athena). Rev. of 134.
*136. 45/F5 6.65 5 Dies of 137.
*137. 45/F5 6.64 6 Dies of 136.
*138. 46/F6 6.75 6 Dies of 139, 140.
139. 46/F6 6.54 6 Dies of 138, 140.
*140. 46/F6 6.39 6 Dies of 138, 139.
141. 47/F7 6.46 Rev. of 142.
*142. 48/F7 6.73 6 Rev. of 141.
143. 49/F8 6.84 Dies of 144, 145. Rev. of 146, 148, 149.
*144. 49/F8 6.70 6 Dies of 143, 145. Rev. of 146, 148, 149.
*145. 49/F8 6.54 6 Dies of 143, 144. Rev. of 146, 148, 149.
*146. 50/F8 6.76 6 Obv. of 147. Rev. of 143–45, 148, 149.
*147. 50/F9 6.46 6 Obv. of 146.
*148. 18/F8 6.51 6 Obv. of 75–77 (Athena). Rev. of 143–46, 149.
149. 44/F8 6.33 6 Obv. of 127 (quadriga). Rev. of 143–46, 148.
150. 51/F10 6.35

Nerva, A.D. 96–98

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC. Head laureate r.

Rev. OMON CTPAT

Rev. Clasped hands holding standard on prow.

Undated

151. 1/H1 6.74 6 Obv. of 152.
152. 1/H2 6.01 12 Obv. of 151.

Rev. YΠATOY TPITOY

COS III, A.D. 97

Rev. Club, handle at top.

153. 2/C1 6.56 12
154. 3/C2 5.32 12

Rev. YΠATOY TETAPTOY

COS IIII, A.D. 98

Rev. Club, handle at top.

*155. 4/C3 6.35 12

Rev. Mt. Argaeus. On summit, nude figure, globe in 1., scepter in r.

*156. 5/A1 6.88 12

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC YΠAT Δ

Rev. EΛEYΘ ΔHMOY

Rev. Eleutheria standing l., pileus in r., rod in l.

157. 6/E1 6.70 6

Rev. OMON CTPAT

Rev. Clasped hands holding standard on prow.

158. 7/H3 6.42 11
*159. 8/H4 5.91 12

Rev. TYXH CEBACTOY

Rev. Tyche standing l., prow in r., cornucopia in l.

160. 9/T1 6.55 12

Trajan, A.D. 98–117

Obv. AYT KAI NEPOYAC TPAIANOC CEBAC ΓEPM

Rev. YΠAT ΔEYT

COS II, A.D. 98/9

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. A. Mt. Argaeus; on summit, Helios standing l., globe in r., scepter in l.

161. 1/A1 6.78 12 Obv. of 162.
*162. 1/A2 6.63 12 Obv. of 161.
*163. 2/A3 6.73 11
*164. 3/A4 6.54 12 Obv. of 167 (male figure), 169 (club).

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*165. 4/A5 6.54 12 Dies of 166.
*166. 4/A5 6.51 12 Dies of 165.

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. B. Male figure bearded r., helmeted, in military dress, standing frontally, spear in r., shield in l.

*167. 3/M1 6.15 5 Obv. of 164 (Mt. Argaeus), 169 (club).

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*168. 5/M2 6.93 6

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. C. Club, handle at top.

*169. 3/C1 6.56 5 Obv. of 164 (Mt. Argaeus), 167 (male figure).
*170. 6/C2 6.52 12

Obv. AYT KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM

Rev. ΔHM EΞ YΠAT B

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. A. Mt. Argaeus. On summit, Helios standing, globe in r., scepter in l.

*171. 7/A6 6.47 6 Obv. of 189 (Tyche).
172. 8/A7 6.90 6 Dies of 173. Rev. of 174, 175.
*173. 8/A7 6.55 6 Dies of 172. Rev. of 174, 175.
174. 9/A7 6.79 6 Rev. of 172, 173, 175.
*175. 10/A7 6.65 6 Obv. of 176. Rev. of 172–74.
*176. 10/A8 6.65 6 Obv. of 175.
*177. 11/A9 6.84 6
*178. 12/A10 6.68 6 Rev. of 179.
*179. 13/A10 6.21 6 Obv. of 182 (Eleutheria). Rev. of 178.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*180. 14/A11 6.70 6 Obv. of 181.
*181. 14/A12 6.68 6 Obv. of 180.

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. B. Eleutheria standing l., pileus in r., rod in l.

*182. 13/E1 6.51 6 Obv. of 179 (Mt. Argaeus). Rev. of 183.
*183. 15/E1 6.60 6 Obv. of 184. Rev. of 182.
*184. 15/E2 6.42 6 Obv. of 183.
*185. 16/E3 6.44 6
*186. 17/E4 6.56 7 Obv. of 187.
*187. 17/E5 6.46 7 Obv. of 186.
*188. 18/E6 6.35 6

Rev. C. Tyche standing l., rudder in r., cornucopia in l.

*189. 7/T1 6.67 6 Obv. of 171 (Mt. Argaeus).
190. 19/T2 6.93 6
*191. 20/T3 6.79 6 Obv. of 193 (club).
*192. 21/T4 6.60 6

Rev. D. Club, handle at top.

*193. 20/C3 6.50 6 Obv. of 191 (Tyche).
*194. 22/C4 6.80 7
*195. 23/C5 6.69 6 Obv. of 196.
*196. 23/C6 6.69 6 Obv. of 195. Rev. of 197.
*197. 24/C6 6.64 7 Rev. of 196.
*198. 25/C7 6.18 7

Rev. E. Clasped hands holding standard on prow.

*199. 26/H1 6.61 5
200. 27/H2 6.51 6

Rev. F. Similar but ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠAT B. Female bust (Hera?) l., wearing headdress, short scepter in each hand.

*201. 28/F1 7.11 6

Obv. AYTOKPA KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM ΔAK

Rev. ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATO ς

COS VI, A.D. 112–117, first phase, Trajan not yet optimus.

Rev. A. Club, handle at bottom.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*202. 1/A1 6.85 6 Rev. of 212, 216.
203. 2/A2 7.12 6 Obv. of 204.
204. 2/A3 6.95 6 Obv. of 203.
*205. 3/A4 6.72 7
206. 4/A5 6.56 6
207. 5/A6 6.67 6 Dies of 208.
208. 5/A6 6.40 6 Dies of 207.
209. 6/A7 6.91 6
*210. 7/A8 6.70 7 Dies of 211.
211. 7/A8 6.67 6 Dies of 210.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

212. 8/A1 6.95 7 Obv. of 213. Rev. of 202, 216.
*213. 8/A9 6.70 7 Obv. of 212.
214. 9/A10 6.75 7 Rev. of 225, 226.
*215. 10/A11 6.65 7 Rev. of 217.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

216. 11/A1 6.73 7 Rev. of 202, 212.
217. 12/A11 6.73 7 Rev. of 215.
218. 13/A12 7.01 6
219. 14/A13 6.93 6
220. 15/A14 6.73 7
221. 16/A15 6.57 7
222. 17/A16 6.62 6 Rev. of 230.
223. 18/A17 6.46 7 Rev. of 232–34.
224. 19/A18 6.41 7 Rev. of 235, 236.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

225. 20/A10 6.69 6 Dies of 226. Rev. of 214.
226. 20/A10 6.39 6 Dies of 225. Rev. of 214.
227. 21/A19 6.66 6 Dies of 228. Obv. of 229.
228. 21/A19 6.54 6 Dies of 227.
*229. 21/A20 6.24 6 Obv. of 227, 228.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind, globe beneath.

*230. 22/A16 6.68 7 Obv. of 231. Rev. of 222.
*231. 22/A21 6.94 7 Obv. of 230. Rev. of 463 (Trajan optimus).
*232. 23/A17 7.33 6 Rev. of 223, 233, 234.
233. 24/A17 6.74 6 Dies of 234. Rev. of 223, 232.
234. 24/A17 6.53 6 Dies of 233. Rev. of 223, 232.
235. 25/A18 6.46 7 Rev. of 224, 236.
236. 26/A18 6.44 6 Obv. of 237–39. Rev. of 224, 235.
*237. 26/A22 7.18 6 Dies of 238, 239. Obv. of 236.
238. 26/A22 6.97 6 Dies of 237, 239. Obv. of 236.
239. 26/A22 6.84 6 Dies of 237, 238. Obv. of 236.
*240. 27/A23 6.84 6
*241. 28/A24 6.80 7
242. 29/A25 6.80 7
243. 30/A26 6.72 7
*244. 31/A27 6.50 7

Rev. B. Apollo standing l., olive branch in r., bow and arrow in l.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

245. 32/B1 6.63 6 Dies of 246. Rev. of 249.
*246. 32/B1 6.59 6 Dies of 245. Rev. of 249.
247. 33/B2 6.65 7
248. 34/B3 6.71 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*249. 35/B1 6.76 7 Rev. of 245, 246.
*250. 36/B4 6.85 7 Obv. of 251, 252.
251. 36/B5 6.63 7 Obv. of 250, 252.
252. 36/B6 6.54 6 Obv. of 250, 251. Rev. of 256–58.
253. 37/B7 6.90 6
254. 38/B8 6.63 7
255. 39/B9 6.61 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

*256. 40/B6 6.76 7 Dies of 257, 258. Rev. of 252.
257. 40/B6 6.71 7 Dies of 256, 258. Obv. of 259. Rev. of 252.
258. 40/B6 6.71 7 Dies of 256, 257. Obv. of 259. Rev. of 252.
259. 40/B7 6.75 7 Obv. of 256–58. Rev. of 253, 288.
260. 41/B10 6.89 7 Dies of 261.
*261. 41/B10 6.82 7 Dies of 260.
262. 42/B11 6.73 6 Rev. of 263, 264, 292, 293.
*263. 43/B11 6.67 6 Dies of 264. Rev. of 262, 292, 293.
*264. 43/B11 6.49 6 Dies of 263. Rev. of 262, 292, 293.
*265. 44/B12 6.58 7 Dies of 266. Obv. of 267.
266. 44/B12 6.46 6 Dies of 265. Obv. of 267.
*267. 44/B13 6.69 6 Obv. of 265, 266. Rev. of 268, 269.
268. 45/B13 6.81 6 Dies of 269. Rev. of 267.
269. 45/B13 6.63 6 Dies of 268. Rev. of 267.
270. 46/B14 6.47 6 Rev. of 271.
*271. 47/B14 6.46 6 Obv. of 272. Rev. of 270.
*272. 47/B15 6.44 7 Obv. of 271.
273. 48/B16 7.04 6 Dies of 274.
274. 48/B16 6.31 6 Dies of 273.
275. 49/B17 6.57 6
*276. 50/B18 6.82 6 Rev. of 277.
*277. 51/B18 6.73 7 Rev. of 276.
278. 52/B19 6.34 6 Rev. of 279.
279. 53/B19 6.28 6 Rev. of 278.
280. 54/B20 7.00 6 Dies of 281, 282.
281. 54/B20 6.59 6 Dies of 280, 282.
*282. 54/B20 6.54 7 Dies of 280, 281.
283. 55/B21 7.07 6
*284. 56/B22 6.89 6
285. 57/B23 6.76 6
*286. 58/B24 6.29 6
287. 59/B25 6.25 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

288. 60/B7 7.22 7 Obv. of 289. Rev. of 253, 259.
289. 60/B26 6.81 7 Obv. of 288.
290. 61/B27 6.65 7 Obv. of 291.
291. 61/B28 6.51 7 Obv. of 290.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind, globe beneath.

