Numismatic finds of the Americas

Author
Kleeberg, John M.
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
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Donum
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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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Introduction

This is an inventory of numismatic finds (chiefly coins, but also paper money, medals, and tokens) from North and South America, plus an inventory of American numismatic items found outside the Americas. This introduction will distinguish among the various types of finds; provide a chronological narrative of the development of coinage in the Americas as it relates to coin finds; discuss the sources for this inventory; and explain its arrangement. This inventory may be abbreviated as "NFA," short for Numismatic Finds of the Americas.

Numismatic Finds—Defined and Categorized

The term "finds" is the greater term, which includes the more narrow term, "hoards." All hoards are finds; not all finds are hoards. This work will use the following definition of hoards: Two or more coins or other valuable objects, removed from circulation and intentionally concealed, usually with the purpose of eventual recovery, but not recovered by the original owner, and not recovered until a substantial period of time has passed, typically a decade or more.

The latter part of the definition is borrowed from the jurisprudence regarding treasure trove. The courts write, "Treasure trove has the air of antiquity." 1 The researcher into numismatic finds in the United States soon discovers that bags of money fall out of armored trucks with alarming frequency, 2 and without that limitation all those incidents would have to be included. The focus of this inventory is on numismatic finds that tell us something of the history of the time. The fact that bags of money are being thrown out regularly onto the American highway tells us interesting information about the competence of the armored truck industry, but a million nickels smeared all over the Garden State Parkway are of little help in analyzing the monetary patterns of the late twentieth century. Walter Breen, in his 1950 inventory of American coin hoards, excluded "hoards made for a numismatic purpose," such as the hoard of flying eagle cents accumulated by John Beck. 3 Despite the ambiguity of the term "numismatic purpose," it is clear what Breen means, namely hoards made by collectors for the collectible value, rather than the monetary value. This inventory excludes those accumulations as well, partly by using the definition "removed from circulation." These collector and dealer accumulations tell us interesting things about the collector habits of the period, but they do not tell us much about monetary circulation.

In addition to hoards, this inventory will also include shipwrecks; single finds; and finds in archaeological excavations.

The common law distinguishes three categories of lost property, namely lost, abandoned, and mislaid. Coin hoards often get treated as a fourth category, "treasure trove." An object is mislaid when someone places it somewhere and then forgets where it was located. The lost/abandoned/mislaid distinction provides a useful framework for describing the various types of coin finds; in analyzing the conduct of the owner it parallels the accidentally/intentionally/negligently distinction.

Many writers use the term hoards loosely, calling a series of finds, or any large group of coins, a "hoard." The following outline, applying the lost/abandoned/mislaid framework, should make the distinction clear:

  • Lost.
    • Casual losses (e.g., coins dropping out of pockets).
    • Losses due to disasters:
      • Shipwrecks.
      • Volcano (eruption of Vesuvius).
      • Other disasters (flood, fire, San Francisco earthquake).
  • Abandoned.
    • Discarding counterfeits (the term discarded has been adopted from the work in Roman numismatics done by Richard Reece).
    • Discarding base metal coins that no longer circulate (e.g., Garza jolas, NFA 579).
    • Abandonment for votive purposes:
      • Funerary deposits ("Charon's obol").
      • Foundation deposits (cornerstones, Bauopfer).
      • Religion/Luck (wishing wells).
  • Mislaid (coin hoards).
    • Emergency hoards.
    • Savings hoards.

In archaeological excavations, the most common finds will fall into categories I.A and II.A. The characteristic find from United States sites of the early nineteenth century is the Spanish American ½ real, the medio, which was worth about six cents, and small and easy to lose. Counterfeits (II.A) are discarded because possession of a counterfeit is in itself a crime. In a case of II.B, an issuer of tokens (here, José Antonio Garza) redeemed his tokens, and having paid them off wanted to get rid of them; so he dumped them in the San Antonio River, where they were found by later generations (NFA 579). II.C.l refers to a phenomenon often known as "Charon's obol," where a coin is placed with a corpse to supply it with funds for the afterlife; these coins can be placed on the eyes, in the mouth, or in the hand (NFA 16, 17). This custom exists in most coin-using cultures. The most important numismatic finds recovered from burials are Indian Peace Medals (NFA 711). II.C.2, foundation deposits (in German, "Bauopfer") is a custom of placing coins underneath a threshold or in a cornerstone to confer good luck on a building or bridge (NFA 774); an ocean-going variant is to place coins when stepping the mast of a ship (NFA 403). II.C.3 refers to the habit of throwing coins into wishing wells and rivers for luck (NFA 34). Category III, hoards, is divided into the two major categories of emergency hoards and savings hoards. Emergency hoards occur when some disaster impends (war, invasion); the owner grabs what coins there are and conceals them (NFA 312, 756). A savings hoard is accumulated over a series of years, and chooses the better coins from circulation; coins in a savings hoard are often skewed towards heavier weights (NFA 27, 670).

A "reverse hoard" is a variant of discarding counterfeits (II.A). In the early 1990s, a counterfeit subway token was widely circulated in New York City, nicknamed "the people's token." Token clerks had to pick out the counterfeits every time they emptied the turnstiles, to forestall selling the counterfeits onward. It was not uncommon to see token booths with stacks of a dozen "people's tokens" piled up on the shelf. These accumulations were, in effect, "reverse hoards": the hoarders were not picking out the desirable coins from circulation, but picking out the undesirable coins to prevent their further circulation. The Montclair Hoard has some "reverse hoard" characteristics, since many of the coins in that hoard bear cancellation graffiti (NFA 476).

It is possible for finds to move from one category to another. For example, an individual may accumulate a savings hoard in Pompeii, and then get buried by lava from Vesuvius—thus most of the finds at Pompeii will be I.B.2, but there will also be subcategories of III.B. Someone may accumulate coins, believing that they are valuable, but then the passage of time makes them valueless—an example would be state coppers that became valueless after the coppers panic. The finds then move from III.B to II.B. Examples of this phenomenon would be the Stepney Hoard (NFA 456) and the Bank of Montreal Hoard (NFA 644).

End Notes

1
John M. Kleeberg, "The Law and Practice Regarding Coin Finds: Treasure Trove Law in the United States," International Numismatic Commission, Compte Rendu 53 (2006): 13–26 (quotation is on page 16). A separate article discusses the admiralty law pertaining to coins found on shipwrecks: John M. Kleeberg, "The Law and Practice Regarding Coin Finds: United States Laws Concerning Historic Shipwrecks," International Numismatic Commission, Compte Rendu 54 (2006): 13–29.
2
E.g., Hoel v. Powell, 904 P.2d 153 (Okla. App. 1995).
3
Walter Breen, "Survey of American Coin Hoards," Numismatist 65, no. 1 (January 1952): 7–24; 65, no. 10 (October 1952): 1005–10.

Numismatic Finds of the Americas: a Chronological Overview

I. Early Finds.

The pre-Columbian civilizations of North and South America did not have coinage, but they did create metal objects that appear to have had some coin-like functions. The Aztecs used axe-shaped "hoe money," (tlacas), made of thin sheets of copper and shaped like the Greek letter tau; they are thought to have played some sort of monetary function, and hoards of these pieces have been found. Finds of non-coin traditional monies (such as cowries, hoe money, and wampum) have not been included in this inventory partly because of the difficulty of drawing the line between a cowry shell that served a monetary function, and one that was used as jewelry. The discoveries of ancient coins in the Americas, thought by some to be evidence of pre-Columbian contact, have been brilliantly debunked by Epstein, who shows them to be later losses by collectors. 4

The coin evidence of contact begins with a series of tantalizing single finds—a Norse penny in Maine, a Castilian blanca on San Salvador island in the Bahamas, and English sixpences on Roanoke Island and in California, which may be related to the explorations of Leif Ericson, Christopher Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Francis Drake (NFA 1, 2, 24, 35). More secure evidence begins with the excavations at La Isabela, in the Dominican Republic—the site of a settlement established by Columbus and abandoned by 1498—and the coins found on the site of Hernando de Soto's camp of 1539 in Tallahassee (NFA 3, 6). The characteristic coins of this period are the blancas of Henry IV of Spain, Portuguese ceitils, and maravedíes struck at Seville in Spain specifically for circulation in the Americas.

II. The Sixteenth Century.

When the Spanish established mints at México (1536), Santo Domingo (1542), Lima (1568), and Potosí (1573), plus a short-lived mint in Panama (1580), the output of coinage from America soared. The output from Santo Domingo was chiefly copper, although a small silver coinage is known. It was the issues in the names of Charles and his mother, the unfortunate Johanna the Mad, from the mint of México that became the predominant coinage. By 1550 a Mexican coin appears in an European hoard (NFA A2); by 1576 the coinage of México and Santo Domingo is depicted in the cambist by Parijs and Plantin, published in Antwerp. 5 This resulted from the discovery of vast silver mines by the Spaniards in their viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru, of which the most important was the silver mountain of Potosí.

Another innovation of this period was the fleet system to transport bullion and coinage to Spain and to the Philippines. There were two major Atlantic fleets, the New Spain fleet and the Tierra Firme fleet. The New Spain fleet was loaded at Veracruz, and then would follow the currents along the Gulf of Mexico to Havana on the island of Cuba. The silver from Peru was taken via llamas down to the ports of Callao and Arequipa, and then was transported by a Pacific fleet, called the Armada del Sur, to the Isthmus of Panama. Mule trains took the silver across the isthmus to two towns, Nombre de Dios (until 1596) and Portobelo (after 1596). During weeklong fairs the silver would be placed on the ships of the Tierra Firme fleet, which had also stopped on the coast of what is now Colombia for emeralds. The Tierra Firme fleet would proceed to Havana, where it would rendezvous with the New Spain fleet. Finally the joint fleets would leave Havana, pass up through the Straits of Florida between Florida and the Bahamas, and follow the Gulf Stream to Spain. At Spain they would arrive at Cadiz, and proceed up over the sandbars of Guadalquivir River to arrive at Seville, where all treasure from America had to be landed.

The other fleet system was in the Pacific, where one to three galleons a year traveled between Manila and Acapulco. The Manila galleon brought American silver to the Philippines, whence it passed across the Manila straits toChina; it brought back porcelain and silks to Acapulco, which were transported by mule train across Mexico to Veracruz, where the porcelain was shipped onwards to Spain. Shipwrecks have been found from all types of fleets, although it is only with the seventeenth century that shipwreck discoveries become abundant. The most important American shipwreck of the sixteenth century is the 1554 Plate Fleet, which was wrecked off Padre Island in Texas, and was excavated in the 1960s and 1970s (NFA 13, 14, 15).

End Notes
4
Jeremiah F. Epstein, "Pre-Columbian Old World Coins in America: An Examination of the Evidence," Current Anthropology 21, no. 1 (February 1980): 1–20.
5
Christoffel Plantin and Guillaem van Parijs, Ordonnantie Provisonael ons Heeren des Conincx opt stuck ende Tolerantie vanden Prijs ende loop van de gouden ende silveren Munte cours ende ganck hebbende over al des C. Maiesteyts landen van herwertsover. Antwerp: Christoffel Plantin and Guillaem van Parijs, 1576; John M. Kleeberg, "Paper Chase: The 10 Reales of Santo Domingo," Money of the Caribbean, ed. Richard G. Doty and John M. Kleeberg, Coinage of the Americas Conference 15 (New York: American Numismatic Society, 2006), 5–19.

III. The Seventeenth Century.

In the seventeenth century, more Spanish mints were established (Cartagena and Santa Fe de Bogotá in 1622, plus the short-lived mint at Cuzco in 1698) and the fleet system operated extensively. Shipwreck evidence becomes more ample from this period with the Atocha (1622), Concepcion (1641) and Maravillas (1656), to name only three of the most famous (NFA 60, 78, 100). Spain poured troops and treasure into the Netherlands in an unsuccessful attempt to defeat the revolt of 15681648. Much of the coin spent by Spain in the Netherlands, including much American coin, ended up in the hands of the Dutch. Three Dutch hoards of 1604–22, Ooselt, Oud-Beijerland, and Sneek, have an American component as high as a third (NFA A20, A22, A31). There are more hoards of coins from Spain's American colonies reported from the Dutch northern provinces, which the Spanish lost and which became the Netherlands, than there are from the southern provinces, which the Spanish retained and which became Belgium. In 1580 Spain absorbed Portugal, but neglected to maintain Portugal's vast empire in Brazil and in the East Indies. The Dutch took over both places, temporarily in Brazil, permanently in the East Indies. They supplied their far-flung empire through their own fleet system; the ships were heavily stocked with coin from the colonies of Spanish America. The Dutch East India Company ships would go down the coast of Africa to the Dutch settlement on the Cape of Good Hope. They would use the winds of the Roaring Forties in the Southern Ocean to sail east; then, just before the coast of Australia, they would make a sharp left, and head north to Batavia (now Jakarta). Some of these ships did not turn in time, rammed into Australia, and their wrecks have since been recovered. These shipwrecks include the Batavia (1629), the Vergulde Draeke (1656), and the Zuytdorp (1712) (NFA A34, A61, A90).

Spain's troubles reached their nadir in the 1640s. The assayers at Potosí secretly debased the silver coinage. Spain's commercial partners lost their trust in Spanish coinage. This led to extensive countermarking operations in Spanish America and in Antwerp (NFA A61, A70), and also to the first coinage in what is now the United States—the New England and the willow, oak, and pine tree shillings from the mint in Boston, Massachusetts.6 The countermarked coins of Spanish America have been recovered from the Capitana (1654) and the Maravillas (1656)(NFA 93, 100). The Massachusetts silver coins are found in several notable single finds (including a New England sixpence found on Long Island, NFA 91), plus hoards (such as the Castine Deposit, NFA 178), and in shipwrecks (HMS Feversham, 1711, NFA 185; Princess Louisa, 1743, NFA A105).

IV. The Eighteenth Century.

The latter half of the seventeenth century in Europe was overshadowed by the wars of Louis XIV, and in the last decade of the century these wars affected America as well. During the War of the League of Augsburg, Massachusetts undertook an invasion of Canada, and in 1690 it paid off the returning troops with the first government-backed paper money (as opposed to banknotes) in the western world. France's worldwide ambitions had several important numismatic effects in America. One was the competitive distribution of Indian peace medals by the French, the English, and latterly the Spanish in North America, as they sought to win Indian tribes over to their side (NFA 317, 416). The French bid for power in North America is reflected not only in site finds from their forts and settlements in Canada and the Ohio and Mississippi valleys (NFA 145, 153), but also in the finds of French écus sent over to finance the fur trade (notably the Castine Deposit, NFA 178). Noteworthy finds from the French period include the shipwrecks Le Chameau, 1725(NFA 242), Saint Michel, 1745 (NFA 287), and L'Auguste de Bordeaux, 1761 (NFA 343).

The last war of Louis XIV was the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–13), as a result of which the Bourbons replaced the Habsburgs on the throne of Spain. The Spanish reign of the Habsburg pretender Charles III of Spain (also known as Charles VI of Austria) was confined to Barcelona, where he could count on the support of the British Royal Navy. His minting of a debased 2 reales (the pistareen) would greatly influence the monetary circulation of North America.7 The War of the Spanish Succession interrupted treasure shipments, and the Spanish Plate Fleet of 1715 is thought to have been particularly ample because of these interruptions in the annual fleets (NFA 190).

The Bourbons modernized Spain. Among their reforms was the introduction of modern minting machinery in the Spanish colonies. The gradual transition to machine-struck coinage at the mint of México—from cobs to the transitional "klippes" (called in Spanish, recortados) to the first milled issues of 1732, and finally the milled issues from 1733—has been documented by several shipwrecks, such as those of the 1733 Plate Fleet, the Reigersdaal, and the Rooswijk (NFA 263, A104, A1 10). The Spanish also established more mints (Guatemala, Santiago de Chile, Popayán). One of the mints, Guatemala, used superannuated equipment from México, and turned out peculiar cobs with the "dos mundos" type. Another new mint, Santiago de Chile, is important because of its output of gold coins, many recovered from Nuestra Señora de la Luz, which sank in 1752 (NFA 314).

The large output of Santiago gold may actually have been smuggled over from Brazil. The first big gold strikes were made in Brazil in the 1690s; gold production peaked in 1735–45, much of it produced in Minas Gerais. Oddly, the most extensive recovery of Brazilian 6,400 and 12,800 reis (the "joes") is from a shipwreck of the late nineteenth century, the Douro, which sank in 1885 (NFA A145).

The American Revolution was accompanied, as are most wars, with some hoarding activity (NFA 390). The Butternut Valley hoard, buried in connection with the military operations in upstate New York, is the most notable (NFA 400). After the Revolution the period of state coinages led to an increase in the number of mints—Boston, Massachusetts; New Haven, Connecticut; Rupert, Vermont; Newburgh, New York; New York City; Morristown, New Jersey; Rahway, New Jersey; Elizabeth Town, New Jersey; Baltimore, Maryland; and Annapolis, Maryland. The Stepney Hoard is the most important hoard for Confederation issues (NFA 456). In 1792 these mints are superseded by the Federal Mint at Philadelphia. A hoard of the last decade of the eighteenth century that shows the work of the early United States Mint is the Goodhue-Nichols find from Salem, Massachusetts, the source of many mint state draped bust large cents (NFA 505).

End Notes
6
Philip L. Mossman, "The Potosí Scandal and the Massachusetts Mint," Colonial Newsletter 48, no. 2 (whole no. 137) (August 2008): 3289–3309.
7
John M. Kleeberg, "'A Coin Perfectly Familiar to Us Αll': The Role of the Pistareen," Colonial Newsletter 38, no. 3 (whole no. 109) (December 1998): 1857–77; Thomas A. Kays, "When Cross Pistareens cut their Way through the Tobacco Colonies," Colonial Newsletter 41, no. 1 (whole no. 116)(April 2001): 2169–99.

V. The Nineteenth Century.

In 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, Britain went off the gold standard, but by revaluing the 8 reales upwards to keep them in the country pegged the pound sterling to the Spanish dollar. The importance of the Spanish-American dollar in the British Isles in this period is evidenced by the Wellington Bridge hoard in Ireland (NFA A131). In 1811 this supply of silver was cut off when the War of Independence broke out in Mexico. A large hoard of the copper coins of Morelos documents the War of Independence (NFA 566). The Mexican War of Independence led to the establishment of numerous branch mints to supply the armies, many of which continued to flourish after independence. A similar proliferation of mints happened as Central and South America won their independence. The centralized mint system of colonial New Spain and Peru would not be re-established.

The British attempt to enforce their blockade of France led to conflict with the United States, which cut off the British supply of planchets to the United States mint, and led to an interruption in the coinage of cents, so there are no cents dated 1815. A coin find from the War of 1812 is the coins found after Indian village of Thame in Upper Canada was burnt down by the United States forces (NFA 563).

The West Indies had a very complex coinage, involving the cutting and counterstamping of Mexican 8 reales and Brazilian joes. As possession of the islands changed hands during the Napoleonic Wars, the French, British, and Dutch regularly cut and counterstamped the coinage. Two hoards, one from Montserrat, another from Bell's Jetty, Dominica, document this process (NFA 528, 536).

The United States operated a centralized minting system until the discovery of gold in the southern Appalachian Mountains in Georgia and in North Carolina led local jewelers to begin minting their own coins: these were the coins of Templeton Reid and the Bechtlers. The Treasury set up branch mints at Charlotte, North Carolina and Dahlonega, Georgia (both opened 1838) to compete with the private mints. A third southern branch mint was at New Orleans. The discovery of gold in California led to the establishment of, first, private assayers, and, subsequently, the San Francisco branch mint in 1854. This process is reflected in finds from the Central America, 1857(NFA 707).

A rich category of hoards comprises those associated with the United States Civil War. A hoard found at Natural Bridge, Virginia, is thought to have been buried just before the Union general David Hunter's raid in June 1864 (NFA 752). A hoard found at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, in November 1962 is believed to be the treasure of Wilson M. Tilley, who made much money trafficking in mules during the Civil War and who was killed by bushwhackers prior to a Confederate invasion of Missouri in September 1864 (NFA 753). A hoard from Columbia, South Carolina, was deposited shortly before the city was captured and burnt in February 1865 (NFA 756).

The discovery of the huge silver supplies in Nevada (the Comstock and Bonanza lodes) led to the establishment of the Carson City mint in 1870. It shut down because of the financial crisis prompted by bimetallism in 1893. The large production of silver dollars, required by the Bland-Allison Act, led to the amassing of hundreds of millions of the coins in Federal government vaults, the largest coin accumulation ever put together in the United States. This was then dispersed in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980. A separate section in this inventory discusses this accumulation of silver dollars (Part II).

VI. The Twentieth Century.

The most important hoarding phenomenon in the Americas in the twentieth century was the hoarding of gold in the United States following the stock market crash of 1929, which was made illegal by the gold turn in order issued by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. The hoard evidence shows that this law was widely flouted (NFA 884, 887).

A study of the law reports and the newspapers shows that huge hoards continue to be formed in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, often by the illicit drug trade or to evade the income tax. 8 Most of these hoards are composed of paper currency. In the law reports, however, the notes are described in little detail, with merely the cash total mentioned. Where little revealing detail is reported, the hoards have been omitted from this inventory.

Previous Studies of American Coin Finds and Sources

American coin finds have been of interest to numismatists from the very beginning of numismatic study in the United States. This is clear from the fine reports of coin finds in a nineteenth century antiquarian periodical, the Historical Magazine. 9 The literature has grown to be vast and dispersed.

Sydney P. Noe, who contributed much to the study of ancient coin hoards, also wrote about United States hoards, including the Economite hoard and the Castine Deposit. 10 Noe's work was built upon by Walter Breen, who published two articles listing United States coin hoards in the Numismatist in 1950. 11 In 1997, Q. David Bowers published a work on coin hoards from the United States. 12 It built upon the work of Breen and on hoards published in the Numismatist and the American Journal of Numismatics. The distinctions between this work and Bowers may be summarized as follows. This work includes single finds, Bowers as a rule does not; this work includes non-USA coins found in the Americas, Bowers as a rule does not; this work includes finds in all the Americas, Bowers only covers the USA; this work includes American coins found outside the Americas, Bowers does not. There are also a number of hoards in Bowers that this inventory does not include, such as large accumulations of Lincoln cents. Those hoards have been omitted because they do not tell us much about the history of the period. This inventory uses a concise, standardized, chronological arrangement, modeled after the Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards, 13 as opposed to the topical and discursive approach used by Bowers.

In his Encyclopedia, published in 1988, Walter Breen mentioned numerous hoards in the catalog listings. 14 When the Breen/Bland/Borckardt Encyclopedia of early date large cents came out in 2001, Del Bland's pedigree information made it possible to determine if the hoards reported by Breen were confirmed by the provenance of large cents. 15 If the cents came from a hoard, the higher-grade specimens should trace their provenance to a common source. Except for the well-documented Goodhue-Nichols find (NFA 505), none of Breen's hoards could be confirmed by the pedigree information. Breen seems to have attributed the prevalence of many high-grade coins of a particular variety to the existence of hoards, when there are many other possible explanations (such as better mint quality control with that particular variety). Most hoards for which the only evidence is Breen's 1988 Encyclopedia have accordingly been omitted. Some hoards in Breen's 1950 articles, such as the "Hidden Find," likewise have been omitted because they could not be verified.

This inventory is based on five different groups of sources—the numismatic literature, the shipwreck literature, the archaeological literature, law reports, and newspapers.

Numismatic literature was covered by reading through most of the major United States numismatic periodicals. The major source for American coin finds is the Numismatist, although many other periodicals, such as the American Journal of Numismatics, the Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, the Canadian Numismatic Journal, both series of the Coin Collector's Journal, the Historical Magazine, and the Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine are also useful. Other sources, such as auction catalogs and monographs (plus the periodical Coin Hoards and the periodical bibliography Numismatic Literature), were also examined. F. Gordon Frost tracked down and supplied much of the shipwreck literature. 16 Archaeological literature was accessed by reading through Archaeology magazine to prepare a list of researchers in the field, and then searching Columbia University Library and the New York Public Library for works by those authors. The major source among the newspapers was the New York Times, because it has been indexed since 1851. Other indices were also consulted, such as the Canadian Periodicals Index and the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, and indices to other newspapers such as the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the New York Tribune, the New York Evening Post, and the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. The legal literature was accessed by looking through digests under the law of finds and treasure trove. This inventory exploits all these sources more thoroughly than has ever been done before.

Finds in Canada were comparatively easy to locate because of the Canadian numismatic periodicals, the Canadian Periodicals Index, and the Canadian numismatic bibliography of Daryl Atchison. Finds in the Americas, outside of the United States and Canada, have been more difficult to track down. There are several Latin American numismatic periodicals, but the coverage is by no means as comprehensive as is the case in Canada and the United States. The major lack is the absence of newspaper indices like that for the New York Times, since newspapers are the primary source of information about coin finds. The coverage outside of Canada and the United States is thus more haphazard.

End Notes
8
James LeMoyne,"Talk of a Puerto Rico Town: Buried Treasure, No Kidding," New York Times, April 18, 1990; "Goods Linked to Drugs are Seized by Agents," New York Times, May 12, 1990.
9
William Elliot Woodward, "Numismatic Notes—Pine Tree Money." Historical Magazine 7, no. 10 (October 1863): 318–19.
10
Sydney Phillip Noe, Coin Hoards, Numismatic Notes and Monographs 1 (New York: American Numismatic Society, 1920), 41–44, 46; The Castine Deposit: An American Hoard, Numismatic Notes and Monographs 100, (New York: American Numismatic Society, 1942).
11
Walter Breen, "Survey of American Coin Hoards," Numismatist 65, no. 1 (January 1952): 7–24; 65, no. 10 (October 1952): 1005–10.
12
Q. David Bowers, American Coin Treasures and Hoards (Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1997).
13
Margaret Thompson, Otto Mørkholm, and Colin M. Kraay, eds. An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards (New York: American Numismatic Society, 1973).
14
Walter Breen, Walter Breen's Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins (New York: F.C.I. Press/ Doubleday, 1988). For an example of one such hoard that could not be confirmed, see the hoard of large cents, varieties S-289 and S-290, on page 201 (Breen 1783 and 1784).
15
Walter Breen, Del Bland, and Mark Borckardt, Walter Breen's Encyclopedia of Early United States Cents, 1793–1814 (Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers and Merena Galleries, 2000).

Arrangement

The Inventory is divided into three parts: in the first part are finds of all types in the Americas, in the second part the dispersal of the accumulation by the USA federal government of silver dollars, and in the third part finds of American numismatic items, found outside the Americas. Finds in the first part are designated by simple Hindu-Arabic numerals, dispersals in the second part by Roman numerals, finds in the third part by Hindu-Arabic numerals plus the letter "A" as a prefix.

Each entry begins with the type of find: single find, hoard, shipwreck, or archaeological excavation. The type of find can refer either to the circumstances of deposition (hoard, shipwreck) or the method of recovery (archaeological excavation). The coins found in archaeological excavations were usually deposited in the same manner as most single finds, i.e., accidental losses rather than the intentional deposition of a hoard. The intentional discarding of counterfeits also forms a major component of the archaeological record.