*292. 62/B11 6.70 6 Dies of 293. Rev. of 262–64.
*293. 62/B11 6.65 6 Dies of 292. Rev. of 262–64.
294. 63/B29 6.93 6

Rev. C. Female bust (Artemis?) l. in chiton, spear in r., patera in l.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*295. 64/C1 6.99 6 Dies of 296, 297. Obv. of 298. Rev. of 322, 334.
296. 64/C1 6.83 6 Dies of 295, 297. Obv. of 298. Rev. of 322, 334.
*297. 64/C1 6.54 6 Dies of 295, 296. Obv. of 298. Rev. of 322, 334.
*298. 64/C2 6.96 6 Obv. of 295–97. Rev. of 326.
*299. 65/C3 6.70 7 Obv. of 300.
300. 65/C4 6.63 6 Obv. of 299.
301. 66/C5 6.57 7 Dies of 302.
302. 66/C5 6.54 6 Dies of 301.
303. 67/C6 6.85 6
*304. 68/C7 6.81 7
305. 69/C8 6.80 6
306. 70/C9 6.80 6
307. 71/C10 6.75 7
308. 72/C11 6.60 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

309. 73/C12 6.64 6 Dies of 310. Obv. of 311.
310. 73/C12 6.51 6 Dies of 309. Obv. of 311.
*311. 73/C13 6.62 6 Obv. of 309, 310.
*312. 74/C14 6.49 6
313. 75/C15 6.43 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

314. 76/C16 6.81 7 Obv. of 315–19. Rev. of 335.
315. 76/C17 7.05 6 Dies of 316. Obv. of 314, 317–19.
316. 76/C17 6.80 7 Dies of 315. Obv. of 314, 317–19.
317. 76/C18 6.88 6 Dies of 318, 319. Obv. of 314–16.
318. 76/C18 6.64 6 Dies of 317, 319. Obv. of 314–16.
*319. 76/C18 6.50 6 Dies of 317, 318. Obv. of 314–16.
*320. 77/C19 6.54 6 Rev. of 321.
321. 78/C19 6.50 6 Obv. of 322. Rev. of 320.
*322. 78/C1 6.84 6 Obv. of 321. Rev. of 295–97, 334.
*323. 79/C20 6.97 6 Dies of 324. Obv. of 325.
324. 79/C20 6.66 6 Dies of 323. Obv. of 325.
325. 79/C21 6.67 6 Obv. of 323, 324.
326. 80/C2 6.76 6 Obv. of 327. Rev. of 298.
*327. 80/C22 6.59 6 Obv. of 326.
328. 81/C23 6.93 7
329. 82/C24 6.89 7
330. 83/C25 6.81 6
331. 84/C26 6.75 7
332. 85/C27 6.73 7
333. 86/C28 6.59 6 Globe beneath?

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

334. 87/C1 6.63 6 Rev. of 295–97, 322.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind, globe beneath.

335. 88/C16 6.72 6 Obv. of 336–38. Rev. of 314.
*336. 88/C29 6.92 6 Obv. of 335, 337, 338.
337. 88/C30 6.75 7 Obv. of 335, 336, 338.
*338. 88/C31 6.75 6 Obv. of 335–37. Rev. of 339.
339. 89/C31 6.60 7 Rev. of 338.
*340. 90/C32 6.56 6 Dies of 341. Obv. of 342.
341. 90/C32 6.45 6 Dies of 340. Obv. of 342.
*342. 90/C33 6.64 6 Obv. of 340, 341. Rev. of 343, 344.
343. 91/C33 6.81 6 Dies of 344. Rev. of 342.
344. 91/C33 6.66 6 Dies of 343. Rev. of 342.
*345. 92/C34 6.49 6 Dies of 346.
*346. 92/C34 6.39 6 Dies of 345.
347. 93/C35 6.75 6
348. 94/C36 6.79 6 Rev. of 349.
*349. 95/C36 6.75 7 Rev. of 348.
*350. 96/C37 6.62 6
*351. 97/C38 6.87 7

Rev. D. Tyche standing l., rudder on globe on ground in r., cornucopia in l.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*352. 98/D1 6.61 7 Obv. of 353, 354. Rev. of 363, 364.
353. 98/D2 6.93 7 Obv. of 352, 354.
*354. 98/D3 6.69 7 Obv. of 352, 353.
*355. 99/D4 6.85 7 Dies of 356. Rev. of 373, 374.
*356. 99/D4 6.52 7 Dies of 355. Rev. of 373, 374.
357. 100/D5 6.69 7
358. 101/D6 6.60 7
*359. 102/D7 6.59 6
360. 103/D8 6.55 6
*361. 104/D9 6.48 7
362. 105/D10 6.46 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*363. 106/D1 6.74 7 Dies of 364. Obv. of 365. Rev. of 352.
*364. 106/D1 6.46 7 Dies of 363. Obv. of 365. Rev. of 352.
365. 106/D11 6.72 7 Obv. of 363, 364.
366. 107/D12 6.84 7 Obv. of 367.
*367. 107/D13 6.56 6 Obv. of 366.
368. 108/D14 6.97 6 Dies of 369.
*369. 108/D14 6.71 6 Dies of 368.
*370. 109/D15 6.87 6 Dies of 371.
*371. 109/D15 6.73 6 Dies of 370.
372. 110/D16 6.71 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

373. 111/D4 6.68 7 Dies of 374. Obv. of 375. Rev. of 355, 356.
374. 111/D4 6.60 7 Dies of 373. Obv. of 375. Rev. of 355, 356.
375. 111/D17 6.80 7 Obv. of 373, 374.
*376. 112/D18 6.70 6 Dies of 377.
*377. 112/D18 6.67 6 Dies of 376.
378. 113/D19 7.08 6 Dies of 379. Obv. of 380–82. Rev. of 392, 393.
*379. 113/D19 6.76 7 Dies of 378. Obv. of 380–82. Rev. of 392, 393.
380. 113/D20 6.60 6 Dies of 381. Obv. of 378, 379, 382.
381. 113/D20 6.46 6 Dies of 380. Obv. of 378, 379, 382.
382. 113/D21 6.88 7 Obv. of 378–81.
383. 114/D22 6.71 6
*384. 115/D23 6.53 6
*385. 116/D24 6.72 6 Globe beneath?
*386. 117/D25 6.71 6 Globe beneath?
*387. 118/D26 6.70 6 Globe beneath?
388. 119/D27 6.69 6 Globe beneath?
389. 120/D28 6.67 6 Globe beneath?
390. 121/D29 6.57 6 Globe beneath?

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

391. 122/D30 6.96 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind, globe beneath.

392. 123/D19 6.45 6 Rev. of 378, 379, 393.
*393. 124/D19 6.79 6 Obv. of 394, 395. Rev. of 378, 392.
*394. 124/D31 6.75 6 Dies of 395. Obv. of 393.
*395. 124/D31 6.30 6 Dies of 394. Obv. of 393.
*396. 125/D32 7.03 7 Obv. of 397–99.
*397. 125/D33 6.85 6 Obv. of 396, 398, 399.
*398. 125/D34 6.75 6 Dies of 399. Obv. of 396, 397.
399. 125/D34 6.54 6 Dies of 398. Obv. of 396, 397.
*400. 126/D35 6.79 6 Dies of 401.
*401. 126/D35 6.63 6 Dies of 400.
402. 127/D36 7.09 7 Dies of 403–5. Obv. of 406.
403. 127/D36 6.90 6 Dies of 402, 404, 405. Obv. of 406.
404. 127/D36 6.75 7 Dies of 402, 403, 405. Obv. of 406.
405. 127/D36 6.42 7 Dies of 402–4. Obv. of 406.
406. 127/D37 7.01 6 Obv. of 402–5.
407. 128/D38 6.73 6 Dies of 408, 409.
408. 128/D38 6.73 6 Dies of 407, 409.
*409. 128/D38 6.61 6 Dies of 407, 408.
410. 129/D39 6.47 6 Rev. of 411, 412.
*411. 130/D39 6.71 6 Rev. of 410, 412.
412. 131/D39 6.69 6 Rev. of 410, 411.
*413. 132/D40 6.85 6 Dies of 414.
*414. 132/D40 6.73 6 Dies of 413.
*415. 133/D41 6.78 6

Rev. E. Mt. Argaeus of varying design, usually grotto at bottom containing cult stone, flanked by two pyramidal objects. At top, second grotto, sometimes with appearance of flame. Trees on slopes of mountain.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

416. 134/E1 6.29 6 Rev. of 430, 447.
*417. 135/E2 6.80 6
*418. 136/E3 6.32 7 Rev. of 443, 444.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*419. 137/E4 6.63 7 Dies of 420. Obv. of 421–24.
*420. 137/E4 6.33 7 Dies of 419. Obv. of 421–24.
421. 137/E5 6.56 7 Obv. of 419, 420, 422–24.
*422. 137/E6 7.06 7 Dies of 423, 424. Obv. of 419–21.
*423. 137/E6 6.87 7 Dies of 422, 424. Obv. of 419–21.
424. 137/E6 6.48 7 Dies of 422, 423. Obv. of 419–21.
425. 138/E7 6.95 7
426. 139/E8 6.76 6 Dies of 427.
*427. 139/E8 6.64 6 Dies of 426.
*428. 140/E9 6.85 7 Rev. of 429, 445.
*429. 141/E9 6.54 6 Rev. of 428.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

430. 142/E1 6.54 7 Rev. of 416, 447.
431. 143/E10 6.94 7 Dies of 432. Rev. of 433.
432. 143/E10 6.55 6 Dies of 431. Rev. of 433.
433. 144/E10 6.65 6 Obv. of 434–36. Rev. of 431, 432.
*434. 144/E11 6.98 7 Dies of 435, 436. Obv. of 433.
*435. 144/E11 6.57 7 Dies of 434, 436. Obv. of 433.
436. 144/E11 6.06 7 Dies of 434, 435. Obv. of 433.
437. 145/E12 6.72 6 Dies of 438. Rev. of 439.
438. 145/E12 6.71 6 Dies of 437. Rev. of 439.
439. 146/E12 6.65 6 Rev. of 437, 438.
440. 147/E13 7.08 6 Dies of 441, 442.
441. 147/E13 6.87 6 Dies of 440, 442.
442. 147/E13 6.46 6 Dies of 440, 441.
*443. 148/E3 6.93 7 Rev. of 418, 444.

Obv. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*444. 149/E3 6.81 8 Obv. of 445, 446. Rev. of 418, 443.
*445. 149/E9 6.54 7 Obv. of 444, 446. Rev. of 428, 429.
*446. 149/E14 6.68 7 Obv. of 444, 445.

Obv. Legend as 202–443.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind, globe beneath.