The finds are ordered by the date of deposit. The term "date of deposit" is used instead of burial date, since modern hoards are often concealed by methods other than burial. For archaeological excavations, the date of the occupation of the site is used, or, if that extensively antedates the coins, the date of the earliest coin found. The entries are modeled on the Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards, although the coins are described in more detail, because the underlying sources can be difficult to access. The Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards mentions if a hoard is a "pot hoard"; this inventory includes an entry on the container, if any. Each find is referred to by its location (city, state or province, country) and the date of finding, so far as that is known. If the date of finding is not known, then the date of reporting (often the month and year of the periodical where the hoard is mentioned) is used instead.

There can be a lag of several months before a report in local newspapers is published in a national magazine, such as the Numismatist. A comparison of ten instances where newspaper reports and reports in the Numismatist have been located for the same hoard shows that, assuming that the publication date of the Numismatist is the first day of the month, this lag extends from as few as nineteen days to (exceptionally) as many as 117 days (the next longest lag is forty-eight days). The median number of days is thirty-six. Thus if a hoard is reported in, say, the Numismatist for November 1926, the researcher in local newspapers should begin looking at the local newspaper for October 31, 1926, and work backwards; the hoard should be reported by the time the researcher reaches the issue for September 12, 1926; to be certain that the researcher has not missed anything, the search should be extended back to the issue of June 16, 1926.

The next entry is the number of items of each material (copper, silver, gold, paper); then the date of deposit. The date of deposit is usually arrived at from the coin with the latest date, or, as some numismatists say, the coin that "closes" the hoard. (Single finds are usually listed at the date of the coin; a 1784 8 reales will be found with the finds from 1784, even though such a coin may have been lost at any time well into the nineteenth century.) Since, however, there are often well-documented historical circumstances that suggest the reason for the burial of the hoard (such as the movements of Confederate or Union armies during the Civil War), this date of deposit has often been used instead. Where the date of deposit is the coin with the latest date, the hoard could have been deposited years later. The date of deposit is often not a precise date, but a terminus post quem; and the date of finding, likewise, not a precise date but a terminus ante quem. This is then followed by a detailed description of the find, plus the disposition, if known. Bibliographical references conclude each entry. The bibliographical entries do not include every mention of the find (in some cases, such as the Atocha, to list every mention would result in a huge book), but the three or five most important, occasionally more if the references are especially interesting. Most sources are referred to by the author-date system, with full entries found in the reference list at the end; however, short articles in the Numismatist, the Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine, the New York Times and other popular publications that are referred to only once are entered in full in the entry referring to the find and omitted from the reference list.

Where a hoard appears to be genuine, but incorrectly described, the description has been amended. An example of this is a report of 3,000 Spanish silver coins, dated from 1763 to 1805, which "included in the find an American silver dollar bearing the date 1804 with the likeness of George Washington." Bowers points out that this is the ultimate rarity, an 1804 dollar showing Washington rather than Liberty. 17 This inventory asks the question, "Is this a real hoard that has been described incorrectly, and if so, what genuine coin could be mistaken for an 1804 dollar with Washington?" The conclusion is that Charles IV of Spain does have a distant resemblance to George Washington, and that a Mexican 8 reales of 1804 was described as a United States silver dollar of that year with George Washington on it (NFA 535). Similarly, gold hoards of United States coins where the oldest coin is reported as dated 1830 have been corrected to 1834 because people tend to round off numbers (NFA 717, 724, 739, 803). These emendations are mentioned in the text. Incomplete descriptions, such as "Spanish silver coin," have been filled out by inserting the name of the likeliest casual loss of the period—e.g., Spanish colonies, ½ real, México. These additions are also mentioned in the text.

End Notes
16
Examples are: Robert F. Burgess and Carl Clausen, Gold, Galleons and Archaeology: A History of the 1715 Spanish Plate Fleet and the True Story of the Great Florida Treasure Find (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1976); Mendel Peterson, The Funnel of Gold (Boston: Little Brown, 1975); John S. Potter, Jr., The Treasure Diver's Guide, revised ed. (New York: Bonanza, 1972); Sydney Wignall, In Search of Spanish Treasure. A Diver's Story (Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles, 1982). The literature is now much more accessible thanks to two bibliographies prepared by David S. Crooks: David S. Crooks, Bibliography of Sunken Treasure Books (Clarendon Hills, Illinois: the Author, 2002); David S. Crooks, Important Shipwreck Auction Catalogs (Clarendon Hills, Illinois: the Author, 2004).
17
Q. David Bowers, American Coin Treasures and Hoards (Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1997), 405.

Geographical Coverage

In Canada, finds have been reported from the provinces of BritishColumbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec, and Saskatchewan, plus the Northwest Territories and the Nunavut Territory. Finds have been reported from every single one of the fifty states composing the United States of America, except for three: Hawaii, Oklahoma, and Wyoming. In the Caribbean, finds have been reported from the British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Among American islands in the Atlantic, finds have been reported from the Bahamas and Bermuda. Finds have been reported from all the mainland countries of Central and South America, except for Bermuda, Bolivia, BritishGuyana, French Guyana, Honduras, Paraguay, and Surinam.

Despite this extensive coverage, many gaps remain to be filled, particularly from outside the United States. Comparatively few coin finds have been reported from Latin America. The rich and complex history of Latin America, especially after independence, could usefully be supplemented by hoard evidence.

Outside the Americas, the geographical coverage reflects the extensive circulation of the coins of Spain's American colonies in littoral countries, plus numerous shipwreck recoveries. Finds have been reported from Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Cape Verde Islands, China, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal (that is, Madeira rather than mainland Portugal), Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. Particularly valuable series of hoard reports are due to the assiduousness of H. EnnoVan Gelder, Pablo I. de Jesus, and Felipe Mateu y Llopis, who compiled hoard reports for the Netherlands, the Philippines and Spain respectively. 18

End Notes
18
Van Gelder: Enno Van Gelder, "Muntvondsten: De vondst Sneek 1947," Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penning-kunde 41 (1954): 112–14; Enno Van Gelder, "Muntvondsten: Raamsdonk 1967 en Raamsdonk 1970," Jaarboek voor Munt-en Penningkunde 56/57 (1969/70): 159–66; De Jesus: Pablo I. de Jesus, "Buried Hoard in Manila's Walled City," Numismatist 65, no. 11 (November 1952): 1082–90; Pablo I. de Jesus, "Cavite Coin Hoard," Philippine Numismatic Monographs 15 (1965): 1–6. Mateu y Llopis: Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos Monetarios (IV)," Ampurias. Revista de Arqueología, Prehistoria y Etnología 7–8 (1945–46): 233–76; Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos Monetarios (XIX)," Numario Hispánico 10 (1961): 141–61.

Acknowledgements

Many people have helped the author greatly in compiling this book, and the author would like to single out two: Q. David Bowers and Oliver Hoover, for they both shared with the author their own research notes into the same field. This was extraordinarily generous. Len Augsburger, likewise, shared his work on the Baltimore Gold Hoard when it was still in manuscript. Dave Ginsburg also shared his primary source materials from his research on the Kerens, Texas gold hoard. Philip Mossman read over the manuscript and made many helpful suggestions. Sarah E. Cox obtained a reference from a library to which the author did not have access, and retraced her steps when the first reference the author had supplied turned out to be incorrect.

The author would further like to thank the following individuals for their assistance and suggestions: Robert Apuzzo, Carmen Arnold-Biucchi, Len Augsburger, Michael L. Bates, Armando Bernardelli, Larry Bolyer, Q. David Bowers, Jeremiah D. Brady, F. Carl Braun, Katarina Briggler, Theodore V. Buttrey, Jr., Francis D. Campbell, Tony Carlotto, Sarah E. Cox, Howard A. DanielIII, Henry Ditmer, Richard G. Doty, Penelope B. Drooker, Michael J. Druck, Leigh Eckmair (Town of Butternuts historian), Leslie A. Elam, Joseph Ettle (Collections Manager, Museum of Science and History, Corpus Christi, Texas), Chris Faulkner, Harold M. Forbes (Associate Curator, West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University), F. Gordon Frost, Jay Galst, Dave Ginsburg, Ira Goldberg, Paul M. Green, Henry Grünthal, Howard W. Herz, Robert Wilson Hoge, Wayne Homren, William S. Kable, Jonathan K. Kern, Jennifer L. Kolb (Deputy Director, Wisconsin Historical Museum), John Kraljevich, James Lamb, Joseph Lasser, Frank J. Leon (Federal Reserve Bank, Charlotte, North Carolina), John Lorenzo, Ally McClure, Robert Martin, Andrew Meadows, William E. Metcalf, Philip L. Mossman, Eric P. Newman, Oliver Hoover, William Panitch, Donald G. Partrick, Normand Pépin, Francesca Pitaro (Consulting Archivist, Port Washington Public Library), Arent Pol, Merle Pribbenow, Mike Ringo, Andrea Saccocci, Daniel Frank Sedwick, Wayne Shelby, William Spengler, Alan M. Stahl, Elena Stolyarik, Jesse Teitelbaum (Executive Director, Luzerne County Historical Society), Anthony J. Terranova, Diana di Zerega Wall, Jann Wenner, Byron Weston, and Müşerref Yetim,and the following institutions: the American Numismatic Society, especially its library; Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research (David Dickel, Irina T. Franklin); Florida Master Site File (Vincent Birdsong, Ginny L. Jones); Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (Scott A. Templin); the library of the Université de Montréal; the Law Library of the New York University School of Law; the libraries ofColumbia University, especially Butler Library, Avery Library, and the Diamond Library of the Law School; and the New York Public Library, especially the microfilm and the Local History divisions.

Abbreviations and Mintmarks

United States Mintmarks
French Mintmarks
Spanish Assayers

Letter abbreviations for Spanish coins are the names of the assayers. Only initials are used in this listing. The names and the dates of the assayers before milled coinage are listed in these references:

Frank and Daniel Sedwick, The Practical Book of Cobs. 4th ed. (Winter Park, FL: the authors, 2007).

Sewall Menzel, Cobs, Pieces of Eight and Treasure Coins: the Early Spanish-American Mints and their Coinages, 1536–1773 (New York: American Numismatic Society, 2004).

Material Abbreviations

AE, bronze or copper; AR, silver; AV, gold; B, brass; BI, billon; NB, nickel-brass; NI, nickel; P, paper; PB, lead; SN, tin; ZN, zinc.

Other Abbreviations

ND, no date; NDA, no date or assayer.


Part I Numismatic Finds in the Americas

1. Indian site near Bar Harbor, Brooklin, Blue Hill Bay, Hancock County, Maine, USA, 1961. Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: Ca. 1100?

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Norway, Olaf III Kyrre, silver penny, [1065–80].

If the date of deposit does indeed precede 1492, this is numismatic evidence for Norse/Indian contact in the eleventh century.

Disposition: Found in shell and bone midden by Guy Mellgren, an amateur archaeologist. Donated to the Maine State Museum, Augusta, Maine.

Bibliography: McKusick and Wahlgren 1980; Rolde 1995; Seaby 1978.

"Coin May Prove Norsemen Beat Columbus to America," Numismatist 92, no. 1 (January 1979): 65.

"Expert Says Maine Find Is Genuine Norse Coin," New York Times, February 8, 1979, A16.

2. Long Bay, San Salvador (Watling Island), the Bahamas, 1986.

Type of find: Archaeological excavations on what may be the site of Columbus's first landfall.

Date of site: Thought to be October 1492.

Contents: 1 BI.

Description:

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, blanca [1471–74]

Bibliography: Brill 1987, 255–57.

3. La Isabela, Dominican Republic, 1992–93.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1494–98.

Contents: 74 BI, 4 AR. Subsequently, more coins were recovered so that total rose to 112 coins; of these, 109 coins were attributed, breaking down 104 BI, 5 AR.

Description: The attributions of the earlier 78 coins recovered were:

Italian states, Aquilea, Louis II of Teck, soldo Italian states, Genoa, 15th century, minuto Spanish states, Navarre, Catherine I and John II d'Albret, ½ blanca

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Anonymous issue, late 13th century, seisén

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, blancas (60): Avila (13); Burgos; Cuenca (5); Coruña (2); Segovia (5); Seville (16); Toledo (9); uncertain mint (9)

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, ½ reales (2)

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, real Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Ferdinand and Isabella,½ real Portugal, Alphonse V, ceitil (5)

Portugal, John II, ceitil Unidentified (4)

Other numismatic objects recovered were: Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, blanca, lead counterfeit (attributed as a token, but more likely a counterfeit)

Coin weights (2)

German states, Nuremberg, jetons (2)

Bibliography: Deagan 1992; Deagan and Cruxent 2002a, b; Stahl 1992, Stahl 1993–4.

4. El Mango, on the Cañada Honda Farm of the United Fruit Company, near Barrio Mulas, Cuba, summer 1941.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1400–1600; date of earliest coin, 1505–10.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:

Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, maravedí, Seville, 1505–10, struck for Santo Domingo The denomination is uncertain, since the dimensions of the coin were not provided.

Bibliography: Rouse 1942, 70.

5. El Yayal, Almirantes Region, Báguanos Municipality, Holgún Province, Cuba, 1930 and 1935.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1450–1550.

Contents: 3 AE, 1 AR.

Description:

Portugal, ceitil

Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, 4 maravedíes, Seville, struck for Santo Domingo Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo [1542–56] (2)

Disposition: 3 coins were found by J. A. García Castañeda in 1935. What was probably a 4 maravedíes of Santo Domingo (it is not adequately described) was found by Ernesto Segeth in 1930. The artifacts found by Segeth were bought by the Museo Montané of the Universidad Nacional de Cuba before 1938. In 1962 García Castañeda donated the artifacts he had found to the Colección de Piezas Arqueológicas of the Academía de Ciencías de Cuba.

Bibliography: Domínguez 1995; García 1938.

6. Tallahassee, Florida, USA, May 1987.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: October 1539–March 1540 (De Soto's winter camp at Anhaica, a city of the Apalachees).

Contents: 2 AE, 3 BI.

Description:

Spain, 4 maravedíes, Seville, 1505–10, struck for Santo Domingo

Spain, maravedí, 1505–17

Portugal, Alphonse V, ceitil [1438–81]

Portugal, John II, Manuel or John III, ceitil [1481–1557]

Portugal, John III, ceitil [1521–57]

Bibliography: Ewen and Hann, 1998, 80–81.

7. Puerto Rico, USA, October 1933.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1542.

Contents: 27 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo, [1542–56] (27)

Disposition: Mrs. E. H. Wildmon; donated in 1933 to the American Numismatic Society in New York, accession number 1933.92.

8. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, December 1920.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1542.

Contents: 3 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo, [1542–56] (3)

Disposition: F. Munro Endicott; donated to the American Numismatic Society in New York, December 14, 1920, item numbers 1920.205.14-16.

9. Dominican Republic, August 24, 1964.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1542.

Contents: 424 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo, [1542–56] (424)

Disposition: Found after the Dominican Republic was hit by Hurricane Cleo in 1964. Exported into the United States numismatic market, according to W. A. Selfridge, a numismatist of New York City.

Bibliography: "424 4-Maravedis of Charles and Johanna Uncovered by Hurricane," Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine 33, no. 11 (November 1967): 2077.

10. Puerto Real, Habitation Montholon, Haiti, 1979–86.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1503–78; date of earliest coins, 1542.

Contents: 560 AE, 2 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo, [1542-56] (560)

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, reales, probably Santo Domingo (2)

Bibliography: Deagan 1995.

11. Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico, USA, December 1996–May 1997.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1542?

Contents: 2 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo [1542–56] (2)

Bibliography: Michael B. Hornum, letter to John M. Kleeberg, May 9, 1997.

12. Taylor Mound, Lawrence Plantation, Saint Simon's Island, Georgia, USA, summer 1971.

Type of find: Funerary deposit.

Date of site: 1540–60.

Contents: 9 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo [1542–56] (6)

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 maravedíes, México [1536–42] (3)

The coins were holed in the center and around their circumference; they had probably been used to decorate a cap.

Bibliography: Pearson 1977.

13. Padre Island, Texas, USA, 1870 and August 1951.

Type of find: Shipwreck. Beach finds on Padre Island from the offshore wrecks of the 1554 plate fleet. This entry comprises finds not attributed to a specific ship. The finds specifically ascribed to the Espíritu Santo and the San Estebán are in the next two entries.

Sank: April 1554.

Contents: 32+ AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 2 reales, México, assayer L

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México, assayer L

Disposition: In the year 1870 coins, including 2 reales and 4 reales of assayer L, were found on the beach by William Headen; examples of both denominations were given to General Meigs, who donated them in 1883 to the Cabinet of the United States Mint. As of 2007, two coins that correspond to the above descriptions, with a patina characteristic of sea salvage, are in the Smithsonian, where the Mint collection has been since 1923.

In August 1951 Louis Rawalt, then aged 62, found 29 Spanish coins on the beach.

Bibliography: Dubois 1884, 90; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 152 (Sedwick 2).

"Discoveries on Padre Island," American Journal of Numismatics 5, no. 1 (July 1870): 9 (citing the New Orleans Picayune).

"Boat Found After Flood Believed 200 Years Old," New York Times, August 3, 1951, 38.

Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine 36, no. 1

(January 1970): 108.

Richard G. Doty, e-mail message to John M. Kleeberg, March 15, 2007.

14. Padre Island, Texas, USA, 1967.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Espíritu Santo.

Sank: April 1554.

Contents: 786 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, coins of Charles and Johanna, México, summarized in the following table:

Assayer 2 reales 3 reales 4 reales
R 1 1 4
G 4 1
P 9
G with water 7 39
S, R, and A 3 19
L 98 600

A non-Mexican coin was also recovered: Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, Santo Domingo, assayer F The specific numbers of coins of the "with water" series (assayers S, G, R, A, L) in the table are estimates, because the archaeological report states the number of each denomination, and the number of each assayer, but does not break down the assayer/ denomination combinations.

Disposition: Artifacts studied at the Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory during litigation with the treasure salvors (Platoro of Gary, Indiana). After extensive litigation, the salvors were awarded the value of the find; the artifacts remained in possession of the State of Texas. As of 2007, the artifacts are held by the Museum of Science and History, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA.

This ship was one of four in this fleet, which contained 2 million pesos in total. One shipwreck, the Santa María de Yciar, was destroyed in the 1940s when the channel was dredged; one ship escaped to Havana; the two other wrecks have been excavated.

Bibliography: Keith 1988, 53; Olds 1976, 109–19; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 152 (Sedwick 2); Smith 1988, 89.

Joseph Ettle, Collections Manager, Museum of Science and History, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, letter to John M. Kleeberg, March 27, 2007.

15. Padre Island, Texas, USA, 1972, 1973, and 1975.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: San Estebán.

Sank: April 1554.

Contents: 1 AE, 327 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, coins of Charles and Johanna, México, summarized in the following table:

Assayer Real 2 reales 4 reales
R 2
P 1
S 2 4
G with water 14 4
R 4
A 5
L 1 59 162
Unknown 28 38

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, Santo Domingo, assayer F

Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, real, Seville Also included 37 silver disks, one gold bar, and 362 unidentified fragments of silver, some of which may have been coins.

This ship was one of four in this fleet, which contained 2 million pesos in total. One shipwreck, the Santa María de Yacir, was destroyed in the 1940s when the channel was dredged; one ship escaped to Havana; the two other wrecks have been excavated.

Disposition: Artifacts studied and published by the Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory. As of 2007, the artifacts are held by the Museum of Science and History, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA.

Bibliography: Arnold and Weddle 1978; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 152 (Sedwick 2).

Joseph Ettle, Collections Manager, Museum of Science and History, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, letter to John M. Kleeberg, March 27, 2007.

16. Spruce Creek, a tributary of the Halifax River, East Florida, USA, winter 1871.

Type of find: Funerary deposit.

Date of deposit: 1550s?

Contents: 3 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, real, México (2)

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México

Excavation of an Indian burial mound. One of the reales was resting in the eye socket of a skull, evidently a "Charon's obol."

Numerous Spanish ships were wrecked on Florida in the sixteenth century; the coins from these wrecks were salvaged by the Indians. Early European explorers in Florida found that the Indians wore gold and silver ornaments, and shipwrecks are thought to have been where the Indians obtained the metal.

Disposition: Frossard wrote: "Mr. G. F. McComb of Lockport, N.Y., has in his possession a 4 reales piece of Carlo and Joanna, struck in México at an early date, and discovered in a Florida Indian Mound."

Bibliography: S. C. C., of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, "Opening of a Burial Mound in Florida," American Journal of Numismatics 6, no. 1 (July 1871): 16.

Edouard Frossard, "Items of Interest," Numisma 4, no. 1 (January 1880): [7].

17. Indian Mound at Bear Point, Perdido Bay, Baldwin County, Alabama, USA 1901.

Type of find: Funerary deposit.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, real?, México

Found in Burial Number 30 in an Indian mound by Clarence Bloomfield Moore.

Disposition: Moore's collections, originally kept in Philadelphia, were subsequently donated to the Museum of the American Indian (now in Washington, DC).

Bibliography: Moore 1901, 426.

18. Emanuel Point, Pensacola, Florida, USA, October 1992-95.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Thought to be one of the ships of the expedition of Tristan de Luna.

Sank: September 19, 1559.

Contents: 1 BI.

Description:

Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, blanca [1471-74]

Bibliography: Smith et al. 1995, 117.

19. Henry County, Alabama, USA, June 1984.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México, assayer O [1564–72], holed The suggestion that this coin was deposited as a result of the Tristan de Luna expedition (1559–61) is not possible, since assayer O is now thought to have been active only from 1564 onwards.

Bibliography: Smith 1984.

20. Saint Augustine, Florida, USA, 1976–79.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1565–1600.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Spain, maravedí

Disposition: Florida State University.

Bibliography: Deagan 1980.

21. Parris Island, South Carolina, USA, 1979–85.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation of the site of the Spanish settlement of Santa Elena.

Date of site: 1566–87.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, ½ real

The coin is in very poor condition, so the identification is not entirely certain. Clearly a Spanishcoin,becausetheupperquadrantwith the castle for Castile is visible, but little else.

Disposition: Excavated by Stanley South.

Bibliography: Judge 1988.

22. South of Savannah, Georgia, USA, November 1993.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1570s?

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, real

A date of deposit of the 1570s has been chosen on the grounds that the coin would most likely have been lost after the establishment of Saint Augustine in 1565.

Bibliography: Coin World, November 22, 1993, 1, 8.

23. Bayahá, Fort Liberté Bay, Haiti, 1982.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1578–1605.

Contents: 9 AE.

Description: Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo [1542–56] (9)

Bibliography: Deagan 1995.

24. Thirty Miles north of San Francisco, California, USA, November 1974.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: June 1579.

Contents: 1 B, 1 AR.

Description:

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, 1577 England, Elizabeth I, sixpence, 1567 The coin was found during archaeological excavation of the Olompali Miwok Indian site on the floor of an Indian dance house by Charles Slaymaker, who suggested that the coinhadbeenleftduringthecircumnavigation of Sir Francis Drake. The jeton is mentioned in Hudson's article as having been found in the San Francisco Bay area and thought to be related to Drake, but the specific find spot and discoverer are not given.

Bibliography: Hudson 1979, 112–14; Villiers 1975, 216, 220, 223.

"1567 Silver Coin May Be Clue To Site of Drake's Coast Fort," New York Times, November 11, 1974, 39.

25. Bermuda, July 1968.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Unknown Portuguese ship.

Sank: 1580.

Contents: 6+ AR, 10+ AV.

Description:

Portugal, reign unknown, ½ San Vicente

Portugal, John III, cruzado [1521–57]

Portugal, Sebastian, cruzados [1557–78] (4)

Portugal, Henry I, cruzados [1578–80] (4)

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 2 reales (2)

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 4 reales (2)

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales (2)

Disposition: Found by Harry Cox.

Bibliography: Marx 1971, 299 (and plate); Potter 1972, 287–89.

"Bermuda Diver Finds Ancient Sunken Gold," New York Times, September 20, 1968, 59.

26. Puebla, Mexico, summer 1952.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1580s.

Contents: 1,000+ AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, ½ reales, México (73) (including 2 or 3 early ones)

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, reales, México, all with water (1,000)

Spanish colonies, Philip II, real, México

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 2 reales, México (232)

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México (15)

Disposition: Clyde Hubbard.

Bibliography: Hubbard 1993; Nesmith 1955, 4–5.

27. At the shrine of our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico City, Mexico summer 1950.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1580s.

Contents: 3,000 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, ½ reales, México

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, reales, México, assayers S and A (2,000) Spanish colonies, Philip II, reales, México They were found in an adobe wall of an old house on church property. The coins were added a little at a time to the hoard (a savings hoard), and so many were in uncirculated condition.

Disposition: Casa Baron; 1,000+ to Clyde Hubbard. Other pieces were acquired by O. K. Rumbel, E. H. Windau, and Victor Lanz. Nesmith saw the pieces in all four collections.

Bibliography: Hubbard 1993; Nesmith 1955, 4–5; Nesmith 1958a, 16; Nesmith and Potter 1968, 37.

28. Mexico?, 1951.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1580s.

Contents: 300 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, reales, México, assayer O, variety Nesmith 108 (300)

Bibliography: Nesmith 1955, 126.

29. Guatemala City, Guatemala, 1955.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1580s.

Contents: 275 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México, assayer O, variety Nesmith 110 (275)

Disposition: Clyde Hubbard.

Bibliography: Hubbard 1993; Nesmith 1955, 126.

30. Ruins of old Panama, Panama, 1997.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of coins: 1581.

Contents: 4 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, ½ real, Panama, assayer Xo

Spanish colonies, real, Panama,, assayer Xo

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, assayer Xo (2)

Bibliography: Proctor 2005, 118, 121, 138–39.

31. Camino Real, Panama,, 1970.

Type of find: Hoard? Not clear whether found as a hoard or a series of single finds.

Date of deposit: 1582.

Contents: 4 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, ½ real, Panama, assayers P and M

Spanish colonies, real, Panama, assayer Xo

Spanish colonies, real, Panama, assayer Bo

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama, assayer Bo

Disposition: Discovered by George Chevalier. Freeman Craig Auction, November 17, 1981 (George Chevalier Collection).

Bibliography: Proctor 2005, 115, 122, 128, 142.

32. Nombre de Dios, Panama, 2005.

Type of find: Hoard?

Date of deposit: 1582.

Contents: 3 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, ½ real, Panama, assayer Xo

Spanish colonies, real, Panama, assayer Bo (2)

The earliest report of the find is the Proctor monograph, but the coins were probably found several decades before. It is also not clear whether the coins are a series of single finds or a hoard.

Bibliography: Proctor 2005, 119, 134–35.

33. Panama,, 2005.

Type of find: Hoard?

Date of deposit: 1582.

Contents: 4 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, reales, Panama,, assayer Bo (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama,, assayer Bo (2)

The earliest report of the find available is the Proctor monograph, but the coins were probably found several decades before. It is not clear whether the coins are a series of single finds or a hoard.

Bibliography: Proctor 2005, 130–31, 147.

34. Rimac River, Lima, Peru, 1980s.

Type of find: Votive deposits.

Date of earliest coin: 1582.

Contents: AR.

Description: Includes:

Spanish colonies, real, Panama, assayer Bo [1582]

Spanish colonies, ¼ real, Lima, 1750

Spanish colonies, ½ real, Lima, 1750

Coins thrown into the water by lovers making pledges as they walk over the bridge over the Rimac River. Lima children have recovered many ½ real cobs from the mud of the river.

Bibliography: Menzel 1987; Proctor 2005, 132; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 198.

35. North end of Roanoke Island and Fort Raleigh, Manteo, North Carolina, USA, 1962. Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1585.

Contents: 2 B, 2 AR.

Description:

German states, Nuremberg, jetons, Hans Schultes [1550–74] (2)

England, Elizabeth, sixpence, cut half

England, Elizabeth, sixpence, 1563, holed

The 1563 sixpence was found at the north end of Roanoke Island.

Disposition: National Park Service Museum, Manteo, North Carolina, USA.

Bibliography: Hudson 1979, 112–14; Leonard 2006, 44; Noël Hume 1984, 236, 238; 1994, 14–15 (includes photograph of the 1563 sixpence).

36. Saint Catherine's Island, Georgia, USA, 1981–82.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation on the site of Santa Catalina de Guale.

Date of site: 1570s–1683.

Contents: 1 B.

Description: Spain, Catholic religious medal with image of the Virgin Mary

Disposition: Fernbank Museum of Natural History, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Bibliography: John Noble Wilford, "Excavation of Mission Recalls Clash of Cultures," Saint Louis Post-Dispatch, December 21, 1982, Dl. Fernbank Museum of Natural History, "St. Catherine's Island Collection," http:// www.fernbank.edu/museum/stcatherines/ stcatherinesintro.apx.

37. Bermuda, late summer 1955.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Probably the San Pedro.

Sank: 1596.

Contents: 2,000+ AR.

Description:

France, silver coins

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 4 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales, México

Dates of the coins ranged from 1495 to 1593.

Gold bars (15)

Gold disks (2)

Gold pectoral cross (stolen before 1975)

Disposition: Excavated by Edward B. Tucker. Acquired by the Bermuda Maritime Museum. In 1972 one gold bar was on loan to the Smithsonian Institution.

Bibliography: Kent 1958; Marx 1971, 42, 47, 298, 301; Nesmith 1958a, 178–84; Peterson 1975, 43, 74, 86, 274–77; Pickford 1994, 127, 161; Potter 1972, 92, 280–83; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 154; Smith 1988, 89–90; Tucker 1962, 44–47.

38. Yunque, New Mexico, USA, summer 1960.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1598–1610.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Spain, gilded bronze Catholic religious medal with the Trinity on the obverse and Saint Jerome in the desert on the reverse, date of object 1519–92

Bibliography: Boyd 1961; Johnson 1961.

39. Walker's Creek, a tributary of the Raritan River, New Jersey, USA, June 1881.

Type of find: Shipwreck?

Ship: Unknown.

Sank: ca. 1600.

Contents: 6+ AR.

Description:

Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, reales

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales?, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales?, Lima

Found among the timbers of the wreck of a boat.

Bibliography: "Capt. Kidd's Collection, No. 2," Coin Collector`s Journal 6 (whole no. 67) (June 1881): 86–87.

40. In the Caribbean between the Yucatan and Cuba, 1993.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Unknown.

Sank: 1600.

Contents: 3,000 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, reales, México

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 2 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, 4 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 4 reales, Lima, assayer D (2)

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 4 reales, Potosí (3): assayer L; assayer R; assayer C/B It is possible that two different shipwrecks may be involved, one of ca. 1550 and one of ca. 1590. Sedwick ascribes the Charles and Johanna coins to a 1550 shipwreck (sunk off western Cuba, which he calls the "Golden Fleece" shipwreck) and the Philip II to a 1590 shipwreck (sunk off the Yucatan). However, the type of corrosion that Sedwick attributes to the coins from the 1590 shipwreck is also seen on the Charles and Johanna coins, so it seems that these two shipwrecks are actually one. Note that the two findspots that Sedwick gives ("off Yucatan" and "off western Cuba") are also very close together.

Sedwick says the three Charles and Johanna 8 reales known were recovered from the "Golden Fleece" shipwreck. The authenticity of these coins is, however, still under discussion.

Bibliography: Ponterio 1993, lots 1964–68; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 153 (Sedwick 1 and 4).

41. Garden in Richmond Road, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, ca. 1975.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1607.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Henry VIII, groat, [1526–44] (third bust)

This is the earliest English coin found in Virginia.

Disposition: Found during construction.

Photographed by Ivor Noël Hume, and then returned to the finder.

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1995, 19.

"Freshest Advices: Oldest English coin Found?" Colonial Williamsburg. The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 19, no. 3 (Spring 1997): 9–11.

42. Southeastern Virginia, USA, January 12, 2008.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1607.

Contents: 8 AR.

Description:

England, Elizabeth I, sixpence (6): 1569; 1573; 1590; 1593; ND (2)

England, Elizabeth I, shillings, ND (2)

Two of the sixpence are bent ("witch pieces"). One shilling is bent. One sixpence is holed. One sixpence is partially cut.

Disposition: Found by metal dectorists.

Bibliography: BillD.,"American Relic Hunters— Relics Forum: Absolutely unbelievable! !!!!!!!!," http://www.americanrelichunters.com/ cgi-bin/relic/webbbs_config.pl/read/86774 (includes photograph of the coins found).

43. Jamestown, Virginia, USA, 1958, 1994–2002.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1607–39.

Contents: 1 PB, 85 AE, 1 BI, 18 AR.

Description:

Courland, Riga, silver coin

Sweden, silver coin

Netherlands, stuiver, Zeeland, 161[-]

Netherlands, 2 stuiver, Zeeland, 1616 (cut into three parts)

Netherlands, jeton, obverse depicts Pope and Philip II, inscription, LIBERR … CIRI LEO PERNEGAT; reverse, mouse gnaws through rope binding lion, inscription ROSIS LEONEM LORIS … LIBERAT, 1579 Netherlands, jeton, Groningen, 1590

German states, Lübeck, sechsling, 1629

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Schultes [1550–74]

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Krauwinckel I [1586]

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Krauwinckel II [1580–1610]

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Laufer [1610–60]

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Krauwinckel [1580–1610], with FAMAM EXTENDE FACTO ET VIRTU

German states, Nuremberg, jetons, unspecified (51)

Scotland, James VI, plack (4 pence) [1583–90] England, Elizabeth I, threehalfpence cut to make ¾ of a penny

England, Elizabeth I, ½ groats (2): halved to make a penny, hand mintmark [1590–92]; rolled into a bead

England, Elizabeth I, sixpence (5): 1602, whole; 1602, cut into rectangular pendant and pierced; ND (3)

England, Elizabeth, shilling cut into wedge worth 1½ pence

England, James I, silver halfpenny [1606–8]

England, Charles I, farthings (4): Harrington farthing [1613–36] (2); rose farthing [1636] (2)

England, Elizabeth I, lead token, obverse crowned rose, BEATY REGINA, reverse, crowned phoenix, SO PHONIX MVN DYE [1570]

England, king's touch tokens (5): James I, uniface rose and thistle touch token (2); other touch tokens, unspecified (3)

England, religious medals (6)

England, coin weights (4): Elizabeth, weight for gold ryal worth 15 shillings [1583–92], made in Antwerp by PVG; James I, weight for angel (11 shillings) [1612–19]; James I, weight for unite (22 shillings) [1612–19]; James I, weight for double crown (11 shillings) [1612–19]

Ireland, Elizabeth I, copper halfpenny, 1601 Ireland, Elizabeth I, copper pence, 1602 (5) Spain, maravedí

Spain, 4 maravedíes, counterstamped Spanish colonies, silver coins, cut (3)

The religious medals excavated at Jamestown are very Roman Catholic in appearance; this reflects the Anglican religion of the period, which had not yet undergone the more thoroughly Protestant reforms that would occur in the mid-seventeenth century.

Disposition: Many of the coins excavated are on exhibition at the Archaearium in Jamestown.

Bibliography: Cotter 1958, 60, 191, 240, and plate 89; Hudson 1979, 112–14; Kelso 2006, 83, 179, 188; Kelso, LucckettiandStraube 1995 (Jamestown Rediscovery I), 14–16; Kelso, Luccketti and Straube 1996 (Jamestown Rediscovery II), 6–8, 36–37; Kelso, Luccketti and Straube 1997 (Jamestown Rediscovery III), 47–53, 55; Kelso, Luccketti and Straube 1999 (Jamestown Rediscovery V), 11; Kraljevich 2007; Noël Hume 1984, 236, 238, 247; Noël Hume and Noël Hume 2001, Part I: Interpretive Studies, 175 n. 2.

44. Saint George's Island, Bermuda, 1958–59 and 1978–86.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Sea Venture.

Sank: July 28, 1609 (Old Style).

Contents: 2 AE.

Description: German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Krauwinckel [1580–1610] (2)

Bibliography: Steffy 1988, 111–13; Wingood 1986.

45. Mexico City, Mexico, 1932.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1611.

Contents: 300 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Philip II, reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip III, reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 2 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 2 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 4 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 4 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, México, assayer F

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, México, 1607

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, México, 1611

The hoard included some of the earliest dated issues (1607–11) of the México mint.

Disposition: The coins were found when excavations were made while building a new opera house in Mexico City, probably the Palacio de las Bellas Artes, which opened in 1932. Robert I. Nesmith (107).

Bibliography: Nesmith 1958a, 16 (an undated Philip III coin, assayer F, is reproduced as coin no. 41 on plate G); Nesmith and Potter 1968, 37.

46. South shore beach near Port Royal, Bermuda, 1877.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, twopence [1616]

Disposition: Washed up on the beach, found by a child. Acquired by General Sir John Henry Lefroy.

Bibliography: Breen 1988, 11 (Breen 7); Lefroy 1878; Sportack 2005, 2883.

47. Saint George's, Bermuda, 1881.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, twopence, [1616]

Disposition: Acquired by Colonel Mitchell, Royal Engineers.

Bibliography: Dubois 1885, 66–67; Lefroy 1883; Sportack 2005, 2883, 2886.

48. Saint George's, Bermuda, 1853.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence

Disposition: Found in a garden. Acquired by Benjamin Betts of Brooklyn, NY, USA; illustrated in Crosby.

Bibliography: Crosby 1875, 18; Sportack 2005, 2881, 2886.

49. Saint George's, Bermuda, early 1884.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence, [1616]

"The coin in question was picked up in the early part of this year on the northeastern slope of the town of St. George's in a garden. My father bought it from the finder's husband. It was unfortunately rubbed by the finder on a brick."

Disposition: 1884 to the Cabinet of the United States Mint; 1923 to Smithsonian.

Bibliography: Dubois 1885, 66–67.

50. Bermuda, November 1861.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, shilling, [1616]

Disposition: Bermuda Museum.

Bibliography: "Philadelphia Numismatic Society—Philadelphia, November 7, 1861," Historical Magazine 6 (January 1862): 28.

51. Castle Island, Bermuda, July-August 1993, July-August 1994, July-August 1996.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1621–50.

Contents: 19 AE.

Description:

English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence (16): large portholes (9); small portholes (7) English colonies, Somers Islands, shillings (3): large sails; small sails (2)

Disposition: Bermuda Government.

Bibliography: Bermuda Monetary Authority 1997, 31–42; Sportack 2005, 2882; Sportack 2006, 85–90.

52. Dorchester, Massachusetts, USA, July 1631.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1617.

Contents: 2 BI.

Description: France, probably douzains, one dated 1596 (2)

"Mr. Ludlow, in digging the foundation of his house at Dorchester, found two pieces of French money: one was coined in 1596. They were in several places, and above a foot within the firm ground."

A note by James Savage suggests that the coins had been brought by the crew of a French ship that was wrecked on Cape Cod around 1617, of whom two of the crew were captives among the Indians until redeemed by Dormer; a third remained among the Indians until his death. The rest of the crew had perished.

Bibliography: Winthrop 1853, 71.

Sylvester Sage Crosby, "Correspondence," American Journal of Numismatics 5, no. 1 (July 1870): 16.

53. Off Wabasso, Florida, USA, 1966.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: The "Green Cabin Wreck," which is thought to be the San Martin,. the lost almiranta of the 1618 Honduras fleet, which sank while on its way to Spain from Havana.

Sank: 1618.

Contents: 508 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México Spanish colonies, Philip II, 8 reales, Potosí, assayer B (Sebring)

Disposition: State of Florida (127).

Bibliography: Craig 2000b, 75, 78; Sebring 2004, lot 1551; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 153 (Sedwick 5); Smith 1988, 94–95.

54. Castle Harbor, Bermuda, 1966–67.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Warwick.

Sank: 1619.

Contents: AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México, in poor condition

Disposition: Bermuda government; however, a few cob 8 reales in poor condition entered the market from the estate of Mendel Peterson after his death in 2003.

Bibliography: Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 154 (Sedwick 7).

55. Flowerdew Hundred Farm, south side of the James River, Prince George County, Virginia, USA, 1971–93.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1619–30.

Contents: 1 B, 1 AR.

Description:

England, Elizabeth I, sixpence

Netherlands, Maurice of Orange brass medallion, 1617, with inscription: MAVRITIVS AVR[ANIAE] PRINC[EPS] COM[ES] NASS[AVIAE] ET MV[RSIAE] MAR[CHIO] VE[RAE] FL[ISSINGAEQUE] EQ[VES] OR[DINIS] PERISCELIDIS 'Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau and Meurs, Margrave of Verre and Flushing, Knight of the Garter'

Deetz reads the date of the medallion as 1615. Van Loon, however, gives the date of the medallion as 1617. Van Loon's date has been substituted for that of Deetz.

Bibliography: Deetz 1993, 43–44; Van Loon 1726, 2: 87–88.

56. Near Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, USA, 2007.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: Ca. 1621.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Elizabeth I, sixpence, 1571, Tower mint, cut twice, weighs 1.4 grams.

Disposition: Thomas Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 2007, 11.

57. Bermuda, 1960.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: San Antonio.

Sank: September 12, 1621.

Contents: 50+ AR, small silver bars, gold chain.

Description: The coins included:

Spain, 8 reales, Philip III, Segovia, 1617 Spanish colonies, Philip III, 2 reales, probably Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 4 reales, probably Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, Potosí, assayer Q

Spanish colonies, Philip III, 8 reales, Potosí, NDA

The excavation also turned up Indo-Pacific cowrie shells and small billets of copper, both used in the African slave trade. The bulk of the treasure, however, was salvaged by Bermudians in the seventeenth century after the ship sank.

Disposition: Bermuda government; some to Smithsonian Institution?

Bibliography: Lefroy 1877, 1:156–58; Marx 1971, 42, 47, 298, 302; Peterson 1961, 1975, 284–91; Pickford 1994, 127, 162; Potter 1972, 283–84; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 154; Smith 1988, 90–91; Tucker 1962, 66, 68.

58. Wolstenholme Town, Martin's Hundred, Virginia, USA, 1977–79.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1620-March 22, 1622 (Fort and Company Compound).

Contents: 5 AE, 3 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, México, reales, cut, third (3)*

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, obverse 3 open crowns and 3 lis, reverse: cross and orb within double tressure of 3 arcs and 3 angles, Hans Krauwinckel, [1580–1610] (2)

German states, Nuremberg, jeton, obverse: Apollo and Diana, reverse: "Meliager" England, James I, farthing token, "Harington" type 1 [May 1613 to June 1614]

England, James I, farthing token, Lennox round [1613–25]

*Noël Hume's description of these coins is ambiguous, and no photograph or drawing has ever been published. Pittman lists only one Spanish colonies coin found at Martin's Hundred, which he attributes as a Philip II 2 reales of Lima, cut and broken into quarter of a full 2 reales. As an early style Lima piece it would have a similar pillar and waves design to the Charles and Johanna coinage.

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1984, 247–49; Noël Hume 1992, 189–90, 224–26, 317–18; Noël Hume and Noël Hume 2001.

WilliamE.Pittman, personalcommunication, January 20, 2007.

59. Glen Cove, Long Island, New York, USA, August 1868.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, Philip III, real, México, [1598–1621]

Bibliography: Charles E. Anthon, "Query and Reply," American Journal of Numismatics 3, no. 4 (August 1868): 32.

60. Marquesas Keys, off Florida, USA, 1973–1985.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Nuestra Señora de Atocha.

Sank: September 6, 1622.

Contents: 5 AE, 185,000 AR, 120 AV. Description: The compilation below comes from five sources:

  • the Christie's 1988 Auction
  • the catalog issued by Christie's known as the "Research Collection"
  • Neil Harris's 1986 article in the Numismatist
  • Corey Malcolm's article on the copper coins, and
  • the Coin Galleries 1994 Auction.

Spain, corroded maravedíes copper coin

Spain, 2 maravedíes, Segovia, 1611

Spain, Philip II, 2 maravedíes, Cuenca, with IIII/B counterstamp (revaluation at Burgos to 4 maravedíes)

Spain, 4 maravedíes, Burgos, 1619

Spain, 8 maravedíes, Segovia, 1607

Spain, Charles and Johanna, escudo, Burgos

Spain, real, Madrid, 1621V

Spain, 4 reales, Madrid, 1621V

Spain, 2 escudos, Madrid, assayer G [1615— 20]

Spain, 8 reales, Segovia, assayer M?

Spain, 2 reales, Toledo, assayer C

Spain, 8 reales, Toledo, 1621 P

Spain, 4 reales, Seville, assayer V

Spain, 8 reales, Seville, NDA

Spain, Charles and Johanna, escudo, Seville

Spain, 2 escudos, Seville (67): Philip II; assayer D (2); assayer G (6); NDA (58)

Spain, 8 escudos, Seville

Spain, 2 reales, Granada, assayer M

Spain, 4 reales, Granada, assayer D

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (6):

Charles and Johanna, assayer L; Charles and Johanna, assayer O (2); Philip II, assayer O (2); Philip III, assayer A

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (4): assayer O; 1607; 1609A; 1612F

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (11): assayer O; assayer A; 1611F; assayer F (2); assayer D/F; 1620D; 1621/0D; 1621D (2); NDA

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama, assayer Xo

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama, assayer Bo (3)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena, 1622A (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Bogotá, 1622A (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá (3): assayer A; 1622A (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá (4): assayer A; 1622A (3)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Bogotá, 1622 (3) Spanish colonies, real, Lima, assayer Do Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Lima (28): pillars and waves type, assayer R (2); shield type, assayer X (2); shield type, assayer Do (24)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima (9): pillars and waves type, assayer R; shield type, assayer Do (8)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima, assayer Do (8)

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (2): Philip II, assayer R; assayer A

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (115): Philip II, assayer R (6); Philip II, assayer M (2); assayer L (13); assayer C below erasure; assayer A/B (3); assayer A (5); Philip III, assayer R (8); assayer B (41); assayer L/B; assayer B/L; assayer Q (2); 1617M (15); 1618PRAL (6); 1618T (2); 1619T (2); 1620T (4); NDA (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (54): Philip II, assayer R; Philip II, assayer M (2); assayer L (3); assayer C below erasure (2); assayer A/B; assayer A (2); Philip III, assayer R (5); assayer B (15); assayer Q (4); Philip III, assayer M (2); 1617M; 1618PRAL; 1618T; 1619T (2); 161[-]; 1620T (2); 1621T; assayer T (2); 162[-]T; 1622T; NDA (3)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (383): Philip II, assayer M; assayer L; assayer C below erased B; assayer A/B; assayer A; Philip III, assayer R (41); assayer B (39); Philip III, assayer R/B; assayer D; assayer Q (66); Philip III, assayer M (31); 1617; 1617M (20); 1617M/Q; 1618 (2); 1618PRAL (5); 1618T/PRAL; 1618T (6); 1619 (2); 1619T (11); 161[-]; 161[-]Q; 161[-] T (2); 16[-] (2); 16[-]T (3); 1620 (2); 1620T (12); assayer T (55); 1621T (8); 1622T (2); NDA (17); contemporary counterfeits (5) In January 2007, Heritage auctioned 2,622 silver coins from the Atocha. The mints, assayers, and dates were not provided. However, the denominations broke down as follows: reales (8); 2 reales (52); 4 reales (629); 8 reales (1,910); fragments (23).

The following listing comes from a database, http://www.historicshipwrecks.com, as of October 2007: 12,814 AR, 16 AV.

Spain, 2 escudos, Seville (16): 1597B; 1611; 162[-]; assayer P; assayer G (2); Philip II (2); Philip III (4); NDA (4)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (167): assayer O (2); assayer F (161); assayer A (4) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima (712): assayer R (3); assayer D (709)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena, assayer A (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá, assayer A (40)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (11,893): assayer L (3); assayer R (215); assayer B/R (6); assayer B (2,226); assayer A (75); R/L (237); assayer C (6); assayer Q (8,985); assayer Q/M; assayer M/Q; assayer M (42); assayer PA (2); assayer RAL (13); assayer T (67); assayer T/ RAL (7); TP (2); assayer P (5)

Disposition: In 1973, eleven gold coins minted in Seville, 6,240 silver coins from Lima, Potosí, Bogotá and México, gold chains, rings, and gold bars were recovered from an area the divers called "the Bank of Spain." The Atocha's cannons were recovered in the summer of 1975. The primary cultural deposit—the main treasure and the resting place of the hull—was not discovered until July 20, 1985. The broad wreckage field is explained by the theory that the Atocha sank on the site of the primary cultural deposit; then a subsequent hurricane swept the wreckage to the northwest.

Some of the more notable coins found were cataloged in the 1986 article by Neil Harris in the Numismatist. At least six of those coins were auctioned as part of "the Research Collection." Whether "the Research Collection" contained all of the silver coins in that article cannot be determined, since not all coins in "the Research Collection" were photographed. None of the gold coins in the Numismatist article formed part of "the Research Collection," nor were the gold coins in that article auctioned as part of the main Christie's auction.

The four better-preserved copper coins were found in 1985–86 near the lower hull structure. The corroded copper coin was found in summer 2000 at the northern extreme of the site, near what is believed to be the upper works of the ship.

Bibliography: Christie's 1988a, lots 78–113, 199–389; Christie's 1988b; Coin Galleries 1994; Daley 1977; Earle 2007, 15–18, 143–45; Harris 1986; Heritage 2007, lot 50,242 and lots 50,244–320; Lyon 1976, 1979; Proctor 2005, 137, 144–46; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 154–56 (Sedwick 8); Smith 1988, 92–94. Jon Nordheimer, "Archaeologists' Eyes Glittering Over Treasure," New York Times, July 24, 1985, A1 and B4 (includes a diagram reconstructing how the wreckage was strewn over the debris field).

Corey Malcolm, "An Early Lima Mint Coin from Nuestra Señora de Atocha," Navigator, June 1999, available at: http://www.melfisher. org/limamintcoin.htm.

Corey Malcolm, "The Forgotten Coins of the Atocha," Navigator, August 2000, available at: http://www.melfisher.org/forgottencoins. htm.

"Mel Fisher's Historic Shipwreck Research Database," http://www.historicshipwrecks. com.

61. Marquesa Keys, off Florida, USA, spring 1981.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Santa Margarita.

Sank: September 6, 1622.

Contents: 4 AE, 15,000 AR, 56 AV.

Description: The following listing, except for the 15 2 escudos without a mint, comes from a database, http://www.historicshipwrecks.com, as of October 2007:

Spain, 4 maravedíes, Burgos, with Burgos counterstamp

Spain, 4 maravedíes

Spain, 8 maravedíes, Burgos

Spain, 8 maravedíes, Segovia, 1607

Spain, 2 reales, Seville

Spain, 4 reales, Seville, assayer D

Spain, 8 reales, Seville (2): 1621D; NDA

Spain, 2 escudos, Seville (10): Philip III, assayer G (2); assayer D; NDA (7)

Spain, 2 escudos (15)

Spanish colonies, reales, México (7): Philip III, assayer F; Philip III (5); NDA Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (22): Philip II F/D; Philip III, assayer F; Philip III, assayer D (4); Philip III (13); NDA (3) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (43): Philip III,[-]9; Philip III, assayer F (2); Philip III, assayer D (4); Philip III (30); NDA (6) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (72): Philip II, assayer F; Philip II, assayer D; Philip III, 1618D; Philip III, 162[-]D; Philip III, 16[-] F; Philip III, assayer F (6); Philip III, assayer D (16); Philip II; Philip III (36); Philip IV; NDA (7)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá, Philip III Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá, assayer A Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Lima (2): assayer D; Philip II

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima, Philip II Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima, Philip II, assayer D

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (17): Philip III (15); NDA (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (127): assayer B (15); assayer A; assayer M (5); assayer Q (2); assayer R (3); assayer T (3); 161[-]T; NDA (97)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (160): assayer B (3); assayer M (7); assayer R (3); assayer Q (6); assayer T (8); [1]6[1]8T; NDA (132)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (364): assayer A; assayer B (9); assayer M (22); assayer Q (45); assayer R (26); assayer T (30); 1618T; 1619T (3); 1620T (2); NDA (225) Spanish colonies, no denomination, Potosí, assayer Q

Spanish colonies, real Spanish colonies, 2 reales (50)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales (87)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales (98)

Spanish colonies, no denomination (132)

Gold chains, gold bars, and silver bars were also found; six of the gold bars appeared in the Christie's auction. Emeralds have been found as well.

The manifest listed 419 silver bars, 118,000 silver coins, and 1,488 ounces of gold bullion. The Spanish under Francisco Nuñez Melián salvaged over 33,000 silver coins and 387 silver bars in 1626–28.

Bibliography: Christie's 1988a, lots 158–66; Earle 2007, 15–18; Heritage 2007, lots 50,321–324; Lyon 1982; Sebring 1986, 112; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 156–57 (Sedwick 9).

"Mel Fisher's Historic Shipwreck Research Database," http://www.historicshipwrecks.com.

62. Fort Orange, Albany, New York, USA 1971.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1624–76.

Contents: 2 AR, 5 AE.

Description:

Netherlands, 2 stuivers, Holland, 1626 England, James I, farthing token, "Harington" type 1 [May 1613 to June 1614]

Great Britain, halfpence (2): George I; George II, 1736

France?, double tournois?, 1628, holed in center

USA, New Jersey, copper, 1786 Spanish colonies, ½ real, México, 1781

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing

inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

63. Bay of All Saints, Brazil, 1981.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Hollandia, the flagship of Piet Heyn.

Sank: March 1627.

Contents: AR.

Description:

Netherlands, lion daalders, mint not described

Netherlands, lion daalder, Overijssel, 1627 (2) (Thomas Sebring)

Disposition: Recovered by Robert Marx.

Bibliography: Sebring 1986, 74–119; Sebring 2004, lot 1602.

64. Three miles from Lucayan Beach, Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas, August 1964.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Possibly the Van Lynden. Thought to be part of the Dutch fleet under Piet Heyn, carrying treasure captured from the Spanish. The coins possibly come from the Van Lynden, which sank in 1629; others say this is one of the Spanish treasure ships that Piet Heyn sank, and have proposed the Santa Gertrudis or the Romario. An alternative suggestion that this is Nuestra Señora de los Remedios, which sank in 1625, is improbable, given that at least ten coins have been auctioned that are dated later than 1625, and that most are dated 1628.