*447. 150/E1 6.82 6 Rev. of 416, 430.
448. 151/E15 6.77 7 Dies of 449. Rev. of 450.
449. 151/E15 6.55 6 Dies of 448. Rev. of 450.
*450. 152/E15 6.47 7 Rev. of 448, 449.
451. 153/E16 6.79 6 Rev. of 452.
452. 154/E16 6.76 6 Rev. of 451.
453. 155/E17 6.74 6 Obv. of 454.
*454. 155/E18 6.67 6 Obv. of 453.
455. 156/E19 6.83 6
*456. 157/E20 6.68 6

The numbering of obverses begins anew with the prefix A. The numbering of reverse dies continues from the first phase. Since the clasped hands type of group D below is new, reverse dies are prefixed H rather than D.

Obv. AYTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANω APICTω CEB ΓEPM ΔAK

Rev. ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATO ς

Second phase, Trajan optimus, not yet Parthicus.

Rev. A. Club, handle at bottom.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

457. A1/A28 6.32 7 Obv. of 458.
458. A1/A29 6.23 7 Obv. of 457.
459. A2/A30 6.25 7 Rev. of 460.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

460. A3/A30 6.57 7 Obv. of 461. Rev. of 459.
461. A3/A31 6.60 7 Obv. of 460.
462. A4/A32 6.29 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

463. A5/A21 6.24 6 Dies of 464. Rev. of 231 (Trajan not yet optimus).
464. A5/A21 5.92 6 Dies of 463. Rev. of 231 (Trajan not yet optimus).

Rev. B. Apollo standing l., olive branch in r., bow and arrow in l.

465. A6/B30 6.37 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

466. A7/B31 6.77 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped? cuirassed.

467. A8/B32 7.10 6 Dies of 468, 469.
468. A8/B32 6.81 6 Dies of 467, 469.
469. A8/B32 6.77 6 Dies of 467, 468.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

470. A9/B33 6.86 7 Dies of 471.
*471. A9/B33 6.72 7 Dies of 470.
*472. A10/B34 6.88 7 Rev. of 473, 474.
473. A11/B34 6.63 6 Rev. of 472, 474.
474. A12/B34 6.00 6 Rev. of 472, 473.
*475. A13/B35 7.03 6

Rev. C. Female bust (Artemis?)l. in chiton, spear in r., patera in l.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

476. A14/C39 6.97 6 Obv. of 477.
477. A14/C40 6.45 6 Obv. of 476. Rev. of 481.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

478. A15/C41 6.53 6 Rev. of 479, 480.

Obv. Bust laureate r., cuirassed.

479. A16/C41 6.78 6 Dies of 480. Rev. of 478.
*480. A16/C41 6.30 6 Dies of 479. Rev. of 478.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

481. A17/C40 7.09 6 Obv. of 482. Rev. of 477.
482. A17/C42 7.16 5 Obv. of 481.
483. A18/C43 6.33 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

484. A19/C44 7.02 6
485. A20/C45 6.99 6
486. A21/C46 6.90 6
487. A22/C47 6.72 6

Rev. D. Clasped hands holding standard on prow.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*488. A23/H1 6.65 6 Dies of 489.
489. A23/H1 6.64 6 Dies of 488.
490. A24/H2 6.89 7 Obv. of 491. Rev. of 492.
491. A24/H3 6.54 7 Obv. of 490. Rev. of 493.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

492. A25/H2 6.87 7 Rev. of 490.
*493. A26/H3 6.44 7 Obv. of 494. Rev. of 491.
494. A26/H4 7.11 6 Obv. of 493.
495. A27/H5 6.88 6 Dies of 496.
496. A27/H5 6.53 6 Dies of 495.
497. A28/H6 6.55 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

498. A29/H7 6.69 7

Rev. E. Mt. Argaeus of hemispherical design, grotto at bottom containing cult stone and two or more pyramidal or round objects. At top, stylized grotto (or crater?). Trees on slopes.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*499. A30/E21 6.93 7 Obv. of 500–502.
500. A30/E22 6.76 7 Obv. of 499, 501, 502.
501. A30/E23 6.70 7 Obv. of 499, 500, 502.
502. A30/E24 6.54 6 Obv. of 499–501.
503. A31/E25 6.98 7
*504. A32/E26 6.75 7
505. A33/E27 7.04 7 Rev. of 506, 507.
506. A34/E27 6.46 7 Rev. of 505, 507.

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, seen from behind.

*507. A35/E27 6.58 7 Obv. of 508. Rev. of 505, 506.
*508. A35/E28 6.44 7 Obv. of 507.
509. A36/E29 7.05 7

Hadrian, A.D. 117–138

Obv. AYT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB

Rev. ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠAT Γ

A. D. 119–128, COS III, not yet Pater Patriae

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., globe in r., scepter in l.

510. 1/1 6.57 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

*511. 2/2 6.47 7

Obv. AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC

Rev. YΠATOC Γ ΠATHP ΠATP

A.D. 128–138, COS III, Pater Patriae

Rev. A. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by Helios, globe in r., scepter in l.

Obv. Head laureate r.

512. 3/A1 6.79 7 Rev. of 514.
513. 4/A2 6.73 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*514. 5/A1 6.45 7 Obv. of 527. Rev. of 512.
515. 6/A3 6.55 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed.

*516. 7/A4 6.63 6

Rev. B. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head laureate r.

517. 8/B1 6.71 6
518. 9/B2 6.56 6

Rev. C. Mt. Argaeus. In field, three stars.

Obv. Head laureate r.

519. 10/C1 6.78 6
520. 11/C2 6.72 6
521. 12/C3 6.70 7
522. 13/C4 6.67 6
523. 14/C5 6.62 7 Obv. of 524. Rev. of 527.
524. 14/C6 6.46 7 Obv. of 523.
525. 15/C7 6.41 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

526. 16/C8 6.60 7

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder, aegis.

*527. 5/C5 6.70 7 Obv. of 514. Rev. of 523.

Antoninus Pius, A.D. 138–161

Obv. AYTOKP ANTωNEINOC CEBACTOC

Rev. YΠATOC B

COS II, A.D. 139

Obv. Head laureate r.

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by Helios, standing l., globe in r., scepter in l.

*528. 1/1 6.34 5

Rev. YΠATOC Γ

COS III, A.D. 140–144

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

529. 2/2 6.89 12 Obv. of 530, 531.
*530. 2/3 6.39 6 Obv. of 529, 531.
531. 2/4 6.00 7 Obv. of 529, 530.
532. 3/5 7.08 6

Marcus Aurelius, A.D. 161–180

Obv. AYTOKP ANTΩNEINOC CEB

Rev. A. YΠATOC Γ, Mount Argaeus surmounted by Helios, globe in r., scepter in l.

COS III for Marcus, COS II for Lucius, A.D. 161–166

Obv. Head r.

*533. 1/A1 7.20 7 Obv. of 612.
*534. 2/A2 6.86 6 Obv. of 613.
*535. 3/A3 6.55 7 Obv. of 614.
*536. 4/A4 6.92 7 Obv. of 615.
537. 5/A5 6.47 6 Dies of 538. Rev. of 555.
538. 5/A5 5.94 6 Dies of 537.
*539. 6/A6 6.60 12 Rev. of 540, 558, 559.
540. 7/A6 6.38 12 Rev. of 539, 558, 559.
*541. 8/A7 6.71 12 Rev. of 604.
*542. 9/A8 7.07 12 Obv. of 543.
*543. 9/A9 6.44 12 Obv. of 542. Rev. of 594.
*544. 10/A10 6.85 12 Obv. of 545.
545. 10/A11 6.40 1 Obv. of 544.
*546. 11/A12 7.93 12
*547. 12/A13 7.24 12
*548. 13/A14 6.95 11
*549. 14/A15 6.79 12
*550. 15/A16 6.74 12
*551. 16/A17 6.73 12
*552. 17/A18 6.71 6
*553. 18/A19 6.65 5

Obv. Head laureate r.

*554. 19/A20 6.72 12 Obv. of 629.
*555. 20/A5 6.64 12 Rev. of 537, 538.
*556. 20/A21 6.15 12 Dies of 557. Rev. of 589.
*557. 20/A21 6.10 12 Dies of 556. Rev. of 589.
558. 21/A6 6.83 6 Rev. of 539, 540, 559.
559. 22/A6 7.11 5 Rev. of 539, 540, 558.
*560. 23/A22 6.92 12 Obv. of 561.
561. 23/A23 6.78 7 Obv. of 560.
*562. 24/A24 6.61 12 Obv. of 563.
*563. 24/A25 6.32 11 Obv. of 562.
*564. 25/A26 6.96 6
*565. 26/A27 6.96 6
*566. 27/A28 6.89 6
*567. 28/A29 6.63 6
*568. 29/A30 6.67 5
*569. 30/A31 6.57 12
*570. 31/A32 6.57 12
*571. 32/A33 6.48 6
*572. 33/A34 6.33 5 Rev. of 580.

Obv. Bust r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*573. 34/A35 6.61 12 Obv. of 650. Rev. of 581
*574. 35/A36 6.85 6
*575. 36/A37 6.76 6
*576. 37/A38 6.75 6
577. 38/A39 6.61 5
*578. 39/A40 6.59 12
*579. 40/A41 6.47 5

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*580. 41/A34 6.45 12 Obv. of 656, 657. Rev. of 572.
*581. 42/A35 6.64 6 Obv. of 582. Rev. of 573.
*582. 42/A42 6.76 12 Obv. of 581.
*583. 43/A43 6.75 6

Obv. Bust r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

*584. 44/A44 6.77 12 Obv. of 585, 662.
*585. 44/A45 6.62 12 Obv. 584, 662. Rev. of 590.
586. 45/A46 6.39 6 Obv. of 663.

Obv. Bust laureate r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

*587. 46/A47 6.99 6 Obv. of 670. Rev. of 588, 605, 606.
*588. 47/A47 6.60 6 Rev. of 587, 605, 606.
589. 48/A21 6.79 6 Rev. of 556, 557.
590. 49/A45 6.79 5 Rev. of 585.
*591. 50/A48 6.65 6 Obv. of 592, 671.
*592. 50/A48 6.24 6 Dies of 591. Obv. of 671.
593. 51/A49 7.12 6 Obv. of 594.
*594. 51/A9 6.75 6 Obv. of 593. Rev. of 543.
*595. 52/A50 6.66 12 Obv. of 596.
*596. 52/A51 6.62 12 Obv. of 595.
*597. 53/A52 7.24 6
*598. 54/A53 6.89 12
*599. 55/A54 6.82 6
*600. 56/A55 6.79 12
*601. 57/A56 6.68 5
602. 58/A57 6.51 12
603. 59/A58 6.46 12

Obv. Bust r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*604. 60/A7 7.11 12 Rev. of 541.
*605. 61/A47 6.70 12 Dies of 606. Rev. of 587, 588.
*606. 61/A47 6.46 6 Dies of 605. Rev. of 587, 588.
*607. 61/A59 6.81 12 Obv. of 605, 606.
*608. 62/A60 6.83 6
*609. 63/A61 6.56 6
610. 64/A62 6.56 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*611. 65/A63 6.40 12

Rev. B. YΠATOC Γ Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head r.

*612. 1/B1 6.60 6 Obv. of 533. Rev. of 686.
*613. 2/B2 6.37 12 Obv. of 534.
*614. 3/B3 6.39 6 Obv. of 535.
*615. 4/B4 6.82 6 Obv. of 536.
*616. 66/B5 6.92 12 Dies of 617. Obv. of 618. Rev. of 630.
*617. 66/B5 6.61 12 Dies of 616. Obv. of 618. Rev. of 630.
618. 66/B6 6.61 12 Obv. of 616, 617.
619. 67/B7 6.81 6 Rev. of 633, 692.
*620. 68/B8 6.90 6 Dies of 621.
621. 68/B8 6.78 6 Dies of 620.
*622. 69/B9 7.08 6
623. 70/B10 6.73 6
*624. 71/B11 6.64 12
*625. 72/B12 6.64 6
*626. 73/B13 6.59 12
*627. 74/B14 6.54 6
*628. 75/B15 6.24 11

Obv. Head laureate r.

*629. 19/B16 6.82 12 Obv. of 554.
630. 76/B5 6.58 12 Obv. of 631. Rev. of 616, 617.
*631. 76/B17 6.29 12 Obv. of 630. Rev. double struck.
*632. 77/B18 6.36 12
*633. 78/B7 6.47 6 Rev. of 619, 692.
634. 79/B19 6.34 10 Rev. of 687, 688.
*635. 80/B20 6.53 6 Rev. of 652.
*636. 81/B21 6.96 6 Dies of 637. Rev. of 638.
*637. 81/B21 6.33 6 Dies of 636. Rev. of 638.
*638. 82/B21 6.66 6 Obv. of 639. Rev. of 636, 637.
*639. 82/B22 6.23 6 Obv. of 638.
*640. 83/B23 7.16 6
*641. 84/B24 6.79 6
642. 85/B25 6.75 6
*643. 86/B26 6.70 6
*644. 87/B27 6.65 5
*645. 88/B28 6.54 12
*646. 89/B29 6.54 12
*647. 90/B30 6.51 5
648. 91/B31 6.48 12
*649. 92/B32 6.40 6

Obv. Bust r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*650. 34/B33 6.47 6 Obv. of 573.
*651. 93/B34 6.87 12 Rev. of 661.
652. 94/B20 6.73 12 Obv. of 653. Rev. of 635.
*653. 94/B35 6.65 12 Obv. of 652. Rev. of 675.
*654. 95/B36 7.00 6
655. 96/B37 6.85 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder.

*656. 41/B38 6.86 12 Obv. of 580, 657.
*657. 41/B39 6.05 6 Obv. of 580, 656.
*658. 97/B40 6.71 6 Dies of 659.
*659. 97/B40 6.65 6 Dies of 658.
*660. 98/B41 6.56 6
*661. 99/B34 6.51 12 Rev. of 651.

Obv. Bust r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

*662. 44/B42 6.75 6 Obv. of 584, 585. Rev. of 676, 677.
*663. 45/B43 6.74 6 Obv. of 586.
*664. 100/B44 6.85 12
*665. 101/B45 6.82 11
666. 102/B46 6.78 12
667. 103/B47 6.48 12
*668. 104/B48 6.23 6
*669. 105/B49 6.11 12

Obv. Bust laureate r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

670. 46/B50 6.56 12 Obv. of 587.
*671. 50/B51 6.82 12 Obv. of 591, 592.
*672. 106/B52 6.69 6 Rev. of 673.
673. 107/B52 6.83 6 Obv. of 674, 675. Rev. of 672.
*674. 107/B53 6.26 6 Obv. of 673, 675.
*675. 107/B35 6.06 12 Obv. of 673, 674. Rev. of 653.
*676. 108/B42 6.99 6 Dies of 677. Rev. of 662.
*677. 108/B42 6.77 6 Dies of 676. Rev. of 662.
678. 109/B54 6.81 12 Dies of 679.
*679. 109/B54 6.47 6 Dies of 678.
*680. 110/B55 6.75 6
681. 111/B56 6.71 12
*682. 112/B57 6.64 1
*683. 113/B58 6.61 6
*684. 114/B59 6.41 6
*685. 115/B60 6.35 6

Obv. Bust r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind.

*686. 116/B1 6.57 11 Rev. of 612.
687. 117/B19 6.74 6 Dies of 688. Rev. of 634.
*688. 117/B19 6.65 6 Dies of 687. Rev. of 634.
*689. 118/B61 6.64 6
*690. 119/B62 6.47 5
*691. 120/B63 6.37 12

Obv. Bust laureate r., draped, cuirassed, seen from behind

*692. 121/B7 6.49 1 Rev. of 619, 633.
*693. 122/B64 6.72 5

LUCIUS VERUS, A.D. 161–169

Obv. AYTOKP OYHPOC CEBACTOC

Rev. YΠATOC B

COS III for Marcus, COS II for Lucius, A.D. 161–166

Rev. A. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by Helios, globe in r., scepter in l.

Obv. Head r.

*694. 1/A1 6.77 12 Dies of 695. Obv. of 742.
*695. 1/A1 6.43 12 Dies of 694. Obv. of 742.
696. 2/A2 6.60 6 Obv. of 743. Rev. of 728.
*697. 3/A3 6.46 5 Obv. of 744. Rev. of 729.
698. 4/A4 6.85 12 Rev. of 730.
699. 5/A5 6.84 6 Rev. of 720.
*700. 6/A6 6.52 6 Obv. of 701.
*701. 6/A7 6.76 11 Obv. of 700. Rev. of 702, 703.
*702. 7/A7 6.35 11 Rev. of 701, 703.
*703. 8/A7 6.62 6 Obv. of 704. Rev. of 701, 702.
*704. 8/A8 6.73 6 Obv. of 703.
*705. 9/A9 6.79 12 Dies of 706.
706. 9/A9 6.52 12 Dies of 705.
*707. 10/A10 7.12 12 Dies of 708.
*708. 10/A10 6.88 12 Dies of 707.
*709. 11/A11 8.03 6 Plated?
710. 12/A12 7.07 6
*711. 13/A13 6.81 6
*712. 14/A14 6.64 6
*713. 15/A15 6.60 12
*714. 16/A16 6.59 6
*715. 17/A17 6.58 12
*716. 18/A18 6.50 12
*717. 19/A19 6.50 5
*718. 20/A20 6.27 12

Obv. Head laureate r.

719. 21/A21 6.93 6 Obv. of 764.
*720. 22/A5 6.56 12 Obv. of 721. Rev. of 699.
721. 22/A22 6.65 6 Obv. of 720.
*722. 23/A23 6.42 12 Rev. of 736.
*723. 24/A24 6.71 6
*724. 25/A25 6.71 6

Obv. Bust draped r., seen from behind

725. 26/A26 6.74 12

Obv. Bust cuirassed r., seen from behind.

*726. 27/A27 6.83 12 Obv. of 774.
*727. 28/A28 6.81 12 Obv. of 775.
*728. 29/A2 6.67 1 Rev. of 696.
*729. 30/A3 6.59 12 Rev. of 697.
730. 31/A4 6.68 6 Rev. of 698.
*731. 32/A29 7.08 6 Rev. of 732.
*732. 33/A29 6.47 12 Rev. of 731.
733. 34/A30 6.96 7
734. 35/A31 6.76 6
*735. 36/A32 6.48 12

Obv. Bust draped r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

736. 37/A23 6.93 12 Rev. of 722.
737. 38/A33 6.77 12 Rev. of 738.
*738. 39/A33 6.67 12 Rev. of 737.
*739. 40/A34 6.94 12
*740. 41/A35 6.41 12
*741. 42/A36 6.23 6

Rev. B. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head r.

*742. 1/B1 6.46 6 Obv. of 694, 695.
*743. 2/B2 6.88 6 Obv. of 696. Rev. of 765, 766.
*744. 3/B3 6.34 6 Obv. of 697.
*745. 43/B4 6.81 12 Rev. of 792, 793.
*746. 44/B5 6.65 12 Rev. of 776.
*747 45/B6 6.46 6 Rev. of 769.
*748. 46/B7 6.96 6 Rev. of 749.
*749. 47/B7 6.34 5 Rev. of 748.
*750. 48/B8 6.88 12 Dies of 751.
751. 48/B8 6.38 12 Dies of 750.
*752. 49/B9 6.90 12
*753. 50/B10 6.90 12
*754. 51/B11 6.79 12
*755. 52/B12 6.73 11
*756. 53/B13 6.70 6
*757. 54/B14 6.68 12
*758. 55/B15 6.67 12
*759. 56/B16 6.53 6
*760. 57/B17 6.48 6
*761. 58/B18 6.45 5
*762. 59/B19 6.38 6
*763. 60/B20 6.22 12

Obv. Head laureate r.

*764. 21/B21 6.73 6 Obv. of 719. Rev. of 770.
765. 61/B2 6.77 6 Dies of 766. Obv. of 767, 768. Rev. of 743.
*766. 61/B2 6.41 6 Dies of 765. Obv. of 767, 768. Rev. of 743.
767. 61/B22 6.58 12 Obv. of 765, 766, 768. Rev. of 790.
*768. 61/B23 6.81 5 Obv. of 765–67.
*769. 62/B6 6.80 12 Rev. of 747.

Obv. Bust draped r., seen from behind.

*770. 63/B21 6.58 6 Obv. of 771, 772. Rev. of 764.
771. 63/B24 6.76 12 Dies of 772. Obv. of 770.
772. 63/B24 6.74 12 Dies of 771. Obv. of 770.
773. 64/B25 6.57 6 Rev. of 777.

Obv. Bust cuirassed r., seen from behind.

*774. 27/B26 6.82 12 Obv. of 726.
*775. 28/B27 6.74 12 Obv. of 727.
*776. 65/B5 6.86 12 Rev. of 746.
777. 66/B25 6.52 7 Rev. of 773.
*778. 67/B28 6.90 12 Dies of 779.
*779. 67/B28 6.84 12 Dies of 778.
*780. 68/B29 6.79 6 Dies of 781.
*781. 68/B29 6.45 6 Dies of 780.
782. 69/B30 6.49 12 Dies of 783. Obv. of 784.
*783. 69/B30 6.33 6 Dies of 782. Obv. of 784.
784. 69/B31 6.78 12 Obv. of 782, 783.
*785. 70/B32 7.25 6
786. 71/B33 6.82 12
*787. 72/B34 6.74 6
788. 73/B35 6.72 12
789. 74/B36 6.56 12

Obv. Bust draped r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

*790. 75/B22 6.38 6 Rev. of 767.
791. 76/B37 7.25 6

Obv. Bust laureate r., cuirassed, seen from behind.

*792. 77/B4 6.92 12 Dies of 793. Obv. of 794. Rev. of 745.
*793. 77/B4 6.73 11 Dies of 792. Obv. of 794. Rev. of 745.
*794. 77/B38 6.41 6 Obv. of 792, 793.

COMMODUS, A.D. 180–192

Obverse Legends

  • AY MAP AYP KOM ANTωNEINOC CEB
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNEINOC CE
  • AY M AYP KOMO ANTωNEINOC CE
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNEINOC
  • AYTO M AYP KOMO ANTωNINOC
  • AYTO M AYP KOMOΔOC AN CE
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNINOC CE
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNINOC C
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNINOC
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNINO CE
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNINO
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNIN
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNI
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTω[
  • AYT M AYP KO ANTωNINO
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNI[
  • AYT M AYP KOMO ANTωNIN[

Reverse legends

Commodus's reverses display in Greek the consular iteration and the title paler patriae.