Sank: 1629.

Contents: 16,000 AR.

Description: This listing summarizes the coins auctioned by Schulman and by Sotheby's: Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México ( 54): assayer F (2); 1614F; 1624D; assayer D; NDA (49) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (364): 160[-]A; assayer F (2); assayer D/F; 1612 (2); 1613F; 1620D (2); 1622/0D; 1622D (3; 1624D (8); 1627 (2); 162[-]D (6); NDA (335)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (5,283): assayer A; assayer F (5); 1612F (2); assayer D/F; 161[-]D/F; 1620D; 1622D (4); 1623D (2); 1624D (11); 1625D; 1626D; 1627D (4); 1629D; assayer D (5,000); NDA (248) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (3): assayer B; 1627 (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (8): assayer B (2); 1627 (2); assayer T; coin with positions of castles and lions on reverse inverted ["dyslexic mint worker"]; NDA (2)

The coins were chiefly 4 reales and 8 reales, México and Potosí, 1612–29. Many bore the date of 1628. (Oddly, no coin of 1628 appeared in the two public auctions held by Schulman and by Sotheby's.) A 2 reales of 1641 was also recovered, but this could be a later contamination of the 1629 shipwreck; the 1641 coin could have been dropped by one of the Bahamian or New England "wreck fishers" who recovered much silver from this area in the seventeenth century.

Disposition: Found by the divers Jack Slack, Gary Simmons, and Dick Tindall.

Bibliography: Lepera and Goodman 1974, 97100, 147–48; Schulman 1969, lots 903–30; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 159 (Sedwick 13); Slack 1967; Sotheby's 1972, lots 1–114. "The Big Find. Ancient Spanish Mint Ship Yields Richest Treasure to Date," Look, March 9, 1965, 102–6.

65. Portobelo, Panama, 1976–77.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1629.

Contents: 4,500 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (675) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (3,825) Included all Potosí dates 1617–29. Included Potosí assayers B, R, Q, M, RAL, T, and P. Bibliography: McLean 1995.

Charles E. Weber,"Reader Adds Observations to Informative Hoard Article," Numismatist, 109, no. 3 (March 1996): 256–57.

66. Martin's Hundred, Virginia, USA, 1970.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1623–40 (Jackson/Ward Homestead).

Contents: 1 B.

Description: German states, Nuremberg, jeton, obverse: 3 open crowns and 3 lis, reverse: cross and orb within double tressure of 3 arcs and 3 angles, Hans Krauwinckel, [1580–1610]

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1984, 238; Noël Hume 1992, 17, 19; Noël Hume and Noël Hume 2001.

67. Church of San Bernardo, Awatovi, Arizona, USA, 1935–39.

Type of find: Funerary deposits.

Date of site: 1630–80.

Contents: 4 B.

Description:

Spain, oval Catholic religious medal, obverse Saint Christopher, reverse Saint Stephen Spain, oval Catholic religious medal, obverse Saint Francis of Assisi, reverse Saint Anthony of Padua

Spain, rounded cruciform Catholic religious medal, obverse with Saints Theresa of Avila, Isidor the Farmer, and Ignatius Loyola; reverse, 3 unidentified figures (the Three Magi?)

Spain, oval Catholic religious medal, fragment, obverse, unidentified figure of saint, reverse 2 unidentified figures (John the Baptist baptizing Jesus?)

Disposition: Peabody Museum West of the Pecos.

Bibliography: Smith and Fontana 1970.

68. Pemaquid, Maine, USA, 1999.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1620–1770; date of earliest coin, 1631.

Contents: 78 AE, 5 AR.

Description:

England, Charles I, silver penny, 1631–32 Great Britain, George II, halfpence (33+): 1749 (5); 1753 (2+); ND (26) Ireland, Wood's Hibernia farthing, 1723 (3) Ireland, Charles II, halfpenny, 1680–81 Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence (15): 1723 (11); 1724; ND (3)

Ireland, George II, halfpenny, young bust Spain, real (½ pistareen), 1720

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence (Noe 33) [1667–74]

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling (Noe 16) [1675–82]

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México, 1766 The site is remarkable for the large numbers of Wood's Hibernia coinage. The explanation is that in 1729 a colony of fifty Irish families was established on the site. The Irish colony dissolved after 1733.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1910–11.

69. Richmond Island, Maine, USA, May 11, 1855.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: October 3, 1631.

Container: Rhenish salt-glazed stoneware from

Frechen, possibly a Bartmannskrug.

Contents: 30 AR, 21 AV; gold signet ring.

Description:

Scotland, James VI, sword and scepter, 1602 England, Elizabeth I, threehalfpence (2): 1568; 156[-]

England, Elizabeth I, groat [1558–60]

England, Elizabeth I, sixpences (16): 1563; 1564; 1568; 1569; 1572; 1573; 1578; 1579; 1580; 1589; 1593; ND (5)

England, James I, sixpence, 1606

England, Charles I, sixpence, 1625

England, Elizabeth I, shillings (4): [1560–61]; [1582–84]; ND (2)

England, James I, shillings, [1604–5] (4)

England, Charles I, shilling, [1625–26]

England, James I, double crowns (3): [1618— 19]; ND (2)

England, James I, laurels (8): [1621–23]; [1623–24] (3); ND (4)

England, James I, unites, [1606–7] (2)

England, Charles I, unites (7): [1625]; [1625–26]; [1626–27]; [1627–28]; ND (3)

Total value of the coinage: £18/10/7.

The gold ring weighs 12.7 grams, and has the inscription "United [hearts] Death only Partes," and the initials G.V.

In the jar the gold was arranged on one side, the silver on the other, and the ring in the middle. (Compare NFA 377.)

The coins are thought to have belonged to Walter Bagnall, who was killed by the Indians on October 3, 1631. Jordan proposes instead that the hoard might have been deposited by a subsequent trader, John Winter, who died in 1645. Since, however, the hoard closes with a coin of 1627—28 (the Charles I unite), given the large proportion of gold (Besly says that Civil War hoards from later years do not have much gold), and given that Bagnall's violent death provides a logical explanation for why the hoard was not recovered, the ascription of the deposit to Bagnall makes more sense. Disposition: Found by a farmer, Hanscom, while plowing. Acquired by Dr. John M. Cummings, who owned Richmond Island. In 1857 he presented a gold unite of Charles I and a silver coin of Elizabeth I to the Massachusetts Historical Society. Cummings in 1873 presented two coins from this hoard to the Maine General Hospital Fair of Portland: a sixpence of Elizabeth I (dated 1573), and a Charles I gold unite. In 1921 Cummings's descendant, Mrs. Edward McClure Peters of Brooklyn, New York, announced her intention to sell the residue of the hoard. This had then been reduced to 18 silver coins and 11 gold coins. The Maine Historical Society raised the money to purchase it and acquired these coins, plus the ring, plus the fragments of the jug, in 1929; Maine Historical Society item numbers MHS collection 819, items 1 through 30. Jordan suggests that the eighteen coins that are currently untraced—the 10 silver coins and 8 gold coins—were given to Hanscom, the finder, in a split of the hoard between him and Cummings.

Bibliography: Breen 1952, 8–9 (Breen Hoards II); Brown and Dolley 1971, 59 (NS1); DeCosta 1871, 55–56; Jordan 2007; Moneydigging 1871, 32–33; Noe 1942, 34; Willis 1859, 127–51.

"Coins Found on Richmond Island, Maine," American Journal of Numismatics 5, no. 2 (October, 1870): 33–36.

"Coins Found at Richmond's Island, Me.," American Journal of Numismatics 8, no. 2 (October, 1873): 42.

70. Southern Peru, Early 2007.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1632.

Contents: 500 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí: 1626, 1627, 1628, 1629, 1632

Mostly 8 reales, but also some 4 reales and a smattering of the smaller denominations. Most of the coins date to 1626–29; latest date in hoard 1632. Coins share a tell-tale patina (distractingly darkly toned with green spots). All the coins are in high grade.

Bibliography: DanielFrankSedwick," Shipwreck (and Hoard) Histories: Early 1630s hoard in Southern Peru," http://www.sedwickcoins. com/Auction/DFS_TreasureAuction_ Histories.htm.

71. Duxbury, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, January 1888.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: German States, medal with the inscription "Gloria in Excelsis, 1633," with a winged figure in the circle, holding a sword and a torch.

Disposition: Found on the farm of Harrison Loring; donated to the Pilgrim Society, Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA.

Bibliography: "A Medal Exhumed," American Journal of Numismatics 22, no. 3 (January 1888): 75.

72. El Mesuno, six kilometers from San Bartolomeo de Honda, Colombia, August 22, 1935.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1635.

Contents: 1,600 AV.

Description: Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 2 escudos, Bogotá (1,600)

Mostly assayer A; also included a few assayer P and possibly some assayer E. Dates known include 1628, 1633, and 1635.

The treasure also contained "ancient objects."

In the colonial period, gold was sent by mule from Santa Fé de Bogotá to Bartolomeo de Honda, and then by boat down to Cartagena for shipment to Spain. Nesmith suggests that one of the riverboats sank, concealing this hoard.

Found by the young fisherman José Ardila. His friend Manuel Valdés acquired many. Others who dug up the gold pieces included Aristobulo and Jorge Guzmán, and Segundo Ortiz.

Disposition: 500 to the Banco de la Republica, for the national collection, of which 375 to 400 remained in July 1959; about 40 came to the United States, of which one each was owned by well known Saint Louis and New York collectors; 19 were in the hands of a Toronto collector; and Wilcox had 19. Others were acquired by Victor Guillén and David Londoño. Spink's Numismatic Circular, March 1939, no. 78,714, offered a 2 escudos from the Mesuno Hoard. Several were in a Coin Galleries (Division of Stack's), New York, New York, USA, Fixed Price List, February-March 1959, lots G354 and G357.

Bibliography: Cancio 1978–79; Sedwick 1985, 1312–23; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 161–62 (Sedwick 16); Wilcox 1943.

"The Treasure of the Mesuno," Coin Collector's Journal 4, no. 3 (June 1937): 64. James Risk, "Coins from the Mesuno Hoard," Coin Galleries (Division of Stack's), New York, New York, USA, Fixed Price List, February-March 1959, 1–4.

73. Harvard Yard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 1981 and summers 1984–87.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1636–1987.

Contents: 14 AE, 1 NI, 2 AR.

Description:

Spain, real (½ pistareen), 1738

England, James I, Lennox farthing (item number 2003.1.425)

England, Charles I, Richmond farthing in excellent condition, suggesting that it was not long in circulation before it was lost (item number 992–9-10/74623) [note says: "Coin collected by Danny, one of the water line workmen when digging by hand near Wadsworth House. He carried this coin in his pocket for a few days"]

England, Charles I, Maltravers farthing, in excellent condition (item number 2003.1.425)

England, James I or Charles I, farthing, holed (item number 987–22-10/100153)

England, William III, farthing, ca. 1700 Great Britain, George II, farthing, 1739 (corrected from 1759)

England, William and Mary, halfpenny, 1694 Great Britain, halfpence (2): George I, 1724; George II, 1730

USA, 1¢ (5): 1820; 1827; 1828; 1831 (2)

USA, 5¢, 1882

USA, 10¢, 1884

Over 46 twentieth century coins were also found.

Disposition: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Bibliography: Drooker 1988; Stubbs 1992, 55859.

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Collections Online, http://www. peabody.harvard.edu.

Scott A. Templin, Curatorial Research Assistant, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, personal communication, May 11, 2007.

74. State Street, Portland, Maine, USA, June 1849.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1637–90.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Elizabeth I, sixpence, 1579

Disposition: Found by the gardener of William

P. Fessenden in Fessenden's garden. Donated to the Maine Historical Society?

Bibliography: Willis 1859, 127–51.

75. Bermuda, 1959.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Possibly the Viga, which was part of a 34-vessel fleet en route from Havana to Cadiz under the command of Don Geronimo Gomez de Sandoval. Lost with the patache Galgo.

Sank: May 1637 or 1639.

Contents: 50+ AR.

Description:

Spain, Philip IV, real, Seville (2)

Spain, Philip IV, 8 reales, Seville?

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 8 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, real, Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 2 reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 4 reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 8 reales, Potosí (45)

Disposition: Excavated by Edward B. Tucker.

Bibliography: Marx 1971, 302; Potter 1972, 284–86.

"Bermuda's New Treasure Trove Find," Numismatic Circular 67, no. 12 (December 1959): 226.

76. Ferryland, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 2001, 2005–6.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1621–96; date of occupation of David Kirke house: 1638–51.

Contents: 4 PB, 30 AE, 1 B, 3 BI, 24 AR, 1 SN, 2 AV.

Description: There are three entries for this site, split into periods commencing in 1621, 1696, and 1865. This entry covers the period from the first settlement of the site until its destruction by French forces under the leadership of Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville in November 1696.

Netherlands, Friesland, bezemstuiver, 16[-] Netherlands, Overijssel, 2 stuivers, 1619, twisted to make a love token or witch piece Netherlands, Zeeland, 2 stuivers, 16[-] Netherlands, 6 stuivers, 161[-], cut, quartered, worth about one penny

German states, Nuremberg, jetons (3): Hanns Krauwinckel II, rv. "HEIT ROTT MORGEN DOTT"; Hanns Krauwinckel II, rv. "GLVCK BESCHERT IST VNGWERT"; ND England, lead piece worn smooth, possibly merchant's token of 17th century (or a David Kirke token?)

England, Charles II, farthing (3): 1673; 167[-] (2)

England, William and Mary, halfpenny (2): 1694; 169[-] tin

England, William III, halfpenny, [1695–98] (6)

England, James I, penny (2): bust and shield [1603–4]; rose and thistle [1604–19]

England, Charles I, penny [1630s]

England, Elizabeth I, threepence [1561–82] (2)

England, Elizabeth I, groat England, Elizabeth I, sixpence (2): counterfeit with silver wash over copper core, 1574; genuine silver, 1579

England, Charles I, shilling [1642–48] (2) England, James I, ¼ laurel, cut down to a fragment worth one shilling

Scotland, James VI (I), 20 pence, [1637–42]

Scotland, James VI (I), sword and scepter, [1601]

Ireland, James I, sixpence, [1603–4]

Ireland, James I, shilling, (2); [1604–5]; [1604–7] (both bent to make love tokens or witch pieces)

Ireland, James II, gun money, shilling, December 1689

France, Henry IV, double tournois, 1608 France, Louis XIII, doubles tournois (6): 1614A; [1642–43]; 1645E; ND (3)

France, provincial issue, Maximilian I of Bethune, ruler of Boisbelle and Henrichemont, double tournois (2): 163[-]; ND

France, provincial issue, Gaston, who had the usufruct of Dombes in Provence, double tournois, 1641

France, probably provincial issue, double tournois

France, Louis XIII, douzains (2): [1611–41], possibly a counterfeit; ND

France, Louis XIV, 4 sols, [1674–79], mint D (Vimy)

Spain, Philip III, 4 maravedíes, [1600–2]

Spain, Philip IV, 8 maravedíes, with numeral 8 counterstamp, 1652 (3)

Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, ½ real, [1497–1504]

Portugal, John IV, ½ tostão counterstamped to be valued at 60 reis, 1642

Portugal, Philip II, 100 reis, 1598

Portugal, John IV, tostão of Sebastian counterstamped to be valued at 120 reis, 1642

English colonies, Newfoundland, DK (David Kirke) lead tokens (3)

Spanish colonies, Charles II, real, Potosí, 1672E

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 8 reales, Potosí, before 1650

Unidentified copper coins (2)

Bibliography: Berry 2002, 1–71; Berry 2006; Jordan 2006.

77. Medford, Massachusetts, USA, spring 1787.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1640.

Contents: 300? BI.

Description: France, Louis XIII, douzains, counterstamped with fleur-de-lis (300?)

William Bentley described the find as follows in his diary on September 16, 1787:

"In removing a Stone wall in Mystic, or Medford, in 1783, there was found under it a large Collection of brass pieces nearly square, mixed with the smallest brass coins of Europe, the whole half a peck. A few round ones have a fleur-de-lis stamped on each side of them. The figures on the others were confused but representing no character. The Stone had lost all appearance of having ever been moved, & there is no recollection of the Currency of such pieces, which appear to have been of use."

These are probably counterstamped douzains of Louis XIII, raised to 15 deniers under the counterstamping order of 1640. Many of the counterstamps appear on coins of earlier kings, on squarish planchets.

Disposition: Found by workers widening the highway in Medford when they removed a stone wall.

Bibliography: Bentley 1905, 1:75.

Thaddeus Mason Harris, "Account of Copper Coins, Found in Medford, Massachusetts. In a letter to Hon. John Quincy Adams, Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences," Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 3, no. 1 (1809): 195–96 (letter dated November 5,1808).

D. G. B., of West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA , "Queries: Ancient Coins found in America," Historical Magazine 5 (October 1861): 314–15.

"Coins found in Medford, Mass." American Journal of Numismatics 6, no. 4 (April 1872): 79–80.

"Extracts from the Diary of William Bentley, D. D. of Salem: Pub. Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., 1905," Numismatist 20, no. 1 (January 1907): 11.

78. Ambrosia Banks, North of Hispaniola, Dominican Republic, 1687, 1977–1978 and mid-1990s.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Nuestra Señora de la Pura y Limpia Concepción.

Sank: November 2, 1641.

Contents: 40 AE, 63,000 AR. (These numbers comprise the modern salvage by Webber and Bowden, not the earlier salvage by Phips.) Description:

Spain, 4 maravedíes (16)

Spain, 8 maravedíes (17)

Spain, 8 maravedíes, cast counterfeits (7)

Spain, silver coin, Cuenca

Spain, silver coin, Valladolid

Spain, silver coin, Madrid

Spain, silver coin, Seville

Spanish colonies, ½ real, México, assayer F

Spanish colonies, reales, México (4): [1580?] O; assayer F; 1634D; 1639P

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (17): [1580?]O; assayer F (2); [1608?]A; 1615/14F; [1616?]D/F; 1623D; 1626/5/4D; 1631/0D; 1632D (2); 1634/3; 1634D; 1637/6; 1639P; 1640P (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (25): assayer F; 162[-]D; 1628D; 1631D; 1633/2D; 1635P; 1636P; 1637P (2); 1638P (2); 1639/8P (2); 1639P (5); 164[-]P; 1640/39P; 1640P (2); 1641/0P; 1641P; 16[-]P

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (57): 1623D; 1626D; 1627/6; 1628D (2); 1630D; 1631/0D; 1632/1/0D; 1632D (2); 1633D (2); 1634D (3); 1634P/D (2); 1634P (2); 1635P (2); 1636/5P; 1636P; 1637P (2); 1638P (3); 1639/8P (3); 1639P (3); counterfeit 1639P; 1640/39P (2); 1640P (3); 1641/40/39P (2); 1641/0P (3); 1641P (2); 1641/163P; 16[-]P; NDA (8)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Cartagena (8): 1626E (4); 1630E; 1634E (3)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Cartagena, 1628E

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena, 1628E (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Bogotá (3): 1630P; 1635A; 1640A

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá, 1627P

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá (4): 1630P; 1633A; 1634A (2)

Spanish colonies, real, Potosí, assayer B Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (43): assayer G (3); assayer A; assayer R; assayer R/B; assayer Q; assayer M; 1617M (2); 1618M; 1619T; 1620T (2); 1621T (2); 1621P; 1622P (2); [1622–23]P; [1624–26]Po (3); [1626]T (2); 1629T (2); 1630T (4); 1631T; 1632T; 1633T; 1634T; 1635T; 1636TR; 1637TR; 1638TR (4); 1639TR

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (13): [1616] Q; assayer M; 1617M; [1622–23]P; 1627P; 1627T; 1628T; 1629T; 1633T; 1635TR (3); 1639TR

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (38): assayer B; assayer R; assayer Q; assayer M/Q; assayer M; 1618RAL; 1619T; 1620T; 1621T (2); 1622P (2); [1624–26]Po (2); 1626Po; 1628T (2); 1629T (3); 1630T (2); 1631T; 1632T; 1633T; 1634T (2); 1635T (2); 1636TR (2); 1637TR (2); 1638TR; 1639TR (2); 1640TR (2) £300,000 sterling in silver, including at least twenty-one silver ingots, was salvaged by William Phips in 1687 and taken to England. By weight, Phips is said to have recovered 37,538 8 reales, 27,556 pounds, 4 ounces of silver bars and cakes, and 25 pounds, 7 ounces of gold. Two medals commemorate this—Betts 66 and Betts 67. Nearly as much again was taken out of the ship in 1687, after Phips left, by salvagers from New York, New England, Barbados and other islands in the West Indies. In 1688, another 3,213 pounds, 10 ounces of silver was recovered by a less successful expedition under Sir John Narborough.

The 60,000 silver coins recovered in 1979 were dated 1600–41, of which 45,600 of the coins were dated 1639 and 1640. The coins split 55,800 México, 3,600 Potosí and Lima; the remaining 600 was spread among Bogotá, Cartagena, Cuenca, Madrid, Seville and Valladolid. The 40 bronze coins comprised 4 maravedíes, 8 maravedíes, and seven cast counterfeits. Only 1,800 coins bore dates. The most important discovery was dated coins from Cartagena and Bogotá of 1621 and 1622, since hitherto those mints were thought to have begun to coin in 1623.

Disposition of the 1979 salvage: 50% Sea Quest International,50%totheDominicanRepublic (who placed it on display in the Museo de las Casas Reales). The first marketing of the coins was through department stores: Harrod's in London, Neiman Marcus in Dallas and Wanamaker's in Philadelphia, who sold sets of cobs of 2 reales, 4 reales, and 8 reales in black walnut cases for $5,000. The more important coins were auctioned by Christensen in 1982 and are the basis for the enumeration above. Twelve coins from that sale are in the American Numismatic Society in New York, cataloged under item numbers 1987.63.1–12.

Disposition of the 1990s salvage: Tracy Bowden recovered another 3,000 silver coins; those coins were split 50% Bowden, 50% Dominican Republic.

Bibliography: Borrell 1983; Bowden 1996;

Christensen 1982; Earle 1979; Earle 2007, 18–22, 55–75; Grissim 1980; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 162–63 (Sedwick 17).

Donn Pearlman, "Treasure Coins: The Conception still has many more to come," Coinage, July 1983, 17.

79. Chesapean Site, Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, 1955.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1645–55.

Contents: 4 AE.

Description:

England, James I, counterfeit Lennox round farthing

England, Charles I, Richmond farthing (2)

England, Charles I, Maltravers double ring farthing

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1984, 247.

80. New York, New York, USA, summer 1976-November 1984.

Type of find: Excavation. Series of finds made by William Asadorian, an amateur archaeologist.

Contents: 11 AE, 1 B, 2 AR.

Description: Found at Bowling Green, summer 1976:

Spain, 8 maravedíes, counterstamped twice with VIII in circle, [1649?]

Found in sewage sludge removed by contractors in Lower Manhattan and Midtown:

USA, 1¢ (6): 1828; 1847; large cents, ND (3); 1861

USA, counterfeit 50¢,1918

Found at McDonald's site, by Water, Moore, and Pearl Streets, November 1984:

Brass nested coin weight, early 1700s Found near Army Induction Center site, by Water, Moore, and Pearl Streets, November 1984:

France, Louis XVI, sol, 1790

Spain, Charles IV, 8 maravedíes, 1803

Findspot not recorded:

Great Britain, sixpence, 1865

Austria, kreuzer, 1885

Disposition: All the above except the counterstamped 8 maravedíes have been donated to the American Numismatic Society; accession number 2007.41/42.

Bibliography: Murray Schumach, "Dig He Must, and a 1600's Coin Turns Up at Bowling Green," New York Times, March 17, 1977, Bl. Robert Wilson Hoge, personal communication, November 6, 2007.

81. Bay of All Saints, Brazil, 1981.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Utrecht.

Sank: 1648.

Contents: 2+ AR, 2+ AV.

Description:

Netherlands, silver ducatons

Netherlands, gold florins

Disposition: Excavated by Robert Marx.

Bibliography: Sebring 1986, 121–22.

82. Papscanee Island, Castleton Island State Park,New York, USA 2001.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1648–1929.

Contents: 1 AR. Archaeological excavations.

Description: Netherlands, 2 stuivers, Utrecht, 1624

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

83. Stafford County, Virginia, USA, April 1991.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1650.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Elizabeth I, 4 pence (groat), cut quarter to make a penny

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2193.

84. Broad Financial Center, Whitehall and Pearl Streets, New York, New York, USA, winter of 1983–84.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: Ca. 1650.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:

Netherlands, jeton, 1590, with obverse inscription TVEMUR, Reverse NEC … 1590

As well as the jeton, a slate pencil, used to keep track of inventory, was also found. This site contained the warehouse of the merchant Augustine Heerman. The excavation was conducted by Joel Grossman of Greenhouse Associates.

Bibliography: Cantwell and DiZerega 2001, 154–55.

"Remains of New Amsterdam Unearthed," Saint Louis Post-Dispatch, September 8, 1984, C4 (UPI wire dispatch).

85. Bogotá, Colombia, 1959.

Type of find: Votive deposit.

Date of deposit: 1650.

Contents: 13 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, reales, México (2)

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 2 reales, México

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, ½ real, Bogotá

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, reales, Potosí

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 2 reales, Potosí, 16500

Spanish colonies, Philip IV, 2 reales, Potosí (7) Probably an "Arras," or wedding pledge.

Bibliography: Cancio 1979.

86. River Creek Site, York County, Virginia, USA, 1980.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1650–80.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, Charles I, rose farthing Bibliography: Noël Hume 1984, 247.

87. Peninsula Point, Gaspé Bay, Québec, Canada, October 1911.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1650–1770.

Contents: AE, BI, AR.

Description:

France, Louis XIV, double tournois, 1649 or earlier

France, Louis XIV, liard 1654–58, Saint Lo or Limoges

France, Louis XIV, douzain, counterstamped with a fleur de lis, overstruck as a sol of Navarre and Béarn, 1693 (Gadoury 94)

France, Louis XIV, 4 sols, 1675A

France, Louis XV, écu, 172 IH

All coins found were French of Louis XIII, XIV, and XV.

Bibliography: Clarke 1911.

88. Munnsville, New York, USA, 1903.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1654.

Contents: 2 AE.

Description:

France, Louis XIII, double tournois, 1639 France, Louis XIII, double tournois, 1640

Disposition: Theodore Stanford.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 50.

89. Indian Hill, Pompey, Onondaga County, New York, USA, 1880s.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of site: 1654–82.

Contents: 5+ AE.

Description:

France, Louis XIV, liards, 165[-]A, holed for suspension (2)

France, Louis XIV, liards, mints B, D, and E Found in an Indian site first visited by the French in 1654 and occupied by the Onondagas until 1682.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1891, 45–46; 1903, 49.

90. Indian Castle, Pompey, New York, USA, 1903.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of site: 1600s.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Netherlands, 2 stuiver, Utrecht, 16[-], holed

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 72.

91. East Hampton, New York, USA, February 1990.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, New England sixpence, 1652

Disposition: Found in a frozen potato field with a metal detector by Lillian Rade. Auctioned by Sotheby's, November 21, 1991; bought by the Stack family for their personal collection.

Bibliography: Jed Stevenson, "Coins: Earliest Colonial Coinage," New York Times, July 7, 1991, Sec. 2, 34.

"Numismatic Narratives: ANA Authentication Bureau identifies 300-Year-Old Coin," Numismatist 104, no. 9 (September 1991): 1385–86.

"Sotheby Auctions New England Sixpence," Numismatist 105, no. 2 (February 1992): 177.

92. Staten Island, New York, USA, 1872.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: France, Louis XIV, ¼ ecu, 1653

Disposition: David Proskey.

Bibliography: Proskey 1873, 22.

93. Chanduy, Ecuador, November 1996-April 1997.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Jesus Maria de la Limpia Concepción, also called La Capitana.

Sank: October 26–27, 1654.

Contents: 5,000 AR; 1 AV.

Description: This listing comprises the 1,945 silver coins, and the single gold coin, put up for auction by the salvors:

Spain, Philip II, 2 escudos, Seville Non-counterstamped coins:

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (41): shield type, NDA (33); 1651O; 1652 (2); 1652E, transitional type (2); 1653 (3)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (159): shield type NDA (137); 1649Z; 1649Z/R; 1651E/O; 1651E; 1652E, shield type; 1652E, transitional type (3); pillar type, NDA (6); 1652 (2); 1653 (3); 1654 (3)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (133): 1652E, transitional type (8); 1652E (2); 1653/2E; 1653E (69); 1654E (53)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (1,019): shield type, NDA (70); 1649Z; 1649O; 1650O (3); 1651E/O; 1651E (7); 1652E, transitional type (21); 1652E (44); 1653E (454); 1654/3 (2); 1654E (414); 1653E royal

Counterstamped coins are listed by counterstamp, followed by the date and assayer of the host coins:

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí, with one counterstamp (87):

Crown (11): 1649O/Z; 1649O, 1651E; 1651O; assayer O (2); NDA (5)

Crowned L (24): 1649 (2); 1650O (2); 1651; assayer O; NDA (18)

Crowned F (7): 1650O; NDA (6)

Crowned Philip IV monogram: 1650O

Crowned J: NDA

Crowned S: NDA

Fleur de lis: NDA

Unidentified counterstamp: NDA (41) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí, with multiple counterstamps (4):

Crown and crowned P: NDA

Crown and crowned A: assayer O

Crowned O and arms of Spain: 1651

Crown, crowned A, and crowned C: 1650O Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, with one counterstamp (470):

Crown (82): 1649O (8); 1649Z (3); 1649 (3); 1650O; 1651E (6); 1651O; 1651E/O; assayer Z; NDA (58)

Crowned C (5): 1650O; 1651O; assayer O; NDA (2)

Crowned F (93): 1649O/Z; 1649O; 1650O (7); assayer O; 1651O (3); 1651E (9); 1652E (3); assayer Z; assayer E; NDA (66) Crowned G (7): 1650O (4); 1651O; NDA (2) Crowned L (175): 1649Z (7); 1649O/Z; 1649O (6); 1650O (19); 1651E (5); 1651O (6); 1651 (2); assayer Z; assayer O (3); assayer E (2); NDA (123)

Crowned backwards L (5): assayer O; NDA (4)

Crowned O (29): 1649Z; 1649O; 1649; 1650; 1650O (2); 1651O (2); 1651E/O; 1651E (4); NDA (16)

Crowned P (2): 1649O; 165[-]O

Crowned S (18): 1649O (4); NDA (14)

Crowned T (11): 165[-]O; 1651E; assayer E (3); NDA (6)

Crowned fancy Z: assayer E

Crowned 1652 (4): 1650O (3); assayer E/O

Fleur de lis (3): assayer O; NDA (2)

Crowned Philip IV monogram (8): 1650O/Z; 1650O (2); 1651O; 1651E (2); 165[-]O; assayer O

Crowned arms of Spain (12): assayer O (2); E/O; NDA (9)

Buenos Aires counterstamp: assayer O Unidentified counterstamp (14): NDA (14) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, with two counterstamps (29):

Two different crown counterstamps (3): 1649O ,1650O; 165[-]O

Crown and crowned C (7): 1649O; 1650O; 1651E (3); assayer O (2)

Crown and crowned L (3): 1650O; 1651O; assayer E

Crown and crowned O (4): 1649O; assayer O (2); NDA

Crown and arms of Spain (2): 1650O; assayer E

Crowned L and arms of Spain (4): 1649Z; 1650O; 1651; assayer O

Crowned L and crowned C: assayer O

Crowned L and crowned G: 1651O

Crowned L and crowned T (2): 165IE; assayer O

Crowned O and arms of Spain: assayer O

Crowned P and crowned T: 1650O

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, with three counterstamps (3):

Fleur de lis, crown and crowned C: 1650O

Crown, crowned A, and arms of Spain: assayer O

Crown, crowned C, and arms of Spain: assayer E

No attempt has been made to distinguish

individual punches among the counter stamps listed above. Greater detail and further distinctions may be found in the Ponterio auction catalog.

The Spanish recovered 3.5 million pesos in 1654–62, which caused a scandal, since the registered treasure was only 3 million pesos. Some of what they recovered was put on the Maravillas, which sank in 1656. And some of what was salvaged from that was put on the Madama do Brasil, which sank in its turn off Gorda Cay in 1657.

Disposition: The recoveries in the 1990s of 5,000 coins were split 50% to the salvors, 50% to the Ecuadorean government.

Bibliography: Earle 2007, 82–84; Ponterio 1999; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 164–65 (Sedwick 19).

Diana Jean Schemo, "Search for a Galleon Off Ecuador Yields a Ship and a Dispute," New York Times, April 14, 1997, A10. "Former Police Chief Finds Sunken Treasure," Numismatist 110, no. 7 (July 1997): 743.

94. Rio Cobre, where it runs past Villa de la Vega (Spanish Town), Jamaica, 1970s.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1655.

Contents: 30 AE.

Description: Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo (30)

Bibliography: Barker 1978, 308–10.

95. Whim's Estate, Saint Catherine, Jamaica, late 1976.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1655.

Contents: 400 AE.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo (400): not counterstamped (200); key counterstamp ( 11 ); anchor counterstamp (99); anchor and key counterstamps (13); anchor and plain "S" counterstamps (4); long "S" counterstamp; plain "S" counterstamp (72)

Bibliography: Barker 1978, 308–10.

96. Seven's Estate, Clarendon, Jamaica, late 1976.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1655.

Contents: 400 AE.

Description: Spanish colonies, 4 maravedíes, Santo Domingo

The following counterstamps were found in the hoard: key; wide "S"; anchor; plain "S"; serrated "S"; long "S"; retrograde "S"; V and X; and hand. All counterstamps but the first two are deemed to be Jamaican. Bibliography: Barker 1978, 308–10.

97. Salta or Tucumán, northern Argentina, October 1968.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1655.

Contents: 1,000 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (200)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (300)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (200)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (300): 1642R; 1644T; 1644TR; 1645T; 1646FR; 1647T (2); 164[7–9]Z; 1653E; 1654E; 1655E; NDA (290)

No coins were dated 1648–52. Cancio notes that it is odd that the hoard includes coins from before and after the transition of 1652.

Disposition: Dispersed through coin shops located on Corrientes, San Martín, and Reconquista streets in Buenos Aires. Cancio bought nine 8 reales.

Bibliography: Cancio 1981 (includes photographs of the 9 coins Cancio bought).

98. Middletown, Connecticut, USA, April 1880.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: France, Louis XIV, liard, 1655B

Disposition: Found by Samuel Dutcher, a gardener for W. W. Wilcox, in Wilcox's garden.

Bibliography: "Numismatic Discoveries," American Journal of Numismatics 14, no. 4 (April 1880): 101.

99. Brackett and Vaughan Streets, Portland, Maine, USA, August 1849.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Netherlands, Province undetermined, lion daalder, 1655

Disposition: Maine Historical Society?

Bibliography: Willis 1859, 127–51.

100. Bahamas Bank, Bahamas, August 1950, 1972 and 1986.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Nuestra Señora de las Maravillas.

Sank: January 4, 1656.

Contents: 830 AR, 282 AV.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (108): 1654P; 1653–55 (107)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (167): 1652P; 1654P (5); 1655P (3); 165[-]P (2); assayer P (3); 1651–55 (150); NDA (3) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena, 1655? Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá (3): 1649; 1653, PoRAS (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Bogotá (206): 164[-]R (2); 1654R (104); 1655R (4); assayer R (57); NDA (39)

Non-counterstamped coins:

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí, NDA (17)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí, NDA (17)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí, 1653–54 (57): (39); NDA (18)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (268): assayer O (2); 1650O; assayer E; 1652E (5); 1653E (6); 1654E (6); 165[-]E; 1652–54 (228); NDA (18)

Counterstamped coins are listed by counterstamp, followed by the date and assayer of the host coins. All coins reported are single counterstamp coins.

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (2): Crowned L: 1649O

Indeterminate counterstamp: 1649

Spanish colonies, 8 reales,Potosí (182): Crown (11): 1649O; assayer O; 1650O (2); 1651O (2); assayer E (3); 1651E (3); NDA

Crowned A: 1651E

Crowned L (31): 1649Z; assayer O (6); 1650O (7); 1651O (6); 1651E (6); 165[-]O (3); NDA (2)

Crowned F (18): 1649O; 1650O (2); 1651O; 1651E (11); assayer O (2); assayer E

Crowned O (2): 16[-]O; 1651E

Crowned T: assayer O (3)

Crowned Z: 1650O

Castles and lions: assayer E Indeterminate counterstamp (122): shield type, 1649–51 (121); 1651E

The Spanish salvaged 480,000 pesos in coin together with 12 cannon in 13 days in June 1656. Further salvage efforts by the Spanish recovered about a quarter of the Maravillas treasure. Many English colonists from New England, New York, and the West Indies salvaged silver from this wreck in 1658–84, by which time most of the treasure that could be recovered using the techniques of that period had been salvaged. William Phips worked this wreck in 1684, but recovered little.

A silver bar and three coins recovered by Howard Lightburn and Roscoe Thompson in August 1950 probably came from the Maravillas. The three coins comprised 8 reales, México; 8 reales, Bogotá, 1649; and 8 reales, Potosí, with counterstamp. These coins are included in the listing above. The bar was presented to the Development Board of the Bahamas by Albert E. Worswick. One of the coins was acquired by Theodore Pyfrom of Nassau.

Some treasure was salvaged by Robert Marx and Willard Bascom in 1972 and auctioned by Schulman. Salvage was resumed by Herbert Humphreys, Jr., after 1986, and auctioned by Christie's.

Bibliography: Christie's 1992, lots 1–157 and 3225–31; Earle 1979, 93–94, 109–110, 151152; Earle 2007, 22–25; Goldberg 2005, lots 2801–2932; Sebring 1986, 34–35; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 165–66 (Sedwick 20), Schulman 1974, lots 1–501 I and A56-A63. "Silver Ingot Found in a Sunken Ship," Sociedad Numismatica de México, Boletín 1, no. 5 (March-December 1953): 21–28.

101. Indian site, Cayuga County, New York, USA, summer 1887.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1656.

Container: Pewter mug.

Contents: 44 AE.

Description: France, Louis XIV, liards, 1656 (44)

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1891, 49; 1903, 49.

102. Southern Maryland, USA, October 1977.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Maryland, Lord Baltimore, denarium, [1658]

Disposition: Found with a metal detector by a Maryland college student. Bowers & Ruddy, Auction (Johnson-Meyer), February 9, 1978:1 - Jerry Cohen - N.A.S.C.A. 1978 – John L. Roper, Jr. - Stacks, Auction, December 8–9, 1983:46.

Bibliography: Breen 1988, 20 (Breen 76); Stack's 2004, lot 274 (letter by John J. Ford, Jr. to Q. DavidBowers, November 10, 1977, concerning the discovery of this piece).

103. Maryland, USA, ca. 1965.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Maryland, Lord Baltimore denarium, [1658]

Disposition: Donated to the Smithsonian Institution by the Baltimore dealer Thomas Warfield with a note, "Found in Maryland in recent years." Weight, 50 grains.

Bibliography: Stack's 2007, lot 213.

104. Southern Maryland, USA, August 2007.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: English colonies, Maryland, Lord Baltimore denarium, [1658]

Disposition: St. Mary's County Historical Society.

Bibliography: Stack's 2007, lot 213.

105. Jupiter Inlet, Florida, USA, July 13, 1987.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: San Miguel el Arcángel an aviso, a rapid boat carrying messages back to Spain.

Sank: October 1659.

Contents: 800+ AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, real, México, 1653

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (3): 1655 (2); 1657

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (15): 1653; 1654 (3); 1655 (3); 1656 (3); 1657 (5)

Spanish colonies 2 reales, Cartagena, 1655

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Cartagena, 1655

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena, 1655

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá (2): 1652; 1655

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima, 1659, star of Lima (10?)

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (7): 1652 (2); 1653; 1655 (2); 1656; 1657

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (13): 1640; 1650; 1652 (2); 1653 (3); 1654(3); 1657(2); 1658

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (31): 1652 (3); 1653 (4); 1654 (9); 1655 (3); 1656 (4); 1657 (3); 1658 (5)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (75): 1652 (11); 1653 (10); 1653E (Sebring); 1654 (14); 1655 (9); 1656 (6); 1657 (13); 1658 (11)

Carl J. Clausen, formerly the chief archaeologist for Florida, was working with the salvors in 1987 to develop an archaeological research design to document the artifacts recovered from the wrecksite.

Disposition: 198 to the State of Florida. The Sebring sale (American Numismatic Rarities, January 2004), lot 1564, had an 8 reales from Potosí, 1653E.

Bibliography: Craig 2000b, 78, 134, 165–66; Sebring 2004, lot 1564; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 167–68 (Sedwick 22).

Jupiter Wreck, Inc. v. Unidentified, Wrecked, and Abandoned Sailing Vessel, 691 F.Supp. 1377 (S. D. Fla. 1988).

106. Hingham, Massachusetts, USA, March 1862.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Spain, maravedí, 1659

Bibliography: "Boston Numismatic Society, Boston, March 6, 1862," Historical Magazine 6, no. 5 (May 1862): 152.

107. Near Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, April 1991.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1660.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Elizabeth I, sixpence, cut quarter to make three halfpence

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2193.

108. Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA, 1861. Type of find: Funerary deposit. A native

American grave, thought to be that of the daughter of the Sachem of the Niantic, who died around 1660.

Date of deposit: 1660.

Contents: 1 AE, 1 AR.

Description:

England, farthing

France, Louis XIV, ½ écu, 1650

Bibliography: Parsons 1863.

109. Rhode Island, USA, April 2006.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree shilling, [1660–67]

Disposition: Found with a metal detector by John C. Bailey, a member of the Silver City Treasure Hunters Club of Taunton, Massachusetts.

Bibliography: Eric von Klinger, "Man's Oak Tree shilling offers 'bragging rights'," Coin World, July 31, 2006, 3 (reference courtesy of Q. David Bowers).

110. Colombia, 1958.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1662.

Contents: 46 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, reales, Cartagena (5): assayer S; assayer H (4)

Spanish colonies, ¼ real, Bogotá, pillar type?

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, Bogotá (8): 1652; 1657; 1658; 1662 (2); 16[-]; NDA (2)

Spanish colonies, reales, Bogotá, shield type (11): 1627P (3); 1628P; assayer P (5); assayer R; NDA

Spanish colonies, reales, Bogotá, pillar type (10): 1651; 1653 (2); 1655; 1662; 16[-]7; NDA (4)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Bogotá, shield type (5): 1627P (2); 1630P; 1647R; assayer R Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Bogotá, pillar type, 1652

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá, shield type, assayer T

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá, pillar type (2): 1655; 1662PoR

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá, shield type, 16[-]P

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá, pillar type, 1657PoRS

Disposition: Clyde Hubbard.

Bibliography: Nesmith 1958b.

111. Brookline, Massachusetts, USA, September 1870.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree twopence, 1662

Disposition: Found by a farmer on the old Harris farm in Brookline.

Bibliography: Augustine Shurtleff, "Cents of 1795, 1796, 1798, 1832," American Journal of Numismatics 6, no. 3 (January 1871): 63–64.

112. Yorktown, Virginia, USA, March 1997.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1663.

Containers: Ceramic crocks.

Contents: 100 AE.

Description:

Scotland, twopence, 1663 (latest coin)

England, James I (James VI), Lennox style farthing, 1618–19 (earliest coin)

England, Richmond farthings

England, Rose farthings

Disposition: The pieces were recovered from farmers' fields in Yorktown, where they had been buried.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1902.

113. Newtown, Queens, Long Island, New York, USA, April 1867.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1664.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Netherlands?, silver medal: obverse, figure of a man holding scepter and scroll, wearing chain and medal around neck, inscription: "Wahrhaftic conter [fey]," "Johann Van Leiden, een Koeninck der Wederdofer zo Monster," [A true portrait of John of Leiden, a King of the Anabaptists in Münster'] Reverse: coat of arms, ball with band around surmounted by cross and crown over two crossed swords, "Gottes macht ist myn cracht. Anno MDXXXV" ['God's might is my power, Year 1535']

Silver medal found while tearing down a Dutch colonial house. The medal is commemorative of the Anabaptists of Münster, 16/8 inches in diameter, made of two sheets of silver put together.

Bibliography: "General City News: An Interesting Historical Relic," New York Times, April 9, 1867, 8.

"Tailor-Kings," American Journal of Numismatics 2, no. 2 (May 1867): 10–11.

114. Southern New Jersey, USA, July 1991.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, Yorkshire, Guisburne, seventeenth century tradesman's token, 1666 (Boyne-Williamson Yorkshire 95)

Bibliography: Kleeberg 1992b, 37.

115. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, July 1991.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, Surrey, Rotherhithe, seventeenth century tradesman's token, 1660s (Boyne-Williamson Surrey 274)

Bibliography: Kleeberg 1992b, 37.

116. Jamestown, Virginia, USA, 1958 and 1994–2002.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1667–1700.

Contents: 2 AE, 1 SN.

Description:

England, Portsmouth, Henry Jenner, token, 1656

England, London, John Langston?, Globe Tavern, token, 1667 (found in context of 1667–1700)

English colonies, James II, 1/24 real for the American Plantations, 1688

Bibliography: Cotter 1958, 60, 191, 240, and plate 89; Kelso 2006, 207; Noël Hume 1995, 22 (mentions the James II 1/24 real).

117. Watson's Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA, July 1874.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree threepence, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: It was picked up in the garden of Gideon Holbrook, on Watson's Hill, and acquired by Myles S. Weston.

Bibliography: "Notes and Queries," American Journal of Numismatics 9, no. 1 (July 1874): 22.

118. Saugus, Massachusetts, USA, October 1885.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree threepence, 1652 [1667–74]

The coin was exhumed in a garden near the town.

Bibliography: Buried Treasures Found 1885, 42.

119. Abandoned farm field near the Merrimack River, New Hampshire, USA, April 1993.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree threepence, Noe 36, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found with a metal detector by Thomas G. Brown.

Bibliography: "Colonial Threepence Found with Metal Detector," Numismatist 106, no. 4 (April 1993): 457–59.

120. Gray's Wharf, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 1862.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by a member of the Singleton family on Gray's Wharf, while picking over a cargo of gum from Africa.

Bibliography: "An Ancient Coin and a Curious Fact," New England Historical and Genealogical Record 16 (April 1862): 151.

121. Essex, Massachusetts, USA, October 1885.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: The coin was dug up by Frank W. Story.

Bibliography: Buried Treasures Found 1885, 42.

122. Wellingsley, near Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA, January 1889.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence, 1652 [1667–74]

Bibliography: American Journal of Numismatics 23, no. 4 (April 1889): 77 (citing Old Colony Memorial [Plymouth, MA], January 17, 1889).

123. Samuels Farm, Windsor, Connecticut, USA, August 27, 1889.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by a farmhand on the Samuels Farm, Edward Kennedy.

Bibliography: "An Ancient Coin Found," New York Times, August 28, 1889, 2.

124. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, USA, April 1954.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by Joseph Sylvia, groundskeeper at the Naval War College.

Bibliography: "'Dirty Penny' Revealed as Rare Coin," Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine 20, no. 4 (April 1954): 520.

125. Lowell Island, Massachusetts, USA, July 1852.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by a worker in the old hulk of a vessel that lies upon the beach near the steamboat landing.

Bibliography: "Interesting," Gleason's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion, July 24, 1852, 61 (reference courtesy of Q. David Bowers).

126. West Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, July 1867.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by Orrin Loomis, aged 75, while walking in his fields.

Bibliography: "Scraps," Historical Magazine, 2nd series, 2 (July 1867): 63.

127. Farm near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, April 1921.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Dug up on a farm near the home of Leonard Kusterer (Kusterer lived in Bridgeport).

Disposition: acquired by Leonard Kusterer; exhibited by him at the April 8, 1921 meeting of the New York Numismatic Club.

Bibliography: "New York Numismatic Club Minutes, April 8, 1921," Numismatist 34, no. 7 (July 1921): 309.

128. Annapolis, Maryland, USA, January 1874.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, shilling, probably a pine tree Noe 1, 1652 [1667–74]

Bibliography: Appleton 1874, 57 (citing the Annapolis (MD) Republican).

129. Williamstown, Massachusetts, USA, October 1910.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652 [1667–74]

Disposition: Found by Cassius D. Phelps.

Bibliography: William Theophilus Rogers Marvin, "A Curious Find in Williamstown, Mass.," American Journal of Numismatics 44, no. 4 (October 1910): 178–79.

130. Near the mouth of the Rappahannock River where it flows into Chesapeake Bay, Middlesex County, Virginia, USA, spring 2007.

Type of find: Hoard?

Date of deposit: 1667.

Contents: 1 AE, 2 AR.

Description:

England, Elizabeth I, shilling, 1567, cut English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652, cut English colonies, Maryland, Lord Baltimore denarium, [1658]

Disposition: Found by two metal detectorists. The denarium was sold by Stack's, August 5, 2007.

Bibliography: Stack's 2007, lot 213.

131. Exeter, New Hampshire, USA, October 1876.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1667–74.

Container: Wooden box.

Contents: 30–40 AR.

Description:

English colonies, Massachusetts, willow tree shilling, 1652, Noe 3-C

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree shillings, 1652 (15)

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shillings, 1652 (15)

An "intelligent observer" noted at least four distinct die varieties among the coins.

The coins were found in sand that was being removed by a laborer while excavating a cellar under the extension of a store, not far from the railroad station. The remains of a wooden box, much decayed, were detected in the sand.

Disposition: A willow tree shilling in the Yale University Collection comes from this find (Noe 3-C). This is the piece in the Ferguson Haines sale, lot 1084, described there as "large well spread tree, Treasure Trove, Exeter, N. H., 1876."

Bibliography: Breen 1952, 15 (Breen Hoards X); Noe 1952, 16–17; Woodward 1880, lot 1084.

"Pine Tree Money Found," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 4 (April 1877): 92. Charles Henry Bell, "The Exeter Bonanza," American Journal of Numismatics 12, no. 4 (April 1878): 105–6.

132. Boothbay Harbor, Maine, USA, 1865.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1667–74.

Contents: 5 AR.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree and pine tree shillings (5)

The coins were found by Milton Ambrose of Boothbay, Maine in Wall's Cove, East Boothbay Harbor. "They have evidently been long in salt water, having lost about half of their original weight and thickness, and are destitute of ring, but are of unquestionable genuineness, being of well-known varieties."

Disposition: One sold with William Elliot Woodward's personal collection in 1884, lot 354, described as: "Oak tree shilling, ex Boothbay, Me., piece broken from the edge, weight reduced by nearly one half." Others sold by Bangs & Co., New York, September 1–3, 1880, lots 429–32.

Bibliography: Breen 1952, 12–13 (Breen Hoards VII); Noe 1952, 18; Woodward 1880a; Woodward 1884, lot 354.

133. Salem, Massachusetts, USA, 1859.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1667–74.

Contents: 1 AE, 4–5 AR.

Description:

England, Charles I, rose farthing [1635–44] English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shillings (4–5) [1667–74]

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1902.

134. Bay of All Saints, Bahía, Brazil, September 1976.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Santíssimo Sacramento.

Sank: May 5, 1668 at 11 pm, en route from Lisbon, Portugal to Bahia, Brazil.

Contents: 50 AR.

Description:

Portugal, John IV, silver coins, and Spain, Philip IV, silver coins, with the Brazilian counterstamp of 1642 (raising the value 20%) and the Brazilian counterstamp of 1663 (raising the value 25%) (50)

Bibliography: Pernambucano de Mello 1979; Pickford 1994, 165; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 169 (Sedwick 24); Smith 1988, 105–6.

135. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 1874.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, Norwich, farthing token, 1668

It was found between the floors while partially removing the old building at the corner of Washington and Warren Streets, Boston Highlands. The building had once been the residence of Governor Sumner. Bibliography: "Notes and Queries," American Journal of Numismatics 8 no. 4 (April 1874): 94.

136. The Hamptons, New York, USA, 1980.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1670.

Contents: 8 AE.

Description:

England, Maidstone, Kent, tokens (8): Boyne-Williamson Kent 380, 381 (2), 385, 392, 393, 396, 398.

One of the Hamptons originally was called Maidstone.

Disposition: Private collection. Color slides of the tokens were prepared at the ANS, courtesy of Henry Dittmer.

Bibliography: Kleeberg 1992b, 37.

137. Estancia Valley, near Moriarty, New Mexico, USA, winter 1957.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1674.

Contents: 1 B.

Description: Spain, Catholic religious medal; Obverse inscription reads SMA TERRESIA (Santísima Teresa, "Most Holy Teresa"), depicts Saint Teresa of Ávila in religious ecstasy with angel aiming arrow at her. Reverse, HONOFRIO, angel presents bread to the kneeling Theban hermit, Saint Onofrius.

The obverse depiction is modeled after Bernini's marble group for the Cornaro Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome, Italy.

Disposition: Found in a blow out at the end of the great drought of 1951–57. Owned by Mrs. Ann Spencer Dunning. On loan from her to the Museum of New Mexico.

Bibliography: Boyd 1970.

138. Roxbury, Massachusetts, USA, September 1863.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1675.

Contents: 28 AR.

Description:

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree twopence (6): Noe 29–31 (3); Noe 32–34 (3)

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree threepence (2): Noe 23–27 (2)

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree sixpence (7): Noe 16; Noe 17?; Noe 20 (2); Noe 21; Noe 22

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree shilling, Noe 4

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree threepence (4): Noe 34–35 (2); Noe 36–37 (2) English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence (2): Noe 32; Noe 33

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling (6): Noe 8?; Noe 11; Noe 15–28; Noe 29 (2); Noe 30

The identification of the die varieties is based upon adjectival descriptions in the second Woodward sale.