A. YΠATOC no date, Γ, Δ ΠAT ΠATPIΔOC
B. YΠATOC Γ ΠAT ΠATPIΔ
C. YΠATOC Γ, Δ ΠAT ΠATPI
D. YΠATOC Γ ΠAT ΠATP
E. YΠATOC Γ ΠAT ΠAT
F. YΠATOC Γ ΠA ΠATPIΔOC
G. YΠATOC Γ ΠAT ΠATT
H. YΠATOC Δ ΠAT ΠA

COS? A.D. 180? See Commentary on Reigns.

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head laureate r.

795. 1/A1 4.59 12 Legends 9/H. Obv. of 799 (year 3). Rev. of 796. Dies of Weiser 195, 196.
796. 2/A1 4.30 12 Legends 9/H. Obv. of 834 (year 4). Rev. of 795. Dies of Weiser 197 and ANS 1944.100.59910.
*797. 3/A2 4.84 12 Legends 5/H.

Γ, COS III, A.D. 181–182

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by Helios holding globe in r., scepter in l.

Obv. Head laureate r.

*798. 4/A3 4.22 6 Legends 2/E.

Rev. Mt. Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head laureate r.

799. 1/A4 4.62 1 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 795.
800. 5/A5 4.22 12 Legends 7/C.
801. 6/A6 4.02 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 818. Rev. of 802.
802. 7/A6 4.56 Legends 14/C (...ANT[). Rev. of 801.
803. 8/A7 4.60 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 804, 819.
804. 8/A8 4.26 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 803, 819.
805. 9/A9 4.34 5 Legends 8/C. Dies of 806.
806. 9/A9 4.44 12 Dies of 805.
807. 10/A10 4.12 12 Legends 7/C.
808. 11/A11 4.27 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 820; 835–37 (year 4).
809. 12/A12 4.49 6 Legends 8/C. Rev. of 817.
810. 13/A13 4.48 12 Legends 7/C. Dies of Weiser 201.
*811. 14/A14 4.05 11 Legends 6/C. Rev. possibly recut from A13. Dies of 812 and Weiser 215.
*812. 14/A14 3.88 11 Dies of 811.
813. 15/A15 4.49 Legends 7/C.
814. 16/A16 4.28 Legends 10/C.
815. 17/A17 4.21 12 Legends 7/A.
816. 18/A18 4.17 12 Legends 7/C.

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder

*817. 19/A12 4.02 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 831, 832. Rev. of 809.

Rev. Nike advancing l., wreath in r., palm in l.

Obv. Head laureate r.

818. 6/NL1 4.57 6 Legends 9/A. Obv. of 801. Rev. of 819, 820.
819. 8/NL1 4.33 Legends 7/A. Obv. of 803, 804. Rev. of 818, 820.
820. 11/NL1 4.28 6 Legends 7/A. Obv. of 808; 835–37 (year 4). Rev. of 818, 819.
821. 20/NL2 4.33 12 Legends 8/C. Dies of 822. Obv. of 823. Obv. of Weiser 210 (rev. Mt. Argaeus with star), 211 (rev. Mt. Argaeus with Helios).
822. 20/NL2 3.80 6 Dies of 821. Obv. of 823.
823. 20/NL3 4.12 6 Legends 8/B. Obv. of 821, 822.
824. 21/NL4 3.71 6 Legends 7/C. Rev. of 825.
825. 22/NL4 4.29 6 Legends 7/C. Rev. of 824.
*826. 23/NL5 4.48 11 Legends 6/C.
*827. 24/NL6 4.32 1 Legends 10/C.
828. 25/NL7 4.26 1 Legends 7/A.
*829. 26/NL8 4.46 11 Legends 7/C. Dies of 830. Obv. of 838, 919 (year 4).
830. 26/NL8 4.40 12 Dies of 829. Obv. of 838, 919 (year 4).

Obv. Bust laureate r., drapery on l. shoulder

831. 19/NL9 4.82 12 Legends 3/C. Dies of 832. Obv. of 817.
832. 19/NL9 4.02 12 Dies of 831. Obv. of 817.

Rev. Nike advancing r., wreath in r., palm in l.

833. 27/NR1 4.63 12 Legends 1/D. Obv. of Weiser 205 (rev. Mt. Argaeus with Helios).

Δ, COS IIII, A.D. 183–185

Rev. Mount Argaeus surmounted by star.

Obv. Head laureate r.

834. 2/A51 4.15 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 796 (no date).
835. 11/A52 4.79 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 808, 820 (year 3); 836, 837.
836. 11/A52 4.30 12 Dies of 835. Obv. of 808, 820 (year 3); 835, 837.
837. 11/A53 4.57 10 Legends 7/G. Obv. of 808, 820 (year 3); 835, 836.
*838. 26/A54 4.21 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. die of 829, 830 (year 3); 919.
839. 28/A55 4.48 10 Legends 8/A. Obv. of 840, 920.
840. 28/A56 4.25 12 Legends 8/C. Obv. of 839, 920.
841. 29/A57 4.26 11 Legends 11/C. Obv. of 842.
842. 29/A58 4.50 12 Legends 11/C. Obv. of 841. Rev. of 843.
843. 30/A58 4.32 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 844, 918. Rev. of 842.
844. 30/A59 4.27 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 843, 918.
845. 31/A60 4.38 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 921. Obv. of Weiser 230.
846. 32/A61 4.71 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 847, 848, 922–24.
847. 32/A62 4.50 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 846, 848, 922–24.
848. 32/A63 4.16 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 846, 847, 922–24. Rev. of 849.
849. 33/A63 4.85 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 850. Rev. of 848.
850. 33/A64 4.61 1 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 849.
851. 34/A65 4.78 12 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 925.
852. 35/A66 4.42 11 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 853, 854.
853. 35/A67 4.42 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 852, 854.
*854. 35/A68 4.24 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 852, 853.
855. 36/A69 4.33 1 Legends 14/C.
856. 37/A70 4.67 11 Legends 15/C. Obv. of 857–60.
857. 37/A71 4.49 Legends 15/C. Obv. of 856, 858–60.
858. 37/A72 4.48 12 Legends 15/C. Dies of 859. Obv. of 856, 857, 860. Dies of Weiser 237, 238.
859. 37/A72 4.14 12 Dies of 858. Obv. of 856, 857, 860.
*860. 37/A73 4.33 12 Legends 15/C. Obv. of 856–59. Rev. of 861. Dies of Weiser 239.
861. 38/A73 4.51 12 Legends 13/C. Rev. of 860.
862. 39/A74 4.37 11 Legends 11/C.
863. 40/A75 4.62 12 Legends 8/C.
864. 41/A76 4.66 12 Legends 8/C. Obv. of 865.
865. 41/A77 4.31 12 Legends 8/C. Obv. of 864.
866. 42/A78 4.07 11 Legends 8/C.
867. 43/A79 4.39 11 Legends 13/C.
868. 44/A80 4.48 11 Legends 8/C.
869. 45/A81 4.68 12 Legends 13/C. Dies of 870–72.
870. 45/A81 4.57 Dies of 869, 871, 872.
871. 45/A81 4.54 Dies of 869, 870, 872.
872. 45/A81 4.38 Dies of 869–71.
873. 46/A82 4.45 12 Legends 13/C. Dies of 874. Obv. of 875. Obv. of Weiser 252, 253.
874. 46/A82 4.30 Dies of 873. Obv. of 875. Obv. of Weiser 252, 253.
875. 46/A83 4.27 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 873, 874. Obv. of Weiser 252, 253.
876. 47/A84 4.37 12 Legends 13/C.
877. 48/A85 4.50 11 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 878–80.
878. 48/A86 4.66 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 877, 879, 880.
879. 48/A87 4.66 12 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 877, 878, 880.
880. 48/A88 4.30 11 Legends 13/C. Obv. of 877–79.
881. 49/A89 4.39 Legends 13/C.
882. 50/A90 4.34 Legends 13/C.
883. 51/A91 4.64 12 Legends 13/C. Rev. of 884.
884. 52/A91 4.33 12 Legends 16/C. Rev. of 883.
885. 53/A92 4.26 Legends 13/C.
886. 54/A93 4.58 12 Legends 13/C.
887. 55/A94 4.45 12 Legends 13/C.
888. 56/A95 4.51 12 Legends 13/C.
889. 57/A96 4.66 12 Legends 13/C.
890. 58/A97 4.34 5 Legends 13/C.
891. 59/A98 4.18 11 Legends 13/C.
892. 60/A99 4.47 2 Legends 13/C.
893. 61/A100 4.35 12 Legends 13/C.
894. 62/A101 4.50 Legends 13/C.
895. 63/A102 4.28 12 Legends 13/C.
896. 64/A103 4.19 12 Legends 13/C.
897. 65/A104 4.45 12 Legends 5/C. Obv. of 898.
*898. 65/A105 4.36 11 Legends 5/C. Obv. of 897.
899. 66/A106 4.36 12 Legends 12/C. Dies of 900. Dies of Weiser 240, 241.
900. 66/A106 4.25 12 Dies of 899. Dies of Weiser 240, 241.
*901. 67/A107 4.71 12 Legends 12/C. Dies of 902, 903.
902. 67/A107 4.47 12 Dies of 901, 903.
903. 67/A107 4.29 6 Dies of 901, 902.
904. 68/A108 4.22 Legends 13/C. Rev. of 905.
905. 69/A108 4.74 11 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 906. Rev. of 904.
906. 69/A109 4.31 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 905. Rev. of 907.
907. 70/A109 4.25 11 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 908, 909. Rev. of 906.
908. 70/A110 4.34 11 Legends 7/C. Dies of 909. Obv. of 907. Dies of Weiser 231.
909. 70/A110 4.32 12 Dies of 908. Obv. of 907. Dies of Weiser 231.
910. 71/A111 4.61 1 Legends 9/C. Dies of 911. Obv. die of Weiser 242.
911. 71/A111 4.39 1 Dies of 910. Obv. of Weiser 242.
912. 72/A112 4.39 Legends 9/C.
*913. 73/A113 4.18 12 Legends 13/C.
*914. 74/A114 4.53 12 Legends 17/C.
*915. 75/A115 4.07 12 Legends 9/C.
*916. 76/A116 4.42 11 Legends 8/C.
917. 77/A117 4.24 11 Legends 11/C. Obv. of Weiser 236.

Rev. Nike advancing l., wreath in r., palm in l.

*918. 30/NL10 4.41 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 843, 844.

Rev. Nike advancing r. on globe, wreath in r., palm in l.

919. 26/NG1 4.42 1 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 829, 830 (year 3); 838.
920. 28/NG2 4.48 12 Legends 8/D. Obv. of 839, 840.
921. 31/NG3 4.47 6 Legends 7/D. Obv. of 845.
922. 32/NG4 4.50 12 Legends 13/C. Dies of 923, 924. Obv. of 846–48.
923. 32/NG4 4.50 12 Dies of 922, 924. Obv. of 846–48.
924. 32/NG4 4.41 1 Dies of 922, 923. Obv. of 846–48.
925. 34/NG5 4.47 1 Legends 7/C. Obv. of 851.
926. 78/NG6 4.31 12 Legends 8/C.
927. 79/NG7 4.40 12 Legends 8/C.
928. 80/NG8 4.21 1 Legends 7/C.
929. 81/NG9 4.30 12 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 930. Dies of Weiser 235.
930. 81/NG10 4.20 1 Legends 9/C. Obv. of 929.
931. 82/NG11 4.39 12 Legends 9/F.

DENARIUS OF Domitian, A.D. 81–96

Obv. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V. Head laureate r.

Rev. IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P. Minerva standing l., thunderbolt in r., spear in l., shield behind ("Minerva type 3").

932. 3.24 6 Not listed in standard references; see I. Carradice, Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian A.D. 81–96, BAR International Series 178 (Oxford, 1983), p. 28.

COMMENTARY ON REIGNS

Vespasian, A.D. 69–79

The Vespasianic coinage is represented in the hoard by 52 coins struck from at least 39 obverse dies and 47 reverse dies. The lot recorded by Weiser adds only two specimens to this total, both apparently from other dies.1

The hoard suggests that the didrachm type with head of Titus r. (1–26, conspectus 4) was struck in greatest quantity, followed by Nike flying r. (27–40, 1). Only two specimens of the type with Nike on elongated base (41–42, 2) occur, which may indicate that it is no more than a variant. The Titus and Nike types are die linked (obv. 2. linking 1 and 27, obv. 17 linking 25, 28, and 29), and the style of coins of the variant Nike reverse is so similar that common origin is not in question.

This undated series is joined by a pair of didrachms dated year 9, 77/8, which portray Titus standing in military dress and Domitian standing togate (43–46, 5, and 47–52, 6). The number of coins of each dated type in the hoard is so small that no die links between them should be expected, and none are known; unfortunately, they cannot yet be linked to the undated series. But stylistic parallelism gives us good reason to suspect that the undated coinage belongs in 77/8, and that this was the only year of issue of didrachms under Vespasian. The Mt. Argaeus type, 3, is absent from the hoard.

In addition to the didrachms — which seem to have constituted the major coinage of the mint under Vespasian — two other denominations were struck, drachms and hemidrachms. The earliest coinage consisted of drachms of years 6 (74/5) and 7 (75/6), 7 and 8. An undated drachm of Vespasian, 9, echoes the didrachm with Nike, and is paralleled by an issue in the name of Titus, 10. A type peculiar to Domitian, 11, completes the undated series. These are accompanied by drachms duplicating each of the dated didrachms, 12 and 13. Issues in the name of the Caesars are also known for the ninth year, 14 and 15. The small group of hemidrachms, consisting of Mt. Argaeus and two Nike types (one of them similar to the didrachm 2 and the drachm 9) is entirely undated, but the parallel of the Nike coins may suggest contemporaneity with the didrachm which we have placed in 77/8.

In contrast to other Flavian provincial mints, Caesarea began to coin relatively late in Vespasian's reign. The evidence of the Caesarea hoard shows that the issue of didrachms was far larger than in previous reigns and this foreshadows the emergence of that denomination as the principal one struck for the province. "For" rather than "in" the province, however, since careful examination shows that there is not simply one amorphous whole but two distinct groupings which have in common only their types.

The two groups are distinguished by a combination of stylistic and technical features that, taken together with the absence of die links between them, are conclusive for discrete mintage. The Roman style resembles in broad outline the contemporary denarial issues of the capital: the features of Vespasian are realistic, the bust is broad and the top of the head flattened; the neck and truncation are large and heavy. The provincial style is comparable to that of the eastern denarii and cistophori as well as contemporary bronzes from Caesarea: the top of the head is more rounded and the facial features more carefully articulated. The Roman issues are generally on broader flans and are more neatly struck, but the easiest means of distinguishing the two groups is the objective criterion of die axis. The Roman issues are uniformly oriented at 6:00, like coins of the capital, while those of provincial style are at 12:00.2 These differences, most dramatically evident in the didrachm coinage (except, curiously, for Mt. Argaeus, 3, which is known only in Roman style), can also be traced in the smaller denominations.

The simultaneous production of two groups, similar in their selection of types but different in virtually every other way, is conclusive for separate origin of the dies, and the absence of linkage indicates that the dies were not used at the same place. The style of the one series points directly to Rome, that of the other to Caesarea. The production of Cappadocian coinage elsewhere than at Caesarea itself, heretofore unsuspected, is first encountered under Vespasian; it becomes a recurrent concern in the late first and second centuries and will be discussed in detail as the evidence demands.3

No doubt as a result of their age at the time of deposit, the Vespasianic didrachms fall short of the mean weight calculated by Walker for comparable material in museum collections. Nonetheless the coins present a self-consistent picture and suggest that the nominal Cappadocian drachm was equal by weight to the denarius.

Analysis of 52 Coins of Vespasian

N = 52; mean wt. = 6.404 g; S.D. = 0.281

image

Weights as a Percentage of All Coins

End Notes
3 For Domitian, see below, pp. 51–52; for Trajan, pp. 56, 58–60; for Marcus and Verus, p. 71; for a possible explanation, pp. 83–90.

End Notes

1 Following the formula of Giles F. Carter, used here and throughout, 123 ± 27 obverses were used on Vespasian's didrachms and 356 ± 132 reverses. These projections are only slightly affected by the addition of coins from Weiser's lot.
2 These distinctions were first brought to my attention by Dr. I. A. Carradice of the British Museum, who has also now alluded to them in print: see I. Carradice and M. Cowell, "The Minting of Roman Imperial Bronze Coins for Circulation in the East: Vespasian to Trajan," NC 147 (1987), pp. 26–50, at p. 43.

Titus, A.D. 79–81

The coinage of Titus's reign is limited to a single hemidrachm type (conspectus 19, none represented in the hoard) virtually indistinguishable from that of his father, 17. In general the provincial silver of Titus shows no signs of innovativeness,4 and it might occasion some surprise that he coined at all at Caesarea, since his reign falls in the long hiatus between the substantial year 9 issues of Vespasian, A.D. 77/8, and those of Domitian's year 13, 92/3. The absence of his coins from this Caesarea hoard as well as from Baldwin's hoard and Weiser's Cappadocian find, both of which might have been expected to include them, suggests a very small issue.

Domitian, A.D. 81–96

The coinage of Domitian is the most compact of all the Caesarean issues, and, not surprisingly, it displays a complete uniformity of style.

In contrast to the coinage of Vespasian, virtutally the whole Domitianic coinage can be shown, on the basis of die links, to be the product of a single mint. The hoard coins display significant links.

Die 10: coin 63, "Apollo," with 66–68, Athena.

Die 11: 64, Athena, with 98, club, and 129, Nike.

Die 12: 69, Athena, with 133, Nike.

Die 13: 70, Athena, with 132, Nike.

Die 14: 71, Athena, with 134, Nike.

Die 15: 62, Mt. Argaeus, with 72 and 73, Athena, and 131, Nike.

Die 16: 74, Athena, with 119, club.

Die 17: 75–77, Athena, with 148, Nike.

Die 19: 79 and 80, Athena, with 101, club.

Die 21: 82 and 83, Athena, with 103 and 104, club.

Die 32: 107, club, with 122, quadriga.

Die 43: 127 and 128, quadriga with 149, Nike.

Of these, the two most important links are those provided by die 15 which associates Mt. Argaeus (and thereby Caesarea) with the Athena and Nike reserves, and dies 32 and 43 which attach the dateless quadriga reverse to club and Nike and thereby to the remainder of the dated series. Of all the didrachm types known for Domitian, the hoard lacks only the reverse with bust of Domitia (27) and the two rare types — Athena and Nike (28 and 29) — which bear the obverse of Domitian and Domitia facing one another.5 The Domitia reverse has now been linked, through the Woodward coins, to the rest of the series, so its date too is confirmed; and it is simply a matter of time before die links are discovered to tie the double-bust coins to the remainder of the series.

As we have seen, the coinage of Vespasian breaks into two groups, Roman and provincial, the former characterized by a 6:00 die axis and the latter by the 12:00 traditional axis at Caesarea. The die axis of the Domitianic coinage is uniformly 6:00, a reversal of the 12:00 which is invariable at Caesarea up to Vespasian and which continues to characterize his coins of provincial style. In addition the Cappadocian coins of Domitian are of extremely fine workmanship. In the adornment of the bust (laurel wreath), the plasticity of the engraving, and the consistent adherence to a single portrait model the coins are strongly reminiscent of Roman denarii; the flans are more neatly struck and the weights are more regular than those heretofore observed at Caesarea. We should strongly suspect a Roman origin for the whole coinage.6

The copper coinage (e.g. SNGCopCyprus 195) is probably not relevant. It continues to be oriented at 12:00 but the style is so unlike that of the Cappadocian silver that this evidence can only support different striking authorities — whether separated in space or not it is impossible to tell.

In 98 coins, there are 50 (or 51) obverse dies and 51 (or 52) reverse dies. Using the lower figures for the dies, the projected original totals are 83 ± 8 obverses and 86 ± 8 reverses. The weights of the coins are somewhat more regular than those observed for Vespasian, and the hoard coins more closely approach the mean weight calculated by Walker.7

Analysis of 98 Coins of Domitian

N = 98; mean wt. = 6.521 g.; S.D. = 0.211

image

Weights as a Percentage of All Coins

End Notes
7 Walker 1, pp. 127–28. He calculates a mean of 6.65 g and corrects it to 6.72 (N = 73). His analysis of 19 coins gives a mean of 67.34 percent silver for the didrachm, hence a theoretical drachm containing 2.26 g of silver.

End Notes

4 The only exception is the cistophorus with CAPIT RESTIT, not recorded in any of the standard references. There are specimens in the British Museum (1948–7–4) and Bern (5979). A. M. Woodward unjustifiably regarded the coin as the result of the survival of an obverse die of Titus into the reign of Domitian, for whom the type is common. See "The Cistophoric Series and Its Place in the Roman Coinage" in R. A. G. Carson and C. H. V. Sutherland, eds., Essays in Roman Coinage Presented to Harold Mattingly (Oxford, 1956), pp. 149–73 at 157, and pl. 8, 3.
5 It is of course arguable that the rarity of such coins led to their extraction from the hoard before a record could be made of its contents. A single example of 29 came to light late in 1989 (ANS 1989.118.1), but there is nothing to suggest its association with the hoard; otherwise none have appeared in the trade literature since 1980.
6 Other Domitianic provincial coinages — e.g. the late cistophori and the drachms of Lycia — also resemble the coins of Rome, and Walker (Metrology 3, p. 120) may have had them in mind when he wrote: "The didrachms struck at Caesarea in Cappadocia by Domitian in 93/94 are so close in their style of portraiture to that being used at Rome that it is impossible to imagine anything other than that the dies are the product of the same workshop. There are, of course, other examples of eastern coinages which are very close in style to the mint of Rome, but this is one of the most convincing."