Disposition: Found by a nine year old boy, George Wilber Reed, the son of George P. Reed, in the cavity of a flat rock, in May's Woods, near Warren Street, on the road to Dorchester. Auctioned twice by William Elliot Woodward: May 17–21, 1864, when the pieces did not sell, and October 18–22, 1864.

Bibliography: Appleton 1874, 57; Breen 1952, 12–13 (Breen Hoards V); Noe 1952, 1516; Woodward 1863a; Woodward 1864a; Woodward 1864b.

139. Bacon's Castle, Surry County, Virginia, USA, 1995.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, Charles II, halfpenny, 1675

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1995, 21.

140. Québec, Québec, Canada, 1976–80.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation of the house of Champlain at Québec.

Date of French occupation of site: 1675–1700. The finds of a later, British, phase of occupation, perhaps 1760–1790, are listed under that date.

Contents: 10 AE, 7 BI, 1 AR. Archaeological excavations of the house of Champlain at Québec.

Description:

France, double tournois (8): feudal?; 1582; 1633; 1639; 1640; 1643H; 1643L or E; ND, probably mint H

France, Louis XIV, liard, 17[-]

France, Henry III, douzain, 1576H

France, Charles X (posthumous pretender issue), douzain, 1593, with 1640 fleur de lis counterstamp

France, Henry IV, douzain, 1595, with 1640 fleur de lis counterstamp

France, Louis XIII, douzain, 1622, with 1640 fleur de lis counterstamp

France, douzain fragment, with 1640 counterstamp

France, douzain fragments (2)

France, Louis XIV, denier tournois, 1648A

France, Louis XIV, 4 sols, 1675D

This above list is based on the report by Niellon and Moussette. Peter Moogk gives a general report on the coins found in the general Place Royale area, not only the Habitation site.

Disposition: Ministère des Affaires Culturelles (Secteur Place Royale), Québec, Québec, Canada.

Bibliography: Moogk 1989, 246–49; Niellon and Moussette 1981, 139–44.

141. Osbourne near Henricus, Virginia, USA, 2007.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, real, Potosí, 1676E, weighs 1.3 grams

Disposition: Thomas Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 2007, 11.

142. Boston?, Massachusetts, USA, January 1874.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AV.

Description: England, Charles II, guinea, 1676

Disposition: Found by the son of George L.

Hart while playing in his father's garden.

Bibliography: Appleton 1874, 57.

143. Canada, 1889.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1670s.

Container: Inkhorn.

Contents: 3 AR.

Description:

France, Louis XIV, ordinary silver coins (2) French colonies, Louis XIV, 5 sols, "Gloriam Regni"

Three coins in an old inkhorn, which had been in Canada above 150 years. "This, along with the finding of the fifteen sols piece in Nova Scotia, serves to prove that this coinage circulated in Canada."

Disposition: Judge Georges Baby, president of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal.

Bibliography: Robert Wallace McLachlan, "Note," Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, 2nd ser., 1, no. 1 (July 1889): 4.

144. George Washington Birthplace Monument, Wakefield, Virginia, USA, July 1935.

Type of find: Excavation.

Date of deposit: 1679.

Contents: 1 AE, 1 AR. Excavations.

Description:

Ireland, Dublin, John Foxall, token, 1670s, Boyne-Williamson Ireland 326–27

England, Charles II, sixpence, 1679 The article in the New York Times does not specify the size of the silver coin; the sixpence denomination has been chosen as the likeliest casual loss. The original building burned down on Christmas day, 1780, but the finding of two coins of the 1670s suggests that they have an earlier date of deposit.

Bibliography: "Cavalier Tokens," New York Times, July 14, 1935, Sec. 10, 11.

145. Saint Ignace, Michigan, USA, fall 1966.

Type of find: Funerary deposit.

Date of site: 1679–98.

Contents: 3 AE.

Description:

France, Catholic religious medallion, ovoid, obverse, Jesus, with obverse inscription IESV BONIT INFINIT MISERIR N ('Jesus, of infinite goodness, have mercy on us'), reverse, Virgin Mary, reverse inscription SANCTA MARIA MATER DEI ORA PR N. ('Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us') France, Catholic religious medallion, ovoid, obverse, Jesus, obverse inscription IESV BONITS INFINTA M.N. ('Jesus, of infinite goodness, have mercy on us'), reverse, Virgin Mary, reverse inscription MATER IESV. CHRISTI. ORA PRO.NOB. ('Mother of Jesus Christ, pray for us')

(This medal may have been in the hand of the subject buried, with a rosary.)

France, Catholic religious medallion, ovoid, obverse, bishop with crozier and child before him, obverse inscription, …CQV SAINCT MAR (probably Saint Ignatius of Antioch, bishop and martyr, and original inscription would have read IGNACE ANTIOQV SAINCT MAR; the "child" before him would then be a lion); reverse, triangle representing the Trinity.

Bibliography: Cleland 1971, 33–34.

146. Camden Tract, Caroline County, Virginia, USA, 1832.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: English colonies, Virginia, Indian peace medal, "Ye King of Patomeck"

Disposition: Donated in 1834 to the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond.

Bibliography: MacCord 1969, 31, 38, 55; Stahl 1991, 161–62.

147. Camden Site, Caroline County, Virginia, USA, spring 1964-March 1965.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1680.

Contents: 1 AE, 2 AR.

Description:

England, "Carolus a Carolo," farthing, 1672 English colonies, Virginia, Indian peace medal, "Ye King of Machotick"

Spanish colonies, real, Potosí, 1662

Disposition: The real of Potosí was donated to the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. Bibliography: MacCord 1969.

148. Isla de Muerto, just off Santa Clara Island in the Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1998 to late summer 2001.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Santa María de la Consolación.

Sank: June 28, 1681.

Contents: 8,000 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, star of Lima, 1659 Spanish colonies, ½ reales, Potosí (90): 1666E; 1675E; Philip IV; Philip IV or Charles II (39); Charles II (18); NDA (30) Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (1,810): assayer T (shield design); assayer O (2); assayer E (2); 1654E; 1655E; 1656E; 1657E (2); 1659E; 1660E; 1665E; 1668E; 1669E (2); 167[-]; 167[-]E; 1670E (2); 1671E (2); 1673E (3); 1674E (3); 1676E (2); 1677E (3); 1678E (3); 1678C; 1679V; Philip II – Philip IV (2); Philip III; Philip III or Philip IV (2); Philip IV (459); Philip IV or Charles II (206); Charles II (578); NDA (510); Philip IV or Charles II, heart shaped (7); NDA, heart shaped (7) Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (699): assayer E (2); 1661E; 1664E; 1666E; 1669E; 16[-]7E; 167[-]E(2); 1670E; 1671E (2); 1672E; 1673E; 1674E; 1677E (2); 1678; 1679C; 1679V; Philip IV (195); Philip IV or Charles II (81); Charles II (207); NDA (192); Philip IV or Charles II, heart shaped (2); NDA, heart shaped (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (992): assayer E (2); 16[-]8E; 167[-]; 167[-]E; 1670E; 1678E (2); 1677E; 1678; assayer C (3); 1679C; assayer V (3); 1679V(2); Philip IV (227); Philip IV or Charles II (102); Charles II (337); NDA (300); Philip IV or Charles II, heart shaped (4); NDA, heart shaped (3) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (3,891): assayer E (15); 1665E; 1667E; 167[-] (4); 167[-]E (2); 1670E (2); 1675E; 1676E; 1677E; 1678E; assayer C/E (4); assayer C (19); 167[-] C; 1679C (5); 1679; assayer V (161); 1679V; 1680V (3); Philip II; Philip IV (1,051); Philip IV or Charles II (233); Charles II (1,145); NDA (1,228); Philip IV or Charles II, heart shaped (5); NDA, heart shaped (4) Spanish colonies, fragments and unknown denomination (704)

The manifest of the ship gave the value of her registered cargo at 146,000 pesos.

Disposition: Auctioned by Spink America, New York, New York, USA, December 10–11, 2001.

Bibliography: Sedwick, 2007, 169–71 (Sedwick 26); Spink America 2001.

Paul Gilkes, "Dead Man's Island Yields Treasure, but from which Spanish Vessel?" Coin World, November 26, 2001.

149. Newton, New Jersey, USA, 1845.

Type of find: Single finds.

Date of deposit: 1683.

Contents: AE.

Description: Ireland, Saint Patrick halfpence Coins found on the farm of Joseph B. Cooper, Esquire, which was the farm of Mark Newby.

Isaac Mickle wrote: "This Newby brought with him a good number of Irish half-penny pieces, which the Assembly in May, 1682, made a legal tender under the amount of five shillings—Leaming and Spicer, p. 415. They were called Patrick's half-pence. Newby lived on the farm now owned by that successful collector of coins, Joseph B. Copper, Esq., in Newton, where many of the Patrick halfpence have been ploughed up."

Bibliography: Mickle 1845, 144; Newman 1963, 621.

150. Laurel, Maryland, USA, 1987.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Saint Patrick's farthing

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist. Sold in the Colonial Coin Collectors Club Convention Auction, November 8, 1997, lot 309.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1906–7.

151. Caleb Pusey House, Upland, outskirts of Chester, Pennsylvania, USA, 1962–67.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1683–1951.

Contents: 2 AE, 1 SN, 1 AR.

Description:

England, halfpence (2): 1681; 1693

England, Maundy twopence

Spain, 4 reales, 1680, tin counterfeit Coins from Peru, Mexico, France, and American colonies were also found, but are only described in those general terms in Cotter.

Bibliography: Cotter, Roberts, and Parrington 1992, 419–22 (citing Schiek 1974 in Transactions of the Delaware Academy of Science 5: 295–316).

152. Varina, Virginia, USA, 2007.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: ca. 1686.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, Charles I, sixpence [1636–39], Tower mint, weighs 2.6 grams, clipped and bent

Bibliography: Kays 2007, 10.

153. Site of Indian Village, Scipioville, Cayuga County, New York, USA, 1889.

Type of find: Excavation.

Date of site: 1656–87

Date of medal: 1687.

Contents: 4 B.

Description:

France, Catholic religious medal, oval medal of 1687 with obverse, female saint, right, with inscription SANTA ROSA DE LIMA ORD (Order of Saint Rosa of Lima); reverse, bust of male saint, left, holding crucifix, with inscription DE PAVL (probably Saint Vincent de Paul)

France, Catholic religious medal, oval medal with Saint Francis Xavier (a Jesuit saint) France, Catholic religious medal, octagonal medal, with inscription S. Francis Ora. P. N. [Ora Pro Nobis ('pray for us')]

France, Catholic religious medal, octagonal medal, with two kneeling figures before altar, cross in halo of rays above These are Catholic medals distributed to the Indians during the French period.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1891, 46, 48; 1903, 72–73; Betts 1894, 32.

154. ConnecticutRiver,WesternMassachusetts, USA, 1980s.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, royal, 1687

Found on the site of a colonial settlers' fort near the Connecticut River.

Bibliography: Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 198. Daniel Sedwick, personal communication, February 26, 2007.

155. Lima, Peru, 1945.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1689.

Contents: 1,500 AR.

Description: Contained 300–600 8 reales, plus coins of smaller denominations.

Nesmith saw 190 8 reales, dated 1654–89, which he enumerates as follows:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima (45): 1684V (2); 1685R; 1686R (7); 1687R (4); 1688R (29); 1689V (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (145): 1654E; 1656E; 1662E; 1663E; 1665E;1666E; Philip IV, 1667E; Charles II, 1668E; 1672E; 167[-]E; 1675E (5); 1676E (2); 1677E (5); 1678E (12); 1679C (17); 1679V (7); 1680V (9); 1681V (12); 1682V (4); 1683V (7); 1684V (4); assayer V; 1685VR (16); 1686VR (5); 1687VR (15); 1688VR (13); 1689VR Disposition: Robert I. Nesmith (176); Arnold R. Perpall (14).

Bibliography: Nesmith 1946.

156. Williamsburg,? Virginia, USA, 1960s.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, gun money, shilling?, 1689–90

Disposition: Found by a laborer digging a foundation for a motel.

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1970, 165.

157. Salem, Virginia, USA, 1981–88.

Type of find: Series of single finds.

Date of earliest coin: 1690.

Contents: 1 AE, 1 B, 9 AR.

Description:

Great Britain, halfpenny, 1730 Ireland, gun money, shilling, 1690 Spain, Charles IV, ½ real (¼ pistareen)

Spain, 2 reales (cross pistareens) (quartered) (2): 1737; ND

Spanish colonies, ½ real, 1781

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, cut halves (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, 1773

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, cut eighths (2)

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Lee Chambers, "Dan Johnson— Successful TH'er," Treasure Found, Summer 1988, 28–30, 32, 59.

158. Ligonier, Pennsylvania, USA, October 1894.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: AR single find.

Description: England, William and Mary, silver medal, slightly larger than a silver dollar, with the motto "Pacem arrogat armis," dated 1690

Bibliography: "A Rare English Medal of 1690,"

American Journal of Numismatics 29, no. 2 (October 1894): 41.

159. Port Royal, in the harbor off Kingston, Jamaica, 1965–68.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: June 7/17, 1692.

Container: Wooden chest with brass lock.

Contents: 1 B, 4,536 AR, 1 AV.

Description:

China, cash, 1500s (found October 1966) 3,000 silver coins were found in December 1966. The earliest coin found was 1653, the latest, 1690. Several hundred of the coins were in unusually good condition, having been preserved by a wooden chest. When the chest was lifted up, it crumbled to dust, leaving only a brass lock. This group included:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México, NDA (2) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima, 1688 Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima (5): 1684 (2); 1686; 1687; 1688

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (2): 1688; NDA

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (7): 1686 (2); 1687; 1688 (2); NDA (3)

Initial excavations were done in the 1950s by Edwin and Marion Link.

In July 1967 Marx found one gold coin (4 escudos) and 1,536 silver coins. These were mostly 8 reales, but also included over 173 1 and 2 reales, and a few 4 reales. The date range was wide, beginning with the coins of Charles and Johanna from México (ca. 1552), and ending in 1690. Over 900 of the coins were dated in the 1680s. The mints split 20 México, 758 Lima, and 758 Potosí. Some of the artifacts recovered with the coins led Marx to conclude that he was excavating the site of a silversmith's shop. This may explain the very old coins, such as those of Charles and Johanna: They were not a circulating medium, but were being used as bullion.

Disposition: Institute of Jamaica.

Bibliography: Link 1960; Marx 1967; 1973, 168, 186, 225–30, 234; Nesmith and Potter 1968, 142–49.

160. Charles City County, Virginia, USA, 1995.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: England, William and Mary, ½ crown, 1692

Found under the floor of a house under restoration; perhaps concealed there by a thief.

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1995, 22.

161. Morris Creek, near Elizabethport, New Jersey, USA, May 21, 1872.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1694.

Contents: 80 AR.

Description:

Netherlands, lion daalder Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (79): 1685; 1692 (76); 1694 (2)

Most of the coins were cobs from Potosí.

Disposition: Van Pelt found some silver coins in the oyster beds on May 19, 1872. This encouraged many others to go through the oyster beds. William, Alexander, and Harvey Dickson (also spelt Dixon) searched the oyster beds and were successful, with Alexander finding 62 coins, Harvey 13, and William 5. The few that had distinct dates were read as 1604 in the New-York Times, which has been corrected to 1694. Edmund J. Cleveland, a local numismatist (who later published contributions about medals, including Admiral Vernon pieces, in the American Journal of Numismatics), said that

the coins were Peruvian cobs of 1692.

Bibliography: "Captain Kidd's Treasure Found," American Journal of Numismatics 7, no. 2 (October 1872): 31 (citing the Elizabeth (NJ) Daily Monitor, May 22, 1872).

"Great Excitement in Elizabethport— Dredging for Capt. Kidd's Treasure," New York Times, May 23, 1872, 5.

162. Sailor's Snug Harbor, Staten Island, New York, USA, June 7, 1873.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AV.

Description: France, Louis XIV, louis d'or, 1694

Disposition: Found while plowing by J. R. Clark of Sailor's Snug Harbor.

Bibliography: Proskey 1873, 22.

163. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, February 19, 1876.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description:

Italian states, Parma and Piacenza, Francis I, silver medal, depicting Francis on the obverse and on the reverse Justice and Religion, with the inscription "Junguntur ut imperent," 1694 The medal was reported as bearing the date 1604, but since Francis reigned 1694–1727, the date of the medal should be emended to read 1694.

It was found on Boston Common beneath the roots of an elm that blew down in a gale; the elm had 220 rings, which means it was planted in 1656. The date of the tree and the date of the medal may well be unconnected; medals often "wander" in the soil.

Disposition: Dr. Green exhibited the medal at the Boston Numismatic Society on March 3, 1876.

Bibliography: "Italian Medal found under 'the Old Elm,"' American Journal of Numismatics 10, No. 4 (April 1876): 93.

William Sumner Appleton, "Transactions of Societies: Boston Numismatic Society," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 1 (July 1876): 20.

164. Hunter Island, New York, USA, 1950–90.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: England, William and Mary, halfpenny, 1694

Disposition: Found by Theodore Kazimiroff of the Bronx County Historical Society. Bequeathed by him to Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York. Bibliography: Hecht 1993.

165. 121 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 1976.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1685–1760. Entire site occupied 1685–1870. Excavations were from two privy pits, each in use for a narrower period of years. This is the first privy pit; the second privy pit is listed under 1829.

Date of coin: 1695.

Contents: 2 AE, 1 AR.

Description: England, William III, halfpenny, 1695–1701

Bibliography: Cotter, Roberts, and Parrington 1992, 240.

166. Schuyler Flatts, Colonie, New York, USA, 1971 and 1972.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1660 onwards.

Date of earliest coin: 1695.

Contents: 8 AE.

Description:

England, William III, halfpenny

Great Britain George II, halfpence (3): 1738; 1749; 1749, burned

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence, 1723 (2)

USA, Connecticut, copper, 1787

French colonies, Louis XV, 9 deniers des colonies françoises, 1721H

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

167. Pompey, New York, USA, 1813.

Type of find: Excavation.

Date of site: 1696.

Contents: B, AR.

Description:

France?, Catholic religious medal, "S. AGATHA ORA P. N.," (Sancta Agatha, ora pro nobis ['Saint Agatha, pray for us']), octagonal, brass

France?, Catholic religious medal, "S. LVCIA ORA P. N." ('Sancta Lucia, ora pro nobis [Saint Lucia, pray for us']), octagonal, silver Catholic medals distributed to the Onondaga Indians during the French period. Found by Isaac Keeler.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1891, 45–48, 1903, 72; Clark 1849, 2:279–80.

168. Ferryland, Newfound and, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 2001.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1696–1865. There are three entries for this site, split into periods commencing in 1621, 1696, and 1865. This entry covers the period following the burning of the settlement by French forces under the leadership of Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville in November 1696 until the advent of provincial coinage in Newfoundland in 1865.

Contents: 20 AE, 4 AR.

Description:

Netherlands, Zeeland, duit, 1780 Great Britain, farthing, ND

Great Britain, George I, farthing, [1720–24]

Great Britain, George II, farthing, ND

England, William III, halfpence (3): [1695–1701]; [1699–1701] (2)

Great Britain, George II, halfpence (2): 1737; [1740–54]

Great Britain, George II or III, halfpenny, ND

Great Britain, George III, halfpenny, 1799

Great Britain, George III, penny, 1797

England, William III, sixpence, 1697

Great Britain,George IV, shilling, 1825

Great Britain, George IV, ½ crown, 1825

Ireland, George II, farthing, probably counterfeit

Ireland,George II, halfpenny, [1741–49]

France, Louis XIII, double tournois, 1632K

France, First Republic, sol, An 1 [1792–93]

France, Napoleon III, 5 centimes, 1854A

Portugal, John V, 10 reis, 1743

British colonies, Canada East, Montreal, Duncan & Co. Canada token, 1841

USA, uniface copper medallion with head of Liberty facing left and thirteen stars around Spanish colonies, Philip V, ½ real, México, 1731JF

Bibliography: Berry 2002, 1–71.

169. Southern Haiti, ca. 1998.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1697.

Contents: ca. 300 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, reales, Lima and Potosí (ca. 140)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Lima and Potosí (ca. 140)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima and Potosí (ca. 20)

Numbers of each denomination are estimates.

The coins were all dated before 1697. The hoard might have been linked to the booty taken back from the sack of Cartagena in 1697 by the very powerful buccaneer fleet that sailed from Saint-Domingue. There is thought to have been a major influx of circulating medium when the fleet returned.

Disposition: Taken to the United States and sold there.

Bibliography: F. Carl Braun, personal communication, January 27, 2008.

170. Northern tip of Grand Bahama, Bahamas, January 1961, and 1966.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ships: The "Memory Rocks Wrecks." Which ships these are it has not been possible to determine, because there are numerous shipwrecks, from many different years, all on top of each other.

Sank: 1697.

Contents: AR, possibly also AV.

Description:

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, minted at Potosí and Lima, with dates ranging 1693–97

Disposition: The salvage was done by Norman Scott's Explorations Unlimited, under contract to the government of the Bahamas.

Bibliography: Potter 1972, 277.

171. Manta, Ecuador, spring 1963.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AV.

Description: Spanish colonies, Charles II, 2 escudos, Cuzco, 1698

Disposition: Found by two fishermen on a beach after an unusually hard storm.

Bibliography: "Rare Gold Washes Ashore," Numismatist 76, no. 7 (July 1963): 956.

172. Bay of All Saints, Brazil, 1981.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Santo Ecclesiastico, also known as the "Standing Cannon Wreck."

Sank: 1699, after colliding with a whale. Contents: 81 AR.

Description:

Netherlands, schellings, corroded (5)

Portugal, John IV,100 reis (5)

Portugal, John IV, 200 reis (5)

Portugal, John IV, 400 reis (5)

Portugal, John IV, tostão

Portugal, John IV, ½ cruzados (22): Oporto (8); Lisbon (14)

Portugal, John IV, cruzados (17): Oporto (5); Lisbon (12)

Portuguese colonies, Brazil, Peter II, 640 reis (4) : 1695 (2); 1696 (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (6): 1652P; 1653P; 1654P (2); 1655P (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (3): 1653; 1654 (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (5): 1651, counterstamped crown; 1652; 1653 (2); NDA Spanish colonies, 8 reales, corroded (8) Bibliography: Christie's 1983, lots 485–513; Sebring 1986, 121; Sebring 2004, lot 1678.

173. Kaneenda, Onondaga Lake, New York, USA, 1880s.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of site: 1700.

Contents: 1 B.

Description: France, Catholic oval religious medal with Saint John Capistrano on one side and Saint Paschal Boiron on the other Found at a small Onondaga Indian site near the entrance of Onondaga Creek into the lake.

Disposition: Major T. H. Poole of Syracuse, New York.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1891, 42, 1903, 73.

174. Northern side of the stockade, Albany, New York, USA, August 2001.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1700–49.

Contents: 10 AE.

Description:

Netherlands, ½ duit, 16[-]

Great Britain, George II, farthing, 1749

Great Britain, George II, halfpence (5)

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723?

Bibliography: Danforth 2001, 2224.

175. Shinnecock, near Sag Harbor, Long Island, New York, USA, August 1876.

Type of find: Funerary deposit. An Indian grave of the Shinnecock tribe.

Date of deposit: 1700.

Container: Small copper box with a sliding cover, the top and sides of the box were engraved with various designs, in which figured the sun, moon, and stars.

Contents: 32 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, 1665–1700 (32)

Disposition: The box and other relics were found in an Indian grave, and claimed by the Shinnecock tribe, which retained them. Bibliography: New York Observer and Chronicle 54, no. 33 (August 17, 1876): 261.

"Coins in Indian Graves," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 2 (October 1876): 41–42.

William W. Tooker,"Indian Relics," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 3 (January 1877): 71 (citing the Sag Harbor (NY) Express).

176. Salem, Massachusetts, USA, July 1737.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: Ca. 1700.

Containers: 6 earthenware jars.

Contents: 6,093 AR.

Description:

English colonies, Massachusetts, shillings, 1652 (6,000)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales (93)

"BOSTON

We hear from Salem that on Friday last a Servant of William Brown Esq; youngest surviving Son of the Hon. Col. Brown, deceased, in freeing a cellar of his from Water and Rubbish, struck his Spade against an Earthen Jarr of Silver buried in a Hole wherein was five Jarrs more, containing together one thousand ninety three Ounces of Silver of several Species, among which was about six thousand New England Shillings, scarcely discolour'd."

Boston (MA) Gazette, July 11, 1737, 2.

"We hear from Salem, that on Friday last William Brown, Esq., the youngest surviving Son of Hon. Col. Brown, deceased, having had Information of some Money conceal'd in a Place which he owned, caused search to be made for the same, where was found five or six Jarrs full of Silver, containing about one thousand ninety-three Ounces of Silver of several Species, among which was about six thousand New-England Shillings, scarcely discolor'd."

Boston (MA) Weekly News-Letter; July 14, 1737, 2.

"Boston, July 19. [Same as News-Letter entry, plus the following]; and as Mr. Brown suppos'd the same was conceal'd by his Ancestors, we hear he has in point of Honor and Justice, shar'd the same with his elder and only Brother, Samuel BrownEsq;" Philadelphia American Weekly Mercury; July 28, 1737, 3.

Bibliography: Noe 1952, 18 (Noe doubts the details of the find).

Boston Gazette, July 11, 1737, 2.

Boston Weekly News-Letter, July 14, 1737, 2.

Philadelphia American Weekly Mercury; July 28, 1737, 3.

American Journal of Numismatics 16, no. 2 (October 1881): 46.

"An Old 'Find,' of New England Shillings," American Journal of Numismatics 25, no. 1 (July 1890): 31.

177. Staten Island, New York, USA, 1893.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1701.

Contents: 2 AE.

Description:

England, William and Mary, counterfeit halfpenny, 1694

England, William III, counterfeit halfpenny Slip of paper in coin box reads: "Dug up on Staten Id., N.Y. many years ago. I think I have had them at least 50 years. GHC" Disposition:George H. Clapp; 1943 to the American Numismatic Society in New York (item numbers 1943.70.1 and 1943.70.2).

178. Castine, Maine, USA, November 1840–April 1841.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: May 1704.

(Kays argues that the hoard was actually deposited in 1779. This, however, is not possible because of the écus. Hoards of écus from the eighteenth century almost invariably commence with the date 1726.) Contents: 2,000 AR.

Description:

Netherlands, lion daalder, Gelderland, 1641

Netherlands, lion daalder, dated before 1620

Netherlands, 3 gulden, Westfriesland, 1682

England, Charles I, shilling, Tower mint, mintmark triangle in circle [1641–43]

France, Louis XIV, 4 sols "des traitants," 1676D

France, Louis XIII, 1/4 écu, 1642A, second Warin die, two stops

France, Louis XIV, ½ écu, 1655L

France, Louis XIV, ½ écu, 1690K

France, Louis XIV, écu, 1652A

France, Louis XIII and Louis XIV, écus (1,000) (écus mostly mint A, Paris)

Portugal, John IV, tostão, Oporto English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence (30–75) (included variety Noe 33)

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling (30–75) (included varieties Noe 2, 12, 26.2, and 29)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (3): assayer P; assayer G; NDA

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Bogotá, 1657PoR

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, star of Lima, 1659

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí, 1683V

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, 1678E

Spanish colonies, 8 reales (60–150)

Portuguese colonies, Brazil, 4 reales, Segovia, 1659, with 300 reis counterstamp of 1663 (raising value 25%)

Disposition: Found by Captain Stephen Grindle. 17 to Dr. Joseph L. Stevens; later donated by him to the Maine Historical Society. 5 to Joseph Williamson; later donated by him to the Maine Historical Society. One piece, the unique Noe 12, reading MASASTHUSETS, which in 1863 was in the collection of Charles E. Payson of Portland, Maine, is now in the collection of the Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

The following was published in the Worcester (MA) Palladium, June 30, 1841: "Money Digging—a farmer in the vicinity of Castine, in Maine, the present season, preparing his land for tillage, had occasion to excavate the top of a ledge, and on removing the earth, found lying loose, on the top of a rock, a quantity of ancient coin, of pure silver. Many of these coins are a curiosity, being of all possible shapes and forms. It would seem they were cut down to an exact weight. They have all upon them a coinage, but most of them very uncouth and without date, and clearly show the great improvements made since the days of our fathers, in the coinage of money."

Bibliography: Breen 1952, 8 (Breen Hoards I); DeCosta 1871, 55–56; Kays 2005, 2837–68; Money-digging 1871, 32–33 (reprints the passage from DeCosta); Nesmith 1958a, 2627; Noe 1942; Noe 1952, 15–16; Williamson 1859, 105–26; Woodward 1863b.

"Money Digging," Worcester (MA) Palladium, June 30, 1841 (reference courtesy of Q. David Bowers).

179. Longmeadow, Massachusetts, USA, April 1877.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: 1675–1705.

Contents: AR single find.

Description: English colonies, Massachusetts, small planchet size pine tree shilling, 1652 [1675–82]

Disposition: The coin was found by Oliver Field in his field near the river, where it had probably been deposited before 1705, when the village was moved from the long meadow to the brow of the hill.

Bibliography: "Pine Tree Money Found," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 4 (April 1877): 92.

180. Barnegat, New Jersey, USA, November 1922.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1706.

Container: Iron pot.

Contents: AV.

Description: Spanish colonies, 4 and 8 escudos, 1600s to 1706

Disposition: Found on the farm of Walter Thompson. Split fifty-fifty by the laborers Walter Ridgeway and Paul Mills.

Bibliography: "Pot of Spanish Gold Found on New Jersey Coast," Numismatist 35, no. 11 (November 1922): 568.

181. Stafford County, Virginia, USA, April 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Charles III, pretender, [1707–14], 2 reales (pistareen), Barcelona, cut quarter

The coin is coin turn rather than the normal medal turn (i.e., 6 o'clock die axis rather than 12 o'clock die axis).

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2193.

182. Haverhill, New Hampshire, USA, 1951.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Charles III, pretender, 2 reales, (pistareen), [1707–14], Barcelona

Bibliography: Historical New Hampshire 7 (April 1951): 2.

183. New York, New York, USA, 1961.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1709.

Container: Leather tobacco pouch.

Contents: 60 BI.

Description: German states, Trier, Dreipetermännchen (3 petermenger), of the following dates:

1689 2 1693, type 4 1 1706 5
1691 5 1694 12 1707 5
1692 9 1695 4 1708 1
1693, type 3 9 1705 6 1709 1

In 1711 the weight of the 3 petermenger was reduced, so a hoarder might reject all coins dated later than 1709. The hoard may thus have a slightly later date of deposit.

Found during the demolition of an old building. Possibly related to the expulsion of the Palatine Protestants from the Rhineland and their emigration to New York State. Bibliography: Cibis 1975.

184. Havana, Cuba, 1924.

Type of find: Foundation deposit.

Date of deposit: 1709.

Contents: 6 AE.

Description:

Spain, Charles III, pretender, ardite, Barcelona, 1709 (4)

Spain, Charles III, pretender, dinero, Barcelona, 1709 (2)

Disposition: Found in the foundation of a convent in Havana. Given to the American Numismatic Society in New York by W. H. Cox, 1924 (1924.160.1–6).

185. Scatarie Island, off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, September 1968, August 1985–February 1989.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: HMS Feversham.

Sank: October 7, 1711.

Contents: 1 AE, 1,384 AR, 17 AV.

Drew £569/12/5 sterling for provisions in New York on September 4, 1711.

Description:

Copper coin fragment

Netherlands, ½ lion daalders, Gelderland (2): 1632; 1641

Netherlands, ½ lion daalders, Holland (3): 1617; ND (2)

Netherlands, ½ lion daalders, Utrecht (3): 1616; 1640; 1647

Netherlands, ½ lion daalder, Zeeland, 1642

Netherlands, lion daalders, Campen (4): 1649; 16[-] (2); 1667

Netherlands, lion daalder, Friesland, 1610

Netherlands, lion daalders, Gelderland (2): 1644; 1652

Netherlands, lion daalders, Holland (2): 1576; 1589

Netherlands, lion daalder, Utrecht, 1663

Netherlands, lion daalders, West Friesland (2) : 161[-]; 1640; 1641

Netherlands, lion daalder, Zeeland, ND England, Charles I, twopence England, shillings (5): Charles II; 1696B, 1696; 1697; 1697B

England, ½ crowns (8): 1645, Herford?; Charles II, 4th bust; 1689; 1696; 1697; 1697 Norwich; 1697E; 1699

France, Louis XIV, 1/12 ecu

Spain real, 1500s

Portugal, 400 reis, 1687

English colonies, Massachusetts, New England shilling, Noe 3-C

English colonies, Massachusetts, willow tree shillings (6): Noe 1-A (2); Noe 3-D; Noe 3-E (2); unattributed

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree sixpence, Noe 22

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree shillings (45): Noe 1 (2); Noe 3; Noe 4 (2); Noe 5 (10); Noe 6 (2); Noe 8; Noe 9 (5); Noe 10 (5); Noe 11 (2); Noe 10–14; Noe 12 (3); Noe 13 (6); Noe 14 (4); unattributed

English colonies, Massachusetts, oak tree shillings, cut (3): Noe 2; Noe 13; Noe 14

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree sixpence, Noe 33

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shillings (106): Noe 1 (6); Noe 2 (3); Noe 3; Noe 5 (4); Noe 6 (6); Noe 7 (3); Noe 8 (7); Noe 9; Noe 10 (6); Noe 11 (3); Noe 15 (6); Noe 16 (10); Noe 17 (2); Noe 19; Noe 20 (3); Noe 21; Noe 23 (2); Noe 25 (7); Noe 26; Noe 27; Noe 28; Noe 29 (21); Noe 30 (7); Noe 33; unattributed (2)

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shillings, cut (17): Noe 1 (2); Noe 5 (2); Noe 6; Noe 8; Noe 10 (4); Noe 11; Noe 26; Noe unknown (5)

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, México (31): Philip IV, assayer P (12); Charles II (18); assayer L

Spanish colonies, reales, México (54): Philip III (4); Philip IV (35); Philip IV, assayer P; 1666G (2); Charles II (6); Philip V, assayer L (2); Philip V (5)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (25): 1656P; Philip IV (12); Charles II, assayer L; Charles II (5); Philip V (6) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (24): Philip IV, assayer P (2); Philip IV (9); Philip IV, plugged; Charles II (5); Philip V, assayer J; Philip V (4); NDA, plugged (2) Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (41): Philip III, plugged; Philip III, assayer D, plugged; Philip III (2); Philip IV, plugged (6); Philip IV, assayer P, plugged (3); Philip IV, assayer P; Philip IV (14); Charles II, plugged (2); Philip V, plugged; Philip V (3); Philip V, assayer J (2); assayer L (2); assayer L, holed; NDA, clipped; NDA, plugged; NDA, cut to the size of a 4 reales

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Bogotá, 1653

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Bogotá, 1693VA

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Bogotá (16): 1692; 1699?; 16[-]; 1701 or 1704; 1708?; 1709 (3); assayer A; NDA (7)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Cuzco, 1698CM

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, Lima (2)

Spanish colonies, reales, Lima (94): 1662V; 1684V (2); 1685; 1685R (2); 1686R (5); 168[-]R (3); 1687; 1687R (2); 1688R (3); 1689R (4); 1689V (5); 1690R (6); 1690V (7); 1691R; 1692V (6); 1693V; 1694M (5); 1696 (2); 1696H(6); 1697R; 1698H (2); 1699; 1699R (7); 1700H (5); 1701H (3); 1706R (3); 1709M (2); Philip V, NDA (3); unattributed, Lima, shield type; assayer M; assayer R; assayer V; no date or assayer

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Lima (19): 1659V; 1686R; 1692V; 1693V; 1697H (3); 1698R, 1699R (5); 1700H (3); 1702H; 1704H (2) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima (4): 1692V; 1692V, plugged; 1700H; 1700 or 1701H

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima (17): 1686R, plugged; 1688R; 1692V (2); 1694M; 1697H; 1699R (4); 1702H (2); 1702H, plugged; 1704H; NDA (2); NDA, plugged

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, Potosí (11)

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (343): Philip III (19); Philip IV, shield type (16); 1652E (2); 1653E (4); 1654E (2); Philip IV, ND (2); 1655E (4); 1656E (3); 1657E (3); 1658E (10); 1659E (9); 166[-]E; 1660E (6); 1661E (2); 1662E (4); 1663E (7); 1664E (5); 1665E (10); Philip IV, assayer E (4); Charles II, assayer E (7); 1666E (3); 1667E (5); 1668E (2); 1669E (5); 167[-]E (5); 1670E (3); 1671E (4); 1672E (6); 1673 (2); 1674E (2); 1675E (5); 1676E (8); 1677E (6); 1678 (2); 1678E (4); 1679, assayer not visible; 1679C; 168[-]V (3); 168[-]VR; 1680V (2); 1681V (9); 1682V (5); 1683V (4); 1684V; 1684VR (3); 1685VR (5); 1686VR (5); 1687VR (4); 1688VR (6); 1689VR (8); 1690VR (9); 1691VR (5); 1692VR (6); 1693VR (6); 1694VR (3); 1695VR (2); 1696VR (4); 1697F (2); 1698F (4); 1699F (2); assayer V (2); assayer VR (16); Charles II, NDA (11); 1700Y; 1702Y (2); 1708Y; 1709Y; NDA (32)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (127): Philip II or III, assayer B; Philip IV, assayer T; Philip IV, shield type (5); 1653E (3); 1658E; 1663E (2); 1664E (2); 1668E (2); 1671E (2); 1672E (2); 1673E (3); 1675E; 1676E; 167[-] E (2); 1677E (4); 1678E (4); assayer E (2); 1679C (2); 1679V; 1679, assayer not visible; 168[-]V (2); 1681V (2); 1682V (2); 1682 V or VR; 1683V (5); 1684V (2); 1684 V or VR; assayer V; 1685VR (2); 1686VR (2); 1687VR (2); 1688VR (4); 1689VR (5); 169[-]; 169[-] VR (2); 1690VR (2); 1691VR (4); 1692VR (2); 1693VR (4); 1694VR, 1695VR (4); 1696VR (3); 1697VR; assayer VR (6); 1697F; 1698F (2); 1699F (6); 1700F; 1701F; assayer Y (2); 16[-]5; NDA (7); NDA, holed; NDA, with large crown counterstamp (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (3) : 1687VR, plugged; 1699VR; NDA

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (28): shield type, plugged (2); assayer E, plugged; 1677E; 1681V; 1682V, plugged; 1684V; 1689VR, 1690VR (2); 1691VR (3); 1692VR (3); 1693VR (2); 1694VR, plugged; assayer VR (2); 1697F; 1697; 1698F; 1699F; 1703Y (2); 1711?

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, with Portuguese colonies (Brazil) counterstamp and North American plug

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, NDA (30)

Spanish colonies, reales (209): NDA (208); NDA, holed and plugged

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, NDA (14)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales (7): NDA (5); NDA, holed and plugged (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales (21): NDA (14); NDA, holed; NDA, holed and plugged (5); NDA, clipped

Silver coin fragments (11)

Disposition:

(1) Some fishermen may have recovered some of the Colombian 2 escudo cobs in November 1873, when twenty such coins were sold to a jeweler in Saint John's, New Brunswick.

(2) Alex Storm found the Feversham in 1968; his recoveries were sold to a "highly reputable Canadian institution" in 1972.

(3) Auctioned by Christie's, February 7, 1989; 8 coins from that sale are now in the American Numismatic Society in New York (item numbers 1990.49.1–8). More coins from the Feversham were auctioned by Jeffrey Hoare, February 26–27, 1993, by Coin Galleries on July 13, 1994 and April 15, 1998, and by Stack's, January 12–13, 1999.

Bibliography: Christie's 1989; Coin Galleries 1994, lots 2965–97; Coin Galleries 1998, lots 1750–85; Hoare 1993; Lasser 1989; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 175–76 (Sedwick 33); Stack's 1999, lots 1–48 and 1146–90; Storm 2002, 78–121.

"Kidd's Treasure Found Once More," New York Times, November 15, 1873, 2.

186. New Bern, North Carolina, USA, 1996.

Type of find: Single find.

Date of deposit: The community of New Bern was not founded until 1711, which provides a terminus post quem for the date of deposit.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Saint Patrick's farthing Disposition: sold by Will Georges Civil War Antiques, New Bern, North Carolina, Winter Catalogue 1 (Winter 1996): 6. Original catalog not consulted; citation from Mossman.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1906–7.

187. Fort Hunter, Florida,New York, USA, 1987.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1711 onwards.

Contents: 3 AE.

Description:

England, William III, halfpenny (2): 1697?; ND

Great Britain, George II, halfpenny, 1730

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic

Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

188. Fort Crailo State Historic Site, Rensselaer, New York, USA, 1988.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1712–1924.

Contents: 3 AE, 1 AR.

Description:

Great Britain, halfpenny, 1774

English colonies, Massachusetts, pine tree shilling, 1652

USA, 1¢, 1831

USA, token, Mark Valentine, 19th century

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island,New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

189. Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1962–75.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1713–60.

Contents: 1 PB, 1,003 AE, 2 B, 199 BI, 94 AR, 2 AV, 44 metal not indicated.

Description: Three articles discuss the coins found at Louisbourg, and an artifacts database is available on the web; the coin finds will be enumerated in three sub-entries. The sub-entries to some extent duplicate each other.

(1) This listing is based on the articles from 1976 and 1987 by Peter Moogk, which discuss the coins found on the site as a whole:

551 AE, 177 BI, 50 AR.

Great Britain, farthing (10)

Great Britain, George II, halfpence (172): 1746 (20); 1740s (70); other dates (82)

Great Britain, sixpence

France, double tournois (6)

France, liards (299): 1650s (mostly mint B, some E and L) (239); other dates (60)

France, 6 deniers, "dardennes," 1710–12, mostly mint & (43)

France, ½ sol, 1720s (2)

France, sol, 1719–21 (5)

France, sol de Béarn

France, miscellaneous copper coins (5)

France, douzains, bearing counterstamp of 1640 (27)

France, sols de 15 deniers, overstrikes, 1693–97, chiefly mints A, B, and E (89)

France, 30 deniers "mousquetaires" 1709–13 (12)

France, sols, 1738 series (5)

France, 2 sols, 1738 series (40)

France, miscellaneous billon coins (4)

France, 1/20 écu (2)

France, 1/10 écu (4)

France, ¼ écu

France, ½ écu (6)

France, écus (5): 1655T; 1724K; 1725H; ND (2)

France, jeton, late seventeenth century

Spain, 2 maravedíes

Spain, 8 or 12 maravedíes

Spain, miscellaneous copper

Spain, reales (½ pistareens) (2)

Spain, 2 reales (pistareens), 1717–24 (8)

Spain, miscellaneous silver coins (2)

Portugal, 10 reis, 1720

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies françoises, 1721–22 (5)

British colonies, Rosa Americana twopence, 1720s

Spanish colonies, ½ real cob (2)

Spanish colonies, real cob (5)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales cob (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales milled (5)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales cob

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México, 1738

Spanish colonies, 8 reales milled (2)

Crude copper piece with "xii T/.c.III" on one side (coin weight?)

(2) In a 1968 article, Sansoucy Walker gives an account of some 20 coins, found in a find spot with a much narrower term of occupation:

16 AE, 4 BI. The coins all came from Layer 2, which is dated to 1755–60, except for the 9 deniers des colonies françoises, which came from Layer 6/7/8, which is dated to 1749–55.

France, liard, 1655

France, liard, date not visible but mintmark B

France, worn copper coins thought to be liards, 1655 (10)

France, douzain with fleur de lis counterstamp of 1640

France, sol de 15 deniers, 1697E, overstruck on coin bearing 1640 counterstamp

France, billon coin worn smooth (possibly another sol de 15 deniers)

30 deniers aux 2L couronnés ("mousquetaires") [1709–13]

Great Britain, George II, halfpenny, 1730

Great Britain, halfpence (2)

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies fraçoises, 1722H

(3) The following listing is based on a search for "coin" in October 2007 in the Louisbourg database of archaeological artifacts, available at http://fortress.uccb.ns.ca/archaeology/welcomenew.htm:

1 PB, 1,003 AE, 2 B, 199 BI, 94 AR, 2 AV, 44 metal not indicated

Netherlands, duit, 1741

German states, Nuremberg, jeton

England, William III, farthing

England, William III, sixpence, 1690s

England, William and Mary, jeton, brass

Great Britain, farthings (6): 1749; ND (5)

Great Britain, halfpence (211): 1720 (2); 1723; 1724 (2); 172[-]; 1731; 1733; 1734 (2); 1735; 1735 or 1739; 1737; 1738; 1739 (2); 1740 (6); 1742; 1743 or 1745; 1744 (3); 1744 or 1746; 1745 or 1746; 1746 (22); 1747; 1748 (7); 1749 (2); 174[-] (7); 17[-]2; 1750 (2); 1752(2); 1755 (2); 1753 (3); 1754; 175[-]; George II (9); counterfeit 1760; counterfeit 1763; counterfeit 1777; counterfeit 1779; George III, 177[-]; 1861; ND (116) Ireland, halfpenny (5): George II (2); 1760; George III; ND

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia, halfpenny, 1722 or 1723

Ireland, pence (2): ND; counterfeit?, 1811

France, deniers tournois (2): Louis XIII; ND

France, doubles tournois (5): 1613; Louis XIII; ND (3)

France, liards (334): 1655 (5); 1655B; 1655E; 1656 (2); 1656D; 1657 (3); 1657D; 1657K; 1655–58 (11); young Louis XIV, mint D; pre-1693, mint C or G; 1689 mint 9 (Rennes); 1695; 1698; 1698L; 169[-]; mature Louis XIV; mature Louis XIV, mint K; mint A (2); mint B (16); mint C; mint D (4); mint G (2); mint E (7); mint I; mint L (2); mint O; mint R; mint S; mint X; ND (258); counterfeits (2) France, 6 deniers, "dardennes" (41): 1710; 1710H; 1712; 1712H; 1712; mint H (5); mint N (4); mint & (4); ND (23)

France, douzains, bearing counterstamp of 1640 (25): 1500s; 1594H; mint H (3); mint cow (Pau); ND (18); ND, holed

France, sols de 15 deniers, overstrikes and new flans, 1693–97 (49): 1693; mint A; mint A or AA; mint B (2); mint E; ND (43)

France, sols de 15 denier, overstrikes on counterstamped douzains, 1693–97 (4): 1692H; ND (3)

France, sol des mines, Pau, 1723

France, 30 deniers, "mousquetaires" (18): 1710D; 1710H; 1711 (2); ND (14)

France, ½ sols (2): 1721; 1721S or 9 (Rennes)

France, sol, copper (4): 1719; 1720, mint 9 (Rennes); 1721S; ND

France, sol, 1738 series (2)

France, 2 sols, 1738 series (43): 1739 (3); 1740B; 1740E; 1741; 1742A; 1743 or 1746; 1743E; mint M; mint 9 (Rennes); ND (32)

France, Louis XIV, mature head, 1/20 écu, 1690s

France, 1/10 écus (5): 1711; 1715H; 1726–40; ND (2)

France, 1/5 écu, 1726

France, ½ écus (5): 1727D; 1727T; 1728T; 1729D; 1729M

France, écus (13): 1724K; 1725H; 1726H; 1726S; 1728D; 1730 cow (2); 1740B (2); 1742K; 1743 T or P; mint T; ND

France, louis d'or (2): 1723K, short fronds; 1724K, long fronds

France, Louis XIV, jeton, 1660s-70s

France, copper jeton

French states, Navarre/Béarn, Louis XIV, sol, 1695

French states, Navarre, Henry III/IV, copper 2 sol, 1603

French states, Dukes of Burgundy, douzain, 167[-]

Spain, 4 maravedíes (2): 1636–55; ND

Spain, 8 maravedíes, counterstamped

Spain, ½ real (¼ pistareen), 1725

Spain, reales (½ pistareens) (4): 1718; 1720; 1740; ND

Spain, 2 reales (pistareen) (10): 1708; Madrid, 1717; 1717; Segovia, 1718J; Seville, 1723; 1723J; Seville, 17241; 1725, cut in half; Seville, 1737; Philip V,Seville, assayer J, 1/16 cut Spain, 4 reales (2): 1718; cut in half

Portugal, 5 reis

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies françoises (6): 1722H; mint H; ND (4)

British colonies, Nova Scotia, halfpenny token, 1823

British colonies, Nova Scotia, cent

British colonies, New Brunswick, cent, 1861

British colonies, Canada, cent, 1861

Canada, cents (5): 1907; 1919; 1968; 1972; ND

Canada, 50¢, 1910

British colonies, Rosa Americana halfpenny, 1722 or 1723

British colonies, Rosa Americana

USA, Connecticut, copper

USA, ½ cent, 1804

Spanish colonies, ½ real, México

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (3): 1743; ND (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (3): 1738 (2); 1743

Spanish colonies, real, Guatemala, holed Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí, 1705

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí, 1710Υ

Spanish colonies, cob ½ real, Lima or Potosí

Spanish colonies, cob ½ real

Spanish colonies, cob real, holed

Spanish colonies, 2 reales

Copper coins (360)

Billon coins (57)

Silver coins (37)

Coins of indeterminate metal (44)

Lead seal made by impressing a pistareen

Disposition: Fortress of Louisbourg, Parks Canada.

Bibliography: Moogk 1976b, 1987; Walker 1968.

Fortress of Louisbourg, artifacts database, http://fortress.uccb.ns.ca/archaeology/ welcomenew.htm (accessed October 27, 2007).

190. Off the East Coast of Florida, near the mouth of the San Sebastian River, about 25 miles north of Fort Pierce, USA, 1960–70.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ships: The 1715 plate fleet. The original fleet totaled twelve, of which only one, the French escort vessel El Grifon, escaped shipwreck. The following attributions of the sites come from the third edition of the Practical Book of Cobs by the Sedwicks. The fourth edition, however, does not have these attributions, and points out that the separate wrecksites may represent different parts of the same ship. The fourth edition also mentions two additional wrecksites: the "Pines Wreck" off Sebastian, Florida, and the "Cannon Wreck," off Wabasso, Florida.

"Cabin Wreck" is thought to be Nuestra Señora de la Regla, the Capitana de Flota.

"Wedge Wreck" is thought to be the Urca de Lima.

"Corrigan's Wreck" is thought to be Santo Cristo de San Roman.

"Rio Mar Wreck" is thought to be the Carmen, the Capitana de Tierra Firma.

"Sandy Point Wreck" is thought to be the Nuestra Señora del Rosario, the Almiranta.

"Douglass Beach Wreck" is thought to be Nuestra Señora de las Nieves. This wreck, also called the "Gold Wreck," was originally called the "Colored Beach Wreck," a term from the period of racial segregation in Florida. The beach has since been renamed, in honor of Frederick Douglass, "Douglass Beach."

Sank: July 31, 1715.

Contents: 11,727 AR; 2,610 AV.

Description: Most catalogs of the coins do not indicate which wreck the coins come from, so this treasure fleet will be listed in an omnibus entry. It appears, however, that most of the silver coins came from the "Cabin Wreck," and most of the gold coins came from the "Douglass Beach Wreck."