Nerva, A.D. 96–98

Nerva's silver coinage for Cappadocia consisted entirely of didrachms. Only ten of these are known from the hoard, but they are sufficiently representative to indicate the problems posed by his coinage. The coinage may be summarized as follows:

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC, die axis variable

A.D. 96

31, OMON CTPAT, and 32, TYXH CEBACTOY

A.D. 97

YPATOY TPITOY, die axis 12: 33, club; 34, "Amazon"; 35, Mt. Argaeus

Obv. ΓEPM: 36, club

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC YΠAT Γ

--KPAT: 37a, EΛEYΘ ΔHMOY; 38a, OMON CTPAT; 39a, TYXH CEBACTOY

-KPA: 37b, EΛEYΘ ΔHMOY; 38b, OMON CTPAT; 39b, TYXH CEBACTOY

YΠATOY TPITOY, 40, Mt. Argaeus

A.D. 98

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC YΠAT Δ, die axis variable

41, EΛEYΘ ΔHMOY; 42, OMON CTPAT; 43, TYXH CEBACTOY

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC, die axis 12 YΠATOY TETAPTOY: 44, Mt. Argaeus; 45, club

Obv. AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACTOC ΓEPM YΠATOY TETAPTOY: 46, Mt. Argaeus; 47, club

The coins of 96 bear only the types which have long been recognized as deriving from Roman prototypes.8 On the coins of 97 and 98 these two types, with the addition of EΛEYΘ ΔHMOY (libertas publica), are found only in association with obverse legends which include the consular iterations; put another way, they are all accompanied by reverse legends which describe the types, unfamiliar in Cappadocia, and therefore restrict the imperial titulary to the obverse. Conversely the Mt. Argaeus and club types are known only with the less detailed obverse legends and confine their reverse content to the consular iteration. Were it not for the curious 40, which is a hybrid pairing dies both of which include the iteration, it would be easy to see two distinct series here between which die links are not only unknown, but impossible.

To some extent this dichotomy is borne out by the die axes. Coins with consular reverse and local types consistently display a 12:00 die axis, while those with type-defining legends show a predominance of 6:00 over 12:00. The die axis of local bronze, is, as usual, 12:00, while that current at Rome is invariably 6:00.

But all this is suggestive, no more; the case for participation of the Roman mint in the coinage of Nerva is not nearly as strong as that for Vespasian and Domitian. There seems to be no consistent variation in style which would further support distinct origin of the two groups: while some obverses are definably cruder than others, most, whether they bear the consular iteration or not, are self-consistent to the point that one sometimes wonders whether recutting of legends is a possibility. Throughout the coinage the bust of Nerva is tall and angular, his forehead forming an almost continuous line with the nose; the ties protrude stiffly rather than fall from the back of the wreath. Not even the best dies approach the vigorous portraiture that can be observed on products of Rome.

Probably the best interpretation of the available evidence is that the legends vary only to accommodate the need to identify the reverse types of the Roman group; the apparent variation of die axis, which is in any case not absolute, can then be dismissed as coincidence. The relatively large output for Nerva's brief fourth consulship (January 1 to 28, 98) is more readily explicable if the coins were produced in Cappadocia, where word of his death would not have penetrated for some time, rather than at Rome, where no doubt coins in his name ceased to be produced immediately.

The small number of coins of Nerva in the hoard precludes construction of a frequency table, but the 10 pieces show a mean weight of 6.44 g with a standard deviation of .294. This compares with Walker's sample of 18 coins, which showed a mean of 6.46 g and a standard deviation of .38.9

End Notes

8 See, for example, Sydenham, pp. 17–19, on types in general, and pp. 55–56, notes to his nos. 136–38; Walker, Metrology 2, p. 82, where the "copying" of types is taken as a sign that "Clearly, at this period at least the mint is working under very close central [i.e. Roman] control."

TRAJAN, A.D. 98–117

Trajan's issues constitute the largest provincial coinage of any mint, other than Alexandria, up to his reign even if, as here, we regard the third consulship issues commonly assigned to Caesarea as products of other mints.10 If this is correct, the output of Caesarea during Trajan's reign breaks into two unequal parts, associated respectively with his second and sixth consulships. Both of these may be further bisected on the basis of titulary.

Technical and Metrological Aspects

The coins of Caesarea generally display great regularity of weight. The frequency tables presented here are closely comparable to others which incorporate not only coins from the hoard but from the ANS collection (which is mainly from Baldwin's hoard); both show a clear peak for the didrachms, both collectively and when broken down by issue, between 6.61 and 6.80 g. In the overall frequency table, 149 of 394 coins (37.8 percent) fall in this range. This corresponds to a drachm of 3.31–3.40, a weight virtually identical to that of the theoretical denarius. The coins of this denomination fit neatly within this range. There is no significant difference between the two major chronological groupings, nor between coins of COS VI without or with APICTω.

The die axis is also regular. In the first phase of the COS II issue the die axis varies between 6:00 and 12:00, with only slight declensions; in the second phase the axis is regularized at 6:00. Each phase is represented by a single case of die duplication (165 and 166, 172 and 173). In each case the dies are identically oriented, which may suggest a system of fixing the dies in an absolute relationship to one another.

The larger COS VI issue uniformly displays 6:00, with occasional deviation to 7:00. There are fifty cases of obverse/reverse die identities: in 40 cases a pair of duplicates, in 9 a set of triplicates, and one set of quadruplicates. Exact identity of die orientation is the general rule, but among the pairs are seven exceptions, among the triplicates one, and the set of four includes three oriented at 7:00, one at 6:00. Because of the dispersal of the coins it is no longer possible to check the apparent exceptions; but whether or not the relationship of the dies to one another was fixed absolutely, it is obvious that some system was employed not only to insure their vertical pairing, but to insure that it was focused on a 6:00 die axis.

Gross already drew attention to the conspicuous difference in style between the COS II and the COS VI issues of Trajan.11 Apart from the fact that the later issue incorporates obverse bust treatments introduced only with Trajan's decennalia and deriving from them, the earlier issue is clearly of local style, the later of Roman style. This is a point to which we shall return in another context.

COS II, 98–99

The early coinage of Trajan breaks into two groups which were sorted out correctly, albeit implicitly, by Sydenham. With a single exception — the extemely rare hemidrachm 62 — the first group, like the coinage of Nerva, consists exclusively of didrachms. As frequently occurs at the beginning of a reign when the features of the new emperor are not well known, the portrait of Trajan is assimilated to that of his predecessor; and the obverse legend, AYT KAI NEPOYAC TPAIANOC CEBAC ΓEPM, is slightly fuller than that of the immediately subsequent issue (S. 158, in the British Museum, has been misread by Sydenham). The reverse legend, VΠAT ΔEVT, is accompanied by the familiar Mt. Argaeus (161–64, 50a–b) and club (169 and 170, 52), drawn from the Caesarean prototypes; and a bearded and armed male figure, presumably Mars, standing facing (167 and 168, 51a–b). The figure has no clear antecedent in either Roman or Caesarean coinage, and the immediate reference of the type is unclear.

The second group has the obverse legend AYT KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM and the reverse ΔHM EΞ YΠAT B; mention of the tribunicia potestas and iteration of the consulship is a standard feature of subsequent Caesarean reverses. This group has an associated coinage of drachms. Now there are at least five, and possibly six reverse types: Mt. Argaeus, club, Tyche, and Eleutheria are carried over from the previous group, and die links associate them, as follows: Obv. 7: 171, 55a, Mt. Argaeus; 189, 53, Tyche Obv. 13: 179, 55a, Mt. Argaeus; 182, 54a, Eleutheria Obv. 20: 191, 53, Tyche; 193, 57, club

In view of the identity of format and the antecedent at Caesarea, there is no difficulty in adding clasped hands (56) to these in spite of the absence of a die link. A sixth type, "Hera," though it appears here in the conspectus as 58, is more problematical. Its obverse legend is identical to that of the five other types, but the reverse varies in having ΔHMAPX for ΔHM. The type is without parallel in the coinage of Caesarea or elsewhere. No die links have been found in a cursory serarch of sources outside the hoard. The sole evidence linking it to Caesarea is its occurrence in the Caesarea hoard.

COS VI, 112–116

Trajan Not Yet Optimus, 202–456

With issues dated COS VI the canon of five reverse types is continued, and there are also five major obverse types, all of them known with all reverse varieties. There is extensive linkage of obverses, but only within single reverse types; reverse dies, however, often link obverses of different types. It is possible to imagine a large officina scheme based on reverse types, with the obverses peculiar to their workshop of origin; in fact the evidence for such a scheme here is much better than for any comparably early period at the mint of Rome itself.

In spite of the absence of obverse die links, the contemporaneity of all the non-imageριστω issues is arguable from the parallelism of their obverse bust treatments, which include five variants: bust with draped l. shoulder, bust with draped l. shoulder and aegis, bust with full drapery and seen from behind, the same with globe beneath, and bust draped and cuirassed and seen from behind. In the catalogue these types are arranged in approximate order of increasing complexity.

There is one curious technical point which emerges immediately from the plates. The die axes show that the club is to be viewed with handle at the bottom, an inversion of the orientation of the type that is usual under earlier rulers and documented, if not dominant, in the first issue of Trajan.12 This has the corollary that the reverse legend (if read in Roman fashion, with the iteration of the tribunician power preceding that of the consulship) begins at 1:00 instead of the usual 7:00. Taken by itself the change can hardly be meaningful; it merely reflects the hiatus between the early and late Caesarean coins of Trajan, which might have led to misunderstanding of the type.

Surely the most remarkable feature of this issue is its inclusion, unknown before this hoard, of 444–46, 68, which share a Latin legend obverse die. Since the publication of these coins others have come to light, and a drachm is now known as well, 79. Although here it was used to strike a coin of somewhat larger module, there can be no doubt that this die was manufactured alongside others intended for aurei and denarii. Its bust treatment and its legend are exactly those in use at Rome, and in its style and epigraphy it duplicates, virtually line-for-line, obverses used there for denarii and aurei. The implications of this unprecedented link will be explored below.

Trajan Optimus, Not Yet Parthicus, 457–509

The last issue of Trajan reflects his assumption of the title of imageριστoς (optimus) in August 114.13 The number of reverse types remains at five, but the clasped hands previously known with OMON CTPAT replaces the Tyche which had appeared on the two earlier series of Trajan. The substitution may reflect the military tenor of Trajan's eastern operations during the later years of his reign but, like the coinage of Arabia, that of Caesarea omits the epithet Parthicus awarded February 20, 116, and it is fair to conclude that the coinage came to an end before that date.

The single die shared with the pre-optimus coinage, A21 (231 with 463 and 464) suggests the continuity of the issue with that lacking the epithet.14 Like the previous issues, individual reverse types are closely die linked internally, but there is no sharing of obverse dies among types.

The simplest explanation of this phenomenon would be the existence of a kind of officina system based on obverse types, but as Table 3 shows the hoard totals of coins of the individual obverse types do not support such an arrangement. On the other hand if the tables are read across — i.e. by reverse type — the totals are in reasonable conformity. If this is a correct reading of the system in operation, it is interesting to observe that the lone Latin obverse die takes its natural place in the Mt. Argaeus series. In the idea of subdividing the work of the mint for Cappadocia these Trajanic issues anticipate in concept, though not in execution, the coinage of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus which, it is argued below, is likely to have been produced at Rome. If indeed an officina system was employed, the pattern was one often posited for Rome itself in the first and early second centuries.15

The arguments for Roman origin of the last issues of Trajan have to be counted rather than weighed. The subdivision of labor, taken on its own, would be no more than suggestive. The Latin legend obverse die, which takes its place in the Cappadocian system of labor as well as its canon of types, must have been produced at Rome (we have no evidence for the production of denarii or aurei in Cappadocia), and very likely it was used there (why ship a single die to the province?). In support of Roman origin for the Trajanic series — in addition, of course, to the Latin obverse die itself — is the peculiar form of rendering Mt. Argaeus, already remarked by Sydenham, which might suggest die makers who were not familiar with the model.16 For the moment the case remains highly probable; when a die link to a denarius or aureus of indisputably Roman origin appears it will be conclusive.

End Notes
9 Walker, Metrology 2, pp. 71–72.
10 S. 176–81 and variants; the attributions are discussed in Appendix 2.
11 W. H. Gross, Bildnisse Traians, Das römische Herrscherbild II.2 (Berlin, 1940), p. 25.
12 In the first issue it is impossible to be sure which way the club is to be viewed; but there I have been guided by the usual orientation of the legend around the flan from 7:00.
13 For the date see T. Frankfort, "Trajan Optimus: recherche de chronologie,"Latomus 20 (1957), pp. 333–34. He places the assumption of the title between August 10 and September 1, 114. For what it is worth, the epithet does not seem to appear on the coins of Trajan's year 17 at Alexandria (August 29, 113-August 28, 114).
14 This seems to be one of the points made by A. Kunisz, "Srebrne mennictwo Cezarei kapadockiej za panowania Trajana (98–117)," Zeszyty naukowe uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego 613, abstract in Prace historyczne z. 70 (1981), pp. 39–60, which has been accessible to me only through the English abstract.
15 For the reign of Domitian, at any rate, the reverse type seems the key to recognition of an officina, see I. Carradice, Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian A.D. 81–96, BAR International Series 178 (Oxford, 1983), pp. 145–47. It is not possible, however, to trace this organization backward to Titus or forward to Nerva.

Analysis of 348 Coins of Trajan

1. 41 Coins of COS II

N = 41; mean wt. = 6.611 g.; S.D. = 0.196

image

Weights as a Percentage of All Coins

2. 307 COS VI Coins

N = 307; mean wt. = 6.693 g.; S.D. = 0.213

image

Weights as a Percentage of All Coins

3a. Reverse and Obverse Types of Late Didrachms, 112–114

Bust Laureate: dr. l. should. dr. l. should., aegis dr. seen from behind dr. cuir. seen from behind dr. seen from behind, globe below
Rev. Type
Club 43 63a 10 63b 4 63c 9 63d 5 63e 15
Artemis (?) 57 64a 14 64b 5 64c 20 64d 1 64e 17
Apollo 50 65a 4 65b 7 65c 32 65d 4 65e 3
Tyche 64 66a 12 66b 9 66c 18 66d 1 66e 24
Mt. Argaeus 41 67a 3 67b 11 67c 14 68 (Lat. obv.) 3 67d 10

3b. COS VI, Optimus , 114-

Bust Laureate: dr. l. should. dr. l. should, aegis dr. seen from behind cuir. dr. cuir.
Rev. Type
Club 8 73a 3 73b 3 73c 2
Artemis 12 74a 2 74b 1 74d 3 74c 2 74e 4
Apollo 11 75a 1 75c 1 75b 3 75d 6
Mt. Argaeus 11 76a 8 76b 3 76ca 0
Clasped hands 7 77a 0 77b 6 77c 1
End Notes
a Head laur. r.
16 Sydenham, p. 19. See also P. Weiss, "Argaios/Erciyas Dagi — Heiliger Berg Kappadokiens Monumente und Ikonographie," JNG 35 (1985), pp. 21–48, where representations in various media are catalogued. Most of these are principally conical in shape, and virtually all of the mountain alone show it surmounted by a figure of Helios or by a star.

HADRIAN, 117–138

The didrachm seems to continue as the principal denomination during Hadrian's reign, even though it is sparsely represented in this hoard. A crude means of illustrating the decline from the reign of Trajan is to note that the eighteen specimens come to an average of less than one per year, compared to nearly eighteen per year for Trajan, but the infrequency of die links suggests that the sample is not nearly so complete. Unfortunately there is little against which to compare this assemblage, since Baldwin's hoard was closed too early to be of use.

The reign of Hadrian is notoriously devoid of chronological markers apart from the assumption of the title pater patriae in 128, and that provides the only clue to the separation of the two didrachm groups here. At a guess, however, the early coins lacking the title belong to the earliest part of the reign. The new emperor here, as elsewhere, recalled his adoptive father through the lengthier legend AYT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB. The later coinage, reflecting Hadrian's new titulary, shortens the obverse legend to AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC, a simple translation of the HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS [P P] legend in use at Rome from 128 to ca. 132 on most chronologies.

The didrachms of Hadrian, at least as represented in the Caesarea hoard, are of little typological interest. There are three varieties of Mt. Argaeus. That struck before 128 (510 and 511, 89) is accompanied by a drachm (90) and shows the familiar figure of Helios atop the mountain. The type was also produced after 128 (512–16, 91–92) alongside varieties with star and crescent (93), star (517 and 518, 94), three stars (519–25, 95), and a curious type with wreath (96). No obverse die links are known among the types, though there is no reason why such links should not eventually appear. The late didrachms also include two club reverses, with shorter (97) and longer (98–100) legends accompanied by star or star and crescent. The final type shows a youthful figure with club.

Drachms were struck in quantity for the first time since the reign of Vespasian and are represented in significant numbers in the finds. After Hadrian the drachm was abandoned until the Severan age. The single type, both before and after 128, is Mt. Argaeus.

A more characteristically Hadrianic denomination is the hemidrachm, which is abundantly represented both in the finds and in the trade. Its three types — Mt. Argaeus (83), club (84), and Nike (85 and 86) — all have precedent at the mint, and the issue forms a compact group struck in Hadrian's years 3 and 4 (120/1, 121/2). Two undated Nike types (87 and 88) no doubt belong to the same period. The post-Hadrianic abandonment of the hemidrachm was permanent.

As usual the mint has attracted various further attributions of questionable soundness. Löbbecke and others attributed to the mint a tridrachm (109) which bears typical Caesarean legends and portrays Tyche in a temple. It is clear from their placement in Sydenham's catalogue that he regarded this as the largest denomination of a series which included a didrachm of the same type (110) as well as a didrachm/drachm set with Tyche seated on the reverse (111 and 112). The coins are entirely absent from the finds. The Tyche reverse has precedent at Casearea, but its occurrence here hardly compels the attribution in view of the fact that, apart from this grouping, the tridrachm is otherwise lacking in the Hadrainic coinage. (In fact, on the modern interpretation this would be the first occurrence of the denomination at the mint.) Similarly the drachm with eagle facing head l. (113), assigned to Caesarea in BMCGalatia, is lacking from the finds and has not even a typological precedent in favor of its ascription to Caesarea. These coins — all of which are very rare — are included in the Conspectus with great reluctance and pending further hoard evidence, but it must also be admitted that there is no attractive alternative to Caesarea.

In addition to these coins there is a group of problem pieces (103–5) that are sufficiently anomalous to allow their official origin to be ques- tioned. The legends of these coins present the imperial name as CEBACTOC AΔRIANOC rather than the normal AΔRIANOC CEBACTOC, and the busts face left rather than right; it is as if the whole format of the obverse is simply reversed. These coins, which were known to Sydenham and which are not uncommon in collections, have surfaced only recently, in the Eki find.17

The weight standard is maintained and, if the limited sample is anything to go by, slightly improved over the reign of Trajan. The frequency peak remains in the range 6.61–6.80, and the mean of 6.62 is comparable to that of Trajan, but the standard deviation of .114 indicates a more rigid adherence to standard. Die axes continue at 6:00.

Analysis of 18 coins of Hadrian

N = 18; mean wt. = 6.618 g.; S.D. = 0.114

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Weights as a Percentage of All Coins

End Notes

17 See 103–5.

ANTONINUS PIUS, A.D. 138–161

The coinage of Antoninus begins with an undated didrachm with Eusebeia reverse (116), accompanied by a drachm with Pronoia reverse (117). It is tempting to see in the first a simultaneous allusion to the city's first imperial name and to the pietas of the new ruler, while the second is doubtless a reference to Hadrian's provision for the succession, first frustrated by the death of Aelius Caesar but finally justified in Antoninus's own accession. The celebratory character of these two coins is confirmed by their originality of type and by the immediate reversion, in 139, to the standard Mt. Argaeus motif (118–28), which is the sole one employed during the second and third consulships.

The small numbers and the presence of die linkage in the hoard might seem to suggest a small coinage for Antonius, but this may be accidental. Few die links have been observed in a larger sample of material gathered from modern collections, and the Eki hoard, with 55 specimens and no evidence of intimate die linkage, could be used to argue the opposite case. Moreover there survive considerable numbers of copper "didrachms," which can hardly be regarded as official; the coinage was therefore abundant enough to inspire imitations in antiquity.18 Until a complete die study is undertaken, incorporating the Eki material, it will be impossible to form an accurate estimate of the volume of Antonine issues.

There are not enough specimens to permit construction of a meaningful frequency table. The five coins in the hoard show a mean weight of 6.54 g with a relatively high standard deviation of .392.

Marcus Aurelius AND LUCIUS VERUS, A.D. 161–169

Die links between coins of Aurelius and Verus are impossible because the reverses follow the chronology of the individual emperors, but it is certain that the two coinages were struck alongside one another. This is assured by the use of identical reverse types, which include Mt. Argaeus surmounted either by a star or by Helios standing, and by a very similar distribution of obverse types which link the two major reverse types together for each emperor. Indeed in the case of Verus the reverse linkage is so extensive that it is difficult to discern whether the obverse or the reverse dies should be regarded as the control. For convenience in the catalogue the reverse types, because they represent fewer varieties, are the principal basis of classification.

Although there is considerable variation in detail, the reverse treatments are so consistent throughout that all of the dies might have been the work of a single hand. This impression is confirmed by the letter forms and, except for the dates, the reverses of Marcus are indistinguishable from those of Verus. Here it is assumed that the identity of hand establishes identity of date, and that the terminus ante quem provided by Lucius's third consulship in 167 applies for both rulers.

What variation there is appears on the obverses, with eight bust treatments for Marcus (i–viii), all appearing with both reverse types, and six for Verus (i–vi), all but one found with both reverse types. The variation in bust adornment can hardly be called random, though there seems to have been no attempt to represent all bust styles by equal numbers of dies. In the use of so many varieties simultaneously the usage of Caesarea closely resembles that of Rome. Mattingly identified ten obverse bust styles at the opening of the reign of Marcus.19

Rome Cappadocia Cappadocia
Marcus Verus
a) Head r. i i
b) Bust r., dr. l. sh. iii
c) Bust r., dr. iii
d) Bust r., cuir. v iv
e) Bust r., dr. cuir. vii v
f) Head laur. r. ii ii
g) Bust laur. r., dr. l. sh. iv
h) Bust laur. r., dr.
i) Bust laur. r., cuir. vi vi