Spain, Philip II?, 2 escudos, Seville, NDA

Spain, 8 escudos, Seville (3): Philip IV; Charles II; 1701M

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, México (137): 1692; 1702L; 1705; 1710J; 1711J; 1712J; 1713J; 1714J (3); 1715J; 171[-]J; NDA (125) Spanish colonies, reales, México (4,270): 1705; 1706J; 1707J; 1708J; 1709J (2); 1710J (3); 1711J (6); 1712J (4); 1713J (2); 1714J (4); 1715J; 171[-]J (7); NDA (4,234) Spanish colonies, 2 reales, México (1,173): 1707J; 1708J; 1709J (2); 171lJ; 1712J (5); 1713J; 1714J (4); 1715J (2); 171[-]J; NDA (1,155)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, México (1,273): 1704L; 1706J; 1707J (3); 1708J (2); 1709J (2); 170[-]; 1710J (4); 1711J (5); 1712J (12); 1713J (56); 1714J (124); 1715J (30); 171[-]J (54); 17[-] (2); assayer J (10); NDA (966)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, México (3,252): 1680; ca. 1690; 1695 (2); 1697; 1699; 1700; 1702L (2); 1703L (4); 1704L (4); 1705 (3); 1706J (2); 1707J (2); 1708J (80: 1709J (6); 170[-]; 1710J (7); 1711J (40); 1712J (41); 1713J (117); 1714J (459); 1715J (152); 171[-]J (97); 17[-] (15); assayer J (71); NDA (2,314)

Spanish colonies, escudos, México (814): assayer L (8); 1694L (2); 1698L (4); 1700L; 1701L; 1702L (4); 1703L (5); 1704L (3); assayer J (12); 1707J; 1708J; 1709J (2); 1710J (4); 170[-]; 1711J (45); 1712J (50); 1713J (27); 1714J (122); 1715J; NDA (520)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, México (519): assayer L (3); 1704L (2); assayer J (7); 1708J; Philip V, assayer L (2); 1711J (2); 1712J (9); 1713J (26); 1714J (261); 1715J (3);NDA (203)

Spanish colonies, 4 escudos, México (439): assayer L; 1693L; 1694L; 1698L; 1699/8L; 1705J; 1706J; 1710J; 1711J (5); 1712J (19); 1713J (181); 1714J (72); 1715J (3); NDA (151)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, México (361): assayer L (2); 169[-]L; 1697/6L; 1702L (12); 1708J; 1709J; 1711J; 1712J (7); 1713J (85); 1714J (139); 1715J (22); NDA (87)

Spanish colonies, escudos, Bogotá (23): Charles II; Philip V (20); 1710 (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Bogotá (349): Philip IV (4); 1649R; 1654R (2); 1672; 1683; 1687; 1689; 1690; 1694 (2); 1697; 1698 (2); 1699 (2); 169[-] (4); 1701 (12); 1703 (4); 1704 (7); 1705 (24); 1706 (5); 1707 (4); 1708 (5); 1709 (7); 170[-] (2); 1710; 1711 (2); 1712 (5); 1713 (2); 1714; 1715; Philip V, NDA (244)

Spanish colonies, escudos, Cuzco, 1698M (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Cuzco, 1698M (9)

Spanish colonies, ½ reales, Lima (3): 17[-]; 1705H; 1710H

Spanish colonies, reales, Lima (72): 1684 (2); 1685; 1686R (3); 1688R (2); 1690R (2); 1692V (3); 1693V (2); 1694M (5); 1695R (3); 1696H (5); 1697H (9) 1698H (4); 1699R (11); 1700H (5); 170[-] (2); 1701H (2); 1702H (5); 1703H (3); 1704H; 1707H (2) Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Lima (29): 1687R; 1691R; 1692V (3); 1693V; 1695R; 1697H (3); 1698H (2); 1699R (3); 1700H (2); 1701H; 1702H (2); 1703H; 1704H (3); 1705H; 1709H (2); 1710H

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima (47): 1684 (2); 1686R; 1691R; 1692V (3); 1693V; 1695R; 1697H (2); 1698H (4); 1699R (3); 1700H (3); 1701H; 1703H (7); 1704H (2); 1705H (3); 1710H (2); 1711M; NDA (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima (611): 1684; 1685; 1687R (2); 1688R (4); 1689V; 169[-]; 1691R (4); 1693V (10); 1694M; 1695R (9); 1696H (9); 1697H (9); 1698H (16); 1699H; 1699R (23); 1700H (4); 1701H (11); 1702H (5); 1703H (21); 1704H (2); 1705H (2); 1707H; 1708H (3); 1709H (6); 1710H (6); 1711M (9); 1712M (2); NDA (2)

Spanish colonies, escudos, Lima (14): 1697H (2); 1799R; 1701H; 1703H; 1704H; 1709M (2); 1710H; 1711M (2); 1713M; NDA

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Lima (62): 1696H; 1697H (2); 1698H; 1701H; 1702H; 1703H (4); 1704H (3); 1705H (4); 1707H; 1708H (6); 1709M (15); 1710H (7); 1711M (11); 1712M (4); NDA

Spanish colonies, 4 escudos, Lima (11): 1697H (2); 1699R; 1707H (2); 1709M (2); 1710H (2); 1711M (2)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, Lima (103): 1697H; 1698H; 1699R (3); 1701H; 1704H (2); 1705H (2); 1707H (3); 1708H (6); 1709M (4); 1710H (8); 1711M (10); 1712M (55); 1713M (4); 1714M (3)

Spanish colonies, reales, Potosí (84): 1654E; 1661E; 1671; 1676E; 1678V; 1682V; 1685VR; 1686VR (5); 1687VR (3); 1688VR (3); 1689VR (4); 169[-] (2); 1690VR(6); 1691VR (3); 1692VR (5); 1693VR (9); 1694VR (2); 1695VR (3); 1696VR (3); 1697VR; 1698F (5); 1699F (3); 1700F; 1701Y (2); 1703Y; 1707Y; 1710Y; 1712Y; NDA (13)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Potosí (37): 1659E; 1661E; 1662E; 1666E; 1685VR (2);1686VR (2); 1687VR; 1688VR (2); 1689VR; 1690VR (2); 1691VR (2); 1693VR; 1695VR (4); 1696VR (2); 1697VR; 1698F; 1699F (2); 1700F; 1701Y (2); 1702Y; 1703Y (2); 1704Y; 1706Y; 1709Y (2)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Potosí (80): 1679C; 1684V; 1685VR; 1687VR (2); 1688VR (4); 1689VR; 1690VR (7); 1691VR (4); 1692VR (2); 1693VR (4); 1694VR (2); 1695VR (3); 1696VR (2); 1697VR (4); 1698F; 1699F (3); 1700F (8); 17[-]; 170[-]; 1701Y (4); 1702Y (8); 1703Y (4); 1705Y; 1706Y (3); 1708Y (2); 1709Y (3); 1710Y; 1711Y; 1714Y

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (206): assayer E; 1675E; 1680V; 1683V; 1684V; 1686VR (5); 1687VR (3); 1688VR (4); 1689VR (2); 169[-] (3); 1690VR (9); 1691VR (7); 1692VR (7); 1693VR (11); 1694VR (8); 1695VR (9); 1696VR (11); 1697VR (12); 1698F (14); 1699F (12); 1700F (13); 17[-] (2); 170[-]; 1701Y (14); 1702Y (12); 1703Y (8); 1704Y; 1705Y; 1706Y; 1707Y (5); 1708Y (7); 1709Y (7); 1710Y (2); 1711Y; NDA (9) Spanish colonies, 4 reales, no mint (8)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, no mint (445)

Brass nested coin weights were also found (see Schulman Auction Catalog, November 27–29, 1972, lot 24).

Disposition: The fleet's registered treasure was fourteen million pesos. The Spanish salvaged 4–6 million pesos at the time. Captain Henry Jennings, a privateer, robbed the Spanish salvors of 350,000 pesos. The 1960s recoveries were split 75% Real Eight; 25% State of Florida. Some of Florida's share is now at the Museum of Florida History in Tallahassee. A 1714 "royal" 8 escudos of México was donated to the Museo Arqueologico Nacional in Madrid by Real 8 in November 1972.

Bibliography: Allen 1967; Bowers and Ruddy 1977; Burgess and Clausen 1976; Christie's 1988a, lots 175–92D,311; Craig 2000a, 2000b, 75, 78, 134–35; Ponterio 1993, lots 550, 553–554, 721–722, 724, 809, 811, 812; Schulman 1972; Sedwick 1985, 1312–23; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 177–81 (Sedwick 35); Smith 1988, 94–95; Wagner and Taylor 1966.

191. Wrightsville, York County, Pennsylvania, USA, 1835.

Type of find: Funerary deposit?

Date of deposit: 1716.

Contents: 3 B.

Description:British colonies, George I, brass Indian peace medals (Indian and Deer) (Betts 165) (3)

Found with a brass kettle; a string of white beads, 1½ yards long; red paint; and 25 rings, one of which was dated 1716, which provides the date of deposit.

Disposition: One of these medals formed part of the coin collection of Harmon A. Chambers, which was bought en bloc and presented to the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society in 1858. The provenance to Chambers is based on the fact that Chambers dated his specimen 1716, and it is difficult to imagine where he got this date unless it was from the ring found with these medals. This specimen is still in the collection of what is now the Luzerne County Historical Society as of 2007, item number 91.68.1.

Bibliography: Hayden 1886, 225–26, 228–29 (citing the Columbia Spy for 1835).

Jesse Teitelbaum, executive director, Luzerne County Historical Society, letter to John M. Kleeberg, June 12, 2007.

192. Natrona, Pennsylvania, USA, 1912.

Type of find: Funerary deposit.

Date of deposit: Ca. 1716.

Contents: 9 B.

Description:

British colonies, George I, brass Indian peace medals (Indian and Deer) (Betts 165) (7)

British colonies George I, brass Indian peace medals (Indian and Deer) (Betts 164) (2)

It has been suggested that these medals were found in the grave of a British Indian agent who died before he could distribute them. The medals were found when the Penn Salt Manufacturing Company was digging a ditch for a water line that ran across Dr. Bungarner's property at 51 Federal Street, Natrona, which is about twenty miles north of Pittsburgh. From 1714 to 1734 Natrona was called "Chartier's Town," and there was an Indian settlement there.

Bibliography: Bowers 1997, 31–33; Bowers and Merena 1987, lots 1131–39.

193. Jacob's Plains, also known as the Upper Flats, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania, USA, 1814.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, George I, laureate, facing right, Indian and deer Indian peace medal

Disposition: Found by Chief Justice Gibson, Charles Miner, and Jacob Cist, Esq. The men gave it to Cist as the individual among them who was most curious and careful in such matters. Cist deposited it with the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Miner in his 1845 book proposes that the medal be placed with the Indian relics in a museum in Wilkes Barre. Horace Edwin Hayden in an 1886 paper echoed this proposal, but says that the popular assumption that the medal in the collection of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society is this specimen is incorrect. The medal in the collection of that society is therefore deemed to be one of three found at Wrightsville in 1835.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 57; Hayden 1886, 217–38; Miner 1845, 27 (with an engraving illustrating the medal).

Edmund J. Cleveland, "The King George I. Indian Medal," American Journal of Numismatics 26, no. 4 (April 1892): 83.

194. Banks of the Susquehanna River, Sunbury, Pennsylvania, USA, 1886.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 B.

Description:British colonies, George I, Indian and deer Indian Peace medal

Disposition: Found by J. H. Jenkins, who was deceased as of 1886. It was then owned by his son, Steuben Jenkins, of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. Date of finding not indicated by Hayden, so date of recording of the find used instead.

Bibliography: Hayden 1886, 227.

195. Virginia, USA, 1903.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, George I, Indian and deer Indian Peace medal, with George I, laureate facing left rather than right

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 57.

196. Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, USA, 1903.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, George I, Indian and deer Indian Peace medal, with large Indian throwing spear at deer at left

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 57.

197. Long Clove Road, Rockland County, New York, USA, August 2004.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, George I, uniface Indian peace medal (Indian and deer medal but without the deer reverse)

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Sebring 2004 (auctioned in the Sebring sale, although not part of the Sebring collection).

Eric von Klinger, "George I medal second of its type. Metal detectorist finds Indian peace medal on surface," Coin World, December 6, 2004, 3, 30.

198. Wellfleet, Massachusetts, USA, July 1984.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Whydah. A slaveship hijacked by the pirate Samuel Bellamy, and turned into a pirate ship.

Sank: April 26, 1717.

Contents: 1 PB, 10 AE, 8,379 AR, 9 AV.

Description:

Scotland, bawbee

Great Britain, sixpence

Great Britain, ½ crown

Great Britain, crown

France, 15 sou (2)

France, 20 sou (3)

France, 30 sou (2)

France, ½ ecu (2)

France, écu

Spain, 8 escudo royal, 1642

Spanish or Spanish colonies, escudo (2)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudo, probably Bogotá Spanish or Spanish colonies, 2 escudo (4)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, Lima (2): 1708H; 1712M

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí (5): 1684; 1687 (heart); 1688; 1698; 1713

Spanish colonies, ½ reales (751)

Spanish colonies, reales (1,613)

Spanish colonies, 2 reales (2,257)

Spanish colonies, 4 reales (935)

Spanish colonies, 8 reales (2,790)

Spanish colonies, denomination undetermined (6)

Miscellaneous copper coins (9)

Unidentified coins in a cluster (8)

Indeterminate lead token Also found were:

Brass coin weights (19, including nested set of 7)

Before the shipwreck was recovered, coins would wash up on the beach. In the 1950s a pair of honeymooners found a coin, which Robert Nesmith identified as an 8 reales struck in Peru in the 1660s.

Disposition: All to the salvors, after litigation with the state of Massachusetts.

Bibliography: Clifford and Turchi 1993; Kiesling 1994; Nesmith 1958a, 19–20; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 181–82 (Sedwick 36).

David Fairbank White, "How the Sea Gave up a $400 Million Pirate Treasure," Parade Magazine ( New York Daily News edition), January 27, 1985, 6–9.

199. Halifax Road, Portsmouth, Virginia, USA, 1985–95.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, real (½ pistareen), cut half, 1718

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Acquired by Thomas A. Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45; 2001, 2175.

200. New Kent County, Virginia, USA, April 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales (pistareen), probably Segovia, 1718, eighth cut with a square nail hole in center

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2186.

201. Rosewell Plantation, Virginia, USA, 1962.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: France, Louis XV, ½ écu, 1719H

Bibliography: Noël Hume 1995, 17, 20.

202. Coleraine, Massachusetts, USA, April 1877.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Philip V, 2 reales (pistareen)

Disposition: Found among the ruins of the L part of his hotel by O. M. Gaines, which he has recently torn down.

Bibliography: "Notes and Queries," American Journal of Numismatics 11, no. 4 (April 1877): 99.

203. Mexico, December 1974.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1720.

Contents: 18 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, Philip V, 8 reales, México, assayer J (18)

Disposition: Auctioned by Schulman Coin & Mint, Inc., December 2–4, 1974, lots 540–544.

Bibliography: Schulman 1974, lots 540–44.

204. Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 21, 1962.

Type of find: Foundation deposit.

Date of deposit: November 1720.

Container: Wood and lead casket.

Contents: 2 AE, 1 AR.

Description:

France, Louis XV, Louisbourg medals (Betts 145), bronze (2)

France, Louis XV, Louisbourg medal (Betts 145), silver

Bibliography: Moogk 1976a, 434–40.

205. Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1923.

Type of find: Foundation deposit.

Date of deposit: 1720?

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: France, Louis XV, Louisbourg medal (Betts 145) bronze

Found in the foundations of the French lighthouse at Louisbourg.

Bibliography: Moogk 1976a, 437.

206. Cahokia Wedge, Cahokia (East Saint Louis), Illinois, USA, spring-fall 1986.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1699–1841

Date of earliest coin: 1721.

Contents: 1 AE, 1 AR.

Description:

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies françoises, 1721H

Spanish colonies, Charles III, 8 reales, probably México

Bibliography: Gums 1987.

207. Culpeper, Virginia, USA, 1985–95.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, real, (½ pistareen), Seville, 1721IJ

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Acquired by Thomas A. Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

208. Washington, Pennsylvania, (near the border of what is now West Virginia), USA, April 1835.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, Rosa Americana, 1722

Bibliography: Mease 1838, 282–83; Newman 1992, 9.

209. Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1835.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, Rosa Americana, 1722

Found while digging the foundation of Saint Philips Church.

Bibliography: Mease 1838, 282–83; Newman 1992, 9.

210. Bennington, Vermont, USA, August 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Woods Hibernia halfpenny, 1722

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Danforth 2001, 2226.

211. Bergen (now Hudson County), New Jersey, USA, 1821.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies françoises, 1722

The coin was plowed up.

Bibliography: State Senator (later Judge) Gabriel Furman, Albany, New York, "Letter to Vice-Chancellor Frederick Whittlesey, November 25, 1841," Historical Magazine, new series, 9, no. 2 (February 1871): 88.

212. North Anna River, below Richmond, Virginia, USA, April 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales, (pistareen), Cuenca, ca. 1722, cut in half and heavily scored to cut again so that it is nearly ready to come apart

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2186.

213. Mobile, Alabama, USA, 1992.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation of the center of French Mobile.

Date of site: 1720s.

Contents: 1 B, 3 AE.

Description:

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies françoises, 1721

French colonies, 9 deniers des colonies fraçoises, 1722

French colonies, 12 deniers des colonies françoises, 1717Q

France, Louis XIV, jeton

Disposition: Rescue dig conducted by the archaeologist Greg Spies.

Bibliography: Hodder 1992, 24, 34.

214. Somerset, Rhode Island, USA, January 1874.

Type of find: Foundation deposit.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description:British colonies, Rosa Americana, twopence, 1723

Embedded underneath the foundation stone of an old stonewall on the farm of David Buffinton.

Bibliography: Appleton 1874, 57–58.

215. Fort Shantok, west bank of the Thames River, three miles south of Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, USA, summer 1962.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1600–1750.

Date of layer in which coin was found: 1710–50.

Date of earliest coin: 1723.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, George I, farthing, eleven string harp, 1723 (reference Seaby Irish coins 235)

Bibliography: Salwen 1966.

216. New Rochelle, New York, USA, 1950–90.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1723.

Contents: 2 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence, 1723 (2)

Disposition: Found by Theodore Kazimiroff of the Bronx County Historical Society. Bequeathed to Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York.

Bibliography: Hecht 1993; Mossman 1999, 1912.

217. East Moriches, Long Island, New York, USA, April 1898.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

Disposition: Found by Captain Herbert Benjamin.

Bibliography: "Old Coins Unearthed," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 25, 1898, 4.

218. UpperNew York State, USA, 1999.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

219. Gloucester, Massachusetts, USA, October 1979.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

220. Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA, March 1997.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

As of April 1999, this find had been reported but not confirmed.

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

221. New Hampshire, USA, September 1998.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist. Sold on eBay, September 2, 1998, item #27724544.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

222. Hopewell, Virginia, USA, April 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Spain, counterfeit 2 reales (pistareen), 1723

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2185.

223. New Kent County, Virginia, USA, April 2001.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales (pistareen), cut quarter, gilded to pass as a half escudo

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 2001, 2185.

224. Douw's Point, Rensselaer, New York, USA, 1971.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1724 onwards.

Contents: 3 AE.

Description:

Great Britain, George II, halfpenny, 1720

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1723

USA, Connecticut, copper, 1787, draped bust left

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

225. Congress Street, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1854 and October 1895.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1724?

Contents: 300? AE.

Description:

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence (300?)

Ireland, Wood's Hibernia pence

Number of halfpence in the 1854 find an estimate; the exact number was not given; Colburn merely referred to a "large hoard."

Disposition: Found while excavating for a block of warehouses in Congress Street, Boston. The Wood's Hibernia penny, also found while excavating in Congress Street, but in October 1895, was probably scatter from the initial hoard.

Bibliography: Jeremiah Colburn,"English Coins Struck for the American Colonies, Coins issued by the Several States and by the Federal Government Previous to the Establishment of the Mint in 1792," Historical Magazine 1, no. 10 (October 1857): 300 note.

"Workmen Find an Interesting Coin," Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society 6 (1906): 59 (citing the Boston (MA) Transcript, October 12, 1895).

226. Head of Frenchman Bay, Sullivan, Maine, USA, 1844.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1724.

Contents: 600+ AR.

Description:

France, ½ écus, 1724 (400)

France, écus, 1724 (200)

$400 worth was found. The numbers are estimates based on this dollar amount. The hoard was found by a farmer plowing land in front of where "Ocean House" stood in 1859.

Probably the écu aux 8 L type, given the narrow range of dates—the écu aux 8 L type was minted in only 1724 and 1725.

Disposition: Most melted, but some specimens were obtained by William G. Stearns of Harvard College.

Bibliography: DeCosta 1871, 55; Williamson 1859, 126 note 3 (citing the Machias (ME) Union, July 8, 1856).

227. Fredericksburg area, Virginia, USA, 1995.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales (pistareen), Seville, 1724J

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

228. Fredericksburg area, Virginia, USA, 1995.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales (pistareen), Seville, 1724J

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

229. Dumfries, Virginia, USA, 1995.

Type of find: Single finds.

Contents: 13 AR.

Description:

Spain, Philip V, 2 reales (pistareen), cut quarters (12)

Spain, Philip V, 2 reales (pistareen) cut eighth Disposition: Found by metal detectorists.

Recovered from colonial sites that have since been bulldozed around Dumfries. Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

230. Vault Hill, Van Cortlandt Park, Bronx, New York, USA, 1950–90.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: 1724.

Contents: 2 AE.

Description: Great Britain, George I, halfpence, 1724 (2)

Disposition: Found by Theodore Kazimiroff of the Bronx County Historical Society.

Bequeathed to Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York.

Bibliography: Hecht 1993.

231. Southern New Jersey, USA, 1990s.

Type of find: Single finds.

Contents: 3 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence, 1720s (3)

Disposition: Found by metal detectorists.

Bibliography: Gredesky 2000, 2063–64.

232. Frederick, Maryland, USA, January 1999.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia farthing, basal state

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1911.

233. Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, October 1997.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Contents: 2 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpence, ND (2)

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

234. Prince Edward County, Virginia, USA, October 1997.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

235. Alexandria, Virginia, USA, June 1997.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, 1724

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

236. Falls Church, Virginia, USA, March 1997.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia

halfpenny, ND

As of April 1999, this find had been reported but not confirmed.

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Bibliography: Mossman 1999, 1912.

237. Albany, New York, USA, 1999.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Description: Ireland, Wood's Hibernia halfpenny, ND

Bibliography: Gredesky 2000, 2063–64.

238. Brown's Mills, New Jersey, USA, fall 1986.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, Louis I, 2 reales (pistareen), Segovia, 1724F

Found at a place called "Princes Mansion."

Disposition: Found with a metal detector by W. J. Carr.

Bibliography: "Uncommon Common Coin," Treasure Found, Fall 1986, 28–29.

239. Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, 1976.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe. Westbound mercury transport from Cadiz.

Sank: August 25, 1724.

Contents: 400 AR, 3 AV.

Description: 400+ Spanish coins of the reign of Philip V, including:

Spanish Netherlands, Philip V, ducatoon, 1709

Spain, Philip V, 8 escudos (3)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, México (4)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, Bogotá (3)

Spanish colonies, 8 escudos, Lima (3)

Spanish colonies, 2 escudos, Cuzco (3)

Disposition: Museo de las Casas Reales, Dominican Republic.

Bibliography: Peterson 1979; Pickford 1994, 60–61, 129, 164; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 183–84 (Sedwick 39); Smith 1988, 1 03.

240. Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, 1977.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Conde de Tolosa. Westbound mercury transport from Cadiz.

Sank: August 25, 1724.

Contents: 400 B, AE; AV.

Description:

Spain, brass and bronze Catholic religious medals (400+)

Spain, Gold decoration with the cross of the order of Santiago, framed by 24 diamonds Disposition: Museo de las Casas Reales, Dominican Republic.

Bibliography: Peterson 1979; Pickford 1994, 60–61, 129, 164; Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 183–84 (Sedwick 39); Smith 1988, 104.

241. Flint River, Dougherty County, Georgia, USA, June 1894.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, 2 reales (pistareen), 1725

Disposition: Found by Captain William Jennings, of Dawson, Georgia.

Bibliography: "Probably Worth Fifteen Cents," Numismatist 7, no. 6 (June 1894): 114.

242. Chameau Rock, Kelpy Cove, off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, September– October 1965.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Le Chameau.

Sank: August 26, 1725.

Contents: 7,861 AR, 878 AV.

Description: All coins are French coins of Louis XV.

Mint Écus aux 8 L Louis
1724 1725 1723 1724 1725
A 2 21 8 1
B 3 5
C 3 6 1
D 1 12 9 1
E 1 4 8 1
G 5 33 2 34 2
H 21 2166 20 48 38
I 46 2 14 3
K 21 146 20 86 24
L 11 29 1
M 6 33
N 1 2 5 10 1
O 36 2 4 1
P 1 2
Q 2 3
R 1 3 3 1
S 2 2 1
T 20 123 2 14
V 2 2 1
w 2 4 1
X 2 2 1
Y 2 4 1
Z 2 3 1
AA 2 1 1
BB 1 1
CC 1 1
& 6 6
9 7 6
Cow 1 1 7 15
Mint illegible 31 64

France, Louis XV, 1/6 écu (6): 1719A; 1719K; 1720A; 1720H; 1721E; 1722G

France, Louis XV, 1/3 écu (6): 1720T; 1721G; 1721H; 1721 Rennes; 1723H; ND, mint G, flip over double strike

France, Louis XV, ½ écu, 1725H (10)

France, Louis XV, écu, 1721K

France, écu de France, 1724H

France, écu aux 8 L, ND (3,742)

France, 2 louis, 1724A

George Sobin says that the écu aux 8 L, 1725H date/mintmark combination accounted for about 80% of the silver coins in the Chameau treasure.

Disposition: The salvage was done by Alex Storm. The litigation concerning the find was tried in the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. The gold coins were divided up approximately as follows. 341 were sold to a local dealer and onwards to a New York City dealer (possibly John Ford) in early 1971; these coins were mostly sold in Europe. 43 coins went to the Province of Nova Scotia under the Treasure Trove Act; 3 coins were sold other ways, leaving 493 gold louis that were auctioned by Parke-Bernet in 1971. This adds up to 880 coins, which is fairly close to the 878 listed above. The Parke-Bernet auction did not include examples of all the date and mintmark varieties recovered. Many silver coins were auctioned by Stack's in 1999. The Stack's auction had only three gold coins, but one of them was the only double louis so far known to come from Le Chameau. The Stack's auction of Ford's collection in 2006 included 73 gold louis from Le Chameau, which are said to have been given to Ford in exchange for his numismatic advisory services to the treasure recovery venture. Presumably these 73 coins were part of the 341 coins that went to the New York City dealer.

Bibliography: Breen 1988, 44–45, 49–51, 703 (Breen 299–389); Charlton 1976; Parke-Bernet 1971; Sobin 1974; Stack's 1999, lots 1191–1304; Stack's 2006a, lots 384–456; Storm 2002, 19–77.

243. Virginia, USA, 1985–95.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spain, real (½ pistareen), Seville, 172[-]J

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Acquired by Thomas A. Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

244. Meseta Central, Mexico City, Mexico,

1995.

Type of find: Hoard.

Date of deposit: Late 1720s.

Container: Ceramic jar.

Contents: Ca. 100 AR.

Description:

Spanish colonies, Charles II, Philip V, and Louis I, ½ reales, México Spanish colonies, Philip V, reales, México The coins were all cobs, so the hoard closes before 1732; the hoard includes coins of Louis I, so it closes after 1724. The coins were found stashed below the floor of a colonial era building in Mexico City in a ceramic jar.

Bibliography: Paul A. Brombal, Advertisement, World Coin News, August 28, 1995, 13.

Paul A. Brombal Coins and Jewelry, "The Meseta Central Hoard," http://www. pbrombal.com#Meseta.

245. Staten Island, New York, USA, 1820.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AV.

Description: Portuguese colonies, Brazil, 12,800 reis, [1727–33]

Disposition: Unearthed near the remains of the old Lovelace or Duxbury homestead

Bibliography: Antiquities 1869, 74.

246. Gorriti Island, near Punta del Este, Uruguay, 1990.

Type of find: Shipwreck.

Ship: Seahorse, a South Seas Company slave ship, which had just unloaded its human cargo and had been paid in silver cobs before it sank.

Sank: September 29, 1728.

Contents: 50 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Potosí Disposition: Found by local fishers; the coins entered the numismatic market through a dealer in Key West, Florida.

Bibliography: Sedwick and Sedwick 2007, 184–85 (Sedwick 41).

247. Clermont State Historic Site, Clermont/ Germantown, New York, USA, 1976, 1979, 1988.

Type of find: Archaeological excavation.

Date of site: 1728–1850.

Contents: 4 AE.

Description:

Great Britain, halfpence (3): 1724; 1733; 1740

Ireland, George III, halfpenny, 1760

Disposition: New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collection, Peebles Island, New York, USA.

Bibliography: Hoover 2007 (providing inventory of New York State Bureau of Historic Sites Collections, Peebles Island, New York, as of August 16, 2005).

248. Pennsylvania, USA, 1903.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AE.

Contents:British colonies, George II, Indian and deer Indian peace medal

The medal depicts George II, laureate, facing left, in armor.

Bibliography: Beauchamp 1903, 57.

249. Dunkirk, near Richmond along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, 1985–95.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AR.

Description: Spanish colonies, real, Potosí, 1729Y

Disposition: Found by a metal detectorist.

Acquired by Thomas A. Kays.

Bibliography: Kays 1996, 1637–45.

250. Fairmount, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

USA, 1846.

Type of find: Single find.

Contents: 1 AV.

Description: