Umayyad, 'Ābbasid and Tūlūnid Glass Weights and vessel stamps

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Balog, Paul
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Numismatic Studies
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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Worldcat Works
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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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ANALYSIS OF THE WEIGHTS

The heavy weights were manufactured in two distinct forms: disk weights and ring weights, abundantly described by various authors. The raṭl, its double and its fractions appear, from the beginning, both as disk weights and as ring weights (the latter appellation is by Miles). For example, the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo has, among the still unpublished material, disk weights of Qurra b. Sharīq, Usāma b. Zayd and Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ. So have we in this collection. At the same time there are, in the present collection, heavy ring weights of Qurra and Ḥayyān.

The wuqiyya, at Miles has observed, is mostly in the form of disk weights. But there are exceptions, such as the half-wuqiyya ring weights of Itākh al-Turki with Harthama b. Naḍr Jabalī (Cat. 681-684) and some anonymous wuqiyya ring weights of later 'Abbāsid issues: Cat. 799-800 are double wuqiyyas, Cat. 801 is a simple wuqiyya.

Although the heavy disk weights tend to disappear some time during the reign of the caliph al-Manṣūr, we still meet them exceptionally from the second half of the second century H. A fine example is our intact quarter-raṭl kabīr of Mūsā b. 'Isā (Cat. 589).

The denominations on the weights are mostly correct. There are, however, frequent discrepancies between the weight unit marked in the legend and the true weight of the piece. The reader is referred to the different numbers in the catalogue.

Hundreds of fragments of the heavy glass weights have been found in excavations in Egypt. Intact specimens of the raṭl, its double and its fractions are, however, very rare indeed.

Though there seems to be no mention of the fact in Arabic literary sources, we may reasonably assume that the great scarcity of well-preserved heavy weights, compared with the vast number of existing fragments, is somehow connected with a deliberate fiscal policy of the Umayyad and 'Abbāsid government.

Governors and finance directors, as a rule, rarely remained in office for more than a year or two, or were recalled after an even shorter period, to make room for their successors. The emission of weights and pharmaceutical containers marked with an official stamp was a constant source of revenue to the government.

With a few exceptions of anonymous issues, the glass was stamped with the name or protocol of the officials actually in power. Whenever a new governor, finance director or prefect entered office, new weights and measure stamps were issued in his name. We may safely assume that not only was a charge exacted for them, but that the old weights had to be turned in to the authorities at the same time, for immediate destruction. Indeed, it is quite clear from the examination of the fragments that they must have been deliberately smashed. They could not have been fractured so brutally had they been dropped by chance.

This is the reason why for such a long time there were not many well-preserved heavy weights in modern collections and why, in consequence, it was not possible to establish how many grams the raṭl, or the different kinds of raṭl, used in Egypt, weighed. Henri Sauvaire was the first Arabic scholar to study systematically and extensively the problems of Arabic metrology. Although his work in based entirely on mediaeval Arabic sources and not on existing archaeological material, Sauvaire’s compilation of an astounding amount of metrological data remains one of our main sources of information.

Sauvaire listed 165 differently named raṭl weights and calculated their equivalent values in grams. According to his tables there are, however, several larger and smaller groups of raṭls, differently named but showing exactly the same weight in grams. It must be assumed, therefore, that sometimes one and the same raṭl weight was labelled with different names in different localities or countries. If these raṭls of identical weight but different names are considered as being identical with each other, then Sauvaire’s list of various raṭls is reduced from 165 to 76.

Sauvaire’s lists deal with all the different weights which were, according to the Arab chronicles, used over the entire Arabic world. As we are only interested in the metrological data concerning Egypt, and to a lesser degree, Syria, the number of 76 can be reduced further.

The right procedure to establish the true weight in grams of the heavy weights would be to weigh the glass weights themselves, comparing the resultant figures with the data compiled by Sauvaire. For this purpose, the greater number of well-preserved heavy glass weights which could be found for examination, the more accurate our findings would be. In the following paragraphs we shall present the well-preserved specimens published in the literature and also those which are in the present collection.

The first more or less complete ring weight was published by Mauss in 1897.3 Mauss did not read the inscription at the top of the weight but gave a good description of the piece, with an accurate drawing, and recorded the weight: 437 gm. One can see from the drawing that a few chips are missing. It was preserved in the Louvre, but now appears to be lost. Hinz attributed this weight to the Fāṭimids, which is evidently an error. We know from al-Maqdisī that the Fāṭimids made their heavy weights of lead, a fact which is confirmed by the preserved weights themselves.4 But they also manufactured weights of the wuqiyya series as well as multiples of the mithqāl of bronze.5

In 1926 Petrie published two anonymous half-raṭls, of 191.00 and 187.44 gm.6 Then in 1929 two intact raṭl disk weights were described by Jungfleish,7 one in the name of al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh (431.87 gm) and the other in that of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd (433.67 gm).

All these weights are Egyptian issues. The next two publications deal, on the other hand, with weights which were not only found in mediaeval Syria, but also made there. The first paper is by the amīr Jafar 'Abd al-Kader of Damascus in 1935, describing two intact Umayyad weights.8 One is a half-raṭl of the caliph 'Abd al-Malik (175.50 gm.), the other a quarter-raṭl, which, although anonymous, belongs, without doubt, to the same period (87.00 gm). Both weights are truncated cones, somewhat reminiscent of a rubber bathtub stopper. I should like to call them "block-weights", a form which seems to be typical of the Syrian Umayyad heavy weights. Both were found together in Beit al-Ras in Jordan, a district which in mediaeval times was part of Syria. Four years later, in 1939, a paper was published by Ettinghausen on a round, blockshaped, slightly conical, heavy weight issued in Syria by the Umayyad caliph Yazīd III (337.55 gm.). It must be emphasized here, that the Syrian Umayyad raṭl not only belongs to a special system, but is also recognizable by its shape: all the hitherto published weights of the Syrian Umayyad raṭl system are round, truncated cone, block weights.

As has been pointed out, the Egyptian heavy weights are of two distinct types: disk weights and ring weights. There exist, however, one or two exceptions: The raṭl Cat. 2 of Qurra b. Sharīk looks like a squat milk or yoghurt bottle. As the bottom part is, however, missing, it may have had a transverse suspension hole. The other is a compact cylindrical weight in the form of a wine bottle cork, issued by Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim (Cat. 592).

Other more or less well-preserved heavy weights have been published more recently among which are: a later 'Abbāsid double raṭl (CAM I., 252), a raṭl of Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba (Launois, C.d.M. 19), and another of Ashinās (EAG I, 110). Several wuqiyya and half-wuqiyya pieces have also been described by Miles, Rice and Dudzus (earlier Lane Poole and Petrie had already published intact wuqiyya pieces). The first intact raṭl of the puzzling raṭl kabīr system was published by Miles (CAM II. Ruthven 33).

The hitherto known heavy weights in good condition number not much more than about 12, a figure too low to allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the ponderal system or different ponderal systems used in Egypt (and in Syria), and as to the equivalent in grams of the systems in question.

It is therefore of great importance that our collection contains considerably more intact or at least well-preserved heavy weights than are known from the literature to date. In fact, the present collection contains 57 pieces which can be used for the estimation of the weight; 27 belong to the raṭl series (double raṭl, half and quarter raṭl, raṭl kabīr, etc.), and 30 to the wuqiyya (double, simple and half). I believe, that taking into consideration the figures from the literature, together with our own figures, we can now classify, at least tentatively, the different raṭl systems which were current in Egypt (and in Syria) and can also identify the corresponding figures in Sauvaire’s lists.

Besides the perfectly-preserved complete specimens there are also pieces which have lost a small percentage of their original weight either through accidental chipping or through scaling, devitrification (oxidation) in the soil. These were included not to establish the original exact weight of the piece, but rather to demonstrate that they belong to the same category as the similar intact weights. For identification of the original exact weight, as far as possible, we have chosen only the most complete specimens. Thus the figures in the tables are the result of the best-preserved weights and not of the average or of the frequency peaks, as is usual in the case of coins. Not in all cases, but in most, the lesser weight of glass specimen belonging to a series means a loss of weight and not a lightweight piece, as is usually the case with gold or silver coins.

The Raṭl Weights

TABLE 1: Approximate Mean Gram Values of the Various Raṭls and Their Fractions a

The numbers in parentheses are the numbers of specimens.

Umayyad 'Abbāsid Raṭl kabīr system Syrian Umayyad
Double raṭl (4) 780.00b
Raṭl (5) ca. 440.00 (6) 395.00 (2) 493.00 (1) 337.55
1/2 raṭl (9) 190.00c (2) ca. 240.00 (1) 175.50
1/4 raṭl (9) 94.00 (1) 123.00 (1) 87.00
Double wuqiyya (5) 61.00
1 1/2 wuqiyya (2) 48.00
Wuqiyya (8) 37.00 (13) 33.00d
1/2 wuqiyya (18) 15.90
1/6 wuqiyya (3) 6.24

a In calculating the mean weight of raṭls where only a few specimens were available or where a significant disparity exists between the weights of well-preserved raṭls, the fractions of the raṭl have been included in the calculation.

b Based on the weight of the raṭl; three of the four specimens are badly chipped.

c See the discussion on page 24.

d The four lighter specimens are all chipped.

Specimens Analyzed
Umayyad
Raṭl

Catalogue: In the literature:
440. 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd "Raṭls," (also published by Jungfleisch, pp. 61-71. 433.67 Humayd b. Qaḥṭaba (Launois, C.d.M, 19) 441.00
536. Yaḥyā, mawlā of al-Mahdī 435.07 al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh (Jungfleisch, "Raṭls," p. 68). 431.87
Unknown. Umayyad or early 'Abbāsid. Once in the Louvre, now lost. 437.20

Wuqiyya

Catalogue: In the literature:
36. Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ 36.63 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān (Dudzus, "Gewichte" 5) Chip missing. 35.95
407. Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn 36.82
442. 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd 37.50
443. Same 37.36
444. Same 37.98 Muḥammad b. Sa’īd (CAM II. Benaki 45) 36.50
Wāḍiḥ (Rice, p. 172) 36.54

Sixth Wuqiyya

In the literature:
'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd (CAM II. Benaki 36) 6.25
'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd (CAM I 135) 6.24
'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd (BMC 18) 6.22

'Abbāsid Raṭ l Double Raṭl

Catalogue: In the literature:
648. al-Ma’mūn, Caliph 790.94 Illegible, later 'Abbāsid 725.00
724. Muzāḥim b. Khāqān Chipped 735.53 (CAM I, 252) Chipped and flaked
792. Anonymous 756.69

Raṭl

Catalogue: In the literature:
640. al-Amīn, Caliph 385.23 Abū Ja 'far Ashinās (EAG I, 110) 398.53
651. Muḥammad b. al-Sarī This weight is marked "1/2 382.67
raṭl kabīr," but is evidently a normal 'Abbāsid raṭl.
765. Qarnūris 383.46
777. Muzāḥim b. Muḥammad 394.51 794. Anonymous 392.83

Half Raṭl

Catalogue: In the literature:
385. Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath 188.60 Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh 179.85
400. Nawfal b. Furāt Chipped 180.00 (Viré 29) Illegible 194.62
691. Isḥāq b. Yaḥyā 190.68 (CAM I, 254)
704. Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh Chipped and scaling 179.98 Anonymous (or illegible?) (Petrie 176) 191.00
714. Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh Chipped 183.43 Anonymous (Petrie 175) Although marked "quarter-raṭl", this is really a half-raṭl weight. 187.44

Quarter Raṭl

Catalogue: In the literature:
657. 'Isā b. Manṣūr 93.45 Anonymous (or illegible?) Though identified as a two-wuqiyya piece, with a query, this weight is a quarter raṭl. (CAM I, 255). 96.40
658. Same 93.74
664. Mūsā b. Abi 'I-Abbās 93.37
669. Abū Ja 'far Ashinās 94.08
692. Isḥāq b. Yaḥyā 92.32
716. Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh 90.66
797. Anonymous 97.67
798. Anonymous 96.21

Triple-Wuqiyya or Quarter Raṭl

In the literature:
Unidentified (CAM I, 255) Miles wrote: "Two wuqiyya." 96.40

Double Wuqiyya

Catalogue: In the literature:
799. Anonymous 62.14 Anonymous 66.10
800. Anonymous 59.60 (Petrie 252)
Marked wuqiyya kabīr, but evidently an overweight later 'Abbāsid double wuqiyya Anonymous (CAM I 239) 58.55
Thick disk, yellowish, four cobalt patches. Very late. Anonymous (CAM II. Ruthven 54) Thick flattened disk, 4 cobalt patches, square impression. Very late. 59.92

One and a half Wuqiyya

Catalogue:
685. A. Sulaymān b. Harthama 47.67
592. Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim 47.50

Wuqiyya

Catalogue: In the literature:
654. 'Isā b. Manṣūr 31.50 Abū Ja 'far Ashinās (BMC 27g) 34.02
675. 'Alī b. Yaḥyā 31.45
736. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn 33.22 'Isā b. Manṣūr (Miles, "Muntaza," 52) 31.37
737. Same 32.13
801. Anonymous 33.49 Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh (EAG II, 32.) 31.50
803. Anonymous 31.92
804. Anonymous 29.24 Anonymous (Petrie 255) 31.69
Anonymous (Petrie 256) 31.32
Anonymous (Petrie 254) 31.24

Half Wuqiyya

Catalogue: In the literature:
661. 'Isā b. Manṣūr 16.03 Mūsā b. Abi 'I-’Abbās (CAM I, 193) 15.74
681. Itākh al-Turkī 15.90
682. Same 15.63 'Alī b. Yaḥyā 16.06
683. Same 15.60 (CAM I, 195) Muzāḥim b. Khāqān (CAM I., 245) 16.11
693. Isḥāq b. Yaḥyā 15.51
702. 'Anbasa b. Isḥāq 15.94
717. Yazīd b. 'Abd Allāh 16.08
718. Same 15.95
719. Same 15.54
727. Muzāḥim b. Khāqān 15.77
728. Same 15.70
729. Same 15.58
805. Anonymous 16.63
806. Anonymous 15.67
807. Anonymous 16.64

Fifth Wuqiyya (?)

In the literature:
Anonymous 5.89 CAM II. Ruthven 59).

System Raṭl kabīr
Raṭl kabīr

Catalogue: In the literature:
572. Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ 493.63 Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ (CAM II. Ruthven 33) 492.60

Half Raṭl kabīr

Catalogue: In the literature:
791. Yaḥyā Although not specified on the impression, this is a half raṭl kabīr. 237.02 'Alī (?) (Petrie 174) From Petrie’s illustration I read rather yaday (= 'alā yaday), and not 'Alī. The weight is marked 1/4 raṭl, but it is definitely a half raṭl kabīr. Chipped. 236.52

Quarter Raṭl kabīr

Catalogue: 589. Mūsā b. 'Isā 123.35

Wuqiyya kabīr

No intact wuqiyya kabīr weights have been found to date. Two anonymous ring weights in this collection (Cat. 799, 800), although marked wuqiyya kabīr , are only late 'Abbāsid normal double-wuqiyya weights.

From the five weights of the raṭl kabīr series published above (raṭl, half and quarter raṭl kabīr) it is possible to calculate that the wuqiyya kabīr should weigh approximately 41 gm.

Daḥmās or Daḥmasās

Only one weight is known:

Catalogue:
802. Anonymous, three daḥmās 28.18

The Syrian Umayyad Raṭl Raṭl

In the literature:
Caliph Yazīd III. (Ettinghausen, pp. 73-76) 337.55

Half Raṭl

In the literature:
Caliph 'Abd al-Malik (Jafar 'Abd al-Kader, Berytus 1935, pp. 39-40.) 175.50

Quarter Raṭl

In the literature:
Anonymous, contemporary with the caliph 'Abd al-Malik. Found together with the raṭl weight. (Jafar 'Abd al-Kader, in Berytus 1935, pp. 39-40). 87.00

Exceptional Weight: "Standard of 88 H."

Catalogue: 795. Anonymous (Also published by Jungfleisch, BIE 1956, and CAM. I, 260-261). 291.60

The Raṭl Systems

The evidence points to three major and distinct raṭl systems in use in Egypt. There also occur, as exceptions, two other weight systems, either due to isolated circumstances (Cat. 795, "Standard of the year 88") or to some local tradition (Cat. 802, three daḥmās).

A quite different raṭl of lighter standard was used in Syria under the Umayyads. But this "Syrian Umayyad raṭl" was issued and used in Syria, and not even stray specimens have been found in Egypt.

Our study of the intact pieces in our collection and those in the literature and a comparison of them with the data furnished by Sauvaire leads to the following conclusions:

1. Umayyad raṭl

Our figures indicate that the Umayyads introduced an Egyptian raṭl weighing about 440.00 gm. This early raṭl was kept in use from Qurra b. Sharīk’s governorship until some time during a1-Mansūr’s reign. The equivalent of this early raṭl seems to be in Sauvaire (Vol. 2, Pt. 2, pp. 310-311 of the original pagination; pp. 182-3 of the offprint): a raṭl Mesry of 444 gm. from seven different literary sources but all of the same weight. He also mentions, from yet another source, a raṭl Tunisi, also of exactly the same weight. This is an example of how a weight, when adopted in another country, acquires a new name but remains at the same weight. I also believe that the now lost Louvre raṭl published by Mauss belongs in the same category. It is true that this raṭl weighed only 437.2067 gm. compared with our empirical figure of an even 444.00 gm. or the theoretical weight calculated by Sauvaire (444.9312 gms.). The small loss (ca. 7 gm.) is easily accounted for by the chipping, which is clear on Mauss’s drawing.

We may therefore assume that our early raṭl, Sauvaire’s raṭl Mesry and raṭl Tunisi, as well as Mauss’s Louvre raṭl all belong in the category of what I propose to call the Umayyad raṭl of ca. 444.00 gm

We learn from Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 2, pp. 302-3 of the original pagination) that the wuqiyya of the raṭl Mesry and Tunisi has a theoretical weight of 37.0776 gm. The empirical weight of the early wuqiyya in our collection represented by five intact specimens, is ca. 37.00 gm., a figure which corresponds well enough with the theoretical weight worked out by Sauvaire. The three specimens listed from the literature weigh about one gram less, which is also only a small practical difference. Worked out from the existing wuqiyyas, the weight of the early Umayyad raṭl is confirmed at 37 × 12 = ca. 444.00 gm.

The wuqiyya of this early raṭl is composed of 12 dirhams, which, established on an empirical basis, weigh 3.083 gm. each. This figure is very near the theoretical weight, calculated by Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 1, p. 429) at 3.089 gm. Of course, the ponderal dirham of 3.083 (or 3.089) is not to be confused with the monetary dirham. The latter has peen calculated by Zambaur (see Grohmann, p. 144) at 2.97 gm. and the correctness of this figure empirically confirmed by Miles ("Byzantine Miliaresion," p. 214).

2. The 'Abbāsid raṭl

The early raṭl, at mentioned, was in use from the time of Qurra b. Sharīk onward. However, during the governorship of Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath and the finance-directorship of Nawfal b. Furāt, between 141 and 143 H., a ponderal reform was introduced and the weight of the raṭl drastically reduced from 440. to ca. 397 or 395 gm. The first raṭl weight of this new standard bears, in fact, the joint names of Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath and Nawfal b. Furāt. I propose to call this new raṭl of 397 or 395 gm. the 'Abbāsid raṭl. It remained unchanged throughout the entire 'Abbāsid period and even during the independent Ṭūlūnīd rule.

Documentary evidence of this 'Abbīsid raṭl can be found in Sauvaire, Vol. 2 Pt. 2, pp. 308-309 (original pagination), but there is a complication: two groups, the first a raṭl weighing 395.4944 gm., and a second, weighing 397.260 gm., are rather too close one to the other, to allow an unequivocal attribution. Even when a raṭl weight is in an excellent state of preservation, it is impossible to ascertain its original weight within a margin of one or two grams. Therefore, I tried to establish the weight of the wuqiyya, from existing intact pieces. According to Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 2, p. 302) the wuqiyya of the 397.260 gm raṭl should weight 33.105 gm. and that of the 395.4944 gm. raṭl, 32.957 gm. (my calculation for the latter is 32.91 gm.). But the intact 'Abbāsid wuqiyya weights in this collection (7 specimens) and in the literature (6 specimens) weigh an average of 32.0 gm, which is too low a figure. It would, there be more practical to leave open, at least until further evidence is at hand, the question of which of the two weights, 397.260 gm., or 395.4944 gm., is the true weight of the 'Abbāsid raṭl.

3. The Raṭl kabīr

The third ponderal system used in 'Abbāsid Egypt was that of the raṭl kabīr. Although no mention of it is made in mediaeval Arabic literature and no well-preserved raṭl kabīr or its fraction was known until quite recently (see CAM II Ruthven 33), scholars tried to deduce its weight (see Grohmann, Chrestomathie, p. 152, paragraph 1 and note 5). Grohmann conjectures its weight at ca. 518 gm.

Although intact or well-preserved specimens of this series are still quite rare, we have three, as well at twenty fragments, in the present collection. The present corpus of the raṭl kabīr series consists, of two raṭls, two half and one quarter raṭl. Although the number of the well-preserved specimens is rather small, their weights are quite accurate in relation to the place they occupy in the system.

The full raṭl kabīr, according to our figures, weighs ca. 493.0 gm.; the half, ca. 240 gm. and the quarter, 123.35 gm. Multiplied by four, the quarter has the exact weight of the full raṭl kabīr. The half, somewhat lighter, is less well-preserved.

I believe that I can identify the group of raṭls in Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 2, p.31l)which represent the raṭl kabīr: the raṭl folfoly, that of Qayrawān, of Sevilla, Fez and Tunis, and the raṭl of Fez, Tlemçen and Tunis. They all weigh 494.368 gm. according to Sauvaire’s calculations. The raṭl kabir makes its first appearance on the weights of Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ and his prefect 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ, between 165 and 167 H. The last issue dates from the reign of al-Mutawakkil, around 247 H. In the present collection the raṭl kabīr system is represented by Cat. 339-342, 572, 573-574, 582, 583, 587, 588, 589, 607, 608, 622, 626, 627, 633, 641, 646, 651, 688 and 791.

4. The Syrian Umayyad raṭl

There are no specimens of this system in our collection and only three intact pieces of this series are known from the literature: the half- and quarter-raṭl pieces of the caliph 'Abd al-Malik, described by Jafar 'Abd al-Kader, and the full raṭl of Yazīd III, published by Ettinghausen. The half raṭl bears the name of 'Abd al-Malik, the full raṭl that of Yazīd III and his Syrian prefect; the quarter, although anonymous, is undoubtedly contemporary with 'Abd al-Malik. Fortunately, there exists another full raṭl of 'Abd al-Malik which fits exactly into this weight system. It is a lead disk weighing 337.5 gm. of the transitional Arab-Byzantine style, with 'Abd al-Malik’s protocol and the mint name Filasṭīn.9 Artuk described it as a lead seal, but I am convinced that it is a weight. There is little doubt in my mind that from the reign of 'Abd al-Malik until that of Yazīd III (67-126 H.) a special weight system was used in Syria (Filasṭīn). This is as far as these few documents reach.

The nearest figure to this Syrian Umayyad raṭl is in Sauvaire, Vol. 2. Pt. 2 p. 307, in the 5th row from the bottom. It is listed as the Raṭl roumy (romain) de Sicile (Edrisy), of 346.0576 gm. It seems to belong to the same weight system. Grohmann, Chrestomathie, p. 151, mentions that according to Zambaur (WNZ 1903, p. 319) the lightest Egyptian raṭl weighs 343 gm., a figure even closer to our weights, except that Zambaur speaks of an Egyptian raṭl, and the ones with which we are concerned are Syrian. Pliny says that the Athenian mina consists of one hundred drachmae (or its equivalent denarius, of 3.41 gm. and weighs, therefore, 341.0 gm. This figure seems to be the same as the weight of the Syrian Umayyad raṭl.

End Notes
9
Pliny, NH 21.109.34.

5. Exceptional Weights

The 'iyar of 88 H. (Cat. 795-796) is a controversial piece. When I first published it, I took the date, 88 H., at its face value. This was, however, contested by Miles (CAM I, 260-261), and also by Walker in a private communication. I am now convinced that both Miles’s and Walker’s attribution of the weight to the second or even third century H. is correct.

Miles, as well as Walker, thought that the century has been omitted from the date, as sometimes happens on coins in later times. But I believe now, the number may have another meaning; it could be a reference to the year in which this specific standard (عيار) was instituted: standard of the year 88 H., or more exactly, as engraved on the weight: standard in the year 88 H. This is, of course, only an assumption. I am also tempted to assume that it is identical with the Greek-Byzantine libra of 297.945 gm. listed on the second and third line of Sauvaire Vol. 2 Pt. 2, p. 307. Notably, 297.5 gm. are equivalent to one hundred dirham kayl of ca. 2.97 gm., so that one should consider the standard of 88 H. just that: 100 dirham kayl. It is true that our specimen (Cat. 795) actually weighs only 291.60 gm, but loss of 5-6 gm. surely resulted from the rather extensive oxidation of the superficial layers.

The second category of exceptional weights is the daḥmās or daḥmasās, listed under the weights used by the medical profession in Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 2. pp. 425, 505). Sauvaire refers to the Escurial Ms. of al-Antary, Les piods et les mesures de capacité en usage en médecine. The daḥmās is equivalent to three mithqal or dirakhmy: 9.9315 gm. Our specimen (Cat. 802) seems to be unique.

Accuracy of the Heavy Weights

The mediaeval Egyptian artisans who prepared the small glass weights destined for the control of gold, silver and copper coins, merit the highest praise for skill and accuracy (see Miles, Coin Weights). Discrepancies, whenever they occur, generally do not differ more than a few centigrams, usually only one or two, from the theoretical weight.

The artisans who manufactured the heavy glass weights, which often weighed several hundred grams, also merit our admiration. The heavy wrights are mostly quite accurate, but considering their bulk and the rather primitive manufacturing techniques of their times, one should be prepared to accept, as still within the limits of good workmanship, differences of several percent.

By a fortunate coincidence, I am able to illustrate the small and quite acceptable imperfections of the mediaeval Egyptian glass weights. The present collection contains an intact disk raṭl weight of the early 'Abbāsid prefect 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd (Cat. 440), weighing 433.67 gm. There are also, in this collection, three equally wellpreserved wuqiyya disk weights of the same man (Cat. 442-444). Cat. 442 weighs 37.98 gm.; Cat. 443 37.50 gm. and Cat. 444 37.66 gm. As the wuqiyya multiplied by twelve gives the weight of its raṭl, the raṭl of Cat. 442 would be 455.76 gm., that of Cat. 443 450.00 gm. and, finally the raṭl of Cat. 444 would weigh 451.92 gm. As can be seen, all three wuqiyya weights differ from each other, all are overweight and the raṭl issued by the same official is underweight.

One should, therefore, be somewhat lenient when drawing conclusions from the preserved, intact weights themselves and comparing them with the theoretical weighṭ calculated from information in mediaeval authors. Even so, it is astonishing how small the margin of error generally was.

TABLE 2: Approximate Mean Gram Values of the Coin Weights

Number of specimens Frequency peak Mean weight High Value Low Value
Dinar
between
35 4.21 and 4.23 4.20 4.43 3.99
1/2 Dinar
43 2.09 2.09 2.10 2.08
1/3 Dinar
42 1.40 1.36 1.42 1.35
Dirham
7 2.80 2.84 2.76
1/2 Dirham
1 1.35
Dirham kayl
2 2.95 2.95 2.95 2.92
and one double
dirham kayl

Fals

Number of qīrāṭ or kharrūba Number of specimens Frequency peak Average weight High value Low value Miles’s average
36 7 6.99 7.15 6.92 6.957
35 3 6.83 6.91 6.75
34 1 6.53 6.546
33 6.354
32 31 1 6.19 6.204
31 30 14 5.76 5.87 5.46 5.847
29 5.270
28 2 5.49 5.530
27 2 5.22 5.24 5.21 5.272
26 2 5.00 5.01 5.00 5.075
25 (x 0.2125) 3 5.12 5.16 5.24 5.21 5.144
25 (x 0.1952) 3 4.83 4.83 4.83 4.83 4.873
24 10 4.60 4.83 4.55 4.643
23 7 4.43 4.30 4.44 4.13 4.447
22 2 4.18 4.21 4.15 4.280
21 4.099
20 12 3.96 4.11 3.72 3.975
19 3.730
18 8 3.53 3.65 3.41 3.591
17 2 3.23 3.26 3.21 3.250
16 2.880
15 5 3.00 2.95 3.03 2.85 3.008
14 1 2.65 2.738
13 10 2.47 2.50 2.61 2.46 2.554
12 (shaṭr) 1 2.62 2.313
11 2 2.14 2.16 2.11 2.225
10 1.960
9 1 1.74 1.770

The higher value 25 kharrūba weights seem to be based on the Arabian or Syrian kharrūba of 0.2125 gm. (Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 86, referring to Grierson).

Coin Weights

Most of our systematic knowledge of coin weights is due to George Miles, whose research in this field has left little for future generations of Arabic metrologists to discover. The facts published in his paper on eighth-Century Arab coin weights are based on the exhaustive study of nearly 700 coin weights. Of these, 85 are dinars, 16 dirhams and 587 pieces are fals weights. Of the latter, 423 well-preserved specimens served as a basis of calculation of the exact weight of the kharrūba (or qīuāṭ) and of the fals weights composed of various numbers of kharrūba.

The number of coin weights included in the present collection is, naturally, much more modest. It consists of 231 pieces, of which 120 are dinars and fractions of the dinar, 10 are dirhams and 101 fulūs.

The average weight of our dinar weights is slightly lower than that of Miles, 4.20 gm. against 4.23 gm. Our average of the half dinar (43 specimens) is 2.09 gm. against his 2.12 gm. and the third (42 specimens) is 1.36 gm. against his 1.41 gm. The differences may be due to the inferior state of preservation of our material.

Miles’s study of the dirham is based on 16 specimens. We have only 10 pieces, but they present one or two interesting new features. The average weight of our dirhams is only 2.80 gm., roughly five centigrams less than that of Miles, 2.85 gm.

Four of our dirham weights belong to the Umayyads (Cat. 217 to Yizīd b. Abī Yazīd and Cat. 243-245 to ' Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā) and three to the 'Abbāsids (Cat. 357 to the caliph al-Manṣūr, Cat. 434 to Yazīd b. Ḥātim and Cat. 631, a half dirham, to 'Abd Allāh or 'Ubayd Allā b. Muḥammad).

There are also three pieces of special interest, dirhams kayl or legal dirham weights: Cat. 680 belongs to Ītākh al-Turkī, Cat. 834 is anonymous and Cat. 925 has the name of an unknown amīr, al-Ḥasan b. Mu’ādh.

The Umayyad and 'Abbāsid dirham weights were issued well before the Fusṭāṭ mint started to strike silver dirhams in 172 H. (see Miles "Coin Weights," p. 83). This is an indication that silver, although of extraneous origin, was circulating in Egypt at a very early date. The weights of the glass dirham coin weights, those published by Miles as well as ours, are curiously and constantly lighter than the circulating Umayyad and early 'Abbāsd silver dirhams and stayed between 2.80 and 2.85 gm., 10 to 15 centigrams less than the actual silver coins. For the present there seems to be no explanation for this anomaly.

There exists, however, a special dirham glass weight, the dirham kayl, which conforms exactly to the silver dirhams. Although intact dirham kayl weights are extremely rare (only two simple and one double dirham kayl weights have been preserved), the weight of the single glass dirham kayl is exactly 2.95 gm. the same figure as that established by Miles for the silver coins. (Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 83 and "Byzantine Miliaresion," p. 213).

Cat. 434 has the legend "dirham of two-thirds" and weights 2.76 gm., which may signify that the piece weighs, according to the law, two-thirds of a mithqāl (2.834 gm.); the difference between the two figures (7 centigrams) is negligible.

This dirham of two-thirds of 2.80-2.85 gm. may explain that the other ordinary dirham glass weights, also of 2.80-2.85, were issued according to the same regulations. It definitely does not justify their existence at a time when there were the glass dirhams kayl of 2.95 gm. and when all the silver coins weighed ca. 2.95 gm.

There are also several "dirhams of 13 kharrūba." As Miles pointed out, they should not be considered dirhams, but 13 kharrūba fals weights. In these cases the word dirham is only an engraver’s error, or rather, the popular expression used generally for money. (Cat. 282-284, 296-291, 388).

Our series of fals weights consists of 101 pieces. The highest value is 36 kharrūba (or its equivalent the qīrāṭ), the lowest 9. The glass fals weights which are inscribed with various multiples of the kharrūba or qīrāṭ were hitherto considered as different fals weights, according to the number of their kharrūba. They have been constantly referred to as: a fals of 36, or 32, or 25, or 18, etc. This would mean that there is no fals unit of fixed value, and that the word is a vague name for a piece of copper, the undefined weight of which is only determined by the number of kharrūbas it contains.

I am convinced, however, that this is not so and that the fals is a well-determined weight unit of fixed value. I think that the complete fals consists of 36 kharrūbas. There are no fals weights of a denomination higher than 36 kharrūbas, and the fals weights containing smaller number of kharrūbas are fractions of the complete 36 kharrūba fals. For example, the 35-kharrūba fals is 35/36th of the complete fals unit, the 25-kharrūbr fals is 25/36th of the complete fals. There is another argument in favor of the 36-kharrūba full fals: we have a half fals of 18 qīrāṭ (Cat. 821).

Petrie’s coin weight No 249, which weighs 10.57 gm, would then be a unique example of a one and one-half fals weight. According to Miles ("Coin Weights," p. 85) it should have the theoretical weight of 7.027 gm. +3.514 gm. = 10.541 gm. Therefore, Petrie’s specimen would not be incompatible with our theory, if it were a one and one-half fals piece, and if the full fals really is composed of 36 kharrūba. And, of course, I have no explanation to offer for the "half fulūs" mentioned by Miles ("Coin Weights," p.87) of 17, 15 and 9, except that نصف has been engraved instead of شطر, by mistake or negligence.

It is correctly assumed by Miles ("Coin Weights," p. 86) that the glass fals weights were destined to weigh copper coins and not gold or silver, and that copper was not a fiduciary currency but was accepted by weight based on its intrinsic value.

On some weights the word shaṭr, شطر, occurs (see Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 84). Shaṭr means "half" or "part" and occurs on "... the 22 kharrūba and on ... the 12 kharrūba." On these weights shaṭr can only mean part, because neither 22 nor 12 kharrūba are half of the complete, 36 kharrūba fals. On the other hand, we have in this collection an anonymous weight (Cat. 828) marked shaṭr of 18 qīrāṭ, for which the translation "half" would be correct. The word nisf, نصف, "one-half," in connection with 17 qīrāṭ (Cat. 84) and 9 qīrāṭ (Cat. 833) can only be part or portion and not half of a complete fals. (See Miles, "Coin Weights," pp. 83-84).

A "fals al-kabīr" was mentioned by Miles ("Coin Weights," p. 83; it occurs on some of the 30-kharrūba pieces (Cat. 152-155), but as their weight is about the same as that of the ordinary 30-kharrūba fulūs (Miles found a difference of three centigrams above the normal weight), he had no explanation for the special mame. Neither have I. They may be part of the raṭl kabīr issues.

Names of Substances on Heavy Weights

Three substances are named on some of the heavy weighs. These are لحم, meat; عنب, grapes; and عنب, jujube. Meat occurs on seven issues, all of them early. Grapes is found on three emissions and jujube on one only. These three substances are not pharmaceuticals which are found in great numbers and variety on the vessel stamps, but rather the simple market products. This is the reason why they are on weights and not on the stamps of vessels which were reserved for the sale of drugs. There can be no doubt that meat is not a medicine, nor, most probably, are the two other substances, although the fruit of the jujube has been used as a drug. But then other vegetables which normally are consumed as foodstuffs have also been prescribed as medicaments. At one time I thought that the word written العس, was to be read as العس, which is the expression for unminted gold or silver, and that the heavy weight on which it occured, was a special raṭl for precious metal. Although I now accept Grohmann’s and Miles’s reading, grapes, I am still a little skeptical, because I do not understand why a commodity of such little economic importance should have deserved a special raṭl with its name inscribed in the legend.

Erroneous Denominations

Although the denominations on the weights are mostly correct, errors occur from time to time and on examination of a glass weight one should always check the denomination against the actual weight (of course, only when a weight is intact or at least very well-preserved). Errors are relatively few, when we consider the great number of preserved specimens, but I found in this collection twelve faultily "labelled" weights, of which four are coin weights and eight heavy weights. They are as follows.:

Coin weights:

Catalogue:

84. This is a half fals of 17 qīrāṭ (it should weigh 18 qīrāṭ).

158. Although a fals of 32 kharrūba, the legend is: raṭl.

495. According to the inscription, it is a fals of 33 kharrūba, but it weighs only 28.

808. This bears the Coptic figures for 26 kharrūba, but the actual weight is that of 28.

Heavy weights:

592. Labelled as one wuqiyya, this weighs one and a half.

648. Notwithstanding the legend: raṭl kabīr , this is a later 'Abbāsid double raṭl.

651. Although labelled as a half raṭl kabīr, it is a normal 'Abbāsid raṭl.

791. Inscriped one-quarter raṭl, the weight is that of a half raṭl kabīr.

799-800. Both pieces have the legend wuqiyya kabīr , but are 'Abbāsid double wuqiyya weights.

804. Labelled one-haf wuqiyya, it weighs a full wuqiyya.

805. This piece is inscribed one-quarter wuqiyya and is really a half-wuqiyya weight.

807. This is the most curious piece of all. An oval disc, it bears the legend one-quarter dirham kayl, three times repeated, and in reality, is a half wuqiyya.

End Notes

3
Jungfleisch, "Les raṭls discoides en verre," BIE 10 (1927-8, publ. 1929), pp. 62-3.
4
See Paul Balog, "Poids fatimites en plomb," RBN 1959, pp. 171-88.
5
Bruno Kisch, "Weights and Scales in Mediaeval Scandinavia," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (New Haven, Apr. 1959), pp. 165-6, briefly published one of al-Mustanṣir and there are several, as yet unpublished, in my own collection.
6
Flinders Petrie, Glass Stamps and Weights Illustrated from the Egyptian Collection of University College, London (London, 1926), p. 18. nos. 175-6.
7
Jungfleisch. "Raṭls," pp. 61-71.
8
Ibrahim Artuk, "Emevilerden Halife Abdülmalik bin Mervan Adina Kesilmiş Eşsiz Bir Kurşun Mühür," Belleten 1952, pp. 21-5 illus.

ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURES

Measure Stamps

A substantial part of the collection consists of vessel stamps, 413 specimens distributed as follows: Umayyads 178, 'Abbāsids 130, Ṭūlūnids 4, unidentified 'Abbāsid officials 15 and anonymous 86.

The measure stamps can also be grouped in the following categories: Those which show the protocol of officials and the name of a substance, with or without the name of the measure of capacity of the vessel. Or those on which, after the names of the officials, only the measure of capacity is mentioned.

From a very early date, it became usual to affix two stamps to the rim of the vessel, one with the name of the drug and another with the short protocol of the official responsible for the manufacture of the pharmaceutical measure of capacity. The latter stamp is called the "executive stamp." We have a few specimens which are composed of a segment of the rim of the bottle, with the two stamps still attached to it side by side.

The apposition of drug stamp and executive stamp on the vessels started under Yazīd b. Abī-Yazīd (Cat. 221) who was Umayyad prefect and also finance director between 116 and 128 H. The latest stamp with the name of the measure of capacity dates from the governorship of 'Alī b. Sulaymān, between 169 and 171 H., but the stamps with an official’s protocol and the name of drugs ceased before this date. For the period after 171 H. through the entire 'Abbāsid period and also under the Ṭūlūnids, only executive stamps have survived. Some of the drug stamps may also result from this later epoch.

It has already been stated that it was Miles who recognized that the stamps with names of substances were, in reality, labels for pharmaceutical containers and not simple markers for seeds, fruit, vegetabas and other market products. Over one hundred drags are listed in Miles, "Pharm." and these seem to represent the pharmaceuticals which were prescribed in the everyday medical practice of the eighth and ninth centuries A.D. As there were about 3000 different drugs known to the authors of Arabic medical works, those substances on the glass must have been only the most frequently dispensed medicaments.

Notwithstanding the large number of drugs listed by Miles, we can present 12 hitherto unpublished drug names from the vessel stamps in this collection. They are the following:

ارمل, or ارمال, cinnamon

ارمال, myrtle

اسقرقة, or سقرقة, wine of the Abyssinians

الاكليل, rosemary

جلبان الاسود, black vetch

جلبان الاسود, sarsaparilla

الرخم, sour milk

الطيبخ, cooked milk

عدس الاسود, black lentils

مثنين, or مثنان, spurge flax

المرى, garum

يذقة, dwarf elder

On most vessel stamps, except on the purely executive ones, the quantity of the content is marked. The most common measure of capacity is the qisṭ or its fractions (1/2, 1/4). Otherwise, the measure is the mikyala (mikyal or, more frequently mikyāl), the value of which is uncertain; In a few cases, however, the mikyala is specified as containing: One-half raṭl of whey (Cat. 897), or two and one-half raṭl of sarsaparilla (Cat. 866), or simply a mikyala of two raṭl (Cat. 914). The word mikyala is sometimes omitted and then the stamp reads: One half raṭl of grease (Cat. 171, 190), or on other stamps substances is marked in ounces: wuqiyya of grease (Cat. 603).

An enigmatic measure of capacity is the qisṭ al-kabīr (Cat. 919), of which there are also fractions: half (Cat. 920-921) and quarter (Cat. 922). The mikyāl al-kabīr (Cat. 288-289) also belongs here. These measures of capacity of the "kabīr" system must belong with the raṭl kabīr and the fals kabīr systems. But whereas we now know, more or less exactly weight in grams of the raṭl al-kabīr and its fractions, there are no documents to indicate the value in grams or cubic centimeters of the qisṭ or mikyāl al-kabīr. In other words, there are several intact weights of the kabīr system, but no intact measures of capacity.

The only indications of how much a qisṭ al-kabīr weighed (and not what its content expressed in measure of capacity) is in Sauvaire (Pt. 2, p. 442, lines 2-4): it was equivalent to 4 raṭls of 397.26 gm. (the later 'Abbāsid raṭl) = 1589.04 gm.

Another measure of capacity, about which nothing but its name is known at present, is the qisṭān, The qisṭān occurs as a half qisṭān, on Cat. 159-161, and as a quarter qisṭān on Cat. 162-169. Miles tentatively interpreted the word قسطان as two qisṭ, but at the same time remarked that it seems unlikely that the engraver intended to write "half of two qisṭ." (CAM I, p. 51). Launois (Cairo, pp. 60-64) translated the word قسطان as musṭār, مسطار, or grape juice or must, which is evidently a mistake. Qisṭān, قسطان, or qisṭār (?), قسطار, is probably a special measure of capacity not mentioned in Sauvaire. There is, however, qesṭes, قسطس, which should be the same as qisṭ, قسط.

Another measure of capacity, although known to Sauvaire, has never before been met with on the glass: it is the rub’ ربع, or the rub’a, ربعة. For discussion, see our Cat. 59-60. Finally, an equally rare measure of capacity must be mentioned; the thumn, ثمن, which occurs only on Cat. 600.

Intact Measures Of Capacity

Very few intact measures of capacity have been preserved and those extant are all small, only fractions of the unit, the qisṭ. I know of only seven specimens, but there may be more, especially in the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo. At the present, the following complete measures are known to me:

  • With lateral stamp, on it: قسط واف, qisṭ wāf. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Published by Florence E. Day "An Umayyad Pharmacist’s Measuring Cup," (May 1953), p. 259. Height: 70 mm. Capacity 50 cc.
  • Milts, "Pharm." Fig. 1. Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, Inventory no. 14646. With lateral stamp, on its: مكيلة Capacity 60 cc. نفيس زيت
  • Miles, "Pharm." Fig. 2. H. D. Colt coll. Capacity 5.9 cc.
  • Miles, "Pharm." Fig. 3. Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo. Capacity 3.0 cc.
  • Balog coll., unpublished. Small jug with handle (32 × 40 mm.), stamp missing from spot where the upper branch of the handle joined the rim. Thin wall. Capacity 24 cc.
  • Balog coll., unpublished. Mortar shaped vessel with thick walls and pushed up bottom, no handle. (58 × 58 mm.). One stamp (16 mm.) on the rim, one underneath. Surfaces corroded, so that the capacity, now of 21 cc., may have been of 20 cc. originally. No inscription on the stamps, effaced by the corrosion. Green.
  • Balog coll., unpublished. Phiole or situla-shaped small measure, with handle and rim. Stamp on the side opposite the handle. Total length 55 mm., width near the neck 17, and near the rounded bottom 22. On the stamp:(مكليل(ة Capacity 9.75 cc. Pale green. واف

It will be noted that of the seven measures, one has the legend qisṭ wāf, another mikyala wāf and a third, mikyala zayt nafīs. The inscriptions on the other four have been effaced or are missing. Therefore, only three could be useful in calculating the relationship with the corresponding qisṭ or mikyala. The fact that on the specimen of the Metropolitan Museum قسط واف is written, does not mean that this is a complete qisṭ. It is evidently a fraction. Such inaccuracies occur quite often.

At this stage, the few existing intact measures of capacity are not sufficient to reconstruct the value of the qisṭ, especially as four out of seven specimens bear no indication of the container’s nature and denomination, and two are mikyalas, which probably only means a receptacle without any fixed value.

In this regard, one cannot use Sauvaire’s text (Pt. 2, pp. 439-444) with any degree of confidence, in the absence of archaeological material. But it probably is simpler than the manifold data in Sauvaire suggest, just as the weight systems used in Egypt proved simpler than the impression given in his "Matériaux."


CHRONOLOGY OF THE OFFICIALS IDENTIFIED IN THE CATALOGUE

Umayyads

  • Qurra b. Sharīk, governor, 90-6 H./ A.D. 709-14.
  • Usāma b. Zayd, finance director, 96-9 H./ A.D. 714-17; interim governor, 102 H./ A.D. 720-1.
  • Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ, finance director, 99-101 H./ A.D. 717-20 (probably later, until ca. 102 or 104 H.)
  • Caliph Yazīd II. 101-5 H./ A.D. 720-4.
  • 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, finance director, 102-116 H./ A.D. 720-34.
  • Junāda b. Maysara, prefect, 111 H./ A.D. 729-30.
  • Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd, governor, 108 H./ A.D. 727; governor, 124-7 H./ A.D. 742-4; finance director, 124-5 H./ A.D. 742-3; governor, 127-8 H./ A.D. 745-6.
  • Al-Qāsim b. 'Ubaya Allāh, finance director, 116-24 H./ A.D. 734-42.
  • Muslim b. al-’Arrāf, prefect, 119 H./ A.D. 737.
  • Ẓaffār b. Shaba, prefect, 122-3 H./ A.D. 740-1.
  • Dāwūd b. al-Murr, prefect, 123 H./ A.D. 740-1.
  • Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd, prefect, ca. 116-7 H./ A.D. 734-45.; finance director 127-8 H./A.D. 745.
  • 'Isā b. Abī 'Aṭā, finance director, 125-7 H./ A.D. 743-5; 128-31 H./ A.D. 745-9.
  • Yazīd b. Tamīm, prefect, 128-32 H./ A.D. 745-9.
  • 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, finance director, 131-2 H./ A.D. 749; governor, 132-3 H./ A.D. 748-50.
  • Mukhallad b. Yaḥyā (or: Mukhallad and Yaḥyā?) under 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān
  • Ka’b b. 'Alqama, prefect, ca. 131-3 H./ A.D. 748-50.

'Abbāsids

  • Āl Muḥmmad, propaganda name of the 'Abbāsid dynasty, probably at beginning of their rule.
  • Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl, prefect, 133- ca. 152 H./ A.D. 749-69.
  • Sāliḥ b. 'Alī, governor, 133 H./ A.D. 750-1; 136-7 H./ A.D. 753-5.
  • al-Lūqa, executive, 133 H./ A.D. 750, or 136 H./ A.D. 753.
  • 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, governor and finance director, 133-6 H./ A.D. 751-3; 137-41 H./ A.D. 755-8.
  • 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ, prefect, ca. 133-41 H./ A.D. 751-8; ca. 165-9 H./ A.D. 781-6.
  • Caliph al-Manṣūr, 136-58 H./ A.D. 754-75.
  • Mūsā b. Ka’b, governor and finance director, 141 H./ A.D. 758-9.
  • Maymūn b. Ka’b, prefect, presumably for his brother (?) Mūsā b. Ka’b, ca. 141 H./ A.D. 758-9.
  • Nawfal b. Furāt, finance director, 141-3 H./ A.D. 759-60.
  • Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn, prefect, 141-3 H./ A.D. 759-60.
  • Muḥammad? b. al Ash’alh, governor, 141-3 H./ A.D. 759-60.
  • 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd, prefect, 141-52 H./ A.D. 759-69.
  • Kāmil, lesser official, ca. 141-52 H./ A.D. 759-69.
  • Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba, governor, 143-4 H./ A.D. 760-2.
  • Yazīd b. Ḥātim, governor, 144-52 H./ A.D. 762-9.
  • 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid, prefect, 141-3 H./ A.D. 759-60.
  • Sa’īd b. al-Musayyib, prefect, sometime between 144-52 H. / A.D. 761-9 and 152-7 H. / A.D. 769-73.
  • Salma, prefect, ca. 144-57 H. / A.D. 762-74.
  • Sawīris, lesser official, ca. 144-57 H. / A.D. 762-74.
  • Ibrāhīm b. 'Abd Allāh, executive, 145 H. / A.D. 762.
  • Muḥammad b. Sa’īd, governor, 152-7 H. / A.D. 769-73.
  • 'Umar b. Yaḥyā, prefect, 152-7 H. / A.D. 769-74.
  • 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm, prefect, 152-5 H. / A.D. 769-71.
  • Qulayba b. Ziyād, prefect, 152-7 H. / A.D. 769-71; 157-9 H. / A.D. 773-5.
  • Caliph al-Mahdī, 158-69 H. / A.D. 775-85.
  • Muḥmmad b. 'Amr, prefect, sometime during al-Manṣūr’s or al-Mahdī’s reign.
  • Yaḥyā, mawlā of al-Mahdi, sometime between 158 and 169 H. / A.D. 775-85. If identical with Abū Sāliḥ Yaḥyā, then: 162-3 H. / A.D. 778-9. In any case, this is a true mawlā.
  • Maṭar, governor, 157-9 H. / A.D. 773-5. Also a True mawlā.
  • 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Tamīm, prefect under Matar, 157-9 H. / A.D. 773-5?
  • Muḥammed b. Sulaymān, prefect, later governor, 159-61 H. / A. D. 775-7.
  • al-Muhājir, in charge of manufacture, 159-61 H. / A.D. 775-77, and probably after 161 H. prefect.
  • Abū Bakr b. Tamīm, prefect, 159-61 H. / A.D. 775-7.
  • 'Isā b. Luqmān, governor, 161-2 H. / A.D. 777-8.
  • 'Imrān b. 'Utba, prefect, 161-2 H. / A.D. 777-8.
  • Wāḍiḥ, mawlā of al-Manṣūr, governor and finance director, 162 H. / A.D. 778. A true mawlā. Earlier, prefect.
  • 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Maysara, deputy prefect, 162 H. / A.D. 778; prefect, 167-8 H. / A.D. 784-5.; 169-71 H. / A.D. 786-7.
  • Ismā’īl b. lbrāhīm, finance director, 164 H. / A.D. 780.
  • Yaḥyā b. Sa’īd, prefect, 164 H. / A.D. 780.
  • Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ, governor, 165-7 H. / A.D. 781-4; finance director, 174 H. / A.D. 790-1; governor and finance director, 176 H. / A.D. 792.
  • 'Abd Allāh b. Yazīd, prefect, 165-7 H. / A.D. 781-4 or 174 H. / A.D. 790-1, or 176 H. / A.D. 792.
  • Mūsā b. al-Mus’ab, governor and finance director, 167-8 H. / A.D. 784-5.
  • al-Faḍl b. Ṣāliḥ, governor and finance director, 168-9 H. / A.D. 785-6.
  • 'Alī b. Sulaymān, governor, 169-71 H. / A.D. 786-7.
  • Mu’āwiya b. Mawlā-Muḥsin, prefect, 169-71 H. / A.D. 786-7.
  • Mūsā b. 'Isā, governor, 171-2 H. / A.D. 787-8; 175-6 H. / A.D. 791-2; 179-80 H. / A.D. 795-6.
  • Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim, prefect, ca. 171-82 H. / A.D. 787-98., under Layth b. al-Faḍl, 182 H. / A.D. 798 and under Mahfūẓ b. Sulaymān, 187-9 H. / A.D. 802-4.
  • Mūsā b. Sābiq, prefect, sometime between 171 and 180 H. / A.D. 787-96.
  • Hilāl b. al-Ḥasan, prefect, 173-4 H. / A.D. 789-90.
  • Hāshim b. Sālim, executive, 171-2 H. / A.D. 787-8 or 175-6 H. / A.D. 791-2 or 179-80 H.
  • Nāṣiḥ, executive, partner of Hāshim B. Salim, and his contemporary in office.
  • Ḥuwayy b. Ḥuwayy governor, probably 176-9 H. / A.D. 792-5.
  • 'Umar b. Ghaylān, finance director, 173-4 H. / A.D. 789-90. or
  • 'Umar b. Mihrān, governor, 176 H. / A.D. 792.
  • Isḥāq b. Sulaymān, governor, 177-8 H. / A.D. 793-4.
  • al-Layth b. al-Faḍl, governor, 182 H. / A.D. 798; 187 H. / A.D. 802.
  • 'Abd al-’Azīz b. Ḥumayd, prefect under al-Layth b. al Faḍl, 182 H. / A.D. 798, or 187 H. / A.D. 802.
  • Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān, finance Director, 187-9 H. / A.D. 802-4.
  • 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ, prefect, ca. 187-9 H. / A.D. 802-4.
  • 'Abd Allāh or 'Ubayd Allāh b. Muḥammad, prefect, then governor, 189-90 H. / A.D. 804-5.
  • Al-Khaṣīb b. 'Abd al-Ḥamīd, finance director, 190-1 H. / A.D. 805-6.
  • Mukarram b. Khālid, prefect under al-Khaṣīb b. 'Abd al-Ḥamīd.
  • al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl, governor, 190-2 H. / A.D. 805-7.
  • 'Alī B. al-Safradī, prefect for al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl and Mālik B. Dalham, between 190 and 193 H. / A.D. 805-8.
  • 'Abd Allāh b. Abī Bakr, prefect under al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl.
  • Mālik b. Dalham, governor and finance director (22 Rabī’ II 192-4 Ṣafar 193 H. / Feb. 24-Nov; 27. A.D. 808.
  • 'Abd Allāh b. 'Isā, prefect, 192-4 H. / A.D. 807-9.
  • Caliph al-Amīn, 193-8 H. / A.D. 808-13.
  • al-Ḥasan b. al-Baḥbāḥ, governor, 193-4 H. / A.D. 808-10.
  • Jābir b. al-Ash’ath, governor, 195-6 H. / A.D. 811-12.
  • Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, prefect, 195-6 H. / A.D. 811-12.
  • al-’Abbās b. Mūsā, governor, 198-9 H. / A.D. 813-14.
  • Caliph al-Ma’mūn, 198-218 H. / A.D. 813-33.
  • 'Abd Allāh (b. Ṭāhir?), governor, 211-13 H. / A.D. 826-8 (?)
  • al-Muṭṭalib b. 'Abd Allāh, governor, 198 H. / A.D. 813-4; 199-200 H. / A.D. 814-5.
  • Abū Bakr b. Junāda, prefect under al-Muṭṭalib and under al-Sarī b. al-Ḥakam.
  • Ḥārith b. Zur’a, executive, with title of mawlā, 199-200 H. / A.D. 814-5.
  • Sulaymān b. Aflaḥ, executive, 199-200 H. / A.D. 814-5.
  • Muḥammad b. al-Sarī, governor, 205-6 H. / A.D. 820-1.
  • 'Abdawayh b. Jabala, prefect, 212-3 H. / A.D. 827-8; governor, 215-6 H. / A.D. 830-1.
  • 'Isā b. Manṣūr, prefect, Sha 'bān 215-6 H. / A.D. 830-1; governor, with title of mawlā, 216-7 H. / A.D. 831-2.
  • Caliph al-Mu’taṣim), 218-27 H. / A.D. 833-42.
  • Abū-Ja 'far Ashinās, viceroy, with title mawlā, 219-30 H. / A.D. 834-44.
  • Mūsā b. Abi’l-’Abbās, governor, 219-24 H. / A.D. 834-8.
  • Mālik b. Kaydur, governor, with title of mawlā, 224-6 H. / A.D. 838-40.
  • 'Alī b. Yaḥyā al-Armanī, governor, with title of mawlā, 226-9 H. / A.D. 840-3; 234-5 H. / A.D. 848-9.
  • Caliph al-Wāthiq, 227-32 H. / A.D. 841-6.
  • Itākh al-Turkī, viceroy, with title of mawlā, 230-5 H. / A.D. 844-9.
  • Caliph al-Mutawakkil, 232-47 H. / A.D. 846-61.
  • Sulaymān b. Waḥb (or: ..?.. b. Sulaymān), prefect or executive, under al-Mutawakkil.
  • Harthama b. Naḍr Jabalī, prefect before 230 H. / A.D. 844; governor, 233-4 H. / A.D. 847-9. With title of mawlā.
  • 'Alī b. Muḥammad, prefect under al-Mutawakkil.
  • Ḥātim b. Harthama, governor, 234 H. / A.D. 848-49.
  • Isḥāq b. Yaḥya, governor, with title of mawlā, 235-6 H. / A.D. 849-50.
  • Khūṭ 'Abd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyā, governor, with title of mawlā, 236-8 H. / A.D. 850-2. Zakariya and 'Isā, sons of Yaḥyā, government clerks, 237 H. / A.D., 851, or before.
  • Ḥamza b. al-Mughīra, government clerk, 237 H. / A.D. 851.
  • 'Anbasa b. Isḥāq, governor, 238-42 H./ A.D. 852-6.
  • al-Ḥusayn b. al Ẓafar al-Mutaqannit, prefect under 'Anbasa b. Isḥāq, ca. 238-42 H. / A.D. 852-6.
  • Yazid b. 'Abd Allāh, governor, with title of mawlā, 242-53 H. / A.D. 856-67.
  • al-Ḥasan b. Abi’l-Maḥāsin, prefect, ca. 242-53 H. / A.D. 856-67.
  • Muzāḥim b. Khāqān, governor, with title of mawlā, 253-4 H. / A.D. 867-8.

Ṭūlūnids

  • Aḥmad b. Tūlūn, governor, with title of mawlā, 254-66 H. / A.D. 868-79; ruler, 266-70 H. / A.D. 879-83.
  • Khumārawayh b. Aḥmad, ruler, with title of mawlā, 270-82 H. / A.D. 883-95.
  • Hārūn. b. Khumārawayh, ruler, 283-92 H. / A.D. 896-904.

A Note Concerning The Illustrations

To get reasonably clear pictures of the inscriptions from photographs taken directly of the glass pieces themselves would have been an extremely difficult task. Therefore, I used plaster casts which are easier and quicker to photograph. I also employed a special technique which had already served me well in the photographing of badly worn or dark Islamic copper coins, that shading with graphite. The prominent patrs of the coins or the glass (primarily the inscriptions) are very delicately treated with graphite, which has been rubbed onto the tip of one’s finger. Then the graphite is passed onto the surface of the cast with very slight strokes. It is important not to apply any pressure, otherwise not only the prominent parts of the inscriptions, but also the whole surface between them, become dark, and the purpose of the treatment is defeated. When correctly applied the legends stand out very clearly from the background.

To show well-preserved, complete ring weights in lateral view, and one very large disk weight in frontal view, direct photographs of the glass were preferred. On some weights the inscriptions are much effaced and would not have been visible; we therefore decided not to reproduce them. Others are not illustrated since the surface of the glass was too brittle, and the making of a cast would have seriously damaged the already precarious state of the legends. Some varieties are already well known from illustrations in other publications; these have been omitted from the plates. On the other hand, quite a few hitherto unpublished or otherwise interesting pieces have been illustrated in served specimens.

More than half of the photographs were made with the affectionate help of my wife.


THE CATALOGUE

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS

'Abd al-Kader — Amīr Jafar 'Abd al-Kader, "Monnaies et poids in verre inédits," Mélanges syriens offerts à M. R. Dussaud (Paris, 1939), pp. 399-419.
Ahmed Issa — Ahmed Issa Bey, Dictionnaire des noms des plantes en latin, français, anglais et arabe, Cairo, 1930.
Balog, "Estampilles" — Paul Balog, "Quelques estampilles en verre arabes du huitième siècle A.D. avec les noms de drogues," JESHO 6 (1963), pp. 219-27.
Bedevian — A. K. Bedevian, Illustrated Polyglottic Dictionary of Plant Names, Cairo, 1936.
Belot — J. Belot, Vocabulaire arabe-français, 17th ed., Beirut, 1955.
Bernard, Samuel, Notice sur les poids arabes anciens et modernes, Paris, 1817.
BIEBulletin de l’Institut d’Egypte, Cairo.
BMC — Stanley Lane-Poole: Catalogue of Arabic Glass Weights in the British Museum , London, 1893.
CAM I — George C. Miles, Contributions to Arab Metrology. Early Arabic Glass Weights and Measure Stamps Acquired by the American Numismatic Society, 1951-1956 , (ANSNNM 141), New York, 1958.
CAM II. Benaki — George C. Miles, Contributions to Arabic Metrology. Early Arabic Glass Weights and Measure Stamps in the Benaki Museum, Athens, and the Peter Ruthven Collection, Ann Arbor. First Part: The Benaki Collection, (ANSNNM 150), New York 1963, pp. 1-27.
CAM II. Ruthven — George C. Miles, Contributions to Arabic Metrology. Early Arabic Glass Weights and Measure Stamps in the Benaki Museum, Athens, and the Peter Ruthven Collection, Ann Arbor. Second Part: The Peter Ruthven Collection, (ANSNNM 150), New York, 1963,pp. 28-57.
Casanova — Paul Casanova, Catalogue des pièces de verre d’èpoque byzantine et arabe de la collection Fouquet, (Mémoires publiés par les membres de la mission archéologique française au Caire 6), Paris, 1893.
Casanova, "Poids" — Paul Casanova, "Étude sur les inscriptions arabes des poids et mesures en verre (Collections Fouquet et Innes)," BIE Ser. 3 Vol. 2 (1891), pp. 89-121.
Ducros — A. H. Ducros, Essai sur le droguier populaire arabe de l’inspéctorat des pharmacies du Caire, (Mémoires de l’Instiut d’Égypte 15), Cairo, 1930.
Dudzus, "Gewichte" — Wolfgang Dudzus, "Umayyadische gläserne Gewichte und Eichstempel aus Ägypten in den Berliner Museen," Aus der Welt der Islamischen Kunst Festschrift für Ernst Kühnel, (Berlin, 1960), pp. 275-82.
Dudzus, "Glasstempel" — Wolfgang Dudzus, "Frühe Umayyadische Glasstempel aus Ägypten," FB (1961), pp. 18-24.
EAG I — George C. Miles, Early Arabic Glass Weights and Stamps, (ANSNNM 111), New York, 1948.
EAG II — George C. Miles, Early Arabic Glass Weights and Stamps. A Supplement, (ANSNNM 120), New York, 1951.
Ettinghausen, Richard, "An Umayyad Pound Weight," Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 2 (Baltimore, 1939, pp. 73-6.
Fahmy — 'Abd al-Rahmān Fahmy Muḥammad, Ṣinaj al-Sikkah fi Fajr al-Islām [Early Islamic Coin Weights], Cairo, 1957.
al-Ghāfiqi — M. Meyerhof and G. Sobhy, The Abridged Version of the "Book of Simple Drugs" of Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghāfiqi by Gregorius Abu’l Faraj (Barhebraeus) Cairo, 1932.
Grabar, Oleg, The Coinage of the Ṭūlūnids, (ANSNNM 139), New York, 1957.
Grohmann — Adolf Grohmann, "Arabische Eichungsstempel, Glasgewichte und Amulette aus Wiener Sammlungen," Islamica 1 (Leipzig, 1925), pp. 145-226.
Grohmann, Chrestomathie — Adolf Grohmann, Einführung und Chrestomathie zur Arabischen Papyruskunde, Prague, 1954.
Heuser, G., "Die Personnennamen der Kopten," Studien zur Epigraphik und Papyruskunde Vol. 1, No 2 (Leipzig, 1929), pp. 103, 105.
Hiez, Walter, Islamische Masse und Gewichte, Leiden, 1955.
Honigberner, Johann Martin, Früchte aus dem Morgenlande oder Reise-Erlebnisse, Vienna, 1853.
IB — Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb al-Jamī’ li-Mulradūl al-Adwīya. Translated by L. Leclerc, Notices et Extraits dus Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale Vols. 23, 25 and 26, Paris, 1877-83.
Jungfleisch, "Poids" — Marcel C. Jungfleisch, "Un Poids et une Estampille sur verre detant d’Ahmed ibn Touloun," BIE 30 (1947-8, publ. 1948), pp. 1-9.
Jungfleisch "Ratls" — Macrel C. Jungfleisch, "Les ratls discoïdes en verre," BIE 10 (1927-8, publ. 1929), pp. 61-71.
Jungfleisch, BIE 1956 — Marcel C. Jungfleisch, "Le système pondéral islamique dit "Kebir"," BIE 38 (1955-6, publ. 1956), pp. 303-6.
Kazimirsky 1860 — Albert de Bieberstein-Kazimirsky, Dictionnaire arabe-française, 2nd edition, Paris, 1860.
al-Kindī — al-Kindī, Governors and Judges of Egypt, edited by R. Guest, London/ Leiden, 1912.
Kisch, Bruno, "Weights and Scales in Mediaeval Scandinavia," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (New Haven, Apr. 1959), pp. 165-6.
Kmietowicz, Anna, "Dénéraux et poids musulmans an verre conservés dans les musées da Pologne," Folia Orient 1 (1959), pp. 135-41.
Lane — Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, London, 1863-93.
Launois, Cairo — Aimée Launois, Estampilles et poids faibles en verre Omeyyades et Abbasides au Musée Arabe du Caire, (Mélanges Islamologiques, Institut Français d’Aarchéologie Orientale, 3), Cairo, 1956.
Launois, C.d.M. — Aimée Launois, Estampilles et poids en verre du Cabinet des Métailles, (Art Islamique, Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 4), Cairo, 1959).
Launois, C.d.M. Suppl. — Aimée Launois, "Estampilles et poids en verre musulmans du Cabinet des Médailles," Maspéro, pp. 53-67.
Launois, Maspéro — Aimée Launois, Catalogue des étalons monétaires et autres pièces musulmanes en verre de la collection Jean Maspéro, Paris, 1960.
Maimonides — Max Meyerhof, Ṣarḥ al-Asm’a al-’Uqqār. Un glossaire de matière mèdicale composé de Maimonide, (Mémoires da l’Institut d’Égypte, 41), Cairo, 1940.
Miles, "Byzantine Miliaresion" — George C. Miles, "Byzantine Miliaresion and Arab Dirhem," ANSMN 9 (1960), pp. 189-218.
Miles, "Coin Weights" — George C. Miles, "On the Varieties and Accuracy of Eighth Century Arab Coin Weights," Eretz Israel 7 (1964, L.A; Mayer Memorial Vol.), pp. 78-87.
Miles, "Corning" — George C. Miles, "Umayyad 'Abbāsid Glass Weights and Measure Stamps in the Corning Museum," JGlassStud 13 (1971) p. 64-76.
Miles, "Cumin" — George C. Miles, "Cumin and Vinegar for Hiccups," Archaeology, 1951, p. 23.
Miles, "Ḥayyān" — George C. Miles, "A Glass Measure Issued by Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ," Studi Orientalistici in Onore di Giorgio Levi Della Vida 2 (Rome, 1956), pp. 148-58.
Miles, "Muntaza" — George C. Miles, "Early Islamic Weights and Measures in Muntaza Palace, Alexandria," Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 3 (Boston, 1964), pp, 105-13.
Miles, "Pharm." — George C. Miles, Egyptian Glass Pharmaceutical Measures of the 8th Century A.D.," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 15 (New Haven 1960), pp. 384-9.
MSES — Paul Balog, Coinage of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt and Syria, (ANSNS 12), New York
Petrie — Flinders Petrie, Glass Stamps and Weights Illustrated from the Egyptian Collection of University College, London, London, 1926.
Preisigke, Friedrich, Namenbuch, Heidelberg, 1922.
Rhazes — W.A. Greenhill, A Treatise on the Small-Pox and Measles by Abu-Becr Mohammed ibn Zacariya Al-Rhazi, London, 1848.
Rice, David Storm, "A Wuqiyyah Weight of Wadih," BSOAS 17 (1955), p. 172, in a review of EAG I and EAG II.
Rogers — E. T. Rogrs, "Unpublished Glass Weights and Measures," JRAS 1878, pp. 98-112.
Sauvaire — Henri Sauvaire, "Matériaux pour servir a l’histoire de la numismatique et de la métrologie musulmanes," Journal Asiatique 14, 15, 17, 19, Paris, 1879-1887.
Sharaf — Muḥammad Sharaf, An English-Arabic Dictionary of Medicine, Biology and Allied Sciences, Cairo, 1928.
Tuḥfa — Ṭuḥfat al-Aḥbāb , Glossaire de matière médicale macrocaine, Paris, 1934. French translation by H.P.J. Renaud and Georges Colin.
Viré — François Viré, "Dénéraux, estampilles et poids musulmans en verre en Tunisie (Collection H.H. AbdulWahab)," Cahiers de Tunisie 4 (Tunis, 1956), pp. 17-90.
Weil — Gustav Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen, 2, Mannheim, 1848.
Wiet, Gaston, Précis de l’histoire d’Égypte, 2, Cairo, 1932
Wiet, Maqrīzī — al-Maqrīzī , Al-Mawā’iz wa’l-I’tibār fi dhikr al-Khiṭaṭ wa’l-Āthār, Vol. 5 No. 1 (Mémoires de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 53), Edited by G. Wiet, Cairo, 1927.
Wüstenfeld, F., Die Statthalter von Ägypten zur Zeit der Chalifen, Göttingen, 1875-6.
Zambaur — Eduard von Zambaur, Manuel dn généalogie et de chronologie pour l’histoire de l’Islam, Hanover, 1927.

I. UMAYYADS
QURRA B. SHARIK

Governor, 90-6 H. / A.D. 709-14

Ring Weights

1. RAṬL. Fragment of a ring weight; only part of the head preserved.

امر الامير
(فرة رطل (وا
ف

Ordered the amīr Qurra. Raṭl, (full) weight.

Blue green, translucent.

Unpublished. In one of the important public collections there are unpublished heavy weights of Qurra.

2. RAṬL FOR MEAT. لحم

Broken head of a compact weight, originally shaped like a modern yoghurt bottle. There might have been a suspension hole across the body of the weight, now lost.

image

امر الامير
قرة بن شريك
رطل للحم

Ordered the amīr Qurra b. Sharīk a raṭl for meat.

Blue green, transparent. Total diameter 50.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

3. DINAR.

بسم الله
قرة ا
لامير

In the name of Allāh, Qurra the amīr.

Olive green, transparent, 27, 4.43.

Unpublished.

The weight is not that of the reform dinar, but rather approaches the Byzantine solidus.

4. DINAR.

امر الا
مير قرة
بميزن دينر
واف

Ordered the amīr Qurra the weight of a dinar, full weight.

Light given, transparent. 29, 4.24.

Another example was published by both Fahmy 1, and Launois. Cairo 2.

5. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

امر الا
مير قرة
بميزن ثلث
واف

Ordered the amīr Qurra a weight of one-third, full weight.

Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.37.

Unpublished. Launois, Maspéro 1 has a different legend.

Bottle Stamps

6. QISṬ.

امر الامير
قرة بن شر
يك قسط
واف

Ordered the amīr Qurra b. Sharik a qisṭ, full measure.

Light given, translucent. Deep impression, thick rim. 45.

Petrie 87.

7. QISṬ.

امر الامير
قرة بن شريك
بقسط واف

Ordered the amīr Qurra b. Sharīk a qisṭ, full measure.

Light blue green, transparent. 40.

Unpublished.

8. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

امر الامير
قرط نصف
قسط

Ordered the amīr Qurra one-half qisṭ.

Light green, transparent. 37.

Unpublished.

9. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

امر الامير
قرط نصف
قسط
واف

Ordered the amīr Qurra one-half qisṭ, full measure.

Bottle green, transparent. 29.

See Casanova, p. 367, No. 96bis, which has full name.

10-13. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

امر الامير
قرط ربع
قسط
واف

Ordered the amīr Qurrah one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

10. Light green, translucent. 33.

11. Light green, translucent. broken. 37.

12. Light green, translucent. 35.

13. Light green, translucent. 27.

Casanova, p. 397, No. 96: EAG.I, 3.; CAM.I, 3.; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 1b (without واف).

USĀMA B. ZAYD

Finance Director : 96-9 H./ A.D. 714-7

Interim Governor: 102 H./ A.D. 720-1

Disk Weight

14. RAṬL. Fragment, less than half preserved.

امر اسامة
بن زيد)رطل)
ر...

Ordered Usāma (b. Zayd) raṭl [...].

Light blue green, nearly transparent. Diam. 114; diam. of impression 34; thickness of rim 40.

EAG.I, 4; CAM.I, 7 (half raṭl).

So far only these three heavy weights of Usāma are known. There are others, still unpublished, in a Cairo public collection.

Coin Weights

15. ONE-HALF DINAR. Broken but mended without loss of weight.

امراسا
مة بن زيد
بميزن نصف
دينر واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a weight of one-half dinar, full weight.

Light green, transparent. 22, 2.10.

BM 2; CAM.I, 4, 5; CAM.II. Benaki 2; Launois, Cairo 2; Fahmy 4, 5.

16-17. ONE-THIRD DINAR

امرا
سامة بن
زيد ميزا
ن ثلث وا
ف

Ordered Usāma b.Zayd a weight of one-third, full weight.

16. Grass green, translucent 20, 1.38.

17. Light green, translucent. 20, 1.41.

Fahmy 6; Launois. Cairo 10.

Both authors published the same specimen.

18. FALS OF 14 QĪRĀṬ.

امر اسامة
بن زيد ميزان
فلس اربعة
عشر قيرط

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd the weight of a fals of fourteen qīraṭ.

Light green, with gray green patina. 24. 2.65.

Casanova, p. 378, No. 20.

Casanova read مثقال, but or his illustration ميزان is clear; CAM.I, 6. قيرطاinstead of قيرط.

Bottle Stamps

19. QISṬ.

امرا
سامة بن ز
يد بقسط
*واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a qisṭ, full measure.

Light green, transparent. 39,

EAG.I, 5; Launois, Cairo 8, 9.

20-21. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

امرا
سامة بن ز
*يد نصف
قسط واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-half qisṭ, full measure.

20. Grass green, translucent. 38.

21. Light green, transparent. 37.

Petrie 89, 90; CAM.I, 8, 9.; CAM.II, Ruthven 1. Launois, Cairo 3, 4; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 2. Miles, "Corning" 1.

22. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

امرا
سامة بن ز
يد ربع قسط
واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

Light green, transparent. 37.

Casanova, p. 397, No. 98; Petrie 91; CAM.I, 10, 11.

23. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

امر اسا
مة بن زيد ر

(sic) بع للسط

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-quarter qisṭ.

Light blue-green, milky. 29.

Casanova, p. 397, No. 97.

Same die as our piece, with the same defect.

24. QISṬ FOR OLIVE OIL. زيت
امراسا
مة بن زيد
قسط للزيت
وا)ف)

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a qisṭ for olive oil, (full) measure.

Green, milky. 29.

Launois, Cairo 6 (without واف).

25-26. QISṬ FOR ṬILĀ. الطلا
امراسا
مة بن زيد
قسط للطلا
واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a qisṭ for ṭilā, full measure.

25. Milky green. 40.

26. Milky green. 34.

Unpublished.

For the discussion of the meaning of الطلا see EAG.I, p. 28, EAG.II, p. 49 and Miles, "Pharm." p. 386, No. 4.

27. ONE-HALF QISṬ FOR ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر اسا
مة بن زيد
نصف قسط
للطلا

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-half qisṭ for ṭilā.

Milky blue green. 37.

Miles, "Corning." 2.

28. ONE-HALF QISṬ FOR ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر اسا
مة بن زيد
نصف قسط
للطلا
واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-half qisṭ for ṭilā, full measure.

Blue green, translucent. 34.

Unpublished.

29-30. ONE-HALF QISṬ FOR ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر اسا
مة بن زيد
ربع قسط
لطلا

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd one-quarter qisṭ for ṭilā.

29. Light blue green, translucent. 31.

30. Light blue green, translucent. 30.

EAG.I, 7 (but: الطلا); Viré 1.

31. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كمون ا بيض
امرا
سامة بن
زيد وكيله
كمون ا بيض

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a mikyala of white cumin.

Bottle green, transparent. 39.

Unpublished.

32. MIKYALA FOR WHEY. المش
امراسا
مة بن زبد
مكيلة
للمش

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a mikyala for whey.

Grass green, transparent. 28.

Unpublished.

There seems to be a superfluous alif at the end of the third line, but I am inclined to attribute it to an engraver’s error. In Miles "Pharm.," p. 386 the possible alternative drug البقس, box-tree, is suggested. I think in this case there is little doubt that the substance is المش. See also Balog, "Estampilles," Nos. 9, 13.

33. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVES. الوسمة
امر اسا
مة بن زبد
مكيلة ا
لوسمة
واف

Ordered Usāma b. Zayd a mikyala of woad leaves, full measure.

Green, transparent. 32.

Unpublished.

ḤAYYĀN B. SHURAYḤ

Finance Director: 99-101 H. / A.D. 717-20 (but probably until 102 or 103 H. / A.D. 721 or 722)

Ring Weights

34. DOUBLE-RAṬL FOR MEAT. للحم

Fragment. Only a large part of the head with most of the principal impression and about half the secondary impression is preserved.

Round principal impression, 25:

امر حيان
(بن شريح (ر
طلين للحم
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ two raṭl for meat, full weight.

Round secondary impression, 12:

الو

(فا(لله

Honesty for Allāh.

Emerald green, transparent.

CAM.II Ruthven 3; Casanova, p. 391, No. 47 is a half-raṭl weight but otherwise has same legend.

35. RAṬL FOR GRAPES.? العنب

Fragment of a ring weight, with most of the round principal impression preserved, 27:

(امر حيان(بن
شريح بختم
رطل العنب
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān (b.) Shurayḥ the stamping of a raṭl for grapes, full weight.

Traces of a second, smaller impression.

Blue green, transparent.

This specimen, presented to me by the late Kāmil Osman Ghālib pasha, is identical with the one mentioned in Miles, "Ḥayyān." p. 152.

Miles identified the substance as grapes, العنب. At first, I thought that it must rather be العين, precious metal, or unminted gold or silver and that this weight was manufactured with special care for the weighing of gold or silver. The more so, as I failed to see why grapes would call for a special weight in a Muhammadan country. Since, however, I have come round to the view expressed by Miles that, in all probability, this is indeed an ordinary commercial weight for grapes. There are now several weights with the name of this commodity: Dudzus, "Gewichte" No. 3 in the name of al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh, another similar one in our own collection (Cat. 136), and two more in the name of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd also in our collection (Cat. 213-214). The fact, that there is another, unique weight in our collection, in the name of al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh, for the weighing of العناب, jujube, seems to substantiate this assumption.

Thus the number of commodities for which special weights have been made has risen to three: grapes, jujube and finally meat.

In this conjunction I should like to mention that there is in the collection of the Louvre a bottle stamp which Viré read (p. 24) as العبب, al-’ubab, "'ubab aux baies rouges de l’alkekenje ou coqueret (Physalis alkekengi)." The place of the substance العبب on a bottle stamp is, of course, fully justified, العبب being a well-known drug listed at No. 1512 in IB.

Disk Weights

36. WUQIYYA. Intact oval disk weight with two round impressions. Principal stamp, 25:

امر حيان
بن شريح
بختم وقية
وافية

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ the stamping of a wuqiyya, full weight.

Smaller stamp, 14:

الو
فالله

Honesty for Allāh.

Emerald green, translucent. 57 × 44, 36.63.

Unpublished.

This is, so far, the earliest known intact Umayyad wuqiyya weight.

Coin Weights

37-38. ONE-HALF DINAR.

امر حيان
بن شريح
ميزن نصف
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a weight of one-half, full weight.

37. Light green, nearly transparent. 21, 2.12.

38. Light green, transparent. 21, 2.10.

CAM.II Ruthven. 2; Fahmy 8.

Bottle Stamps

39. MIKYALA OF WINE OF THE ABYSSINIANS. اسقرقة
امر حيان بن
شريح
بمكيلة ا
سقرقة

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a mikyala of usqurqa.

Bottle green, translucent. 37.

Unpublished.

The identification of the substance, written here as سقرقة, and on other stamps as سقرقة, is open to some doubt, but it is the nearest I could come to as an explanation. سقرقع (Kazimirsky 1860, p. 1106) is a kind of fermented beverage prepared from millet or barley. According to Lane (Vol. 1 Pt. 4, p. 1379), it is "a certain beverage made from millet, or the wine of the Abyssinians, or a certain beverage of the people of al-Ḥijāz, made from barley and other grains." Its name, سقرقع, is the Arabicized form of the Persian سكركة. As the word is not of Arabic but of foreign origin, it may well be that the engraver wrote it with two qāfs, according to the Arabic spelling, but ended it with a , as in the Persian original. The spelling with an initial alif indicates either that the substance, was sometimes pronounced with it, or that it is simply an engraver’s error. But I have little doubt that both stand for the same thing.

The substance اسقرقة or سقرقة is not recorded in IB, al-Ghāfiqī, Maimonides or Ducros. سقرقة occurs on our Stamp Cat. 171, issued by al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh, and, I believe, on CAM.I, 66 and on Rogers, p. 101, No. 3.

40-43. QISṬ OF FIGS. تين
امر حيان
بن شريح
بقسط تين
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a qisṭ of figs, full measure.

40. Bottle green, transparent. 31.

41. Bottle green, transparent. 30.

42. Bottle green, transparent. 35.

43. Bottle green, transparent. 31.

CAM.I, 12; CAM.II Ruthven, 4; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 3a.

Dudzus read the substance as olive oil, but I think I can recognize the word تين from his illustration.

44. MIKYALA OF ḤINNĀ FOR THE HEAD.

امر حيان
بن شريح
مكيلة حنا
للراس و
اف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ mikyala of ḥinnā for the head, full measure.

Olive green, translucent. 40.

Unpublished.

The only other stamp with ḥinnā al-rās, in the collections of the ANS, is mentioned in CAM.II, Benaki, p. 13. It wa s issued in the name of Usāma b. Zayd.

45. MIKYALA OF ḤINNĀ MĀRDI? حنا مر
امر حيان
بن شريح
مكيلة حنا
مرواف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a mikyala of ḥinnā mardi (?), full measure.

Emerald green, translucent. 35.

Unpublished.

I own a little-known publication by Ernest Sickenberger on the Egyptian plants in Ibn al-Bayṭār, (Les Plantes Égyptiennes d’Ibn el-Beithar. Cairo, 1890), in which is listed on p. 10 the plant ḥinnā koreich, حنا قريش, which is described in IB under Nos. 664 and 721. According to Sickenberger it is a kind of Lecanora. IB gives it as a lichen, called by the Egyptians ḥinnā quraysh, حنا قريش. IB adds "C’est une plante qui ressemble à la lentille d’eau... Le nom arabe de cette plante signifie Lichen des Roches.’’ Under No. 664 IB lists an alternative name: Ḥazzāz al-Ṣakhr.

In Ahmed Issa, p. 186, No. 13, حزاز الصخر, of which حزاز الصخر is a synonym, is identified with Usnea barbata Var. Florida of the family of the Vacciniaceae.

This botanical excursion is made for the following reasons: the first two letters of the adjective which follows the word ḥinnā on the glass stamp have been read as مر, mim rā. The second part of the adjective is, to say the least, enigmatic. Miles (CAM II. Benaki 34, and "Muntaza" 16), very reluctantly and with a query, identified it with (ḥinnā) mard or marā? I could find no substance in the Arabic medico-pharmaceutical treatises within my reach which would be compatible with such a reading. On the other hand, مر could mean قر, qur-, as there is no difference between the mīm and the qāf of this primitive, very archaic form of Kufic script. Of course, the second half of the adjective still remains enigmatic and illegible, but I very tentatively suggest that it may have been intended to represent, in a bungled way, a and sīn. If this be true, then the substance would be ḥinnā quraysh.

46-51. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ FOR SOUR MILK. الرخم
امر حيان بن
شريح ربع
قسط للرخم
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ one-quarter qisṭ for sour milk, full measure.

46. Light green, transparent. 33. Broken.

47. Light green, transparent. 29.

48. Light green, transparent. 30.

49. Light green, transparent. 32.

50. Grass green, transparent. 31.

51. Light green, translucent. Broken.

Uepublished.

Several stamps, which have been published with the reading olive oil, للزيت, seem to me to bear the legend sour milk, للرخم. I list them here for further checking: Petrie 12; Rogers 2; Viré 3; CAM.II Ruthven 5.

Although on several stamps the final mīm of رخم is partially off flan, it is sufficiently well presعدس محشوشerved on others. I have little doubt about the correctness of the attribution of the substance.

Al-rakham, للرخم, is listed by IB under No. 1038, but not in Maimonides or al-Ghāfiqi. I found it, however, in Belot. In Lane’s Vol. 1 Pl. 3, p. 1059. Kazimirsky 1860, p. 841 translates the word as "lait caillé," sour milk. Sour milk is still called al-rakham in modern Persian.

52. ONE HALF QISṬ FOR OLIVE OIL. زيت
امر حيان
بن شريح
نصف قسط
للزيت و
اف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ one-half qisṭ for olive oil, full measure.

Light green, transparent. 31.

EAG.I, 9; CAM.I, 14; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 3b.

53. ROAST LENTILS. عدس محشوش
امر حيان
بن شريح
عدس
(sic) مشوش
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ lentils, roast

full measure.

Olive green, transparent. 35.

Unpublished.

Casanova, p. 367, No. 10 has a different legend.

54. QISṬ FOR AL-ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر حيان
بن شريح
قسط للطلا
واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a qisṭ for al-ṭilā full measure.

Light bottle green, transparent. 34.

Unpublished.

55-57. ONE-HALF QISṬ FOR AL-ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر حيان
بن شريح
نصف قسط
للطلا و
اف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ one-half qisṭ for al-ṭilā, full measure.

55. Light bottle green, translucent. 32.

56. Light green, transparent. 32.

57. Light green, translucent. 34.

Launois, Cairo 17.

58. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ FOR AL-ṬILĀ. الطلا
امر)حيان)
بن شريح
ربع قسط
للطلا و
للطلا و

(Ordered) Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ one-quarter qisṭ for al-ṭilā, full measure.

Green, transparent. 32.

CAM.I, 16; Miles, "Muntaza" 3; Dudzus, "Glasstempl" 3c.

59-60. RUB’A FOR JUJUBE. النيق
امر حيان
بن شريح
بوبو للنبق (sic)

واف

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a rub 'a for jujube, full measure.

59. Light green, translucent. 24.

60. Light green, translucent. 23.

Unpublished.

The reading of the substance did not present great difficulties. As for the name or denomination of the measuring vessel, the only solution seems to me: al-rub’, الربع. Sauvaire lists a measure of capacity called al-rub’, الربع, in Vol. 2, Pt. 3 p. 171 of the original pagination, p. 48 of the offprint). This "al-rub’" is a large measure used in Andalus (Al-Moqaddasy p. 240, cited by Sauvaire), and not to be used for pharmaceutical products. But according to Eliyā, also cited by Sauvaire (Vol. 2 Pt. 3, p. 172 of the original pagination, 49 in offprint), there exists a "rub’) containing only 200 dirhams of wine, or 180 dirhams of olive oil, or 270 dirhams of honey. Calculated by Sauvaire, this "rub’" contains 584 gm. wine, or ca. 526 gm. olive oil, or 686 gm. honey. Based on Miles’s figure of 2.93 gm. for the silver dirham ("Byzantine Miliaresion," pp. 189-218), there would be: 586 gm. of wine, or 527.40 gm. of olive oil, or 791.10 gm. of honey. This is well within the limits of the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

However, the name of our container does not end with a regular final 'ain. The latter is followed by a diagonal stroke, which might represent a final ’. If so, then the container is not a rub’, but rather a rub’a (Sauvaire, Vol. 2 Pt. 3, p. 173 of the original or 50 in offprint). This rub’a is one fourth of the qadah and equals 514.96 gm; based on Miles, it should contain only 488.31 gm.

61. MIKYALA OF INDIGO (WOAD LEAVES). الوسمة
امر حيان
بن شريح
مكيلة الو
سمة و
افر

Ordered Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ a mikyala of woad leaves, full measure.

Green, translucent 30.

Launois, C.d.M., Suppl. 1

CALIPH YAZĪD II
101-5 H. / A.D. 720-4

Vessel Stamps

62. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ FOR OLIVE OIL. زيت
امر عبد الله
يزيد امير المؤ
منين ربع قسط
زيت واف على
يدى) حيان بن)
شريح

Ordered 'Abdullāh Yazīd, Commander of the faithful, one-quarter qisṭ of olive oil, full measure, at the (hands) of Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ.

Green, translucent. 34.

Casanova, p. 66, No. 95; Petrie 86; CAM.I, 19-22; Miles, "Hayyān," p. 151, Nos. 4-6.

Although not dated, this was issued in 101 H. which was Ḥayyān’s last year in office, as well as Yazīd II’s first.

63. MIKYALA OF GARUM (FISH PASTE). Dated 101 H. المرى with ḤAYYĀN B. SHURAYḤ.

امر عبد الله
يزيد امير امؤمنين
اصلحه الله بمكيل
ة المرى وافية على
يدى حيان بن شريح
سنة احدى مية
و

Ordered 'Abdullāh Yazīd, Commander of the faithful, may Allāh mend him, a mikyala of garum (fish paste), full measure. At the hands of Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ. Year one hundred and one.

Blue green, transparent. 48. Broken but mended.

Unpublished.

Launois, Cairo 15 published a vessel stamp with the same legend and a nearly identical arrangement. Launois read the substance as العصفر, carthame, but I believe it is al-murrī, المرى, as on the present specimen.

Garum, مرى, is described in IB 2111bis as prepared from salted fish. It is supposed to act on the alimentary tract, and also as a vermifuge. In Rhazes, p. 196, garum, مرى, is identified with caviare. According to Houdas, El-Bokhari, Les Traditions Islamiques, (Paris, 1914), p. 9 note 3, "Le mori ou morri est une préparation du poisson; elle consiste à mettre le poisson dans du vin avec du sel et de l’exposer ensuite au soleil de façon à laisser évaporer le vin."

'UBAYD ALLĀH B. AL-ḤABḤĀB

Finance Director: 102-16 H. / A.D. 720-34

Ring Weights

64. RAṬL OF MEAT. لحم
مما امر به
عبيد الله ابن
الحجاب
رطل لحم
واف

Among those things which ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, a raṭl of meat, full weight.

Dark emerald green, translucent. Total diam. at top 58, stamp 30. Fragment; about half the specimen preserved.

Unpublished.

Petrie 96 is a fragment of one-half raṭl for meat, with different protocol.

65. RAṬL OF MEAT dated 114 H. لحم

Small fragment, the two impressions preserved. Principal round stamp (only partly preserved):

بسم)الله)
امر)عبيد)
الله)بن الحبحا)
ب)رطل لحم)
(واف)

(In the name of) Allāh, (ordered) 'Ubayd (Allāh) b. al-Ḥabḥāb a raṭl of meat, full weight.

Secondary stamp, 21:

سنة ا
ربع
عشرة
وماية

year fourteen and one hundred.

Bottle green, opaque to translucent.

Unpublished. EAG.I, 24 published a raṭl disk weight of the same date.

Disk Weight

66. ONE-HALF RAṬL. Fragment, about half preserved.

(مما امر (به
(عبيد (الله بن
(الحبحا(ب
(الحبحا(ب
(الحبحا(ب

Of those things ordered (by) 'Ubayd Allāh b.) al-Ḥabḥāb. One-half (raṭl), full (weight).

Blue green, translucent. Total diam. 90, stamp 39.

EAGII, p. 7 refers to a fragmentary half-raṭl disk weigh).

Coin Weights

67. DINAR. Small chip, about 10 cgm missing from border.

مما امر به
عبيد الله ا
بن الحبحاب
مثقال د
ينر واف

Of those things ordered by 'Ubryd Allāh ibn al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of a dinar, full weight.

Light grass green, translucent, 29, 4.12.

EAG.II, 3; Launois, C.d.M. 5

68. DINAR. About a quarter broken off.

بسم الله
مما امر به
عبيد الله بن ا
لحبحاب ميزان د

[...]

[...]

In the name of Allāh, among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of a d- [...] [...]

Light green, translucent. 29.

Launois Cairo 51 (but مثقال instead of ميزان; Fahmy 10.

69. ONE-HALF DINAR.

بسم الله
مما امر به عبيد
الله بن الحبحا
ب ميزان نصف
*واف

In the name of Allāh, among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabhāb, the weight of one-half, full weight.

Pale green, translucent. 23, 2.07.

CAM I, 23; Miles, "Muntaza" 5: Fahmy 12

70. ONE-HALF DINAR.

مما امر
به عبيدا
لله بن الحبحا
ب مثقال
نصف وا
ف

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of one-half, full weight.

Pale green, translucent. 22, 2.09.

Fahmy 13.

71-73. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

مما امر
به عبيدا
لله بن الحبحا
ب مثقال ثلث
واف

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh ibn al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of one-third, full weight.

71. Light blue green, transparent. 19, 1.37.

72. Light blue green, transparent. 19, 1.40.

73. Cobalt blue, translucent. 20, 1.40.

BM 3 g; EAG I, 11; CAM II. Benaki 6; Launois; C.d.M. 6

74. FALS OF 36 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
مما امر به عبيد
الله بن الحبحاب
مثقال فلس ستة و
ثلثبن قراط و
اف

In the name of Allāh, Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of a fals of six and thirty qīrāṭ, full weight.

Sea green, transparent. 34, 7.15.

Unpublished.

This is a complete "fals" of 36 qīrāṭ. The word qīrāṭ is written with an alif but without the .

75. FALS OF 34 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
بمثقال فلس فيه
اربعة وثلثبن
قيراط وا

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the weight of a fals in which thirty four qīrāṭ, full weight.

Green, translucent. 34, 6.53.

CAM I, 24 (the word فيه is visible on the illustration); Fahmy 15 (discussion of the word قبه); Launois, C.d.M. 7.

Qīrāṭ written with an alif.

76. FALS OF 24 KHARRŪBA. Small chip missing from border.

بسم الله
امر عبيد ا
لله بن الحبحاب
بمثقال فلس
اربعة وعشرين
خروبة وا
ف

In the name of Allāh, Ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the weight of a fals, twenty four kharrūba, full weight.

Light green, translucent. 25, 4.57.

CAM I, 25 (no star); CAM II. Benaki 7 (no star); Launois, Cairo 45-47; Launois, Maspéro 5 (no star); Miles,"Corning" 7-8.

77. FALS OF 20 KHARRŪBA.

مما امر به
عبيد الله بن ا
لحبحاب مثقا
ل فلس عشرين
خروبة واف
*image

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, the weight of a fals of twenty kharrūba, full weight.

Green, translucent. 29, 3.91. Miles, "Muntaza" 7; Fahmy 22-24.

78. FALS OF 20 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
ابن الحبحاب
مثقال فلس
عشرين قير
ط

In the name of Allāh, order of 'Ubayd Allāh ibn al-Ḥabḥāb of a fals-weight of twenty qīraṭ.

Green, translucent, 28. 3.93.

EAG I, 12: CAM I, 27; Launois, Cairo 49 and Fahmy 21 both published the same specimen, which has a slightly different legend ending from ours; Launois, C.d.M. Suppl. 2.

79-80. FALS OF 18 KHARRŪBA.

image
مما امر عبيد
الله ابن الحبحا
ب مثقال فلس
(sic) ثمنية اعشر
خروبة

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh ibn al-Ḥabḥāb, a fals-weight of eighteen kharrūba.

79. Green, translucent. 27, 3.59.

80. Green, translucent. 26, 3.63.

Launois, Cairo 52-53; Fahmy 25, 27-31.

81-82. FALS OF 18 KHARRŪBA.

مما امر
عبيد الله ابن ا
لحبحاب مثقال فلس
(sic) ثمنية اعشر
خروبة
image

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh ibn al-Ḥabḥāb, a fals-weight of eighteen kharrūba.

81. Green, translucent 26, 3.55.

82. Green, translucent. 26, 3.65.

CAM I, 29; CAM II. Benaki 8; Launois. Cairo 54-56; Miles, "Muntaza" 8; Petrie 100-101; Fahmy 26.

Fahmy simply refers to the legend of his No. 25, but from the illustration it is clear that his No. 26 is identical with the present weight.

83. FALS OF 18 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب مثقال
فلس ثمنية عشر
قيراط واف
*

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb a weight of fals of eighteen qīrāṭ, full weight.

Green, near transparent. 28, 3.49.

Unpublished.

Qīrāṭ written with alif. There is a marginal linear circle.

84. ONE-HALF FALS OF 17 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
مثقال نصف
فلس سبعة
عشر قيرة
واف

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥrbḥāb a weight of one-half fals of seventeen qīrāṭ full weight.

Light green, almost transparent. 27, 3.26.

EAG I, 13; Fahmy 32-33.

One-half fals should really contain 18 qīrāṭ and not 17. As was suggested in the introduction, the complete fals consists of 36 qīrāṭ or kharrūba. In the present case, the word نصفis to be interpreted as "part of" and not literally as one-half. Of course, شطر would have been the exact terminus technicus.

85. FALS OF 15 QĪRĀṬ.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب مثقا
ل نصف فلس
خمسة عشر
قيراط وا
ف

In the name of Allāh, Order by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb of the weight of one-half fals of fifteen qīrāṭ, full weight.

Grass green translucent. 24, 2.85.

EAG I, 14; CAM I, 30; Launois, Cairo 57; Fahmy 34-35.

86. PART (شطر) OF FALS, OF 12 KHARRŪBA.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله

(sic) بن الحبحاب معل
شطر اثنى عشر
ة خروية و
اف

In the name of Allāh, order by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb to make a partial weight of twelve kharrūba, full weight.

Light green, translucent. 24, 2.62.

EAG I. 15-16; CAM I, 31; Fahmy 36, 37-40; Launois, C.d.M. 4.

Vessel Stamps

87-88. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

عبيد
الله بن
الحبحاب

'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb.

87. Green, translucent. 25. 3.60.

88. Green, translucent. 25, 4.52.

To my knowledge, five more specimens of this curious issue are known: Petrie 97 ("Fragment, ground around; green; stamp?); CAM I. 28. Weight: 3.78; Miles calls it a "curious piece"; CAM I. 45 "Executive stamp;" Fahmy 41. Weight: 3.87; Lanuois, Maspéro 6. Weight: 4.20.

Most of the published pieces have been tampered with by the Egyptian antique dealers who had them ground around the margin and often also on the reverse. This was to raise the commercial value of the pieces which could now be sold as coin weights and not as broken-off bottle stamps. Traces of recent grinding are visible on my two specimens; they were also detected by Petrie on his No. 97. Miles, on the first specimen in CAM I, 28, remarks that "this is a curious piece" and his second, CAM I, 45, actually is a bottle stamp. Another indication that they cannot bc coin weights, is the fact that each piece has a different weight. It is therefore probable that the entire series should be considered bottle stamps.

89. QISṬ

مما امر
به عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
قسط وا
ف

Among those things ordered by 'Ubryd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, a qisṭ, full measure.

Blue green, translucent. 35.

Rogers. p. 112; Casanova, p. 367, No. 103; CAM I., 33; Dudzus, "Gewichte" 1c.

90-96. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

مما امر
به عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب ربع
قسط وا
ف

Among those things ordered by 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb, one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

90. Blue green, transparent. 30.

91. Blue green, transparent. 31.

92. Green, transparent. 30.

93. Blue green, translucent. 30.

94. Blut green, transparent. 31.

95. Blut green, translucent. 37.

96. Blue green translucent. 31.

Casanova, p. 366, No. 106-107; Petrie 105-106; EAG I, 20; CAM I, 38-41; CAM II. Ruthven 8; Launois, Cairo 20-27; Viré 11; Dudzus, "Glasstemdel" 4b; Miles, "Corning’’ 9.

97. MIKYALA OF MYRTLE. الاس
بسم ا
لله امر
عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
مكيلة الاس
واف

In the name of Allāh, order of 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb for a mikyala of myrtle, full measure.

Emerald green transparent. 35.

Unpublished.

Myrtle, الاس (Myrtus communis L.) is mentioned by al-Ghāfiqī, p. 74, No. 9, Ducros No. 4; Ahmed Issa, p. 122, No. 19, IB, p. 66, No. 69 and Sharaf p. 526. IB describes its astringent qualities at great length; it can be applied topically or taken internally and was said to be effective against different aches. It was also applied in cases of ulcers of the stomach. Not only the fruit, fresh or dried, but also She leaves, the rind and even the wood was employed.

98. QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
الحبحاب قسط
زيت وا
ف

In the name of Allāh, order by 'Ubayd Allāh (b.) al-Ḥabḥāb for a qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

Green, translucent 34.

Petrie 107; Casanova 108; Launois, Cairo 40; Viré 4-5. بن between the father’s and the son’s name omitted.

99-105. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت

بسم الله
امر عبيد ا
لله بن الحبحاب
ربع قسط
زيت وا
ف

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb one-quarter qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

99. Blue green, transparent. 32.

100. Grass green, transparent. 33.

101. Grass green, transparent. 32.

102. Grass green, transparent. 34. Broken.

103. Grass green, transparent. 35.

104. Grass green, translucent. 31.

105. Blue green, translucent. 35.

Petrie 108; Casanova, p. 368, No. 109-119; EAG I, 21 (slightly different arrangement); EAG II, 4; CAM I, 42-43; CAM II. Ruthven 9; Miles, "Muntaza" 11 (slightly different arrangement); Dudzus, Gewichte le; Launois, Cairo 31-38; Viré 9; Miles, "Corning" 10-12.

106. MIKYALA OF BLACK LENTILS. عدس الاسود

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
مكيلة عد
س الاسود
واف

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb a mikyala of black lentils, full measure.

Green, translucent. 38.

Unpublished.

In this case, "black lentils’’ do not mean "decorticated ordinary lentils," but are to be identified with Lens esculenta s. sp. nigricans (M. Bieb) Telling, or Lens nigricans Godr. This is a wild-growing weed with yellowish needs. Its habitat is Spain, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor,Caucasusand Algiers. (Flore de France, by G. Rouy and J. Foucaud, Aisnieres, Paris, 1899, Vol. 5, p. 204). The mediaeval Arabic medical works do not mention Lens nigricans among their drugs.

107. MIKYALA OF SHELLED LENTILS. عدس مقشر
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب
بصنعة مكيلة
عدس مقشر و
افية

In the name of Allāh ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the manufacture of a mikyala of shelled lentils, of full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 36.

EAG I, 23.

108. MIKYALA OF PRIVET. كتم
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله بن
الحبحاب بصنعة
مكيلة كتم
واقية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the manufacture of a mikyala of privet, of full measure.

Blue green, transparent 36.

Unpublished.

Privet (Buxus dioica Forskal, Fam. Buxaceae). The dried leaves, mixed with ḥinnā, were used for dyeing the hair. (IB 1886, Ahmed Issa, p. 34, No. 23), Miles, "Pharm." p. 386 mentions an unpublished bottle stamp in the Ray W. Smith collection, issued for privet (كتم). The issuing official’s name is not mentioned.

109-111. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كمون ابيض
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب بصنعة
مكيلة كمو
ن ابيض وافية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the manufacture of a mikyala of white cumin, of full measure.

109. Blue green, transparent. 40.

110. Emerald green, transparent. 40.

111. Blue green, transparent. 37.

Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 4d.

112-113. MIKYALA OF BLACK CUMIN. كمون اسود
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب بصنعة
(sic) مكيلة كموم
اسود وا
(ف(ية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the manufacture of a mikyala of black cumin, of full mea(sure).

112. Green, translucent. 36.

113. Green, translucent. 36.

Launois, Cairo 39 is published as one-half mikyalah.

I suggest that the last three letters of بصنعة at the end of the third line are off flan and so the beginning could be read as (نص(ف. To my knowledge no fractions of the mikyala have so far been found.

On both stamps the word كمون is written with a final mim: م.

114. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVERS (INDIGO). وسمة
بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحلب
بصنعة مكيلة
وسمة وافية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the manufacture of a mikyala of woad leaves, of full measure.

Emerald green, transparent, broken. 37.

EAG II, 5. Full discussion of the substance.

115. QISṬ with JUNĀDA B. MAYSARA. Dated 111 H.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب للختم
قسط واف على
يدى جنادة بن
ميسرة سنه ا
حدى)عشرة ومية)

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb the stamping of a full-measure qisṭ. At the hands of Junāda b. Maysara. Year one hundred and eleven.

Seagreen, translucent. 44.

Unpublished.

Only the alif of the digit is on the flan. Nevertheless, I believe the date is 111H. because all the stamps of 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb issued together with Junāda b. Maysara bear the same date, 111 H. Compare CAM I, 37 and Catalogue Nos. 116-123.

116. QISṬ, with JUNĀDA B. MAYSARA. Dated 111 H.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب قسط
واف على بدى جنا
دة بن ميسرة
سنة احدى عشر
ةومية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb a qisṭ, full measure, at the hands of Junāda b. Maysara. Year eleven and one hundred.

Emerald green, transparent. 45.

Unpublished. For the reading of the prefect’s name, which is quite clear on our specimens (Cat. 115-123), compare CAM I, 37.

117-123. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ, with JUNĀDA B. MAYSARA. Dated 111 H.

بسم الله
امر عبيد الله
بن الحبحاب ربع
قسط على يدى جنا
دة بن مسيرة سنة
احدى عشرة
مية

In the name of Allāh, ordered 'Ubayd Allāh b. al-Ḥabḥāb one-quarter qisṭ. At the hands of Junāda b. Maysara. Year eleven one hundred.

117. Sea green, translucent. 44.

118. Sea green, translucent. 45.

119. Blue green, translucent. 44.

120. Blue green, translucent. 44.

121. Blue green, translucent. broken. 38.

122. Emerald green, translucent. 40.

123. Light blue green, translucent. broken. 40.

Rogers 1; BM 392; EAG I, 19; CAM II. Ruthven 10; Miles, "Muntaza" 10; Launois, Cairo 43; Dudzus, Gewichte 1d.

No waw between عشرة and مية.

ḤAFṢ B. AL-WALĪD

Governor: 108 H. / A.D. 727; 124-8 H. / A.D. 742-5 Finance Director: 124-5 H. / A.D. 742-3

Disk Weights

124-125. ONE-HALF RAṬL.

بسم الله
امر الامير حفص
بن الوليد بصنعة
بن الوليد بصنعة
(واف)

In the name of Allāh, ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of one-half raṭl, (full weight).

124. Fragment. Dark emerald green, barely translucent.

125. Fragment. Dark olive green, opaque.

Unpublished.

126. DOUBLE WUQIYYA. Chipped. About 15-20 percent missing. Square imprint, shallow and superficial, 19 × 19:

مما امر به الا
مير حفص بن
الوليد بصنعة
وقيتين و
اف

Among those things which ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd, the manufacture of two wuqiyya, full weight.

Dark emerald green translucent. 45, 53.80.

Thickness 18.

Unpublished.

The legend is in small characters, difficult to read; there are also some flaws in the surface of the impression. Nevertheless, I believe that the reading is correct.

The center of the reverse presents a sallow lenticular excavation, about two cm. in diameter, caused by hammering. The weight was tampered with, probably for fraudulent reasons, at the time of its circulation.

The peculiar, very thick disk form is exceptional at this early stage. The central imprint on the disk weights is generally deep and is surrounded by a thick, prominent, sausage-like rim.

Coin Weights

127-129. DINAR, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فاوامر الامير
حفص بن الوليد
بصنهة مثقال دينر
واف على يدى يز
يد بن ابى يز
يد

In the name of Allāh, God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of a dinar weight, full weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

127. Green, translucent. 29, 4.19.

128. Green, translucent. 28, 4.18.

129. Green, translucent. 29, 4.11.

Rogers 14; Grohmann 5; Fahmy 42 (but different arrangement); Launois; Maspéro 8 (end of sixth and seventh lines illegible).

130. ONE-HALF DINAR, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فاوامر الامير
حفص بن الوليد
بصنعة مثقال
نصف دبنر واف
على يدى يزيد بن
ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh, Allāh ordered honesty and ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of the weight of one-half dinar, full weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Pale green, translucent. 22, 2.09.

Launois, Maspéro 9.

131. DIRHAM, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فاوامر الامير
حفص بن الو
ليد بصنعة مث
قال درهم
على يدى يزيد بن
ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh, God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of a dirham weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Light green, translucent. 26, 2.84.

Petrie 128.

Errors in spelling.

Vessel Stamps

132. QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
حفص بن الوليد
بصنمة قسط
واف

In the name of Allāh, ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. aī-Walīd the manufacture of a qisṭ, full measure.

Emerald green, translucent. 26,2.84.

EAG I, 26; Launois, Cairo 102.

133. MIKYALA OF LUPIN (ترمس), with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD.

بسم الله ا
مر الله بالوفا
وامر الامير حفص
بن الوليد بصنمة
مكيلة وافية
ترمس على يدى
يزيد بن ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh, God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of a full-measure mikyala of lupin. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Emerald green, translucent. 39.

Unpublished.

134. MIKYALA OF PURE WHITE CUMIN. كمون الابيض نفيس

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر الامير حفص
بن الوليد بصنعة
مكيلة وافية
للكمون الا
بيض نفيس

In the name of Allāh, God ordred honesty and ordered the amīr Ḥafṣ b. al-Walīd the manufacture of a full-measure mikyala for pure white cumin.

Sea green, translucent. 36.

Unpublished.

AL-QĀSIM B. 'UBAYD ALLĀH

Finance Director: 116-24 H. / A.D. 734-42

Ring Weights

135. ONE-HALF RAṬL OF MEAT. اللحم

Fragment with two round stamps at the top: Principal stamp at right, 30:

بسم الله ا
مر الامير ا
لقاسم بن عبيد
الله بنصف ر
طل اللحم
*واف

In the name of Allāh, ordered the amīr al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh one-half raṭl of meat, full weight.

Second stamp at left, 18:

Anepigraphic; linear pentagram in circular line, and a pellet in each external angle:

image

Emerald green, almost opaque.

Casanova, p. 362, No. 13.

The linear pentagram is characteristic for al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. It does not occur on the weights or stamps of any other official, Umayyad or 'Abbāsid.

136. RAṬL OF GRAPES? (العنب) with, MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 11... H.

Top part of ring weight, with round stamp, which may have been around 45 mm. in diameter:

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفاو(ا)مر
بصنعة (ر)طل العنب
القاس)م بن عبيد)
الله)على يدى مسلم)
بن ال(عراف سة)
عشرة و
(مائة)

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of a raṭl of grapes, (al-Qā)sim b. 'Ubayd (Allāh). At the hands of Muslim (b. al-) 'Arrāf. Year [...] ten and (one hundred).

Very dark green, almost black, opaque.

Unpublished.

This is one of a small group of exceptional heavy weights with the name of a commodity other than meat,لحم. The substance العب was accepted as grapes, العنب, by Miles, "Ḥayyān" p. 152; Dudzus, "Gewichte" 3d; and Grohmann, Chrestomathie p. 153 first paragraph and note 4. This is the specimen described above, p. 000 which was given to me by Ghalib Pasha. See also Cat. 53, 215-216.

137. DOUBLE RAṬL, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 123 H.

Large ring weight, about half (top and right side) preserved. Round imprint at top (40), with deep narrow punch hole in prominent rim on the left side A similar punch hole presumably existed on the now broken-off right side These punch holes were probably produced by a double pointed instrument to keep the weight in place during the stamping operation.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر بصنعة
رطلين القاسم
بن عبيد الله
على يدى ظفار بن
شية سنة ثنتين
عشرين ومائة

In the name of Allāh, God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a double raṭl, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year two and one hundred twenty.

Dark olive, almost black, opaque.

Unpublished.

I first thought that the prefect’s name was Ṣaffar, صفار, but accept Miles’s reading as Ẓaffār, ظفار, because of the long vertical stroke on the first letter (ظ instead of ص). All the previously published weights or stamps with the name of Ẓaffār b. Shaba were issued in 122 H.; the present weight proves that he was still in office for some time during 123.

138-139. RAṬL OF JUJUBE (العناب), with DĀWŪD B. AL-MURR.

Only the head portion of both specimens is preserved.

بسم الله ا
مر الله بالوفا
وامر بصنعة رطل
العناب القاسم
بن عبيد الله على يدى
داود بن المر
سنة ثلث وعشر
ين ومائة

In the name of Allāh, God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a raṭl of jujube, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Dāwūd b. al-Murr. Year twenty three and one hundred.

138. Dark emerald green, translucent. Fragment 58 × 48; round imprint 38.

139. Dark sea green, almost opaque. Fragment 58 × 48; round imprint 38.

Unpublished.

The substance, jujube or al-’unnāb (العناب), has not been previously seen on the glass. See IB 1594, Maimonides 291 and Ahmed Issa p. 192, No. 7. The fruit of several species are used, mostly that of Zizyphus sativa Gärtner (= Zizyphus vulg Lamm.)

For the name of the prefect’s father, al-Murr, see Cat. 144 and 204, on which al-Murr is quite clear. See also Mūsā b. Ka’b’s complete name in al-Kindi, p. 106. There the ancestor’s name is Murr , without the article.

Disk Weights

140. RAṬL. Dated 118 H. About half the round weight preserved.

بسم الله
(مما امر به (الا
(مير القاسم(بن
(عبيد الله (سنة
ثمان عشر (ومائة
(بصنعة (رطل
(و(اف

In the name of Allāh, among those things which ordered (the) amīr al-Qāsim (b., 'Ubayd Allāh, (year) eighteen and (one hundred), the manufacture of a (raṭl), full (weight).

Emerald green, translucent. Diam. 105; diam. round imprint 51. Thick, sausagelike rim.

Unpublished.

141. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL. A little more than half preserved.

بسم الله
امر القاسم
بن عبيد الله
بصنعه ربع

[...]

In the name of Allāh, ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh the manufacture of one-quarter [...]

Trace of a small round second imprint.

Emerald green, translucent. Diam. 80; diam of imprint 40.

Unpublished.

142. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD. Dated 122 H.

Round disk of which about half is preserved. Punch-hole like fixation point in rim.

(بسم الله )
(امر الله بالو)
فاوامر القا)سم)
بن عبيد) الله على)
يدى يز)يد بن ابى يزيد)
سنة)اثنتين و)
عشرين و
مئة

(In the name of Allāh), (God ordered hone-) (sty and ordered al-Qā)sim (b. 'Ubayd A)llāh. At the (hands of Ya)zīd b. Abī Yazīd. (Year) two and twenty and one hundred.

Diam. 76; diam. round imprint diam. 42.

Unpublished.

143. THREE WUQIYYA, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Date missing.

Fragment of a round disk with one round imprint. Fixation point in the rim.

(بسم (الله
(امر ا(لله بالو
(فا وا(مر بصنعة
(ثلاث (وقيات القا
(سم بن (عبيد
(الله ع(لى يدى
(ظفار بن (شبة

[...] سنة

In the name of (Allāh), ordered (God hone-) sty and ordered (the manufacture) of three wu (qiyya al-Qā)sim b. ('Ubayd) Allāh. At the (hands) of Ẓaffār b. (Shaba). Year [...].

Dak brown, almost black, opaque. Length 70.

Unpublished.

The denomination of three wuqiyya is equal to one-quarter raṭl.

144. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL, with DĀWŪD B. AL-MURR. Dated 123 H.

Round disk of which nearly half is missing. one round stamp. Broken and mended.

(بسم (الله
(امر ا(لله بالو
(فا وا(مر بصنعة
(ربع(رطل القاسم
(بن عبي(د الله على يدى
(داود بن (المرسنة
(ثلث وعشرين (بن
ومائة

In the name of A(llāh). Gof ordered (hone-) sty and ordered the (manufacture) of one-quarter (raṭl al-Qāsim) b. 'Ubay(d Allāh. At the hands) of Dāwūd b. (al-Murr. Year) twen(ty) three and one hundred.

Emerald green, translucent, Disk 76, stamp 44.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

145. DINAR, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 122 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فاو امر بصنعة
مثقال دينر واف الق
سم بن عبيد الله على
بدى ظفار بن شية
سنة ثنتينوعشر
ين ومائة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a dinar weight, full weight, al-Qāsim D. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year twenty two and one hundred.

Light green, transparent. 31, 4.21.

Fahmy 44. The prefect’s name is misread.

146-147. ONE-HALF DINAR.

*
بسم الله
امر القاسم
بن عبيد الله
بمثقال نصف
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh a weight of one-half, full weight.

146. Pale green, translucent. 23, 2.10.

147. Pale green, translucent. 23. Broken, about one-third missing. No star.

Writing differently arranged.

CAM II. Benaki 10. No. star.

148-150. ONE-HALF DINAR, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فاو امر بصنعة
مثقال نصف و
امر القاسم بن
عبيد الله على يدى
مسلم بن العر
اف سنة تسع
عشرة ومئة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a weight of one-half and ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Muslim b. al-’Arrāf. Year nineteen and one hundred.

148. Olive yellow, translucent. 23, 2.08.

149. Olive green, translucent. 23, 2.11.

150. Green, translucent. 22, 2.10.

EAG I, 28; Miles, "Muntaza" 12; Launois, Cairo 89-91; Fahmy 89-91.

151. ONE-HALF DINAR, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 122 H.

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفا وامر
بصنعة مثقال نصف
دينر القاسم بن
عبيد الله على يدى
*ظفار بن شية
سنة ثنتين وعشر
ين ومئة
image

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of a weight of one-half dinar, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year twenty two and one hundred.

Pale green, translucent. 23, 2.09.

Unpublished

152-155. FALS AL-KABĪR OF 30 KHARRŪBA.

بسم الله
مما امر به ا
لقاسم بن عبيد
الله مثقال فلس
الكبير ثلثين خر
وية وا
ف

In the name of Allāh. Among those things which ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh, the weight of a fals al-kabīr of thirty kharrūba, full weight.

152. Pale green, translucent. 34, 5.81.

153. Green, translucent. 33, 5.77.

154. Pale green, translucent. 33, 5.87.

155. Pale green, translucent. 33, 5.82.

BM 5; Petrie 112-114; EAG II. 8; CAM I. 49-50; Fahmy 53-58; Launois, Cairo 96-98; Launois, Maspéro 7.

Full weight, واف, is written: فاب

156-157. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H

(بسم ا(الله ا
(مر الله با(لوفا
(وامر بصن(عة
(مثقال فلس(ثلثين
(خروة القا(سم
(بن عبيد الله (على يدى
(مسلم(بن العرا
ف سنة تسع
(عشرو(ما
(ئة)

In the name of A(llāh). God ordered (honesty) and ordered the manu (facture) of a fals weight of (thirty) kharrūba, al-Qā(sim) b. 'Ubayd Allāh. (At the hands) of Muslim (b. al-’Arrā-) f. Year nineteen and (one) (hundred).

156. Olive green, translucent. About one-half preserved. 35

157. Olive green, translucent. Smaller fragment.

BM 4; EAG I, 30; CAM I, 51; Launois, Cairo 95; Fahmy 59-60.

The denomination of 30 kharrūba is based on the complete identity of the legend with that of the previously published pieces.

158. COIN WEIGHT. but denomination, RAṬL.

بسم الله
امرالقا
سم بن عبيد
الله رطل
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh a raṭl, full weight.

Blue green, transparent. 31, 6.11.

Unpublished.

Style of writing not very good. The denomination, raṭl, is also puzzling The weigh, 6.11 gm., approximates the 32 kharrūba.

Vessel Stamps

159-161. ONE-HALF QISṬĀN.

بسم الله
امر القاسم
بن عبيد الله
بنصف قسطان
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh one-half qisṭān, full measure.

In CAM I. 55, Miles discussed the meaning of the curious ending قسطان. He raised the question whether قسطان might be the dual of قسط, but rejected this possibility immediately; although his No. 55 was a full "qisṭan," No. 60 was a quarter of this measure. It is at least doubtful that one-quarter of a double qisṭ should be registered on the stamps, when one-half of a qisṭ would be the simpler and more usual way to give the denomination. Also, a qisṭ is preferable and infinitely more usual than one-half of a double qisṭ. I believe that qisṭan is not a double qisṭ, but the name of a special measure of capacity. See my Introduction, p. 00.

159. Bottle green, transparent. 37.

160. Green, translucent. 37.

161. Green, translucent. 37.

Petrie 124; Dudzus "Glasstempel" 6d.

162-169. ONE-QUARTER QISṬĀN.

بسم الله
امر القاسم بن
عبيد الله ربع
قسطان
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh, one-quarter qisṭān, full measure.

162. Green, transparent. 34.

163. Green, translucent. 36.

164. Green, translucent. 37.

165. Green, translucent. 33.

166. Green, translucent. 33.

167. Green, transparent. 35.

168. Green, transparent. 35.

169. Green, translucent. 35.

CAM I, 60; Launois, Cairo 60-64 (misread).

170. MIKYALA OF SESAME SEED. جلجلان
بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا وامر
بصنعة مكيلة جلجلان
*القاسم بن عبيد
(... الله على يدى)

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a mikyala of sesame seed, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd (Allāh. At the hands of [...]).

Green, translucent. 45.

Unpublished

171. ONE-HALF RAṬL OF GREASE. Dated 122 H. دهن

بسم الله ا
مر الله باوفاو
امر بصنعة نصف
رطل دهن القاسم
*بن عبيد الله
سنة اثنين وعشر
ين ومئة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-half raṭl of grease. al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. Year two and twenty and one hundred.

Green, translucent. 37.

Unpublished.

The quantity of the substance is stated in weight (raṭl) and not in measure of capacity (qisṭ or mikyala). This is exceptional but not surprising. Even today, certain semi-liquid commodities, like thick fresh cream, although poured into a container, are sold per pound and not per ounce or pint in Italy and the Middle East.

172. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت

بسم الله
ا)مر القاسم)
بن عبيد الله
بصنعة ربع
قسط زيت
واف

In the name of Allāh. (Or)dered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 34.

Petrie 123; Miles, "Muntaza" 15; Launois, Cairo 65; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 6c.

173. MIKYALA OF THE WINE OF THE ABYSSINIANS. سقرقة

بسم اللله
امر القاسم
بن عبيد الله
مكيلة سقر
قة واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh a mikyala of the wine of Abyssinians, full measure.

Light blue-green, translucent. 41.

Unpublished

Compare Cat. 39, a stamp issued by Ḥayyān b. Shurayḥ, on which the substance is written with an initial alif: اسقرقة.

174-175. MIKYALA OF MUSTARD. صناب

بسم الله
امر القاسم
بن عبيد الله
بصنعة مكيلة
صناب
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh the manufacture of a mikyala of mustard, full measure.

174. Grass green, transparent. 38.

175. Blue green, transparent. Small segment at bottom broken off. 37.

This specimen was published in Balog, "Estampilles" 10.

The substance, was erroneously read there as zayyan, ظيان, Clematis. I am now convinced that Miles’s reading, mustard al-ṣināb, صناب, is correct.

176. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كمون ابيض

بسم الله
امر القاسم
بن)عبيد الله)
بصنعة مكيلة
كمون ابيض
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Qāsim (b.) 'Ubayd Allāh the manufacture of a mikyala of white cumin, full measure.

Green, transparent. 39.

Launois, Cairo 67-68.

177-181. QISṬ, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H.

بسم الله ا
مر الله باوفا
وامر بصنعة
هذا القسط
القاسم بن عبيد
الله على يدى مسلم
بن العراف سنة
تسع عشرةو
مائة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of this qisṭ al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh At the hands of Muslim b. al-’Arrāf. Year nineteen and one hundred.

177. Peridot green, transparent. 40.

178. Olive green, translucent. 44.

179. Green, translucent. 45.

180. Olive green, translucent. Chipped. 40.

181. Olive green, translucent. Broken. 39.

EAG II, 10; CAM I, 56-57; Launois, Cairo 73-75; Dudzus, "Gewichte" 3e; Miles, "Corning" 14-15.

182-189. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H.

بسم الله ا
مر الله باوفا
وامر بصنعةر
بع قسط القا
سم بن عبيد الله
على يدى مسلم
بن العراف سنة
تسع عشر ومائة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Muslim b. al-’Arrāf. Year nineteen and one hundred.

182. Olive green, translucent. 39.

183. Olive green, translucent. 39.

184. Olive green, translucent. 36.

185. Peridot green, translucent. 38.

186. Dark olive yellow, translucent. 39.

187. Dark olive green, translucent. 36.

188. Olive green, translucent. 40.

189. Mottled green and yellow, translucent. 36.

EAG II, 11; CAM I, 61; CAM II. Benaki 15; Launois, Cairo 69-72; Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 6d; Miles, "Corning" 16.

190. ONE-HALF RAṬL OF GREASE دهن, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامربصنعة
نصف رطل دهن
القاسم بن عبيد الله
(على يدى مس(لم
بن ال)عراف)

...

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-half (r)aṭl of grease al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Mus(lim) (b. al)-’Arrāf. [...]

Olive green, translucent 36.

Unpublished.

of raṭl omitted.

191-192. MIKYĀL-QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL زيت, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H.

بسم الله ا
(مر الله بالوفا(و
مر بصنع مكيال
قسط زيت نفيس
القاسم بن عبيد الله على
يدى مسلم بن العراف
(سنة تسع (عشر

.......

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty (and) (or)dered the manufacture of a mikyāl-qisṭ of pure olive oil, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Muslim b. al-’Allāf. Year nine(teen and) (one hundred).

191. Olive green, translucent. 25.

192. Olive green, translucent. 25.

Unpublished.

These two stamps are of exceptionally small size for the period, and the writing is also in very small characters. The double qualification of the vessel, as a "measure of qisṭ’’,مكيال قسط, in which the word mikyāl is associated with qisṭ, seems to me, if not unique, at least quite unusual

193-195. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVES, INDIGO, وسمة, with MUSLIM B. AL-’ARRĀF. Dated 119 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا
وامر بصنعة مكيلة
الوسمة القاسم بن
عبيد الله على يدى
مسلم بن العرا
ف سنة تسع
عشر و
مئة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a —mikyala of woad leaves, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Muslim b. al-Arrāf. Year nineteen and one hundred.

193. Olive green, translucent. 44.

194. Olive green, translucent. 40 Broken.

195. Olive green, translucent. One-half broken off.

Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 6f.

196-197. QISṬ, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 122 H.

بسم الله ا
مر الله بالو
فا وامر بصنعة
هذا القسط القا
سم بن عبيد الله
على يدى ظفار بن
شبة سنة اثنين و
عشرين و
مائة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of this qisṭ, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year two and twenty and one hundred.

196. Blue green, translucent. 30.

197. Olive green, translucent. 44.

Launois, Cairo 78.

198. ONE-HALF QISṬ, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 122 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر بصنعة
نصف قسط القا
سم بن عبيد الله
على يدى ظفار بن
شبة سنةا
ثنين و عشرين
ومائة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-half qisṭ, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year twenty two and one hundred.

Green, translucent. 36.

Petrie 120; EAG II, 12; CAM I, 58.

Petrie’s reading is not quite accurate.

199-202. ONE-QUARTER (QISṬ), with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA. Dated 122 H.

بسم الله
امر الله با
لوفا وامر
بصنعة ربع
القاسم بن عبيد
الله على يدى ظفا
ربن شية سنة ا
ثنين وعشرين
ومائة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-quarter, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year twenty two and one hundred.

199. Green, translucent. 38.

200. Green, translucent. Chipped. 37.

201. Green, translucent. Chipped. 36.

202. Green, translucent. Broken. 34.

EAG I, 36; CAM I, 62; Launois. Cairo 79-81; Launois. Maspéro 9.

203. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVES وسمة, with ẒAFFĀR B. SHABA.

Dated 122 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا و
امر بصنعة مكيلة
الوسمة القاسم
بن عبيد الله على يدى
ظفار بن شبة سنة
ثمنين وعشرين
* ومائة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a mikyala of woad leaves, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Ẓaffār b. Shaba. Year twenty two and one hundred.

Olive green, translucent. 45.

Launois, Cairo 82.

204. QISṬ, with DĀWŪD B. AL-MURR. Dated 123 H. About one-third broken off.

بسم الله ا
مر الله بالوفا ومر
بصنعة هذا القسط
القاسم بن عبيد الله
(على يدى داود (بن المر
(سنة ثلث (عشر
(بن وم(ائة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and (or)dered the manufacture of this qisṭ, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Dāwūd (b. al-Murr). Year three (twen-) ty and one hundr(ed).

Emerald green, transparent. 43.

Unpublished.

205. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN كمون الابيض, with DĀWŪD B. AL-MURR.

Dated 123 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر بصنعة
مكيلة الكمون الابيض
القاسم بن عبيد
الله على يدى داود
بن المرسنة ثلث و
عشرين ومائة

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of a mikyala of white cumin, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Dāwūd b. al-Murr. Year three and twenty and one hundred.

Emerald green, near-transparent 42.

EAG I, 38.

See also Cat. 138, 139 and 144 for the official’s name. The name of the sub¬stance is faultily written, but there is no doubt that كمون الابيض is meant.

206. QISṬ OF PURE ... (substance off flan), with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD.

بسم الله امر
ال)قاسم بن عبيد)
...(الله بصنعة قس(ط
ن)فيس على يدى يز)
يد بن ابلى يزيد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered (al-)Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh the manufacture of a qis(ṭ) [...] (p)ure. At the hands of (Ya)zīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Green, translucent. 24.

CAM I. 65. The substance is also missing

Small but neat writing.

207. MIKYALA OF MUSTARD صناب, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD. Dated 121 H.

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفا وامر
بصنعة مكيلة الصناب
القاسم بن عبيد الله
على يدى يزيد بن ابى

(sic) يريد سنة لل ى
عشرين و
مئة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the manufacture of a mikyala of mustard, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd. Year one twenty and one hundred.

Emerald green, translucent. 46.

Unpublished.

208. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ, with YAZĪD B, ABĪ YAZĪD. Dated 122 H. Chip missing at bottom.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر بصنعة
ربع قسط القا
سم بن عبيد الله
على يدى يزيد بن ابى
بزيد سنة اثنين
وعشرين
(ومائة)

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd. Year two and twenty (and one hundred).

Green, translucent. 44.

Casanova, p. 368 Nos. 128-9; Grohmann 3.

209. Anepigraphic.

There is only a large linear pentagram with sharp points and five pellets in the external angles. This is certainly a secondary stamp. The attribution to al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh is based on the complete identity of this stamp with the secondary impression on Cat. 135, issued by al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh. This pentagram, with pointed tips and pellets, has not been found on the glass of any other official, There are only two exceptions, easy to recognize: Cat. 576. a broken coin weight of Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ, with small linear pentagram in exergue, but no pellets, and the coin weight Cat. 698 of Zakariyya and 'Isā, with small linear pentagram in the center, rounded points and no pellets.

Olive green, almost opaque 28.

image

Unpublished.

YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD

Prefect: 116-27 H. / A.D. 734-45 Interim Finance Director: 127-8 H. / A.D. 745

As Prefect
Vessel Stamps

210-211. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
يزيد بن ا
بى يزيد

At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

210. Emerald green, translucent. 28.

211. Emerald green, translucent. 21.

Casanova, p.373 Nos. 175-182; EAG I, 47; CAM I. 74-75: CAM II. Ruthven 17; Launois, Cairo 120-124.

212-214. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

As above, but six-pointed star at the bottom: *

212. Emerald green, translucent. 28.

213. Green, translucent. 30.

214. Emerald green, translucent. 30.

EAG I, 48; Petrie 132; Miles, "Muntaza" 20; Launois, Cairo 125.

As Interim Finance Director
Ring Weight

215-216. RAṬL OF GRAPES?

Fragments. Only most of head with round stamp preserved.

امر يزيد ين ابى
يزيد رطل العنب
واف

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd a raṭl of grapes, full weight.

215. Emerald green, translucent. Stamp 33.

216. Emerald green, translucent. Stamp 35.

Unpublished.

For the substance grapes, العنب, see Miles, "Ḥayyān," p. 152 and Cat. 35 and 136.

Coin Weights

217. DIRHAM (Without denomination).

ابى يزيد
يزيد ابن

Abī Yazīd Yazīd ibn

Pale green, translucent 24, 2.80.

Unpublished.

The legend starts in the second line and continues in the first. The piece seems to have been issued during Yazīd’s interim finance directorship because the prefect formula, على يدى, is not used. At the same time, the superior formula امربه, is missing from the protocol.

218-220. FALS OF 20 QĪRAṬ.

امر يزيد
ين ابى يزيد
مثقال فلس
عشرين قير
ط

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd the weight of a fals of twenty qīuaṭ.

218. Light green, translucent. 29, 3.77.

219. Light green, transparent. 29, 3.95.

220. Light green, transparent No rim. Six-pointed star at the top. 29, 4.11.

BM 7; EAG I, 43; Miles, "Muntaza" 18; Fahmy 80-83; Launois, Cairo 130-131; Launois, C.d.M. 12.

Vessel Stamps

221. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

امر يزيد
بن ابى يزيد

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Green, translucent. 24.

Miles, "Corning" 18-19..

222-223. QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت
امر يزيد
بن ابى يزيد
قسط زيت و
واف

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd a qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

222. Green, translucent. 32.

223. Green, translucent. 35.

CAM I, 68-69.

224-226. ONE-HALF QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت
امر يزيد
بن ابى يزيد نصف
قسط زيت
واف

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd one-half qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

224. Green, translucent, 32.

225. Olive green, translucent. 35.

226. Emerald green, transparent. 37.

CAM I, 70; CAM II. Ruthven 16; Cairo 119.

227-232. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ OF OLIVE OIL. زيت
امر يزيد
بن ابى يزيد ر
بع قسط ز
يت واف

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd, one-quarter qisṭ of olive oil, full measure.

227. Emerald green, transparent. 32.

228. Emerald green, transparent. 30.

229. Olive green, translucent. 32.

230. Emerald green, transparent. 30.

231. Green, transparent. 30.

232. Green, transparent. 28.

EAG II, 14; CAM I, 72-73; CAM II. Benaki 20; Launois, Cairo 116-118.

233. MIKYALA OF SHELLED LENTILS. عدس مقشر
امر يزيد بن
ابى يزيد
مكيلة عدس
مقشر نفيس

Ordered Yazīr b. Abī Yazīd a mikyala of pure shelled lentils.

Emerald green, transparent. 40.

Unpublished.

234. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كمون الابيض

امر يزيد
ين ابى يزيد
مكيلة الكمو
ن الابيض
نفيس

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd a mikyala of cumin, white, pure.

Light emerald green, transparent. 37.

Unpublished.

235. MIKYALA OF LUPIN. ترمس

امر يزيد
ين ابى يزيد
مكيلة التر
مس وا
ف

Ordered Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd a mikyala of lupin, full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 42.

Unpublished.

The letter sin of turmus has an extra tooth.

236. QISṬ FOR FENNEL. الشمر

(امريزيد(بن
ابى يزيد
بقسط للشمر
واف

Ordered Yazīd (b.) Abī Yazīd a qisṭ for fennel, full measure.

Peridot green, transparent. 50.

Balog, "Estampilles" 11.

'ĪSĀ B. ABĪ 'AṬĀ

Finance Director: 125-7 H. / A.D. 743-5; 128-31 H. / A.D. 745-9

Ring Weight

237-238. RAṬL FOR MEAT. لحم

Only the round principal imprint of both specimens is preserved, and a small portion of the head. The edge of a smaller second stamp is visible.

بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا
والامير عيسى
بن ا)بى عطا بصنعة
رظل لحم و
اف

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and (ordered) the amīr 'Īsā (b. A)bī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a raṭl for meat, full weight.

237. Emerald green, translucent. Stamp: 33.

238. Emerald green, translucent. Stamp: 32.

Unpublished.

امر between و and الامير omitted in the third line.

Disk Weights

239. RAṬL, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD, Issued between 125 and 127 H. Fragment.

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفا وامر
عيسى)بن ابى عطا)
بصنعة)رطل واف)
على يدى يزيد)بن ابى)
يزي)د)

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered ('Īsā) b. Abī 'Aṭā (the manufacture) of a raṭl, full weight. (At the hands of Yazīd) b. Abī (Yazī)d.

Green, translucent. Total length 113; round imprint 50.

Unpublished.

240. ONE-HALF RAṬL, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD. Issued between 125 and 127 H. Fragment

Principal round stamp, 45:

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
(.... فا وا(مر

...

...

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and or(dered [...]) [...] [...]

Round executive stamp, 18:

على يدى
يزيد بن ا
* بى يزيد

At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Dark emerald green, translucent. Total length 95.

Petrie 137-138.

As the name of the senior official is missing, the attribution is based on the similarity with Petrie 137. This may belong to al-Qāsim b. 'Ubayd Allāh’s issues.

Coin Weights

241. ONE-HALF DINAR, with YAZĪDB. ABĪYAZĪD. Issued between 125 and 127 H.

بسم الله
امر عيسى بن ابى
عطا بصنعة مثقا
ل نصف دينر على
يدى يزيد بن
ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of the weight of one-half dinar. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Light green, translucent. 22, 2.08.

BM. 6d; Launois, C.d.M. 10; Fahmy 70-71.

There are several errors in the legend: بصنعة without the nūn, مثقال without the thā and the alif and dinar written: ديعر. Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd’s protocol is still that of a prefect (على يدى); therefore, the weight was issued during 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā’s first tenure in office, between 125 and 127 H.

242. ONE-HALF DINAR, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD. Issued between 125 and 127 H.

بسم الله

(sic) عيسى بن ابى
صنعة مثقا
ل نصف على
يدى يزيد بن ا
بى يزيد

In the name of Allāh. 'Īsā b. Abī (sic) manufactured a weight of one-half. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Light green, translucent 20, 2.07.

Casanova, p. 379 No. 24; EAG I 40; CAM I. 46; CAM II. Benaki 21; Fahmy 72. Defective writing; the name 'Aṭā has been omitted.

243-244. DIRHAM, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD. Issued between 125 and 127 H.

بسم الله
الله بالوفا
وامر عيسى بن ا
بى عطا بصنعة
مثقال درهم وا
ف على يدى يزيد
بن ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered 'Īsa b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a dirham weight, full weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

243. Light green, translucent. 25, 2.80.

244. Light green, translucent. 25, 2.79.

Unpublished.

The dirham weight has been published, but with different legend: Petrie 133; BM 6; CAM I, 78.

245. DIRHAM, with YAZĪD B. ABĪ YAZĪD, Issued between 125 and 127 H.

بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا
وامر عيسى بن ابى عطا
بصنعة مثقال د
رهم على يدى يز
يد بن ابى يزيد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Allāh honesty and ordered 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā— the manufacture of a weight of dirham. At the hands of Yazīd b. Abī Yazīd.

Light green, translucent. 25, 2.83.

Unpublished.

Vessel Stamps

246-247. QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
عيسى بن ابى
عطا بصنعة
قسط وا
ف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a qisṭ, full measure.

246. Green, translucent. 36.

247. Emerald green, transparent. Chipped. 40

Unpublished.

On both specimens بصنعه is written without the nūn.

248. ONE-HALF QISṬ. Legend at the beginning and the end of several lines reconstructed.

بسم الله
امر الامير
عيسى بن ابى عطا
صنعة نصف
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Īsa b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of one-half qisṭ, full measure.

Green, almost transparent. 30.

BM 394; Other published half-qisṭ stamp, with different legends: CAM I, 81-82; Miles, "Muntaza" 22.

249. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
عيسى بن ابى عطا
بصنعة ربع قسط
(وا(ف

In the name of Allāh. ordered the amīr 'Īsā b. Abī 'Atā the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, full (measure).

Green, translucent. 32.

Petrie 135; Casanova, p. 369, nos. 134-135; EAG I. 42; Launois, Cairo 106-109; CAM I, 83; Dudzus, "Gewichte" 4a, b.

250-251. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر عيسى
بن)ابى عطا)
بصنعة ربع
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Īsā (b.) Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

250. Green, translucent. 35.

251. Green, translucent. 36.

Launois, Cairo 113.

With this stamp begins the transformation of the primitive, archaic Kufic. The letters. ṭā, ṣād and yā are already horizontally stretched.

252. MIKYALA OF LUPIN. ترمس

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفاو
امر عيسى بن ابى
عطا بصنعة مكيلة
تر)مس وا)
فية

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a mikyala (of lu) pin, full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 35.

Unpublished.

253. MIKYALA OF BLACK CUMIN. كمون الاسود

بسم ا
لله امر الامير
عيسى ابى
عطا مكيلة
كمون الا
سود

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Īsā(b). Abī 'Aṭā a mikyala of cumin, black.

Emerald green, translucent. 35.

Unpublished.

The word بن between 'Īsā and Abī-’Aṭā is omitted.

254. MIKYALA FOR WHITE CUMIN. كمون الايبض

(بسم الله )
امر الله بالو
فا وامر عيسى
بن)ابى عطا بصنعة)
مكيلة وافية
للكمون الابيض

(In the name of Allāh). God ordered honesty and ordered 'Īsā (b.) Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a full-measure mikyala for white cumin.

Green, translucent. 48.

Unpublished.

Dudzus, "Glasstempel" 4c has a shorter legend.

255. MIKYALA OF ... (substance off flan).

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر الامير
عيسى)بن ابى عطا)
....بصنعة مكيلة
واف

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr ('Īsā) b. Abī 'Aṭā the manufacture of a mikyala of ....., full measure.

Green, transparent. 33.

As the substance is missing it is impossible to say whether or not the stamp is published.

'ABD AL-MALIK B. MARWĀN

Finance Director: 131-2 H. / A.D. 749 Governor: 132-3 H. / A.D. 750

Ring Weights

256. RAṬL. Fragment. Only part of the head portion is preserved, with one of two imprints. The impression, originally round, has assumed, through pressure of the second stamp, an oval shape, 35 by 28. The second imprint was probably identical with the existing one.

بسم الله
امر الله بالوفا
وامر الامير عبد
الملك بن مرون
بصنعة رطا
اف

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr 'Abdal-Malik b. Marwān, the manufacture of a raṭl, full weight.

Dark emerald green, translucent.

EAG I 50.

The legend is identical with ours, but the second stamp is a smaller, executive stamp.

257. RAṬL, with MUKHALLAD and YAḤYĀ. This is an even smaller fragment than Cat. 256. The principal stamp, of which only a third is preserved (in the right sector) is identical with the legend of Cat. 256 and is easy to reconstruct. On its right side is a small round, complete, executive stamp, 21:

على يدى مخلد
ويحيى

At the hands of Mukhallad and Yaḥya.

Dark emerald green, almost opaque.

Unpublished.

Although there seem to be two executives’ names on this weight, "Mukhallad and Yaḥyā," مخلد ويحيى, it might just be a mistake of the engrave, instead of "Mukhallad b. Yaḥyā," On the following raṭl, Cat. 258, the first name is not legible, but the last line reads: "b. Yaḥyā," بن يحيى. Cat. 261 shows the name of Mukhallad, but the father’s name is missing.

Disk Wrights

258. RAṬL. About half the longitudinally broken oval disk is preserved.

Round principal imprint, 42:

(بسم الله )
(امر الله بالوفا وامر)
الامير عبد)الملك)
بن مرون بصنعة
رطل واف

(In the name of Allāh). (God ordered honesty and ordered) (the amīr 'Abd) al-Malik b. Marwān, the manufacture of a raṭl full weight.

Round executive stamp, 20:

...

...

بن يحيى

... (At the hands of) ... (Mukhallad?) b. Yaḥā.

Dark emerald green, translucent. Total length: 128.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

259. ONE-HALF DINAR, with YAZĪD B. TAMĪM.

بسم الله
امر الامير عبد ا
للمكه بن مرون بصنعة
مثقال نصف د
ينر واف على يدى
يزيد ين تميم

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amir 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān the manufacture of a weight of one-half dinar, full weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Tamīm.

Green, translucent. 21, 2.09.

Casanova p. 379 No. 25; Fahmy 89.

260. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA, with KA’B B. 'ALQAMA.

بسم الله
امر الامير عبد ا
للمكه بن مرون اصلحه
الله بصنعة مثقال فلس
ثلثين خروة واف
على يدى كعب بن
علقمة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, may Allāh keep him straight, the manufacture of a fals-weight of thirty kharrūba, full weigh. At the hands of Ka’b b. 'Alqama.

Light green, translucent. 33, 5.86.

Fahmy 97.

For Che prefect Ka’b b. Alqama, see Cat. 275, 276, Launois, Cairo 310-311; and Dudzus, "Gewichte" 5b.

261. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA, with MUKHALAD (B. YAḤYĀ?). Broken at the bottom. About a quarter missing.

بسم الله
امر الامير عبد ا
للملك بن مرون اصلحه
الله بصنعة مثقال فلس
ثلثين خروية واف
على يدى مخلد

...

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, may Allāh keep him straight, the manufacture of a fals-weight of thirty kharrūba, full weigh. At the hands of Mukhallad [...]

Light green, translucent. 32.

Unpublished.

For the prefect Mukhallad, See Cat. 257.

Mithqāl, مثقال, written without the thā.

262-264. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA, with YAZĪD B. TAMĪM.

[...]

[...]

بن مرون اصلحه الله
بصنعة مثقال فلس
ثلثين خروية واف
على يدى يزيد بن
تميم

[...] [...] b. Marwān, may Allāh keep him straight, the manufacture of a fals-weight of thirty kharrūba, full weight. At the hands of Yazīd b. Tamīm.

262. Green, translucent. One-half missing.

263. Green, translucent. Two-thirds missing.

264. Green, translucent. Two-thirds missing.

Petrie 140; Casanova, p. 379 Nos. 27-28; EAG I, 49; CAM I, 90; Launois, Cairo 137-140; Fahmy 92-96.

Vessel Stamps

265. ONE-HALF QISṬ Chipped.

بسم الله
امر الله بالو
فا وامر الامير
عبد الملك بم مر
ون)بصنعة نصف)

[...]

[...]

In the name of Allāh. God ordered honesty and ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Mar(wān) the manufacture of one-half (qisṭ, full) (measure).

Green, translucent. 37.

BM 391; Miles, "Muntaza" 25.

266. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
الله بالوفا وامر
الامير عبد الملك
بن مرون بصنعة ربع
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, full measure,

Green, translucent. 40.

Petrie 141; CAM I. 92.

267-268. MIKYALA OF JUJUBE. الضال
بسم الله ا
مر الله بالوفا و
امر الامير عبد
الملك بن مرون
صنعة بمكيلة
للضال وافية

In the name of Allāh. Ordered God honesty and ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān the manufacture of a mikyala of jujube, of full measure

267. Green, transparent. 37.

268. Green, transparent, 41.

Balog, "Estampilles" 14.

269. MIKYALA OF SHELLED LENTILS. عدس مقش

Broken.

[...]

وامر الامير عبد
الملك بن مرون بصنعة
مكيلة عدس مقشروا
فية

[...] and ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān the manufacture of a mikyala of shelled lentils of full measure.

Green, transparent. 39.

Unpublished.

270. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVES. الوسمة
بسم الله امر
الله بالوفا وامر
الامير عبد الملك
بن مرون بصنعة
مكيله للو
سمة
وافية

In the name of Allāh. Commanded God honesty and ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān the manufactur a mikyala of woad leaves of full measure.

Green, transparent. 40.

CAM I, 93-94.

YAZĪD B. TAMĪM

Prefect: ca. 128-32 H. / A.D. 745-9

Disk Weight

271. RAṬL. Small fragment, with portion of the thick rim, and the round executive imprint, 21:

على يدى
يزيد بن
تميم

At the hands of Yazīd b. Tamīm.

Green, translucent. Total length: 70.

Unpublished.

The entire principal impression with the protocol of the authority has disappeared.

Vessel Stamp

272-274. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
يزيد بن
تميم

At the hands of Yazīd b. Tamīm.

272. Green, translucent. 30.

272. Green, translucent. 30.

274. Green, translucent. 30.

Casanova, p. 374, No. 190; CAM I, 88. Launois, Cairo 141-142; Miles, "Corning" 18-19.

KA’B B. 'ALQAMA

Prefect under 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān ca. 131-3 H. / A.D. 748-50

Disk Weight

275. RAṬL. Small fragment of a disk weigh. Traces of the round principal stamp have preserved only part of the first line of the legend: بسم)الله امر), "(In the name) of Allāh. Commanded...." The name of the issuing senior official is missing. The round executive stamp, 23, impressed in the thick rim, contains the prefect’s name:

على يدى
كعب
بن علقمة

At the hands of Ka’b b. 'Alqama.

Emerald green, translucent. 55 × 40.

Unpublished.

Vessel Stamp

276. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
كعب
بن علقمة

At the hands of Ka’b b. 'Alqama.

Green, translucent. 28.

Launois, Cairo 310-311.

Cat. 275 and 276 were stamped with the same die.

For Ka’b b. 'Alqama see Fahmy 97; Launois, Cairo 310-311; Dudzus, "Gewichte" 5b and Cat., 260, 275, 276.

II. 'ABBĀSIDS
THE FAMILY OF MUḤAMMAD (ĀL-MUḤAMMAD). ال محمد

In recent times students of Arabic metrology seem to have agreed that coin weights and vessel stamps issued in the name of "the Family of Muḥammad," or "Āl-Muḥammad," ال محمد, most probably belong to the 'Abbāsid dynasty. It has, however, not yet been established whether they belong to the beginning of the 'Abbāsid rule in Egypt, or to a slightly later period.

Miles (CAM I, 211-212 and note 71 on the same page [92]), thought it possible that the governor Wāḍiḥ, mawlā of the caliph al-Manṣūr, who was known for his 'Alīd inclinations, might have issued them. Miles added, however: "This is pure speculation, needless to say, and it is doubtful that the hypothesis could ever be substantiated."

In his "Coin Weights", p. 79 second paragraph, Miles writes: "For reasons too particular to be argued in detail here I tentatively suggest that these two classes (ال محمد and the larger anonymous class) were issued about the time of the transfer of authority from the Umayyads to the 'Abbāsids."

Commenting on No. 45 of "Corning," which appeared eight years later, Miles suggests: "In CAM I, p. 92 I observed that the question of the attribution of those weights in the name of the "Family of Muḥammad" remained unsolved. The late Giorgio Levi della Vida subsequently wrote me that he was doubtful about my tentative hypothesis that they might be attributed to Wāḍiḥ (162 H.), and suggested the period of the caliph al-Ma’mūn, whose policy of 'appeasement’ toward the Shi’a is well known. The term Āl-Muḥammad would be noncommittal, including both 'Abbāsids and 'Alids. I have adopted Levi della Vita’s suggestion in placing these weights ca. 200 H. Launois ( Cairo p. 40) proposed to date them at the end of the Umayyad period her well-reasoned argument is elaborated in her review of CAM I in RN (1958), p. 234." Fahmy (p. 167) has in mind the time of Ḥumayd b. Qaḥtaba and the 'Alīd uprising, but offers no proof for this argument.

We know from Ibn al-Athīr (V, 164, cited by Zambaur 10) that al-Ṣaffāḥ granted the honorary title "amīr Āl-Muḥammad" to Abū Muslim and at the same time that of "wazīr Āl-Muḥammad" to Abū Salama. This event took place some time in or before 131 H. because there is a fals of Rayy, dated 131 H. on which the names of the two high ranking officials are followed by the new honorary titles. This fals proves materially that the 'Abbāsids did use their much advertised relationship with the Prophet at a very early stage, in the most efficacious way, i.e. on the coinage. Indeed, the presumed kinship with the Prophet served as propaganda even before the Umayyads were overthrown and al-Ṣaffāḥ mounted the caliphal throne. It seems quite possible, even likely, that the new "motto" was applied to the glass as soon as power was taken over from the last Umayyad governor. The issuing of glass weights and vessel stamps, as an expression of its authority, was nearly as important for the government of Egypt as that of the coinage.

I believe that the glass coin weights and vessel stamps bearing "Āl-Muḥammad" as the issuing authority can be attributed to Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, the first 'Abbāsid governor, and that there are indications in favor of this assumption.

It was Launois ( Cairo p. 39) who drew attention to the fact that one of her vessel stamps shows the motto "amara Āl-Muḥammad bi’l-wafā." According to Launois, this constitutes a subtle transformation of the classic Umayyad formula "amara Allāh bi’l-wafā," suited to 'Abbāsid interests.

The motto "amara Āl-Muḥammad bi’l-warā" is present on the eight vessel stamps in my collection, and one of my coin weights even bears it in a more extended form: "amara Āl-Muḥammad bi’l-warā lillāhi." The other coin weights, in my collection as well as in the literature, only have "amawa Āl-Muḥammad," I think that Launois’ assumption is correct and that the gradual changes in the motto were aimed at an easy acceptance of the new 'Abbāsid protocol, to be introduced shortly.

The assumption that the Āl-Muḥammad issues of coin weights and vessel stamps were put into circulation under Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī seems to be further confirmed by another curious vessel stamp in my collection (Cat. 301). On this piece the 'Abbāsid caliph is not named, only referred to with the following formula: "Amr min b. Hāshim li’l-wafā," امر من بن هاشم للوفا followed by the protocol of the governor, Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī.

A further argument in favor of an early 'Abbāsid date of issue is based on stylistic characteristics of the writing. Here we must sharply differentiate between coin weights and vessel stamps. The coin weights are of smaller size, and therefore the usually long legend consists of very small characters which do not differ from the writing on the late Umayyad coin weights. Even until the reign of the caliph al-Manṣūr there is no noticeable change in writing style on the coin weights.

It is difficult to narrow down the date limits of the coin weights of the "Āl-Muḥammad" series on purely stylistic grounds but it becomes much easier for the vessel stamps.

The characters which compose the legend on all the "Āl-Muḥammad" bottle stamps are identical with those written on the stamps of Ṣālih b. 'Alī and, in fact, the whole legend of the former is indistinguishable in style from that of the latter. On all, the characters are tall and uniformly thin, clearly delineated and engraved with a well-hand. They all seem to have been written by the same calligrapher. The only other official whose stamps are quite similar to the above is 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, who was governor and finance director during the three year period between Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī’s first and second governorships

I am, however, inclined to attribute the "Āl-Muḥammad" issues to Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, rather than to 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, because it is more likely that the first 'Abbāsid governor had the task of accustoming Egypt’s public to the 'Abbāsid protocol.

It is interesting to note that no heavy weights of the "Āl-Muḥammad" series have come to light.

Coin Weights

277. DINAR.

بسم الله
امر ال محمد
مثمال دينر
واف
*

In the name of Allāh. ordered the Family of Muḥammad a dinar weight, full weight.

Light green, translucent. 30, 4.19.

CAM I, 211-212; Miles, "Muntaza" 56; Fahmy 241; Launois, Cairo 145; Launois, C.d.M. 13.

278. DINAR (but no denomination).

بسم
(الله امر(ال
محمد بالو
فا لله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered (the Family) of Muḥammad honesty to God.

Pale green, devitrified, chipped. 27, 4.11. Large writing.

Unpublished.

279-281. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

image

بسم الله
امر ا (ل)محمد
مثقال ثلث د
ينر واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad a weight of one-third dinar, full weight.

279. Light green, translucent. 20, 1.36.

280. Light green, translucent. 20, 1.41.

281. Light green, translucent. 20, 1.38.

Unpublished.

The letter lam of Āl-Muḥammad has been omitted.

282-284. DIRHAM OF 13 KHARRŪBA.

image

بسم الله
امر ال محمد
مثقال درهم
ثلث عشر خر
وبة واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad a dirham weight of thirteen kharrūba, full weight.

282. Light green, translucent. 24. 2.56.

283. Light green, translucent. 24, 2.61.

284. Light green, translucent. 20, 2.61.

The word dirham is used here in its general meaning of "money," and not as the legal dirham, which it is not. See Miles, "Coin Weights," pp. 82, 84 and Introduction above, p. 00.

Casanova, p. 381, No. 44; Petrie 94; BM 33; Launois, Cairo 146; Fahmy 243-244; Miles, "Corning" 45.

Vessel Stamps

285-287. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر ال محمد
بالوفا ربع image
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad honesty. One-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

285. Green, transparent. 39.

286. Green, transparent. 40.

287. Green, transparent. 36 Chipped.

Casanova, p. 371, Nos. 162-164; Petrie 95; Launois, Cairo 143.

Ornament: image at the end of the third line.

288-289. MIKYAL AL-KABĪR.

بسم الله امر
ال محمد بالوفا
مكيل الكبير
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad honesty. Mikyal al-kabīr, full measure.

288. Blue green, transparent. 43.

289. Blue green, transparent. 36.

Unpublished.

This is the first occurrence of the measure of capacity "Mikyal al-kabīr," مكيل الكبير. Note the spelling mikyal and not mikyala or mikyāl.

290. MIKYAL OF WOAD LEAVE. الوسمة
بسم الله امر
ال محمد بالو
فا مكيل الو
سمة واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad honesty. Mikyal of woad leaves, full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 39.

Unpublished.

Mikyal and not mikyāl, or mikyala.

291-292. MIKYAL OF WHITE CUMIN.كمون الابيض

بسم الله
امر ال محمد با
لوفا مكيل*
الابيض (sic) لكمان
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the Family of Muḥammad honesty. Mikyal of white cumin, full measure.

291. Emerald green, transparent 40.

292. Emerald green, transparent 39.

Unpublished.

Al-kammūn, الكمون, written: الكمان; mikyal, and not mikyāl or mikyala.

Henri Arroyo of Toulon has a similar stamp. He read the substance as "kemmāt," كمات, truffles (IB 1964), but the last letter is not a ta marbūṭa on my two specimens or on his. His reading may still be the right one. Either way there seems to be a small engraver’s error.

End Notes

10
10 E. von Zambaur, Contribution à la numismatique orientale 1 (Vienna, 1905), p. 4 no. 6.

ṢĀLIḤ B. 'ALĪ

Governor: 133 H. / A.D. 750-1, 136-7 H. / A.D. 753-5

Ring Weight

293-294. RAṬL. Only the head portion is preserved of both weights, each with one round imprint, 40:

مما امر
به الامير صلح
بن على اصلحه الله
اوفوا الكيل ولا
تكونوا من المخسر
بن رطل واف

Among those things which ordered the amīr Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, may Allāh keep him straight. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. Raṭl, full weight.

293. Dark green, opaque. Fragment 85 × 40.

294. Dark emerald green, translucent. Fragment 50 × 46.

Petrie 150; EAG I, 61.

Disk Weight

295. WUQIYYA. A little over half an oval disk weight is preserved. Principal round imprint, 35:

مما)امر)
به الا)مير صلح)
بن)على افتحه الله)
بصنعة وقية
وافية

(Among those things) which ordered (the) amīr Ṣāliḥ (b.) 'Alī, may God exalt him, the manufacture of a full-weight wuqiyya.

Remaining marginal section of a small round executive stamp:

.....

....)اب
(اب (رهنم

Ab.. (Abbāu?) Ib... (Ibrāhīm?).

Green, almost transparent. 60 × 32.

Unpublished

See Cat. 352, 742-747 for the executive.

Coin Weights

296-297. DIRHAM OF 13 KHARRŪBA.

Square impression 16 × 16:

بسم الله
مثقال درهم
وزن ثلث عشر
ة خروية

In the name of Allāh. Dirham weight, of the weight of thirteen kharrūba.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما امربه الامير صلح بن على اصلحه الله

Among those things which ordered the amīr Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, may God keep him straight.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

296. Pale green, translucent. 23. 2.46.

297. Pale green, translucent. 23 2.47.

Unpublished.

The first appearance of the square impression on the coin weights, these are also the first coin weights with a reverse legend. For the official responsible for the manufacture of the weights, Kayl, see EAG I, pp. 100-104, 106 and CAM I, p. 39. Grohmann, cited by Miles in CAM I, identifies the Arabicized name Kayl with the Coptin Chael. Although there are several coin weights of the caliph al-Manṣūr countersigned by Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, these are the first two issued in Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī’s name alone.

Vessel Stamps

298. QISṬ.

مما امر
به الامير صلح
بن)على اصلحه الله)
بصنعة القسط
(واف)

Among those things which ordered the amīr Ṣāliḥ (b) 'Alī, may God straighten him, the manufacture of a qisṭ, (full measure).

Sea green, translucent. 50.

Casanova, p. 370, No. 140.

اصلحه written without the lam.

299-300. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

مما امر به
صلح بن على اصلحه
الله بصنعة ربع
القسط واف

Among those things which ordered Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī, may God straighten him, the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

299. Emerald green, translucent. 40.

300. Sea green, translucent. 38.

CAM I, 104-105; Casanova, p. 370 No. 141; Launois, Cairo 158-160.

301. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
من بن هاشم للو
فا مما امر به الامير
صلح بن على على يدى اللو
قا ربع قسط
واف

In the name of Allāh. Order from the son of Hāshim for honesty. Among those things which ordered the amīr Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī At the hands of al-Lūqā. One-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

Bottle green, translucent. 41.

Unpublished.

This is a remarkable vessel stamp. It presents the 'Abbāsid Caliph without his name, as "son of Hāshim," in other words, as direct heir of the ancestor of the 'Abbāsid dynasty. The motto "Order from the Son of Hāshim for honesty’’ is a transformation of the Umayyad formula: "amara Allāh bi’l wafā". The application of the transformation formula suggests a very early 'Abbāsid issue under the caliph al-Ṣaffāḥ, at the latest in 136 H. The prefect al-Lūqa (Lucas) is unknown; al-Lūqā is written here with a qāf instead of a kāf, but there is no doubt about the reading.

'ABD AL-MALIK B. YAZĪD

Governor and Finance Director: 133-6 H. / A.D. 751-3; 137-41 H. / A.D. 755-8

Ring Weight

302. RAṬL, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

Fragment. About two thirds of the round impression is preserved:

بسم)الله امر)
عبدا)ملك بن يز)
يد)بصنعة رطل)
واف )على يدى)
محمد)بن شر)
(حبيل)

(In the name) of Allāh. Ordered ('Abd)al-Malik b. Yaz(īd) the manufacture of a raṭl, (full weight). At the hands of (Muḥammad) b. Shur(aḥbīl.

Emerald green, translucent. Imprint 40.

EAG II, 19; CAM II, 28.

Disk Weight

303-313. WUQIYYA, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

There are eleven fragments of this disk weigh, all of different provenance and dimensions. Six specimens are about half the disk, the others are smaller portions. The reconstruction of the legend is easy. Diameter of the reconstructed disk is 55.

Obverse:

بسم الله ا
مر عبد الملك بن
يزيد بصنعة و
قية واف على يدى
محمد بن شرحبيل

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd the manufacture of a wuqiyya, full weigh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl.

Reverse, counter clockwise circular legend, leaving a free margin of ca. 1 cm.

بسم الله امر به
الامير عبد الملك
بن يزيد اصلحه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, may God straighten him!

All the fragments are emerald green, nearly transparent.

303-308. About half preserved.

309. One quarter.

310. A large slice from the center.

311-313. Less than a quarter

Casanova, p. 385, No 4-5.

Casanova did not record a reverse legend.

Coin Wrights

314. DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

Obverse:

بسم الله
امر عبد ا
للمك بن يزيد
مثقال دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd a dinar weight, full weight.

Reverse, clockwise circular legend (retrograde):

على يدى محمد بن شرحبيل

At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shurwḥbīl.

Center (retrograde):

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

Light green, translucent, 27, 4.20.

BM 10; Petrie 145; EAG II, 18; CAM I, 99; Launois, Cairo 167-168: Fahmy 105-106.

315-316. ONE-HALF DINAR, with MUḤAMMAlD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

Obverse:

بسم ا
لله امر عبد
الملك بن يز
يد بمثقال
نصف واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd a weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, clockwise marginal legend (retrograde):

على يدى محمد بن شرحبيل

At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl

Center (retrograde) in circular line:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

315. Green, translucent. 23, 2.09.

316. Blue green, translucent. 22, 2.09.

Petrie 146; Fahmy 107.

317-318. FALS OF 24 KHARRŪBA.

بسم الله
امر الامير عبد
الملك بن يزيد
مثقال فلس اربع
وعشرين بن خر
وبة

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd a fals weight of four and twenty kharrūba.

317. Light blue green, transparent. 30, 4.61.

318. Light green, transparent. 30, 4.56.

Petrie 144; EAG I, 64 (star at end); CAM I, 100 (star); CAM II. Benaki 27; Launois, Cairo 169-172; Launois, C.d.M. 14; Fahmy 110-116.

319-321. FALS OF 23 KHARRŪBA. Square impression 19 × 19:

بسم الله ا
مر عبد الملك
بن يزيد بمثقال
فلس ثلثة و
عشرين خروية

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd the weight of a fals, three and twenty kharrūba.

319 Pale green, translucent. 29, 4.42.

320. Pale green, translucent. 27, 4.42.

321. Pale green, translucent. 29, 4.42.

EAG I, 65-66; Launois, Cairo 174-175; Fahmy 118-119.

322-325. DIRHAM OF 13 KHARRŪBA.

Obverse, square impression, 17 × 17:

بسم الله
مثقال درهم
وزن ثلث عشر
ة خرمبة

In the name of Allāh. Dirham-weight, weighing thirteen kharrūba.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

عبد الملك بن يزيد

''Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

322. Pale green, translucent. 25, 2.47.

323. Pale olive green, translucent. 25, 2.47.

324. Pale green, translucent, 25, 2.47.

325. Pale green, translucent. 25, 2.47.

Miles, "Muntaza" 26, Launois, Cairo 348; Fahmy 109.

Vessel Stamps

326-328. QISṬ, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله امر
عبد الملك بن يزيد
بصنعة قسط و
اف على يدى محمد
بن شرحبيل

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd the manufacture of a qisṭ, full measure. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuaḥbīl.

326. Green, transparent. 42.

327. Green, transparent. 43.

328. Green, transparent. 45.

Petrie 147; Launois, Cairo 161-162.

329-331. ONE-QUARTRR QISṬ, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله امر
عبد الملك بن يزيد
بصنعة على يدى مسط
واف على يدى محمد
بن شرحبيل

In the name of Allāh. Ordered 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ full measure. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl.

329. Green, transparent. 38.

330. Light green, transparent. 40.

331. Green, transparent. 37.

Petrie 141 (erroneously attributed to 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān); EAG I, 67 (slightly different arrangement); CAM I 102-103t; CAM II. Benaki 29.

MUḤAMMAD B. SḤURAHBĪL

Prefect: ca. some time after 133 H. until some time after 144 H./A.D. 750-63

Muḥammad b. Sḥurahbīl is not recorded in the chronicles but is well known from a number of glass weights and bottle stamps. Miles tentatively placed his first tenure of office as prefect under the last Umayyad governor, 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, in 132 H. He based this assumption on a vessel stamp in the collection of the ANS (EAG I, 51) listed under the emissions of the last Umayyad governor.

Closer inspection of his illustration shows, however, that the governor’s name is not complete, as the father’s name is off the flan. Miles assumed that it was Marwān and therefore listed it under 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān. It may be, however, that the stamp was not issued by 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, but by the second 'Abbāsid governor, 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, who held office between 133 and 136 H. and again between 137 and 141 H. This would tally better with all the published stamps on which Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl appears in connection with 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd (EAG I, 67; EAG II, 20-21; CAM I, 102-103; CAM II. Benaki 29) and also with our own weights, Cat. 302, 303-313, 314, 315-316, and vessel stamps, Cat. 326-328, 329-331.

I believe, therefore, that Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl may not have been in office before 133 H. or even later, because we have no glass of Ṣāliḥ b. 'Alī with Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl. We can ascertain from the glass in our collection that Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl was in office under the following officials:

  • 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, 133-6 H. and 137-41 H.
  • Mūsā b. Ka’b, 141 H.
  • Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba, 143-4 H.
  • Yazīd b. Ḥātim, 144-52 H.

It can be safely deduced that Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl was prefect from some time after 133 H., until some time after 144 H., when Yazīd b. Ḥātim became governor.

Disk Weights

332. WUQIYYA? Dated 135 H. About half of a longitudinally broken oval disk weight.

At one end, a small portion of the flower-shaped principal stamp. The second, round impression (16) contains the date.

Remains of the principal impression:

(على)
(بد(ى محمد
(بن ش(رحبيل

(At) the hands of (Muḥammad?) b. Sh(uraḥbīl?).

Second impression:

صنعة سنة
خمس وثلثين
ومائة

Manufactured in the year thirty five and one hundred.

Given, translucent. Total length of fragment: 56

Unpublished.

The date fixes this issue in the first governorship of 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd. Although only the first letter of the name of the father is preserved, the prefect is, in all probability, Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl.

333. A, B. WUQIYYA.

بسم الله
على يدى محمد
بن شرحبيل
وقية واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl. Wuqiyya, full weight.

A. Blue green, round disk, transparent. More than one-half preserved. 54. Impression: 36

B. Emerald green, transparant. Small fragment.

CAM I, 96.

Vessel Stamps

334-335. QISṬ.

بسم الله
على يدى محمد
ين شرحبيل بصنعة
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl. Manufactured a qisṭ, full measure.

334. Emerald green, transparant. 40.

335. Bottle green, transparant. 36.

Unpublished.

336-338. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
على يدى محمد
بن شرحبيل ربع
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Suraḥbīl One-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

336. Emerald green, near transparent. 31

337. Emerald green, transparent. 40

338. Emerald green, transparent. 36

Petrie 155; Launois, Cairo 202 bis.

'ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ

Prefect: ca. 133-41 H./A.D. 751-8; 165-9 H./ A.D. 781-6

Disk Weights

339-342. WUQIYYA KABĪR. Oval disk weight with three square impressions, all three 19 × 19, applied along the long axis of the weight. Thick rim on the long sides. Two large fragments, about half the disk, and two smaller ones.

First impression:

على يدى
عاصم
بن حفص

At the hands of 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ.

Second impression:

وتقية
كبير
واف

Wuqiyya kabīr, full weight.

(Writing upside down) Third impression:

على يدى
عاصم
بن حفص

At the hands of 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ.

All olive green, translucent.

339. 58 × 36.

340. 52 × 32.

341. 35 × 35.

342. 29 × 23.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

343-346. FALS OF 36 KHARRŪBA, with coptic figure for 36. Counter clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى عاصم بن حفص

At the hands of 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ

Center:

مثقا
ل فلس
ع ر

Weight of fals 36.

343. Vivid yellow green, translucent. 32, 6.96.

344. Green, translucent. 32, 6.98.

345. Olive green, translucent. Devitrified. 31, 7.05.

346. Olive green, translucent. Broken.

Casanova p. 382, no 53; EAG I., 68; CAM I, 106; Fahmy 122-126.

The writing is in elongated flowing Kufic. See Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 83.

347 FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA. Square impression with rounded corners, 22 × 22. Counter-clockwise marginal legend along the straight borders:

مثقال فلس ثلثين خروة

Fals-weight of thirty kharrūba.

Center legend written on diagonally to square marginal inscription:

على
عاصم
يدى

At the Āṣim hands of.

Dark olive green, translucent. 31, 5.77.

CAM I, 107; CAM II. Ruthven 19.

Vessel Stamps

348. A, B. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
عاصم
بن حفص

At the hands of 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ.

A. Pale green, translucent. 22.

B. Green, transparent. 23.

Casanova, p. 374, Nos. 188-189; CAM II. Ruthven 20.

CALIPH AL-MANṢŪR
136-58 H./A.D. 754-75

Ring Weights

349. DOUBLE RAṬL. Fragment, with most of the round impression preserved. The first line of the legend reconstructed from the raṭl weights Cat. 350-351.

(مما امر به)
عبد الله عبدا
لله امير المومنين ا
وفوا الكيل ولا تكو
نوا من المخاسرين ر
طلين وا
ف

(Among those things which ordered) the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. Two raṭl, full weight.

Dark green, almost opaque. Round stamp 40.

Unpublished.

350-351. RAṬL. Two fragments, with round impression:

مما امر به
عبد الله عبد الله
امير المؤمنين او
فو الكيل ولاتكونوا
من المخاسرين ر
طل واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. Raṭl, full weight.

350. Dark emerald green, nearly opaque. Stamp 39.

351. Dark emerald green, nearly opaque. Stamp 38.

Unpublished.

Disk Weight

352. ONE-HALF RAṬL, with ... B. IBRĀHĪM. Fragment of a disk weight, with round principal impression, of which about two-thirds is preserved (diam. ca. 38-40) and a segment of a small round executive stamp (diam. ca. 20).

Principal stamp:

(مما امر به)
عبد الله )عبد)
الله امير ال)مؤمنين)
اوفوا ال)يل و)
لا ت)كونوا من ا
لمخسرين نصف
رطل و
اف

(Among those things which ordered) the servant of Allāh,) 'Abd (Allāh, Commander of) the faithful. (Give just mea)sure and (be not) of the defrauders. One-half raṭl, full weight.

Executive stamp:

[...]

[...]

ابرهيم

[...]

[...]

Ibrahīm.

Green, translucent.

EAG I, 53 (executive stamp missing).

It may be that the prefect, ... b. Ibrāhīm is Abbān b. Ibrāhīm. Compare Cat. 742-747, 295, 352.

Coin Weights

353. DINAR.

مما امر
عبد الله عبد
الله امير المؤ
منين مثقال د
ينر واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, a weight of a dinar, full weight.

Olive brown, translucent. 27, 4.16.

BM 57. Same die.

354. ONE-HALF DINAR.

image

مما امر به
عبد الله عبد الله
امير المؤمنين او
فوا الكيل ولا تكو
نوا من المخاسرين
مثقال نصف
واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Light green, translucent. 23, 2.07.

Unpublished.

This Quranic Quotation is rather unusual on the coin weights. EAG I, 60, which has been countersigned by the governor 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd, has the same one. Compare Miles, "Corning" 23, a dinar weight which also has the same Quranic verse.

355-356. DINAR, with 'ABD AL-MALIK B. YAZĪD

مما امربه
عبد الله عبد
الله امير المؤ
منين مثقال دينر
واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faith¬ful, the weight of a dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

عبد الملك بن يزيد

'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl

355. Black, opaque glass paste. Scaling, therefore some loss of weight. 24, 4.00

356. Black, opaque glass paste. Perfectly preserved. 29, 4.22.

Petrie 445-446; EAG I, 59 (slightly different arrangement); CAM I, 120, 121.

357. DIRHAM, with 'ABD AL-MALIK B. YAZĪD.

مما امر به
عبد الله عبد
الله امير المؤ
منين مثقال در
هم وا
ف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faith¬ful, the weight of a dir¬ham, full weight.

Reverse counter-clockwise marginal legend:

عبد الملك بن يزيد

'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd.

Center:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

Black, opaque glass paste. 26, 2.78.

Casanova, p. 370, No. 34.

358. DINAR. MIṢR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SA’ĪD.

بسم الله
امر امير ا
امؤمنين مثقال
دينر واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the commander of the faithful, the weight of a dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى محمد بن سعيد

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Sa’īd.

Center: in circle:

*

مصر

Miṣr.

Preidot green, transparent. 28, 4.23. CAM I, 124; Fahmy 163.

359-360. ONE-HALF DINAR. MIṢR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SA’ĪD.

بسم الله
امر الامير ا
لمؤمنين مثقال
نصف واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the commander of the faithful, a weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى محمد بن سعيد

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Sa 'īd.

Centre, in circle:

*

359. مصر

Miṣr.

Light green, translucent. 21, 2.10.

360.

مصر
image

Miṣr.

Light blue green, translucent. 21, 2.11.

Petrie 199 (no ornament in rev. circle); CAM I, 125 (ornament ?).

361-364. ONE-THIRD DINAR. MIṢR, with MUḤMMAD B. SA’ĪD.

بسم الله
امر امير ا
لمؤمنين مثقال
ثلث واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the commander of the faithful, the weight of one third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى محمد ين سعيد

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad b. Sa’īd.

Center, in circle:

*
مصر

Miṣr.

361. Light green, transparent. 18, 1.37.

362. Colorless, transparent. 19, l.40.

363. Light green, transparent 18, l.40.

364. Peridot green, translucent. 18, 1.40.

EAG I, 88; CAM I, 126; Fahmy 164.

Vessel Stamps

365. QISṬ.

مما امربه
عبد الله عبد الله
امير المؤمنين
اوفوا الكيل ولا تكو
نوامن المخاسين قسط
واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. Qisṭ, full measure.

Emerald green, translucent. 40.

Petrie 152.

366-370. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

مما امر به
عبد الله عبد ا
لله امير المؤمنين
اوفوا الكيل ولا تكو
نوا من المخاسرين ربع
قسط واف

Among those things which ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful. Give just measure and be not among the defrauders. One-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

366. Light blue green, translucent. 39.

367. Light blue green, translucent. 39.

368. Light blue green, translucent. 40.

369. Light green, translucent. 39.

370. Green, translucent. 38.

Casanova, p. 371, No. 153, p. 375, No. 5.

On both Casanova stamps the last line of the legend is off flan.

371. ONE-HALF QISṬ OF CINNAMON (ARMAL). ارمل

امر عبد ا
لله عبد الله
امير المؤمنين
بصنعة نصف
قسط ارمل
واف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of one-half qisṭ of cinnamon, full measure.

Emerald green, nearly transparent. 32.

Unpublished.

The reading of the substance is not easy, but I believe it to be correct. The drug, armāk, ارماك or armāl, ارمال, is, according to IB 46, a sort of cinnamon. It is said to have a wide range of indications and multiple therapeutic-effect, probably all imaginary. It is not clear from IB’s text whether the bark or the wood itself was employed.

Ahmed Issa, p. 176, No 14, identifies the plant with Symplocos racemosa Roxb. of the family of Styraceae, in English lodh tree. Bedevian 3340 gives the same plant name but attributes it to the family of Symplocaceae and writes the English name as lohd tree.

The Arabic name is either armāk, ارماك, or armāl, ارمال, both written with a second alif, which is omitted on our bottle stamp. Such omissions are, how¬ever, not infrequent on the glass (see Cat. 236, a qisṭ for fennel, الشمار on which shamār is written: الشمر).

372. MIKYALA OF CORIANDER SEEDS. حب الكسبر

امر عبد الله
عبد الله امير
المؤمنين بصنعة
مكيلة حب ا
لكسبر واف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, the commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of coriander seeds, full measure.

Sea green, transparent. 49.

Unpublished.

Coriander, kusbara, الكسبرة, written as kusbur, الكسبر. Both orthographs are used with equal frequency. Casanova, p. 369, No 131 and Launois, Cairo 66 both misread this substance as الكستن, chestnuts. Their reading was cited in Miles, "Pharm.", p. 386.

373. MIKYALLA OF DRIED CHICK. PEAS. الحمص اليابس

امر عبدا
لله عبد الله عبد
المؤمنين بصنعة
مكيل الحمص
اليابس واف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of dried chick peas, full measure.

Pale blue green, transparent. 41.

Miles, "Muntaza" 32.

The problem word اليابس is, I believe: اليلبس, dried.

374. MIKYALA OF SHELLED LENTILS عدس المقشر

امر عبد الله
عبد الله امير
المؤمنين
بصنعة مكيلة
عدس المقشر
واف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of shelled lentils, full measure.

Light blue green, transparent. 38.

Unpublished.

المومنين defectively written: للنومنين.

375-376. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كومن الابيض

امر عبد الله
عبد الله امير
المومنين بصنعة
مكيلة كمون
الابيض و
اف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of white cumin, full measure.

375. Light blue green, translucent. 38.

376. Green, translucent. 39.

EAG II, 16; Miles: "Corning" 26.

377-379. MIKYALA OF WHEY OR FERMENTED WHITE CHEESE. المش

امر عبدا
لله عبد الله
امير المؤمنين
بصنعة مكيلة
المش و
واف

Ordered the servant of Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of whey, full measure.

377. Emerald green, transparent. 38.

378. Emerald green, transparent. 38.

379. Olive brown, translucent. 37.

Casanova, p. 371, Nos. 151-152; CAM I, 117-119; Miles, "Corning" 27.

Miles (CAM I, 85) translated The substance tentatively as "whey", which is identical with the fermented white cheese still currently produced and consumed in Egypt today. In a later study (Miles, "Pharm." p. 386) in the paragraph for al-baqs, Miles expressed some doubts, that the reading al-mishsh might be an error and should be discarded in favour of al-baqs.

There are several stamps in our collection on which al-mishsh is clearly legible (المش), and also several others with al-baqs (البقس) clear and unmistakable. Therefore there is no doubt in my mind that both substances occur on the bottle stamps.

The process by which mishsh, the oily white cheese of creamy consistence and sharp flavor is prepared, has already been described in Balog, "Estampilles" No 13. Today it is only used as a widely favored foodstuff, but there is no doubt that in mediaeval Arabic pharmacy its laxative properties were also appreciated.

The processing of mishsh is a long and tedious work, and the population of Egypt is increasing more rapidly than the production of foodstuffs. Milk, sour milk and cheese are consumed at a rate which will soon exclude the lengthy preparation of mishsh. Therefore it may not be superfluous to record here once more the ancient method which one day soon may be forgotten:

Egyptian white cheese, made from fresh buffalo milk, and salt added, is treated with natural lactic ferment and submerged in fresh milk, either pure or diluted with water. to the milk, also salt is added. This whole mass is left to mature from six to twelve months. Then the mature white cheese is removed, ready for consumption. The semi-liquid, or rather, creamy, oily mass which remains is the mishsh. To the unaccustomed palate of the occidental, the flavor is rather too sharp and pungent.

380-381. MIKYALA OF WOAD LEAVE. الوسمة

(امر عبد (الله
عبد الله امير
المؤمنين بصنعة
مكيلة الو
سمةو
اف

Ordered the servant of (Allāh), 'Abd Allāh, Commander of the faithful, the manufacture of a mikyala of woad leaves, full measure.

380. Sea green, transparent 38.

381. Olive brown, tanslucent. 34.

Petrie 153 (did not read the substance, which is, nevertheless, clearly legible on his plate).

I fully agree with Miles (CAM I, p. 49) that the whole series of weights and stamps, on which the caliph’s name is not mentioned, only his protocol as '"Abd Allāh, 'Abd Allāh, amīr al Mū’minīn," belongs to al-Manṣūr and not to al-Mahdī. This becomes obvious whenever the above protocol is linked with the name of an official reputedly belonging to al-Manṣūr’s reign, for example Ṣāliḥ b. 'Ali, 'Abd al-Malik b. Yazīd or Muḥammad b. Sa’īd. By deduction, those weights and stamps, on which the same protocol stands alone, without an official’s name, should logically also be attributed to al-Manṣūr.

Moreover, al-Mahdī’s protocol is different; it always contains his name, either "al-Mahdī," or "al-Mahdī Muḥammad."

MŪSĀ B. KA’B

Governor and Finance Director: 141 H. / A.D. 758-9

Ring Weight

382. RAṬL, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL. Fragment. Round impression, 37.

بسم الله) امر)
(image)الامير مو)سى بن كعب)
بصنعة رطل
واف)على يدى)
محم)دبن شر)
(حبيل)

(In the name of Allāh). Ordered (the amīr) Mūsā b. Ka’b the manufacture of a raṭl, (full weight). At the hands of (Muḥamm)ad b. Shura-(ḥbīl)

Emerald green translucent.

Unpublished.

Mūtā b. Ka’b b. 'Uyīna b. 'Āysha b. 'Amr b. Sarī b. 'Āyidha b. al-Ḥārith b. Umri al-Qays b. Zayd Mana b. Tamīm ibn Murr b. Udd b. Tānija b. Iliās b. Mudar (al-Kindi p. 106) was governor and finance director of Egypt from Rabī’ II, 141 H. until Dhu’l-Qā’da of the same year. His glass weights and stamps are very rare and in the literature I know of only two stamps (CAM I, 127 and Launois, C.d.M. 15), and a disk weight, reported in Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 80.

The executive official on the Launois specimen is also Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl. Engraver’s error: Ka'b written with a ta marbūṭa instead of a .

MAYMŪN B. KA'B

High executive: probably around 141 H./A.D 758-9 or a little later.

Coin Weight

383. FALS OF 24 KHARRŪBA.

هذا ما
امر به ميمو
ن بن كعب مثقا
ا اربع وعشر
بن حروية

This is one of those things which ordered Maymūn b. Ka'b Weight of twenty four kharrūba.

Yellowish green, transparent. 30, 4.83.

Unpublished.

Unknown official, who must have been, however, of high standing as he was entitled to issue orders (امربه), not only to execute orders given by his principals (على يدى) He may have been a son of Ka'b b. 'Ayīnah b. 'Ayīshah and of Mūsā b. Ka'b, governor and finance director in 141 H. The calligraphy would be right for the middle of the second century H.

MUḤAMMAD B. AL-ASH’ATH

Governor: 141-3 H./A.D. 759-60

Ring Weights

384. RAṬL, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. RĀSHID. Fragment. Round impression, 40.

(بسم الله (امر
(الامير محم(دبن
(الاشعث بصن(عة
رطل واف على يدى
عبد الله بن
اشد

In the name of Allāh. (Ordered) the amīr Muḥammad (b.) al—Ash’ath the manu(facture) of a raṭl, full weight. At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

Emerald green, translusent.

Unpublished.

385. ONE-HALF RAṬL with THE AMĪR 'ABD ALLĀH B..... Well-preserved but three chips missing.

(مما (امربه
(الامير محم(دبن
الاشعث مولى امير المؤ
منين اكرمه الله والا

[...] مير عبد الله

[...]

Among those things (which ordered) the amīr Muḥammad (b.) al-Ash’ath, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, and the amir 'Abd Allāh [...]

[...]

Dark brown, almost black, opaque. Height 52; length 60; thickness 38; diam. of round impression 32. Weight 188.60.

Loss of weight through chipping may not exceed 2-4 percent)

Unpublished.

The only prefect who appears on Muḥammad b. al—Ash 'ath’s glass issues is 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid. 'Abd Allāh had not been appointed an amār and his protocol included only the executive formula علىيدى. It is therefore, not likely that the amīr 'Abd Allāh on the present weight should be 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid. The only other 'Abd Allāh of the period who might be considered in this case is 'Abd Allāh b. 'Abd al-Raḥmān, who was appointed prefect of police by Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba in 143 H. and who, in turn, became governor in 152 H. All this is, of course, only hypothetical.

Disk Weight

386. WUQĪYYA, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. RĀSHID. About half missing.

بسم )الله)
امرا)لامير محمد)
بن الش)عث بصنعة)
وقية)واف)
على يدى)عبد الله )
بن ر)شد)

(In the name of) Allāh. (Ordered the) amīr Muḥammad (b. al-Ash) 'ath the manufacture (of a wuqiyya), (full weight. (At the hands of) 'Abd Allāh (b. R)āshid.

Blue green, translucent. Diam. 55.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

387. FALS OF 27 KHARRŪBA, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. RĀSHID.

امر الامير
محمد بن الاشعث
على يدى عبد الله
(sic) بن راشد بصنعة هذ
افلس سبعةو
عشرين خروية

Ordered the amīr Muḥammed b. al-Ash 'ath, at the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid, the manufacture of a weight of fals of seven and twenty kharrūba.

Green, transparent. 32, 5.21

EAG I, 74; Fahmy 132-134; Launois, Cairo 181; Launois, Maspéro 11.

The last two have a different arrangement.

The word mithqāl is multilated.

388. DIRHAM OF 13 KHARRŪBA, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. RĀSHID.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن الاشعث
بمثقال درهم
واف ثلث وعشر
خروية

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath a dirham weight, full weight, of thirteen kharrūba.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى عبد )الله بن راشد)

(At the hands of 'Abd)Allāh b. Rāshid

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كيل

Manufactured Kayl.

Green, transparent. 24, 2.47.

Unpublished.

For the denomitation "dirham of 13 kharrūba" see above Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 84 and Introduction, p. 00 above.

Vessel Stamps

All with 'Abd Allāh B. Rāshid

389. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

(بسم الله امر الامير(محمد
بن الاشعث بصنعة
ر)بع قسط واف)
على يدى عبد الله
بن راشد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr (Muḥammad) b. al-Ash 'ath the manufacture (of one-) quarter qisṭ, full measure. At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

Green, translucent, 43.

EAG I, 75. First described as a qisṭ late, in CAM I, p. 53, corrected to one-quarter qisṭ: CAM I, 131-132

Cat. 389 is in the collection of Veli al-Dīn Sāmeh bey.

390-391. MIKYALA OF WHITE SESAME SEED. جلجلان ابيض

(بسم الله(امر
الامير محمد بن
الاشعث بصنعة
مكيلة جلجلان ابيض على يدى عبد
الله بن راشد

In the name of Allāh. (Ordered) the amīr Muḥammad b. al—Ash 'ath the manufacture of a mikyala of white sesame seed. At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

390. Green, translucent. 41.

391. Green, translucent, 38. Chipped

CAM II. Ruthven 21.

392. MIKYALA OF BLACK LENTILS. عدس الاسود

بسم الله
امر الامير محمد
بن الاشعث بصنعة
مكيلة العدس الا
سود على يدى
عبد الله بن را
شد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath the manufacture of a mikyala of black lentils. At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

Blue green, transparent. 47.

Unpublished.

The substance is identified and briefly described under Cat. 106.

393-395. MIKYALA OF WHITE CUMIN. كمون الابيض

بسم الله
امر الامير محمد
بن الاشعث بصنعة
مكيلة كمون الا
بيض علىيدى عبد
الله بن راشد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath the manufacture of a mikyala of white cumin. At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

393. Emerald green, translucent. 35

394. Emerald green, translucent. 35.

395. Green, translucent. Broken.

EAG II, 23; Launois, Cairo . 176-178 (incomplete).

396. MIKYALA OF WASMA, WOAD LEAVES. الوسمة

بسم الله ا
مر المير محمد بن
الاشعث بصنعة
مكيلة الوسمة
على)يدى عبد الله)
بن راشد

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath the manufacture of a mikyala of woad leaves. (At the) hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid.

Emerald green, translucent. 47.

Unpublished.

NAWFAL B. FURĀT

Finance Director: 141-3 H./ A.D. 759-60

Ring Weights

397-399. RAṬL, with ṢĀLIḤ B. QUSṬANṬĪN. Fragments of three ring weights, each with two square impressions. The first fragment shows a large enough portion of both imprints. The second and third fragments have most of the stamp bearing the executive’s protocol, but only traces of the principal im¬pression. The readings are reconstructed from the rhree fragments.

Principal stamp, square with rounded corners, 26 × 26; in all pieces at left:

(بسم (الله
(امر نوفل(بن فرات
(اصلحه(الله
[...]والمح

In the name of (Allāh). Ordered Nawfal (b. Furāt), may (Allāh) keep him straight [?]

Executive stamp, square with rounded corners, 33 × 33; on all pieces at right:

بسم الله
ختم على يدى
صلح بن قسطنطين
رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. Stamped at the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn, raṭl, full weight.

357. Dark green, almost opaque.

395. Dark green, almost opaque.

399. Dark green, barely translucent.

Unpublished.

Nowfal b. Furāt’s weights and stamps are scarce in the literature. I could find two vessel stamps in CAM I, 131-132, but there are no heavy weights at all, and even of the coin weights only three records are available.

The executive Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn is unknown. Cat. 407 proves that he issued weights on his own, but were it not for the weights described here, it would not be possible to fix the dates of his tenure of office. Because of the three heavy weights just presented, we can now safely assume that Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn was in office during Nawfal b. Furāt’s finance directorship, between 141 and 143 H.

400. ONE-HALF RAṬL. This is a fairly complete ring weight, of which about 5 to 8 percent has been chipped a way in recent times.

Square principal stamp, originally 24 × 24:

مما امر به الا
مير نوفل بن فرات
(اكرمه(الله نصف
(رطل واف)

Among those things which ordered the amir Nawfal b. Furāt, may Allāh be generous (to him. One-half) (raṭl, full weight).

Small oblong stamp in the right shoulder, 15 × 10):

الو
فعع

Al-wafā lillahi (?).

Emerald green, with surface patina, translucent. Height 54; length 57; thickness 36; weight 180.0.

Unpublished.

401. ONE-HALF RAṬL, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. YAZĪD. Small fragment of a ring weight, on which most of the round principal stamp (ca. 35) and about half the round executive stamp (24) are preserved.

Principal impression:

مما)امر نوفل)
بن)فرات)
بصنعة نصف
رطل واف

(Among those things which) ordered Nawfal (b.) Furāt, the manufacture of one-half raṭl, full weight.

Executive stamp:

(على يدى)
عبد)الرحمن)
بن يزيد

(At the hands of) ('Abd)al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd.

Emerald green, translucent.

Unpublished.

Petrie 154 is a whole pound, but with the same executive and the same protocol.

Disk Weight

402. ONE-HALF RAṬL. Oval disk weight with deeply impressed central oblong stamp and, beside it, a round stamp.

Distal round stamp, 19:

امر
الامير
نوفل بن فرات

Ordered the āmir Nawfal B. Furāt.

Oblong central stamp, 17 × 22:

[...]

[...]

∆ϤΑψΟγ

Emerald green, translucent.

Length 82; width 73; thickness 18; weight 156.69.

Unpublished.

The executive’s name, ∆ϤΑΟγ, is in neither Preisigke, nor Heuser. Scaling (devitrification) of the whole surface, which makes the reading very difficult and has caused considerable loss of weight. Otherwise intact.

Coin Weights

403-404. ONE-HALF DINAR, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. YAZĪD.

امر نوفل
بن فرات
بصنعة
مثقال نصف
دينر واف

Ordered Nawfal b. Furāt the manufacture of a weight of one-half dinar, full weight.

Reverse: counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى عبد الرحمن بن يزيد

At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd.

Center:

صنعة
كامل

Manufactured Kāmil.

403. Pale green, translucent. 21, 2.09.

404. Pale green, translucent. 22, 2.10.

BM 13; EAG I, 70; Kmietowicz p. 136, the same protocol but a dinar weight.

Vessel Stamps

405-406. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

امر نوفل
بن فرات
بصنعة ربع قسط
واف

Ordered Nawfal b. Furāt the manufacture of one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

405. Emerald green, translucent. 42. Portion of rim attached.

406. Emerald green, translucent, 40.

EAG I, 129-130.

ṢĀLIḤ B. QUSṬANṬĪN

Prefect: ca. 141—3 H./A.D. 759-60

Disk Weight

407. WUQIYYA. Intact round disk weight.

بسم الله
ختم على يدى
صلح بن قسطنطين
وقيه واف

In the name of Allāh. Stamped at the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn. Wuqiyya, full weight.

Green, translucent Diam. 56, square impression 38 × 38; weight 36.82.

Unpublished.

The bottle stamps Cat. 397-399 are our only indication that Ṣāliḥ b. Qusṭanṭīn was in office between 141 and 143 H. during Nawfal b. Furāt’s finance directorship. Otherwise, he is unknown in the literature and no glass has hitherto been found with his name.

ḤUMAYD B. QAḤṬABA

Governor: 143-4 H./ A.D. 760-2.

Ring Weights

408-409. RAṬL, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL. Fragments of two ring weights.

Round principal impression, 27:

بسم الله امرا
لامير حميد
بن قحطبة
اصلحه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amir Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba, may Allāh keep him straight.

Round executive impression, 35:

بسم الله
على يدى محمد
بن شرحبيل
رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Muḥammad. b. Shuraḥbīl. Raṭl, full weight.

405. Dark emerald green, almost opaque.

405. Dark emerald green, almost opaque.

Lamin, C.d.M. 18.

Launois published a unique intact specimen of the above raṭl weight. Its weight is 441.0 gm, the height 65 mm. length 55 and width 45. It is one of four intact raṭl weights of the Umayyad (and early 'Abbāsid) weight system and is, therefore, of the utmost importance for Arabic metrology.

Disk Weight

410. WUQIYYA.

Round principal stamp:

بسم الله امر
الامير حميد
بن قحطبة ا
صلحه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba, may Allāh keep him straight.

Traces of executive stamp:

على يد)ى)

[...]

[...] (At the ha)nds [...]

Green, translucent. Length of fragment: 48.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

411. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله امر
الاميرحميد بن
قحطبة مثقا
ل ثلث دينر و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba the weight of one-third dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

(على يدى محمد(بن شرحبيل

At the hands of Muḥammad (b. Shuraḥbīl).

Center, in circular line:

صنعة

كامل

Manufactured

Kāmil.

Light green, translucent. 18, 1.39.

CAM II. Ruthven 22; Launois, Cairo 187; Fahmy 140.

Vessel Stamps

412-414. EXECUTIVE FORMULA.

بسم الله امر
الامير حميد
بن قحطبة
اصلحه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ḥumayd b. Qaḥṭaba, may Allāh keep him straight

412. Green, translucent. 29.

413. Green, translucent. 30.

414. Green translucent. 34.

Launois, Cairo 185.

YAZĪD B. ḤĀTIM

Governor; 144-52 H./ A.D. 762-9

Ring Weights

415-416. RAṬL, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀNB. YAZĪD. Two fragments, with principal and executive stamp.

Principal stamp:

(بسم(الله
(امرا(الامير
(يزيد بن(حاتم
(اصلحه(الله

In the name of (Allāh). Ordered the (amīr) Yazīd B. (Ḥātim). (may Allāh) keep him straight.

Executive stamp:

بسم الله
على يدى عبد
الرحمن بن يزيد
رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. Raṭl, full weight.

415. Dark green, almost opaque. Principal stamp 27; executive stamp 38.

416. Dark olive green, almost opaque. Principal stamp 28; executive stamp 40.

Casanova, p. 391, Nos. 48-49; Petrie 159; EAG I, 81.

417-419. RAṬL, with SALAMA. The three fragments of ring weights have only one round stamp each.

امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
على يدى سلمة

←—←

Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim. At the hands of Salama. ←—←

417. Dark green, almost opaque. 30.

418. Dark green, opaque. 30.

419. Dark green, almost opaque. 30.

Petrie 160; Miles, "Corning," 32.

Coin Weights

420. DINAR.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يز)بن حاتم)
مثقال دي
نر

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of dinar.

Light yellow green, translucent. 29, 4.19.

Rogers 16, EAG I, 16; Launois, Cairo 203; Fahmy 144-145.

421. DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of dinar full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى محمد بن شرحبيل

In the name of Allāh. at the hands of Muhammad b. Shuraḥbīl.

Center:

صنعه
كامل

Manufactured. Kāmil.

Light green, transparent, 29, 4.23.

Petrie 161.

(He did not read the reverse center).

422-423. DINAR, with SALAMA.

image
بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال دينر
ف image

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى سلمة

At the hands of Salama.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

422. Light green, translucent. 28, 4.20.

423. Grass green, translucent. 28, 4.23.

Unpublished variety. Fahmy 148-151 are differently arranged.

واف on the last line of the obverse written: ف image

424. ONE-HALF DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال نصف
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى محمد بن شرحبيل

At the hands of Muḥammad b. Shuraḥbīl.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كامل

Manufactured Kāmil.

Light green, translucent. 22, 2.10.

Petrie 164, 168.

425-426. ONE-HALF DINAR, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. YAZĪD.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال نصف
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى عبد الرحمن بن يزيد

At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd.

Center in circular line:

صنعة
كعل

Manufactured Kāmil.

425. Light green, translucent. 22, 2.09.

426. Light green, translucent. 22, 2.08.

Casanova, p. 380, No. 33 (rev. Kāmil written with the alif); Petrie 163; EAG I, 79; CAM I, 141, Miles, "Muntaza" 37; Launois, Cairo 197-200; Fahmy 146.

Kāmil, in rev. center, written without the alif. The rev. marginal legend has been reconstructed from the two specimens.

427-428. ONE -HALF DINAR, with SALAMA.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال نصف
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى سلمة

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Salama.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

427. Olive yellow, translucent. 23, 2.10.

428. Pale honey, translucent. 23, 1.91. Scaling

Unpublished.

429. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SHURAḤBĪL.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على)يدى محمد بن )
شرحبيل

(In the name of Allāh. At) the hands of Muḥammad (b. Shuraḥbīl).

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كامل

Manufactured Kāmil.

Light green, translucent. 19, 1.35.

Unpublished.

430-431. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. YAZĪD.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter clockwise marginal legend:

(على يدى عبد (الرحمن بن يزيد

At the hands of 'Abd (al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd).

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
كمل

Manufactured Kāmil.

430. Pale green, translucent. 20, 1.36.

431. Olive yellow, translucent. 18, 1.41.

BM 16-17; EAG I, 80; Miles, "Muntaza" 38-39.

Kāmil written without the alif. Flan of 431 too small for rev. marginal legend

432-433. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with SALAMA.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى سلمة

At the hands of Salama.

Center. in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

432. Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.39.

433. Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.39.

Launois, Cairo 193-196; Fahmy 148-151.

434. DIRHAM OF TWO-THIRDS?

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
درهم (sic) مثقا
ثلثين واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim a weight of dirham of two thirds, full weight.

Light green, translucent. 26, 2.76.

Mithqāl written without the lam.

Rogers 12; Fahmy 152 (2.81 gm.)

This weight poses a problem. Were it simply a dirham weight, without the specification ثلثين, then there would be no difficulty, because 2.76 gm. is near enough to the average weight of the dirham glass weight, as established in Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 82. Miles found an average weight of 2.85; in the present study, my average figure for the dirham weight is even less, 2.80.

This piece is, however, not an ordinary dirham, but a dirham of ثلثين. The word ثلثين has been interpreted by Fahmy as thirty, which means, according to Fahmy, that this is a dirham of thirty weight units. To my knowledge, however, there is no unit of 0.93 (0.93 × 30 = 2.79) and the nearest, heav¬iest dānaq weights only 0.788 gm. (see Sauvaire offprint, Vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 172). I think that ثلثين means thulthain, two thirds (of the mithqāl of 4.25 = 2.83) which is very near our figure of 2.76 and that of Fahmy, 2.81.

Vessel Stamps

435-437. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

بسم الله
امر الامير
يزيد بن حاتم
اصلحه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim, may Allāh keep him straight.

435. Emerald green, translucent. 30.

436. Green, translucent. 29.

437. Green, translucent. 29.

Casanova, p. 371, No 145; Petrie 169-170; EAG I, 83; — CAM I, 144; CAM II. Benaki 39; Launois, Cairo 190-192.

438-439. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ, with SALAMA.

امر الا
مير يزيد بن حا
تم على يدى سلمة
ربع قسط و
اف

Ordered the amīr Yazīd b. Ḥātim. At the hands of Salama. One-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

438. Green, translucent. 36.

489. Green, translucent. 34.

Unpublished.

'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. YAZĪD

Prefect: 141-52 H. / A.D. 759-69

Disk Weights

440. RAṬL. Intact disk weight.

Round disk with thick rim and a unique round impression:

بسم الله
على يدى عبد
الرحمن بن يزيد
رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. Raṭl, full weight.

Dark green, translucent. Diam. 113; diam. impression 39; weight 433.67.

Jungfleisch, "Raṭls," pp. 61-72.

This is a very important document in itself, but has become even more val¬uable for Arabic metrology since there are, in this collection, three intact wuqiyya disk weights of the same official. Another valuable addition to this series was published by Miles in CAM I, 135.

441. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL. Fragment, more than one-half preserved. Round disk weight with unique round impression:

بسم)الله)
على يدى عبد
الرحمن بن يزيد
ربع رطل
واف

(In the name of Allāh) At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. One quarter raṭl, full weight.

Dark green, but completely covered by light yellowish grey patina. Diam. 72; diam. impression 41.

Unpublished.

442-444. WUQIYYA.

بسم الله
على يدى عبد الر
حمن بن يزيد
وقية واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd, wuqiyya, full weight.

442. Dark olive green, translucent. Diam. 53; diam. impression 39; Weight 37.50.

443. Emerald green, translucent. Diam. 58; diam. impression 40; weight 37.36.

444. Emerald green, translucent. diam. 54; diam. impression 40; weight 37.98.

Unpublished.

All three weights are in perfect condition, even the surface is almost brilliant. Note that, although the weight of the three disks is remarkably accurate, taking into consideration the primitive tools of the period, there is, nevertheless, a difference of 60 cgm. between 443 and 444. Multiplying these two figures by 12, the weight of the raṭl would be: 448.32 for Cat. 443 and 455.76 for Cat. 444, and the whole difference between weights would be 7.44, a negligible sum. Raṭl 440 published by Jungfleisch, which is equally perfectly well preserved, weighs only 433.67. Thus the raṭl, in the same series of disk weights, issued contemporaneously by the same official is about 5 percent lighter than it should be, when calculated from its wuqiyya. Or else the wuqiyya weights are a little heavier than they should theoretically be.

The material in this collection as well as in the literature seems to indicate that the raṭl is nearer the correct weight than the wuqiyyas, and that we must allow a certain latitude in the weight of intact heavy weights. Even so, the accuracy of the sometimes considerable mass of the raṭl and double raṭl is astounding, though we must never expect the same high precision as was attained in coin weights.

Vessel Stamps

445. QISṬ.

بسم الله
على يدى
عبد الرحمن
بن يزيد قسط
واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. Qisṭ, full measure.

Emerald green, transparent. 40.

Unpublished.

446-447. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

بسم الله
على يدى
عبد الرحمن
بن يزيد نصف
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. One-half qisṭ, full measure.

446. Dark olive, translucent. 40.

447. Emerald green, translucent. 36.

Petrie 187; CAM I, 136; Launois, Cairo 319.

448-451. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
على يدى
عبد الرحمن
بن يزيد ربع
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd. One quarter qisṭ, full measure.

448. Green, translucent. 37.

449. Green, translucent 36.

450. Green, translucent. 35.

451. Green, translucent. 35.

EAG II, 22; CAM I, 137-139; Launois, C.d.M. 27, Miles, "Corning" 28.

'ABD ALLĀH B. RĀSHID

Prefect: 141-3 H. / A.D. 759-60

Vessel Stamps

452-456. MIKYALA, SIX WUQIYYA OF WHEY. المش
امر عبد
الله بن راشد
مكيلة المش
ستة اواق

Ordered 'Abd Allāh b. Rāshid a mikyala of whey, of six wuqiyya.

452. Green, translucent. 30.

453. Green, translucent. 30.

454. Green, translucent. 29.

455. Green, translucent. 29.

456. Green, translucent. Broken.

Balog, "Estampilles" 12.

When I published this stamp in 1963 I read the substance as sour milk, almāst, الماست. Since the publication of that paper I acquired four more specimens, some of them more legible. The reading of the substance should now be corrected, as I am convinced that it is not الماست, but المش, whey or fermented white buffalo cheese. Therefore, the last three words are as follows: المش ستة اواق, al-mishsh, sitta awāq: whey, six wuqiyya. In this case the plural of wuqiyya is used, اواق. There are also other instances in which the plural,اواق, has been used, for instance, an anonymous 'Abbāsid mikyala for rosemary of seven awāq (Cat. 837-839):الاكليل سبع اواق

It was Miles who first draw attention to the use of the plural awāq, اواق, on a three-wuqiyya weight (ANSMN 5 [1952], pp. 179-80. Miles, "Corning" 31. queried my original reading of the substance as al-māst.

SALAMA

Prefect: ca. 144-7 H. / A.D. 762-74

Coin Weights

457. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA. With Coptic figure.

Square impression, 21 × 21; in a border of dots:

سلمة
image

Salama

Olive green, translucent. 31, 5.74.

Casanova, p. 383, No. 72; Petrie 189; EAG I, 99-100; CAM I,147-149; CAM II. Benaki 40; Miles, "Muntaza" 40-41; Fahmy 186-198; Launois, Cairo 372-380; Launois, C.d.M. 32; Miles, "Corning" 34.

458-459. FALS OF 26 KHARRŪBA. With Coptic Figure.

image
سلمة
image

Salama

458. Green, transparent. 30, 5.00.

454. Olive green, transparent. 29, 5.01.

Petrie 190; CAM I, 150; CAM II. Benaki 41 and Ruthven 23; Fahmy 199-20l; Launois Cairo 381; Launois C.d.M. Suppl. 19.

460-462. FALS OF 24 KHARRŪBA.

*سلمة
مثقال فلس
اربع عشر
بن خروة

Salama weight of fals, twenty four kharrūba.

460. Green, translucent. 28, 4.55.

461. Green, translucent. 28, 4.55.

462. Green, translucent. 28, 4.56.

Casanova, p. 383, No 61, CAM I,151-152; CAM II Ruthven 24; Fahmy 203-208.

Vessel Stamps

463-466. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
سلمة

At the hands of Salama

463. Green, translucent. 30.

464. Olive green, translucent. 30.

465. Olive green, translucent. 28.

466. Olive green, translucent. 28.

Casanova, p. 374, No 185, EAG I, 101; CAM I, 153.

467. PURE, SHELLED CHICKLING VETCH. جلبان مقشر نفيس
سلمة
جلبان
مقشر
نفيس

Salama. Chickling vetch, Shelled, pure.

Olive green, translucent. 37.

Launois, Cairo 321.

468. PURE ḤIMMAS, CHICK PEAS. حمص نفيس

سلمة
حمص
نفيس

Salama. Chick peas, pure.

Olive green, transparent. 40.

Petrie 191.

IBRĀHĪM B. 'ABD ALLĀH

High official: ca. 145 H. / A.D. 762?

Vessel Stamp

469. ONE-HALF QISṬ. Broken, about half preserved.

بس)م الله)
امر ابر)هيم ابن)
عبد) الله نصف)
فس)ط واف)

(In the) name of Allāh. (Ordered Ibr)āhīm ibn ('Abd) Allāh, one-half (qis)ṭ, full measure.

Bottle green, translucent.

Unpublished.

Ibrāhīm ibn 'Abd Allāh is mentioned as the head of the predicators sent to Egypt in 145 H. by the caliph al-Manṣūr, at the time of the suppression of the 'Alid movement. The present stamp is proof of his having some high official status in the fiscal department in Cairo. There is some doubt, however, that the official on the stamp is identical with the head of the predicators. Compare al-Kindī, p. 114 and Fahmy, p. 113.

MUḤAMMAD B. SA’ĪD

Governor: 152-7 H. / A.D. 769-73

Ring Weights

470-471 RAṬL, with SALAMA. Fragments of two ring weights. 470 is the larger one, almost half the original weight, with the head portion and one lateral branch preserved. 471 is only part of the head.

Round principal impression, at left, 33:

بسم الله
* امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a raṭl, full weight.

Round executive stamp, at right, 20:

على يدى
سلمة

At the hands of Salama.

470. Very dark green, almost black. Nearly opaque.

471. Dark emerald green, almost black. Nearly opaque.

EAG I, 166; CAM II. Benaki 47.

On 470-475 the legend ends with an omega, probably the initial of an official or artisan of Greek extraction.

472. RAṬL, with 'ABD AL-WAHHĀB B. TAMĪM. Fragment, the two stamps almost entirely preserved.

Round principal stamp, at right, 32:

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد ين سعيد
ω رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a raṭl, full weight.

Small square executive stamp, at left, 20 × 20:

على يدى
عبد الو
(هاب(بن
تميم

At the hands of 'Abd al-Wahhāb (b.) Tamīm.

Dark emerald green, translucent.

Petrie 182.

Petrie read "Ubaid al-Wahhab b. Tamym;" but there can be no doubt that the prefect is identical with our 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm. Miles already suspected this and tentatively identified Petrie’s "Ubaid al-Wahhāb" with 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm (EAG I, 118). Now we can be sure that 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm was one of Muḥammad b. Sa’īd’s prefects. See also EAG II, p. 48, reference to John Walker, NC 1949, p. 117.

473-474. RAṬL. Executive stamp broken off. Round principal impression, 33:

بسم الله
* امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
ω رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a raṭl, full weight.

473. Green, translucent.

474. Green, translucent.

Too incomplete for references.

The missing executive stamp may have carried the name of either Salama or 'Abd al-Wahhāb.

Disk Weight

475. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL. Fragment of a round disk weight with round impression (36), which is almost completely preserved. The small, round executive stamp, impressed into the thick rim, has disappeared except for an insignificant trace.

بس)م الله)
* امر)الامير)
محم)دبن سعيد)
ω رب)ع رطل وا)
ف

(In the na)me of Allāh. (Ordered) the amīr (Muḥamm)ad b. Sa’īd (one-)quarter raṭl, full weight.

Green, translucent. Diam. ca 75.

CAM I, CAM I, 165.

Coin Weights

476-477. DINAR, with SALAMA.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
مثقال دينر

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a dinar weight.

Reverse, counter clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى سلمة

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Salama.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

476. Olive green, translucent, 18, 4.22.

477. Grass green, translucent. 28, 4.23.

CAM I, 162; Fahmy 153-154; Launois, Cairo 207 (name of Salama missing); Launois, Maspéro 12.

478. DINAR, with SA’ĪD B. AL-MUSAYYIB.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
مثقال دينر

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a dinar weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى سعيد بن المسيب

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of Sa’īd b. al-Musayyib

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

Light green, translucent. 28, 4.18

CAM II. Ruthven 27; BM 19 (Sawīris misread); Launois, C.d.M. 21; Fahmy 155.

479. ONE-HALF DINAR.

امر الا
مير محمد
بن سعيد
مثقال نفص

Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a weight of one-half.

Light green, translucent. 21, 2.09.

Fahmy 158.

480. ONE-HALF DINAR. Executive’s name missing.

امر الا
مير محمد
بن سعيد
مثقال نصف

Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a weight of one-half.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

([...]بسم الله على (يدى

In the name of Allāh. At the (hands of [...))

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

Light green, translucent 21, 2.09.

CAM I, 163; Launois, Cairo 208; Fahmy 157.

481. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

امر الا
مير محمد
بن سعيد
مثقل

Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a weight.

Light green, translucent, 18, 1.38

CAM II. Benaki 44 (here the last line is complete:مثقال ثلث).

Although not specified in the legend, this is obviously a one-third dinar.

482-485. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with SA’ĪD B. AL-MUSAYYIB.

امر الا
مير محمد
بن سعيد
مثقال ثلث

Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a weight of one-third.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى)سعيد بن المسيب)

(At the hands) of Sa’īd b. al-Musayyib.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
سويرس

Manufactured Sawīris.

482. Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.40.

483. Pale green, translucent. 19, 1.40.

454. Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.40.

485. Pale peridot green, transparent 19, 1.40.

Probably Petrie 186; probably Casanova, p. 381 No 49.

The reverse marginal legend has been reconstructed from the four specimens Although much was off flan on the individual weights, enough was present to ensure the attribution of each piece.

Vessel Stamps

486. QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd a qisṭ, full measure.

Peridot green, translucent. 33.

Unpublished.

487. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
نصف قسط
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd one-half qisṭ, full measure.

Sea green, translucent. 39.

CAM I, 167-169; Miles, "Muntaza" 46; Launois, Cairo 204; Miles, "Corning" 36.

488-494. ONE QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر الامير
محمد بن سعيد
ربع قسط و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sa’īd one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

488. Emerald green, translucent. 40.

489. Green, transparent. 39.

490. Green, translucent. 32.

491. Olive green, translucent. 32.

492. Green, translucent. 31.

493. Green, transparent. 40.

494. Olive green, translucent. 39.

Casanova, p. 373, No. 169; CAM I, 170-171; Launois, Cairo 205-206.

'UMAR B. YAḤYĀ

Prefect: sometime between 152 and 157 H. / A.D. 769-74

Coin Weights

495. FALS OF 33 KHARRŪBA. With Coptic Figure.

In thin beaded circle:

• ∴ •

عمر
image

'Umar.

Green, translucent. 31, 5.40.

Casanova, p. 383; No 73; Petrie 192; CAM I, 154; Fahmy 280-290; Launois, Cairo 370-371; Miles, "Corning" 37.

Notwithstanding the 33 kharrūba denomination, this is only a 28 kharrrūba weight.

496. FALS OF 32 KHARRŪBA. The legend is in a square impression 22 × 22:

عمر
اثتين وثلثين
خروبة

'Umar thirty two kharrūba.

Olive green, translucent. 32, 6.19.

Casanova, p. 382 Nos. 54-57; BM 31, 32; EAG I, 120-120a; CAM I, 155-159: CAM II. Benaki 42-43; Launois, Cairo 363-367; Fahmy 264-279; Miles, "Corning" 38.

497. FALS OF 30 KHARRŪBA.

عمر مثقال
فلس ثلثين
خروبة

'Umar, weight of fals, thirty kharrūba.

Peridot green, translucent. 32, 5.81.

Casanova, p. 383, No. 58-59; Rogers 6; Petrie 215; Launois, Cairo 362; Fahmy 291-294.

Vessel Stamps

498-501. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
عمر بن
يحيى

At the hands of 'Umar b. Yaḥyā.

498. Grass green, translucent. 25.

499. Similar. 24.

500. Similar. 25.

501. Similar. 21. Chipped.

CAM I, 162; Launois, Maspéro 25-25bis.

Miles was the first to identify this 'Umar b. Yaḥyā with the official 'Umar on the preceding coin weights and to assign him to the period of Muḥammad b. Sa’īd, governor from 152 to 157 H.

'ABD AL-WAHHĀB B. TAMĪM

Prefect: sometime between 152 and 157 H. / A.D. 769-73

Vessel Stamps

502-503. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
عبد الو
هاب بن
تميم

At the hands of 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm.

502. Bottle green, translucent. 27.

503. Bottle green, translucent. 23.

EAG II, 118.

The prefect 'Abd al-Wahhāb b. Tamīm, see Cat. 472.

QUTAYBA B. ZIYĀD

Prefect: sometime before 157 H. / A.D. 773 and 157-9 H. / A.D. 773-5

Vessel Stamp

504. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
قتيبة

At the hands of Qutayba.

Sea green, translucent. 26

EAG I, 121.

Miles read the name correctly, though he did not connect this official with the executive on the secondary stamp of EAG I, 94, a raṭl ring weight of Maṭar. The latter weight is, however, of importance, because it bears Qutayba’s name together with his father’s name, Ziyād. The only other glass weight with Qutayba b. Ziyād's full name is Petrie 183, issued by Muḥammad b. Sa’īd. It is proof that Qutayba was in office during the governorship of Muḥammad b. Sa’īd., before 157 H.

Although the official is not mentioned in the chronicles, we can safely assume that he was prefect under two consecutive governors; first under Muḥammad b. Sa’īd (probably toward the end of his appointment) and then under Maṭar. For the former, see Petrie 182, and for the latter, EAG, I 94, Cat. 529-530, 533-534. If I am not mistaken, one of the half dinars of the caliph al-Mahdī in CAM II. Ruthven, p. 43, also contains the name of (Qutayba b.) Ziyād.

CALIPH AL-MAHDĪ

158-69 H. / A.D. 775-85

505. ONE-HALF DINAR.

بسم الله
المهدى امير
المؤمنين مثقال
نصف و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Caramel brown, translucent. 23, 2.12.

CAM II. Ruthven 28 (with illegible reverse legend).

506. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

بسم الله ا
مر المهجى
امير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Pale green, transparent. 19, 1.39.

Casanova p. 380, No. 35 (registered a half dinar, although the weight is 1.43 gm); Rogers 18; EAG I, 85.

507-508. DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SULAYMĀN and AL-MUHĀJIR. 159-61 H. / A.D. 775-7

بسم الله امر
المهدى محمد
امير المؤمنين
امنتع الله له
مثقال دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī Muḥammad, commander of the faithful, may Allāh give him long enjoyment. a dinar weight. full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى محمد بن سليمن

At the hands of Muḥammad b. Sulaymān.

Center, in circular line:

صنعة
المهاجر
• * •

Manufactured al-Muhājir.

507. Peridot green, translucent. 29, 4.22.

508. Light green, translucent. 29, 4.21.

Casanova, p. 380, Nos 36-38 (rev. illegible, but probably the same); Petrie 196 (traces of legend on rev.); CAM I, 172; Fahmy 165 (rev. with title "al-amīr," and he writes سليمن with an alif).

509-511. ONE-HALF DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SULAYMĀN and AL-MUHĀJIR.

بسم الله
المهدى امير
المؤمنين مثقال
نفص و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Al-Mahdī, commander of the faithfull. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى الامير محمد بن سليمن

At the hands of the amīr Muḥammad b. Sulaymān.

Center in circular line:

صنعة
المهاجر

Manufactured al-Muhājir.

509. Peridot green, translucent. 22, 2.08.

510. Similar. 22, 2.08.

511. Similar. 22, 2.08.

Petrie 198; BM 20; CAM I, 174 (slightly different arrangement); Launois, Cairo 215; Fahmy 166.

512-513. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with MUḤAMMAD B. SULAYMĀN and AL-MUHĀJIR.

بسم الله
امر المهدى ا
مير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى)محمد بن سليمن

(At the hands of) Muḥammad b. Sulaymān.

Center, in circular line:

صنعه
المهاجر
• * •

Manufactured al-Muhājir.

512. Peridot green, translucent. 19, 1.39.

513. Similar. 19, 1.38.

BM 21-22; Petrie 200-201; EAG I, 89; CAM I, 175; Fahmy 167; Launois, C.d.M. 26; Miles, "Corning" 40.

514. ONE-HALF DINAR, with 'ĪSĀ B. LUQMĀN. 161-2 H. / A.D. 777-8.

بسم الله
المهدى امير
المؤمنين مثقا
ل نصف و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful, weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على)يدى عيسى بن لقمان)

(At the) hands of 'Īsā b. Luqmān.

Centre, in beaded circle:

اصلحه
الله

May Allāh keep him straight.

Dark olive green, translucent. 23, 2.09.

Unpublished.

515. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with IBRĀHĪM B. ṢĀLIḤ. This weight between 165 and 767 H. / A.D. 781-4.

بسم الله
امر المهدى
امير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

(على يدى(ابرهيم بن

At the hands of (Ibrāhīm b.)

Center, in circular line:

صالح

Ṣāliḥ.

Olive green, translucent. 19, 1.37.

BM 25; EAG I, 92-93; Fahmy 175 (rev. margin illegible).

Ṣāliḥ in the centre of the reverse written with alif.

This coin weight must have been issued between 165 and 167 H. because these are the limits of Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ’s first governorship and al-Mahdi died in 169 H.

516. ONE-HALF DINAR, with WĀDIḤ, his MAWLĀ. 162 H. / A.D. 778.

بسم الله
المهدى امير
المؤمنين مثقا
ل نصف و
اف

In the name of Allāh. al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى الامي)ر واضح)
(م(ولى امير

(At the hands of the a)mīr Wāḍiḥ, mawlā of the commander of

Center, in circular line:

المؤ
منين

the faithful.

Olive green translucent. 21, 2.11.

Petrie 197; Fahmy 170; Launois, C.d.M. 214.

517-519. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with WĀḌIḤ, his MAWLĀ. 162. H. / A.D. 778.

بسم الله
امر المهدى ا
مير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

(على يدى)..واضع مولى(امير)

(At the hands of) Wāḍiḥ, mawlā of (the commander)

Center, in circular line:

المؤ
منين

of the faithful.

517. Peridot green, translucent. 19, 1.40.

518. Peridot green, translucent. 19, 1.40.

Unpublished.

The reverse is similar to EAG I, 90

The presence of Wāḍiḥ’s name pinpoints the date of issue to 162 H.

520-521. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with IBRĀHĪM B. ṢĀLIḤ and 'ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ. Between 165 and 167 H. A.D. 781-4.

بسم الله
امر المهدى
امير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى)الامير ابرهيم)

(بن صالح)

(At the hands of) the amīr Ibrāhīm (b. Ṣāliḥ).

Center, in circular line:

عاصم
بن حفص
• * •

'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ

520. Light green, translucent. 19, 1.42.

521. Light green, translucent. 19, 1.37.

Launois, Cairo 218; Fahmy 176 (Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ’s name off flan).

Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ served his first governorship between 165 and 167 H. and was not nominated for his second term as finance director before 174 H. On the other hand, 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ was not in office after 169 H. The presence of both officials’ names on the same weight indicates, therefore, that it must have been issued between 165 and 167 H.

THE CALIPH WITH ISMĀ‘ĪL B. IBRĀHĪM

164 H. / A.D. 780

522-523. DINAR, with ISMĀ'ĪL B. IBRĀHĪM. 164 H. / A.D. 780.

*

بسم الله امر
المهدى محمد
امير المؤمنين
امتع الله له
مثقال دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī Muḥammad, commander of the faithful, may Allāh give him long enjoyment, a dinar weight, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى الامير اسماعيل

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of the amīr Ismā'īl.

Center, in circular line:

بن ابر
هيم
..

b. Ibrāhīm.

522. Light bottle green, translucent. 27, 4.17.

523. Light green, translucent. 28, 4.20.

BM 23, 24, 24 g. Rogers 17

(Rogers does not mention the rev. legend, which is legible on his illustration).

524-526. ONE-HALF DINAR, with ISMĀ'ĪL B. IBRĀHĪM. 167 H. / A.D. 780.

بسم الله
المهدى امير
المؤمنيين مثقا
ل نصف و
اف

In the name of Allāh. al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى الامير اسمعيل

In the name of Allāh. At the hands of the amīr Ismā'īl

Center, in circular line:

بن ابر
هيم

..

b. Ibrāhīm.

524. Pale green, translucent, 21, 2.10.

525. Pale green, transparent. 22, 2.10.

526. Olive green, translucent, 22. 2.00

Fahmy 162; Launois, Cairo 212-213.

527. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with ISMĀ'ĪL B. IBRĀHĪM. 162 H. / A.D. 780.

بسم الله
امر المهدى
امير المؤمنين
مثقال ثلث
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Mahdī, commander of the faithful a weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله على يدى)الامير اسمعيل)

(In the name of Allāh. At the hands of) the amīr Ismā'īl

Center, in circular line:

بن ابر
هيم
• •

b. Ibrāhīm.

Pale green, transparent. 18, 1.38.

EAG II, 26, CAM I, 176 (slightly different arrangement); Fahmy 173; Launois, C.d.M 25.

MAṬAR, MAWLĀ OF AL-MAHDĪ

Governor: 157-9 H. / A.D. 773-5

Ring Weights

528. ONE-HALF RAṬL. Fragment, head portion and part of the two legs. Round impression, 36:

بسم الله امر
مطر مولى امير
المؤمنين اكرمه
الله نصف رطل
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Maṭar, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, one-half raṭl, full weight.

Dark olive brown, almost black, opaque.

Unpublished.

529-530. RAṬL, with QUTAYBA B. ZIYĀD Fragment, with two round impressions. Principal stamp, at left, 32:

بسم الله امر
مطر مولى امير
المؤمنين اكرمه
الله رطل واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Maṭar, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, a raṭl, full weight.

Executive stamp, at right 16:

على يدى
قتيبة

At the hands of Qutayba.

529. Completely covered by light grey patina. The original green color and transparency visible at a few newly chipped points. About half preserved.

530. Deep emerald green, translucent.

EAG I, 94 publishes the prefect's complete name:

على يدى
قتيبة
بن زياد

531. RAṬL, with 'ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. TAMĪM. Fragment of ring weight, with round principal stamp at left and square executive stamp, with rounded corners, at right.

Principal stamp, 44:

بسم الله امر
مطر مولى امير
(المؤمنين(اكرمه
(الله رطل و(اف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Maṭar, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, (may Allāh) be generous to him, a raṭl, full (weight).

Executive stamp, 22 × 22:

على بدى
عبد الر
حمن بن تميم

At the hands of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Tamīm.

Very dark olive brown, almost black, opaque.

Unpublished.

I have not been able to find ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Tamīm’s name on the glass or in the literature. The present weight makes him a prefect under Maṭar, between 157 and 159 H.

Disk Weight

532. ONE QUARTER RAṬL, with 'ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ. More than half a round disk weight preserved. The round principal impression ir surrounded by a thick prominent rim. Below the principal stamp, a small square executive stamp has been impressed into the rim itself, so that the originally round disk has an oval protrusion at this point.

Principal stamp, 50:

(بسم الله (امر
مطر مولى امير
(المؤمنين ا(كرمه
(الله ربع(رطل
واف

In the name of Allāh. (Ordered) Maṭar, mawlā (of the commander) of the faithful, may (Allāh) be generous to him, one-quarter (raṭl), full weight.

Executive stamp, 20 × 20:

(على يدى)
(عا(صم بن
(حف(ص

(At the hands) of 'Ā(ṣim b.) Ḥaf(ṣ).

Dark olive green, barely translucent. Length 78.

Unpublished.

Coin Weights

533-534. FALS OF 36 KHARRŪBA, with QUTAYBA B. ZIYĀD

∴ •

امر مطر مول
امير المؤمنين
مثقال فلس ستة
وثلثين خروية على
يدى قتيبة

∵ * •

Ordered Maṭar, mawlā of the commander of the faithful a fals weight of six and thirty kharrūba. At the hands of Qutayba.

533. Light green, translucent 36, 6.88.

534. Light green, translucent. 36, 6.92.

Unpublished.

Concerning the prefect Qutayba b. Ziyād, see Cat. 504, from which it appears that this official was in active service under Muḥammad b. Sa’īd, before 157 H.

Vessel Stamp

535. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
مطر مولى امير
المؤمنين اكرمه
الله نصف قسط
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Maṭar, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, one-half qisṭ, full measure.

Peridot green, translucent. 38.

Unpublished.

YAḤYĀ, MAWLĀ OF AL-MAHDI

High official empowered to issue orders: Sometime between 158 and 169 H. / A.D. 775-85 during al-Mahdī's caliphate.

Ring Weights

536-537. RAṬL. Intact ring weight (small chip missing) with one round impression:

بسم الله امر
الامير يحيى مولى
امير المومنين
اكرمه الله ر
طل واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yaḥyā, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, a raṭl, full weight.

536. Black, opaque. Impression, diam. 31; height: 73; length at base 77; thickness at base 47; weight: 435.07.

537. Very dark green, almost opaque. Fragment, only head portion with stamp 31.

Petrie 211.

Petrie’s weight has a second small executive stamp at the left side, on which Petrie read: "At the hands of Ubayd Allah." If this Yaḥyā is identical with Abū Ṣāliḥ Yaḥyā, then the dates of his office are: 162-3 H. / A.D. 778-9.

Disk Weight

538. WUQIYYA. Broken, about half preserved.

بسم الله امر
(الامير يحيى مو(لى
(امير المؤ(منين
(اكر(مه الله
(ويقية واف)

In the name of Allāh. Ordered. the amīr Yaḥyā, maw(lā) of the commander of the faith(ful), may Allāh (be generous to him), (wuqiyya, full weight).

Dark olive, translucent, Diam. 53; round impression 32.

CAM I, 178.

Coin Weight

539. FALS OF 20 KHARRŪBA.

بسم الله
امر يحيى
بميزان فلس
عشرين خرو
ية وافية

In the name of Allāh. Ordered Yaḥyā a fals weight of twenty kharrūba, full weight.

Light green, translucent, 30, 3.72 +.

Launois, Cairo 358 (no weight given).

A small section of the rim is missing, probably around 20 cgm. According to Miles, "Coin Weights," the theoretical weight of a 20 kharrūba fals is 3.904, therefore our weight, if it were intact, would be very near the theoretical weight. The name of Yaḥyā is not followed by mawlā on this specimen. There is, nevertheless, no doubt that he is our official.

Vessel Stamps

540. QISṬ.

[...]

(امر يحيى مو(لى
امير)المومنين)
اكر)مه الله)
قسط واف

[...]

Ordered Yaḥyā, maw(lā) (of the commander) of the faithful, (may Allāh) be generous to him, a qisṭ, full measure.

Bottle green, translucent. 30

Grohmann 4.

Grohmann attributed his specimen, in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, to Harthama b. Naḍr. I have examined the stamp in the Vienna Museum and there seems to be no doubt that the name has been misread. The stamp is identical with the one just described and belongs to Yaḥyā.

541-543. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
الامير يحيحى
امير المومنين
اكرمه الله نصف
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Yaḥyā, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, one-half qisṭ, full measure.

541. Grass green, translucent. 41.

542. Green, translucent. 35.

543. Dark olive green, translucent. Chipped. 31.

Petrie 212.

Petrie misread Bagly for Yaḥyā and one-quarter for one-half.

544. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

[...]

(الامير يحيى مو(لى
امير المؤمنين
اكرمه الله ربع
قسط واف

[...]

the amīr Yaḥyā, maw(lā) of the commander of the faithful, may Allāh be generous to him, one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

Peridot green, translucent. 31.

Unpublished. A fragment of a disk weight was published by Miles, CAM I, 178,

The identification of this amir Yaḥyā, mawlā of al-Mahdi, poses something of a problem. Abū Ṣāliḥ Yaḥyā ibn Dāwūd al-Khursī, who was governer of Egypt between 162 and 163 H., might qualify, but there is no indication in the chronicles that he was a mawlā. On the other hand, our Yaḥyā was an amīr, and I do not know of another amīr Yaḥyā with extensive powers, under the caliph al-Mahdī. There was, of course, the prefect Yaḥyā b. Sa’īd in 164 H., but he was only an executive official (على يدى). So the identification with Abū Ṣāliḥ Yaḥyā remains a possibility.

MUḤAMMAD B. SULAYMĀN

Governor: 159-61 H. / A.D. 775-77

Vessel Stamps

545. ONE-HALF QISṬ.

بسم الله
الامير محمدبن
سليمن اكرمه
الله نصف
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him, one-half qiṣt, full measure.

Peridot green, translucent, 32.

Launois, C.d.M. Suppl. 8.

546-547. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
الامير محمد بن
سليمن اكرمه
الله ربع قسط
واف

*

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Muḥammad b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him, one-quarter qisṭ, full measure. *

546. Emerald green, translucent. 30.

547. Emerald green, translucent. 26.

Unpublished.

AL-MUHĀJIR

Prefect: 159-61 H. / A.D. 775-7, and probably later

Vessel Stamps

548. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
المهاجر

At the hands of al-Muhājir.

Green, transparent. 21.

Casanova, p. 374, No 192; CAM I, 179; A. Launois, C.d.M. Suppl. 16.

549. TWO STAMPS ATTACHED TO A PORTION OF THE RIM OF A VESSEL: Left: A. Right: B.

A. Diam. 30:

مكيلة
جلبان مقشر

Mikyala of shelled chickling vetch.

B. Diam. 25:

على يدى
المهاجر

At the hands of al-Muhājir.

Olive green, transparent.

Unpublished.

Both stamps are well known; they have, as far as I know, not yet been observed together, attached in their original position. Stamp A is identical with Cat. 850-852, and B with the executive stamp Cat. 548.

Al-Muhājir served in a lesser capacity under Muḥammad b. Sulaymān from 159 to 161 H., as indicated by coin weights of the caliph al-Mahdī, with Muḥammad b. Sulaymān as governor; on these weights al-Muhājir must have been employed in the dār al-'iyār (صنع). His stamps show, however, that he was authorized to issue glass stamps as an executive(على يدى) probably later.

AAŪ-BAKR B. TAMĪM

Prefect: between 159 and 161 H. / A.D. 775-7

Ring Weights

550-551. UNCERTAIN WEIGHT. Two small fragments, only the round executive stamp preserved.

على يدى
ابى بكر
بن تميم

At the hands of Abū Bakr b. Tamīm.

550. Green, translucent. 20.

551. Green, translucent. 25.

EAG I, 97 is a raṭl ring weight of Muḥammad b. Sulaymān, with the executive Abū Bakr b. Tamīm, which fixes the latter’s tenure of office between 159 and 161 H. Our fragments may have been portions of weights similar to that published by Miles.

Vessel Stamp

552. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
ابى بكر
بن تميم

At the hands of Abū Bakr b. Tamīm.

Olive green, translucent. 25

Unpublished

The inscriptions of the bottle stamps of al-Muhājir and Abū Bakr b. Tamīm were produced by the same calligrapher.

‘ĪSĀ B. LUQMĀN

Governor: 161-2 H. / A.D. 777-8

Disk Weights

553. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL? Fragment of round weight.

بسم)الله امر)
الامير)عيسى بن)
لقمان)اصله ا)

[...] (الله)

[...]

(In the name) of Allāh. Ordered (the amīr) 'Īsā b. (Luqmān), may Allāh keep him straight. [...]

Dark brown, almost black, opaque.

Unpublished.

The thick rim and the size of the existing portion suggest that it is a quarter raṭl. Although the name of 'Īsā’s father is missing, there is little doubt that this is 'Īsā b. Luqmān. The two other amīrs 'Īsā were 'Īsā b. Abī 'Aṭā, Umayyad finance director, and 'Īsā b. Manṣūr, a late 'Abbāsid governor. The style of writing and the protocol of the present weight are too late for the former, and too early for the latter. Of the three, only 'Īsā b. Luqmān has اصلحه الله in his protocol.

554-555. WUQIYYA, with ‘IMRĀN B. ‘UTBA. Two fragments of disk weights, originally round, but with a semicircular, budlike extension through the application of a second, executive stamp. The larger fragment is about three-quarters preserved, and the other, smaller fragment complements the missing quarter. Measutements of the larger piece: Length 60, width 50, diam. of principal stamp 32, diam. executive stamp 18.

Principal stamp:

بسم الله امر
الامير عيسى بن
ل)قمان اصلحه)
الله وقية و
اف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Īsā b. (Lu)qmān, may Allāh keep him straight, a wuqiyya, full weight.

Executive stamp:

على يدى
عمران
بن عتيبة

At the hands of 'Imrān b. 'Utba.

554. Large fragment: peridot green, translucent.

555. Small fragment: peridot green, translucent. (Executive stamp missing).

Miles, "Corning" 42.

556. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL, with 'IMRĀN B. 'UTBA. Fragment of an oval disk weigh, probably one-quarter raṭl.

Round principal stamp:

[...]

[...]

اصلحه [...]

(الله ربع)
رطل و
اف

[...], may Allāh (keep him straight. One quarter)? raṭl, full weight.

Small round executive stamp:

على يدى
عمران بن
عتية

At the hands of ‘Imrān b. 'Utba.

Very dark green, translucent.

Unpublished.

As will be seen below, ‘Imrān b. ‘Utba issued vessel stamps on his own also. But whenever his name appear in connection with a higher official, it is only with ‘Īsā b. Luqmān. Therefore, the disk weight just described, on which the name of the issuing authority is missing, can safely be attributed to ‘Īsā b. Luqmān.

Vessel Stamps

557-558. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله
امر)الامير عسيى)
بن)لقمان اصلحه الله)
ربع و
اف

In the name of Allāh. (Ordered) the amīr ‘Īsā (b.) Luqmān, may Allāh keep him straight, one-quarter qiṣt, full measure.

557. Olive green, translucent. 30.

558. Emerald green, translucent. 29.

Unpublished.

To my knowledge no weights or vessel stamps of ‘Īsā b. Luqmān have been published to date. The executive ‘Imrān b. ‘Utba, who otherwise would remain an unknown official, of uncertain date, is herewith placed in the period between 161 and 162 H., when ‘Īsā b. Luqmān was governor.

‘IMRĀN B. ‘UTBA

Prefect: 161-2 H. / A.D. 777-8

Vessel Stumps

559-563. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدى
عمرات
بن عتية

At the hands of ‘Imrān b. ‘Utba.

559. Emerald green, translucent. 32.

560. Peridot green, translucent. 16.

561. Similar. 16.

562. Similar. 16.

563. Similar. 16.

Unpublished.

WĀḌIḤ, MAWLĀ OF AL-MAHDĪ

Prefect: before 162 H. / A.D. 778 Governor and Finance Director: 162 H. / A.D. 778.

Disk Weight

564. ONE-SIXTH WUQIYYA. Disk weight, about half preserved.

(سد(س
(وقي(ة

One-six(th) wuqiyy(a).

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدى....واضح)مولى امير)

(At the hands of Wāḍiḥ), mawlā of the commander

Center, in circular line:

المؤ
منين

of the faithful.

Olive green, translucent. Diam. 30

Unpublished.

The name of Wādiḥ is missing from this weight. However, I strongly believe that he is the mawlā who issued this piece. One-sixth-wuqiyya weights are far from common. As weights issued by Wāḍiḥ on his own authority are very rare, it seems appropriate to mention here that Rice, p. 172, published an intact wuqiyya weight, a dark green, translucent round disk, diam. 51, weighing 36.89 gm. Rice acquired it in Cairo; after his death it was sold at Christie’s in 1966 and presented to the L.A. Mayer Memorial Institute in Jerusalem.

‘ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. MAYSARA

Deputy Prefect: 162 H. / A.D 778

Prefect: 167-8 H. / A.D. 784-5; 169-71 H. / A.D. 786-7

Coin Weights

565. ONE-HALF DINAR.

بسم الله
نصف (sic) مثقل
دينار
واف

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-half dinār, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي عبد الرحمن بن

At the hands of ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b.

Center, in circular line:

ميسرة
*

Maysara.

Peridot green, translucent. 24, 2.12.

Unpublished.

Mithqal written without the alif, dinār, with alif.

566. FALS OF 35 KHARRŪBA, with Coptic figure.

Clockwise marginal legend (retrograde):

على يدي عبد الرحمن بن ميسرة

At the hands of ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Maysara.

Center:

مثقال فلس
image

Weight of fals.

Olive green, translucent. 33, 6.91 Fahmy 258.

For the Coptic figure 35, لح لى, see Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 83. The official seems to be 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Maysara al-Ḥadramī, born in 110 H.?, who died in 188 H. He is first mentioned in al-Kindī, p. 118, as having been appointed deputy prefect in 162 H. and prefect between 167-168 and again between 169-171 H. The coin weights issued by him in the names of Mūsā b. al-Mus'ab and 'Alī b. Sulaymān leave no doubt about the dates of his official activity.

ISMĀ'ĪL B. IBRĀHĪM

Finance Director: 164 H. / A.D. 780.

Ring Weight

567. RAṬL, with YAḤYĀ B. SA'ĪD. Fragment with two round impressions: Principal stamp, 31:

بسم الله امر
الامير اسمعيل
ـ(بن)ابرهيم اكرمه
الله رطل
واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ismā'īl (b.) Ibrahīm, may Allāh be generous to him, a raṭl, full weight.

Executive stamp, 18:

على يدي
يحيى بن سعيد

*

At the hands of Yaḥyā b. Sa'īd.

Dark green, almost opaque. Head portion: 60 x 48.

Unpublished.

The executive Yaḥyā b. Sa'īd is unknown.

Disk Weight

568. WUQIYYA, with YAḤYĀ B. SA'ĪD. A little more than half preserved. Round principal stamp, ca. 32, at the bottom of which a small, round executive stamp, ca. 20, impressed partly in the rim, partly on the principal stamp itself.

Principal stamp:

(بسم ا (لله ا
(مر الامير (اسمعيل
(بن ابرهيم (اكرمه
(الله وقيـ(ـة و
اف

In the name of (Allāh). Ordered the amīr (Ismā'īl) b. Ibrāhīm, (may Allāh be) generous to him, a wuqiyy(a, full) weight.

Executive stamp:

على يدي
(يحيى بن سـ(ـعيد

At the hands of Yaḥyā b. Sa‘īd).

Bright green, transparent. Length 57.

Unpublished.

Vessel Stamps

569. QISṬ.

(بسم الله (امر
الامير اسمعيل
بن ابرهيم اكر
مه) الله قسط)
و)اف)

In the name of Allāh. (Ordered) the amīr Ismā‘īl b. Ibrāhīm, may Allāh (be) generous to him, a qisṭ, (full) measure.

Peridot green, translucent 36

Casanova, p. 372, No. 157.

570-571. ONE-QUARTER QISṬ.

بسم الله امر
الامير اسمعيل
بن ابرهيم اكر
مه الله ربع
قسط واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ismā'īl b. Ibrāhīm, may Allāh be generous to him, one-quarter qisṭ, full measure.

570. Sea green, translucent. 33.

571. Bottle green, translucent. 27.

EAG I, 104 (slightly different legend); Launois, Cairo 208.

IBRĀHĪM B. ṢĀLIḤ

Governor: 165-7 H. / A.D. 781-4.

Finance Director: 174 H. / A.D. 790-1.

Governor and finance Director: 176 H./ A.D. 792

Ring Weight

572. INTACT RAṬL KABĪR, with 'ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ. A perfectly-preserved ring weight with three rectangular impressions.

Right, 20 x 18:

امر الا
مير ابر
هيم
بن صلح

Ordered the amīr Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ.

Center 20 x 20:

رطل
كبير
واف

Raṭl kabīr, full weight.

Left, 20 x 18:

على يدي
عاصم
بن حفص

At the hands of 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ.

Dark emerald green, barely translucent. Height 80; length at base 85, width at base 54, weight 493.63.

CAM II. Ruthven 33, also intact; Casanova, p. 90, No 44 is a fragment and the executive stamp on the left side is missing; Miles "Corning" 51 has the denomination and a small portion at the executive stamp, but seems to belong here.

This intact raṭl kabīr is of the greatest importance for Arabic metrology. It becomes even more valuable since there is a second specimen, also intact, in the Ruthven collection. The piece in our collection weighs 493.63, that in the Ruthven collection 492.60; the difference is only 0.2 percent, which is incredibly small. This is the more valuable as we can, for the first time, accurately

assess the correct gram weight of this hitherto mysterious weight system. The exactness is striking, when we recall the relatively large differences between the three intact wuqiyya disk weights of the prefect ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b. Yazīd: Cat. 442-444.

Jungfleisch recognized that the raṭl kabīr was not simply a heavy or a double raṭl, but that the designation represented a separate and distinct weight system. He had, however, no intact specimens to prove that he was right.

Disk Weights

573-574. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL KABĪR. Fragments of two oval disk weights with thick rim and two square impressions.

Principal stamp, 32 x 32:

(ربع (رطل
(كبـ(ـير
(وا(ف

image

One-quarter (raṭl) kabīr, full weight.

Executive stamp, 20 x 20:

امر الا
مير ابر
هيم

Ordered the amīr Ibrāhīm.

573. Emerale green, transparent. Length of fragment 86.

574. Emerald green, translucent. Length of fragment 56.

Petrie 208.

575. WUQIYYA. About half a round disk weight.

بسم الله امر
(الامير ابرهـ(ـيم
(بن صلح اكر(مه ا
(لله (وقية وا
ف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr Ibrāh(īm) b. Ṣāliḥ, may All(ah be) generous to him, (wuqiyya, full) weight.

Emerald green, transparent. Total diam. 51, diam. round impression 31.

Unpublished.

Coin Weight

576. FALS OF 36 KHARRŪBA. About half preserved.

(خاتم (فلوس
(الامير (ابرهيم
(بن صلح اصـ(ـلحه الله
(ست و ثلثين خر(وبة

image

The stamping of (fulūs)? The amīa (Ibrāhīm) b. Ṣāliḥ, may Allāh (keep him straight), thirty six kharr(ūba).

Olive green, translucent. 24.

Launois, Cairo 230; Fahmy 210.

Both authors published the same specimen.

The reading of fulūs at the end of the first line has been adopted from Launois and Fahmy. This would be an exceptional instance in which the plural of fals is employed on the glass.

'ABD ALLĀH B. YAZĪD

Prefect: 165-7 H. / A.D. 781-4; 174 H. / A.D. 790-1; and 176 H. / A.D. 791

Disk Weight

577. WUQIYYA. Slightly oval disk with round impression. Suspension hole near one end of the disk. The writing is spidery elongated Kufic, the calligraphy poor.

على
يدي عبد
الله بن يريد

At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Yazīd.

Pale green, transparent. Diam. 50; diam. stamp 29; weight 25.82.

Unpublished.

The prefect 'Abd Allāh b. Yazīd is unknown in the literature, but his name occurs on a raṭl ring weight of the governor Ibrāhīm b. Ṣāliḥ, who was in office three times. The present wuqiyya may belong to either of his three periods. (See Petrie 207.)

This is an unusual weight. All the other wuqiyya disk weights I know have no suspension hole. In addition, the weight is highly deficient and suggests, together with the poor execution of the writing, a possible (contemporary?) forgery.

MŪSĀ B. AL-MUS'AB

Governor and Finance Director: 167-8 H. / A.D. 784-5

Coin Weights

578. A, B. ONE-HALF DINAR, with ‘ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. MAYSARA.

الامير
موسى بن ا
لمسعب مثقا
ل نصف وا
ف

The amīr Mūsā b. al-Mus'ab. Weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي عبد الرحمن بن

At the hands of ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b.

Center:

ميسرة

*

Maysara.

A. Light green, translucent. 22, 2.09.

B. Light olive green, translucent. 21, 2.08.

Unpublished.

579. ONE-HALF DINAR, with ‘ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ.

الامير
موسى بن
المسعب مثقال
نصف وا
ف

The amīr Mūsā b. al-Mus'ab, Weight of one-half, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي عاصم

At the hands of ‘Āṣim

Center:

بن حفص

b. Ḥafṣ.

Peridot green, translucent. 21, 2.08

Unpublished.

The words mithqāl and wāf faultily written.

580. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with 'ĀṢIM B. ḤAFṢ.

الامير
موسى بن ا
لمسعب مثقال
ثلث وا
ف

The amīr Mūsā b. al-Mus'ab. Weight of one-third, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على (يدي عا) صم

At the (hands of 'Ā)ṣim

Center:

(بن حفـ(ـص

b. Ḥaf(ṣ).

Light green, transparent. 18, 1.39.

Unpublished.

The present coin weight would indicate that 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ served a second term in office after an interval of ca. 25 years, which would be a long time indeed.

AL-FAḌL B. ṢĀLIḤ

Governor and Finance Director: 168-9 H. / A.D. 785-6.

Disk Weight

581. Probably ONE-QUARTER RAṬL. Small fragment, with one square stamp preserved:

مما امر به
الامير اكر
مه الله
الفضل بن صلح

Among those things which ordered the amīr, may Allāh be generous to him, al-Faḍl b. Ṣāliḥ.

Emerald green, translucent. Diam. of stamp 21 x 21.

Unpublished.

The only published weights of al-Faḍl b. Ṣāliḥ are coin weights: BM 26; Petrie 206; CAM II Ruthven 35.

'ALĪ B. SULAYMĀN

Governor: 169-71 H. / A.D. 786-7

Ring Weight

582. RAṬL KABĪR, with MU 'ĀVIYA B. MAWLĀ AL-MUḤSIN. Fragment of a ring weigh, only the head portion preserved.

Three rectangular impressions:

Left, 20 x 20:

مما امر به
الامير على
بن سليمن
اكرمه الله

Among those things which ordered the amīr 'Alī b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him.

Center, 18 x 20:

رطل
كبير
واف

Raṭi kabīr, full weight.

Right, 20 x 20:

على يدي معو
يه بن مولى المحسن
مولى الامير
على (بن) سليمن

At the hands of Mu'awiya b. Mawlā al-Muḥsin, freedman of the amīr 'Alī (b.) Sulaymān.

Very dark green, almost black, nearly opaque.

Unpublished.

The executive is unknown and has a rather uncommon name. I can recognize, I believe, the same name and protocol, similar to the present executive stamp (at right), on CAM I, 187-188. On Miles’s specimens, the last line is missing, but it should be, I am confident, the same as on our weight: 'Alī b. Sulaymān.

Disk Weight

583. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL KABĪR. Small fragment of an oval disk. Originally there were three square impressions, of which part of the central stamp and more than half the principal stamp (upside down) are preserved.

First stamp missing.

Central stamp:

رطل
كبير
واف

Raṭl kabīr, full weight.

Terminal stamp:

مما امر به
(الامير عـ(ـلى
(بن سليمـ(ـن
اكرمه الله

Among those things which ordered the amīr 'A(lī) b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him.

Very dark olive brown, nearly opaque. Unpublished.

Coin Weight

584. DINAR, with ‘ABD AL-RAḤMĀN B. MAYSARA.

بسم الله
مما امر به ا
لامير على بن
سليمن اكرمه
الله مثقال د
ينر وا
ف

In the name of Allāh. Among those things which ordered the amīr 'Alī b. + Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him, a weight of dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي عبد الرحمن بن

At the hands of ‘Abd al-Raḥmān b.

Center, in circular line:

ميسرة

Maysara.

Olive green, translucent. 28, 4.21.

Launois, C.d.M. Suppl. 10

Launois did not read the name of Maysara.

Vessel Stamps

585. QISṬ.

مما امر به
الامير على
بن سليمن اكر
مه الله قسط

Among those things which ordered the amīr 'Alī b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him, qisṭ.

Pale green, translucent. 27.

Unpublished.

The word qisṭ is not very clear.

586. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

بسم الله
امر به الامير
على بن سليمن
اكر
مه الله

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr 'Alī b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be generous to him.

Very dark olive green, almost opaque. Square stamp 21 × 21.

Unpublished

MŪSĀ B. 'ĪSĀ

Governor: 171-2 H. / A.D. 787-8; 175-6 H. / A.D. 791-2; 179-80 H. / A.D. 795-6

Ring Weights

587. RAṬL KABĪR, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Fragment. Nearly half a ring weight preserved, the head portion with the two lateral branches. Round impression, 30, flanked by four prong marks.

(بسم الله)
(مما امر به الامير)
موسى بن عيسى رطل
كبير على يدي
صلح بن مسلم

(In the name of Allāh.) (Among those things which ordered the amīr) Mūsā b. 'Īsā, raṭl kabīr. At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Seems black, opaque, but at the edges shimmering green. Total length 60, thickness 46.

Unpublished

The writing is shallow and difficult to reproduce in illustrations. The first two lines are reconstructed by analogy with other weights.

588. RAṬL KABĪR. Fragment of a ring weight. Only the top preserved, with three rectangular impressions.

Left, 20 × 20:

مما امر به
الامير موسى
بن عيسى

Among those things which ordered the amīr Mūsā b. 'Isā.

Center 20 × 18:

رطل
كبير
واف

Raṭl. kabīr, full weight.

Right 20 × ?:

......

بن) صلح)...
مولى) الامين)...

......

... (b.) Ṣāliḥ ... (mawlā of ?) al-Āmīn.

Very dark green, opaque. Fragment 55 × 37.

Unpublished.

This raṭl kabīr is closely connected with the quarter-raṭl disk weight which follows, Cat. 589. The legends of both weights seem to complement each other. The entry for Cat. 589 contains a discussion of the names of the officials.

Disk Weight

589. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL KABĪR. Intact oval disk weight with three square impressions in one row. The central impression is upside down.

Top 20 × 20:

...

...

مولى الامين

...

...

mawlā of al-Amīn.

Center, 20 × 20:

ربع/ab>
رطل
كبير

One-quarter raṭl kabīr.

Bottom, 20 × 20:

مما امر به
الامير موسى

...

Among those things which ordered the amīr Mūsā

...

Emerald green, translucent. Length 89, Width 73, Weight 123.35.

Unpublished.

This weight has several outstanding features. It is the only intact quarter-raṭl kabīr disk weight published. It can be assigned to the governor Mūsā b. 'Īsā fairly acurately (although the father's name, 'Īsā is missing), because the top and bottom impressions of both Cat. 588 and 589 were made with the same dies. Therefore, the Mūsā of 589 must be identical with Mūsā b. 'Īsā of 588, whose name is clearly legible on the left-hand stamp of the ring weight.

Of the executive's name, only that of the father, Ṣāliḥ, is left on 588, and it is entirely missing on 589. But the last line of the executive stamp must logically also be identical on both weights; On 589 it is مولى الامين. On 588, therefore, it can be completed to مولى) الامين). It seems that the executive ...... b. Ṣāliḥ was a mawlā of al-Amīn. Muḥammad al-Amīn did not mount the throne until 193 H., and the last governorship of Mūsā b. 'Īsā lasted from 179 to 180 H.; ... b. Ṣāliḥ became, therefore, a mawlā of al-Amīn during the latter’s vice-regency over the western half of the caliphate.

I could not find any trace of a mawlā ... b. Ṣāliḥ of this period in the literature. He probably served during the last term of Mūsā b. Īsā, between 179 and 180 H.

Coin Weight

590. DINAR, with SĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM.

بسم الله
مما امر به الامير
موسى بن عيسى
اكرمه الله
مثقال دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Among those things which ordered the amīr. Mūsā b. 'Īsā, may Allāh be generous to him, a dinar weight, full weight.

Revers, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي

At the hands of

Center, in double circular line, within circle of dots:

صلح
بن مسلم

Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim

Light green, translucent. 29, 4.22.

Unpublished.

Launois Cairo 235 and Fahmy 218-219 are different.

ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM

Prefect: sometime between 171 and 189 H. / A.D. 787-804

Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim is not mentioned in the chronicles, but his name is well known from the glass. His dates, based on then existing evidence,were established by Miles as sometime between 171 and 180 H. The present collection contains some new material, and we can therefore extend the limits of his activity as prefect to a later date, sometime between 187-189 H. We now have glass issued by the following officials, all bearing Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim’s name: Mūsā b. Īsā (171-2, 175-6, 179-80 H.), 'Umar b. Ghaylān (173-4 H.) and Ḥuwayy (176-9 H.), al-Laith b. al Faḍl (182 and 187 H.) and Maḥfūz b. Sulaymān (187-9 H.).

The evidence tends to confirm that Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim held office during 18 years, but it is not known whether he was active without interruption, or was re-appointed one or more times.

Although almost all glass with Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim presents him as a prefect or executive of lesser importance, there are exceptions. On Cat. 599 he is empowered to order the issuing of coin weights; on Fahmy’s No. 224 he is even styled amīr. In consequence he must have held, at least temporarily, or toward the end of his career, the rank of amīr.

Ring Weight

591. RAṬL. Fragment. Only a small portion of the head, with the executive stamp, and the right hand branch preserved.

على يدي
صلح
بن مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Black, opaque. Stamp 17.

Unpublished.

Lump Weight, in the Form of a Stopper

592. "WUQIYYA." This weight roughly resembles a champagne-cork, with a broad base and a drawn-in waist. The top of the cylindrical "stopper" is completely covered by a round stamp, surrounded by a rim of about 3 mm.

A large splinter broke off at the base. Jungfleisch, who published the piece’ ingeniously calculated the weight of the missing portion and tried to reconstruct the original weight of the specimen.

وقية
واف على
يدي صلح
بن مسلم

Wuqiyya, full weight. At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Emerald green, translucent. Height 28, diam. top 30; waist 27, base 33. Actual weight 37.16; weight calculated by Jungfleisch 47.50.

Jungfleisch, BIE 1955-6, p. 302.

Jungfleisch remodeled the missing portion from plasticine and bees wax and calculated the mass of water which it displaced. He could work out, from the displaced water and the specific weight of the glass, the real weight of the missing glass fragment; the result was 10.66. This figure added to the actual weight of the mutilated glass weight amounts to 47.82. A margin of error conceded, Jungfleisch thought that about 47.50 would be the real figure.

From the unusual weight and shape of this "wuqiyya" Jungfleisch deduced that it might be a wuqiyya kabīr, although it was only a simple wuliyya, according to the inscription. We have now several intact weights of the kabīr series and know the precise value in grams of the raṭl and, consequently, of its wuqiyya. The wuqiyya kabīr weighs, according to our tables, precisely 41 gm, whereas Jungfleisch's wuqiyya is 47.50. I would suggest that the latter is, in spite of the denomination of one wuqiyya, in reality one and one-half wuqiyya, of the system of the 'Abbāsid raṭl. According to this system, which had been in use since al-Mahdī's reign, the wuqiyya is roughly 32 gm. One and one half of this wuqiyya weighs 48 gm. which is accurately enough the weight of Jungfleisch's piece.

Disk Weights

593-594. WUQIYYA. Fragments of two round disk weights, each fragment with two round executive stamps of 17. Originally there were three stamps on each weight. Both existing impressions contain the same legend:

على يدي
صلح
بن مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

593. Grass green, translucent. Total length 47.

594. Caramel brown, translucent. Total length 45.

Petrie 250.

Coin Weights

595 A, B. ONE-HALF DINAR.

Circular line, in which is counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله مثقال نصف دينر

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-half dinar.

Center, in circular line:

image

Reverse,

على) يدي)
صلح
(بن سم(؟

(At the) hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Sim?

A. Light green, transparent. 23, 2.09.

B. Honey yellow, transparent. 23, 2.10

Launois, Maspéro 13 (did not read the reverse); BM 53 and Casanova, p. 377, Nos. 9-11 do not mention a reverse legend.

596. A, B. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

Circular line, in which is counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله مثقال ثلث دينر

image

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-third dinar

Reverse

على يدي
صلح
(بن ـسم(؟

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Sim ?

A. Light green, transparent. 20, 1.38.

B. Dark olive yellow, translucent. 21, 1.40.

Unpublished.

The two issues are tentatively attributed to Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim. The name of the prefect's father, on the reverse, is probably bungled; I think only two letters, سم, are visible and they may be intended to represent مسلم.

These two issues resemble only one other, that of ''Abd Allāh b. Īsā, who was in office in 193-4 H., only about ten years later.

597. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

بسم الله
مثقال ثلث
دينر واف

*

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-third dinal, full weight.

Reverse, in circle of small dots:

على يدي
صلح بن
مسلـ)ـم)

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. (Musl)im.

Pale green, translucent. 19, 0.95.

Unpublished.

The one-third dinar of CAM II. Benaki 51 has different legends.

598. FALS OF 14 KHARRŪBA.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي صلح بن مسلم مثقال فلس

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim. Weight of fals.

Center:

اربع
عشر
خروبة

Fourteen kharrūba.

Pale green, Wranslucent. Surface patina. 25, 1.91.

Unpublished.

Theoretical weight: 2.735 (see Miles, "Coin Weights," p. 85). The shortage is due to advanced devitrification.

599. FALS OF 11 KHARRŪBA, with Coptic figure.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend, in circle of dots:

امر به صلح بن مسلم مثقال فلس
احدى و عشر خروبة

Ordered Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim a fals weight of eleven kharrūba.

Center, in circle of dots and linear circle:

image

Dark brown, almost opaque. 22, 2.11.

Unpublished.

Mithqal written without alif The formula amara bihi indicates that Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim, at least temporarily, was in higher office than that of prefect. See also Fahmy 224, where he is styled amīr.

Vessel Stamps

600. ONE-HALF THUMN OF AL-[...]

على يدي
صلح بن مسلم
...نصف ثمن الـ

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim. One-half thumn of al-[...]

Olive green, translucent. 30.

Unpublished.

Although the name of the substance is missing, the stamp is of great interest because of the unusual measure of capacity, al-thumn, which appears on glass for the first time. Al-thumn is listed in Sauvaire Vol. 2 Pt. 3 (p. 154 of the original pagination or p. 31 of the offprint). It was used for liquid or viscous substances and contained, depending on the specific weight of the matter, either 50 dirhams of wine, or forty-five dirhams of olive oil, or sixty-seven and one-half dirhams of honey. According to Sauvaire, 50 dirhams = 154.49 gm., 45 dirhams = 139.041 and 67.5 dirhams = 207.7 gm. However, Miles in "Byzantine Miliaresion" calculated from a very large body of material that the theoretical weight of the dirham was 2.97 gm. and the average weight of well-preserved silver dirhams was 2.93 gm. On this basis, 50 dirhams of wine = 145.0 gm., 45 dirhams of olive oil = 130.50 gm. and 67.5 dirhams of honey = 195.75 gm. Thus we can easily reconstruct the dimensions of the thumn.

601. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدي
صلح
مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Light green, translucent. 18.

Casanova, p. 374, Nos. 194-195; CAM II. Ruthven 36 (slightly differently arranged).

602. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

صلح

Ṣāliḥ.

Light green, translucent. 10.

Unpublished.

Although the father's name is omitted, it is most probably an issue of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

603. TWO STAMPS ON A SEGMENT OF RIM. WUQIYYA OF GREASE.

Left:

Right:

وقية Wuqiyya

دهن of grease

على يدي At the hands of

صلح Ṣāliḥ

بن مسلم b. Muslim

Both light green, translucent, 15 mm.

Unpublished in this combination.

This is one of the rare instances in which the executive stamp as well as the anonymous stamp bearing the name of the substance are preserved in their original position at the rim of the vessel.

MŪSĀ B. SĀBIQ AND ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM

Joint prefects: sometime between 171 and 80 H. / A.D. 787-96

Disk Weighs

604. ONE-HALF RAṬL. Fragment of a disk weigh, which was probably oval. Originally there were three impressions in a row: a round executive stamp, a square central stamp and another square impression on which the governor's name is now missing.

Executive stamp, 20:

على يدي
موسى بن سا
بق و صلح
بن مسلم

At the hands of Mūsā b. Sābiq and Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Remains of the central square impression:

نصف
رطل
واف

One-hall raṭl, full weight

Traces of the square principal impression:

...مما امر

Among those things which ordered ...

Green, translucent.

Unpublished.

605-606. WUQIYYA. Two small fragments from two different weights. The weights were originally stamped with six impressions, all identical, one centrally and five peripherically disposed. All the stamps bear the same executive formula:

على يدي
موسى بن سا
بق وصلح
بن مسلم

At the hands of Mūsā b. Sābiq and Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

605. Blue green, translucent. 20.

606. Blue green, transparent. 20.

CAM I, 183, seems to confirm that there were six impressions altogether.

Not only are all the stamps identical, they also seem to be identical with the executive stamp of Cat. 604. A sketch of the reconstructed weight might give an idea of what the intact weight might have looked like.

For Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim we have fixed the terminal date of 189 H. because of his association with Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān. This date does not necessarily apply to Mūsā b. Sābiq. For the joint activity of the prefects see CAM I, pp. 74-75.

MŪSĀ B. SĀBIQ

Prefect alone: sometime between 171 and 180 H. / A.D. 787-96

Disk Weight

607. WUQIYYA KABĪR. Fragment of an oval disk weight, about half preserved. Three square impressions in one row. Only the lower left corner of the first impression is preserved, but from the last visible letter of the legend it seems that the first stamp was identical with the last stamp, which is perfectly preserved. (Top and) bottom stamp, 16 × 16:

على يدي
موسى
بن سابق

At the hands of Mūsā b. Sābiq.

Central stamp (16 × 17):

وقية
كبير
واف

Wuqiyya kabīr. full weight.

Emerald green, transparent. Total length of fragment 56.

Unpublished.

'UMAR B. GHAYLĀN OR 'UMAR B. MIHRĀN

Governor and finance director:

173-4 H. / A.D. 789-90.

Governor:

176 H. / A.D. 792.

Disk Weight

608. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL KABĪR, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Less than half a round disk weight. Of the crosswise-placed round stamps only the one in the center and two, at top and bottom, are preserved, all only partially. A executive stamp, impressed right across the rim, is complete.

Top and bottom stamps, both the same. 20:

(مما (امر به الامير
(عمـ(.ـر
(اصلـ(ـحه الله

Among those things (ordered by the amīr) 'Uma(r[...]), may (Allāh) keep him stra(ight).

Central stamp, 20:

ربـ(ـع رطل
(كـ(ـبير
(واف)

One-quar(ter raṭl) ka(bīr), (full weight).

Executive stamp:

على يدي
صلح
بن مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Dark green, translucent. Total length 80.

Unpublished.

The name of the governor, 'Umar, is preserved, but his father’s name is missing. It remains open, therefore, whether the weight was issued in the name of 'Umar b. Ghaylān or in that of 'Umar b. Mihrān. Both are well within the dates of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

HILĀL B. AL-ḤASAN

Prefect: 173-4 H. / A.D. 789-90.

Coin Weight

609. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

image

بسم
الله مثقال
ثلث دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-third dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي هلال بن

At the hands of Hilāl b.

Center, in circular line:

الحسن

al-Ḥasan.

Olive green, translucent. 19, 1.41.

Unpublished.

On a dinar of the Cairo Museum of Islamic Art (Fahmy 229), the name is al-Ḥusayn. On our specimen, it is, however, clearly al-Ḥasan. According to Fahmy 229, Hilāl b. al-Ḥasan (or al-Ḥusayn) was in office between 173 and 174 H. under the governorship of 'Umar b. Ghaylān.

Vessel Stamp

610. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدي
هلال بن
الحسن

At the hands of Hilāl b. al-Ḥasan.

Bottle green, translucent. 24.

Unpublished.

ḤUWAYY B. ḤUWAYY

Governor: probably 176-9 H. / A.D. 792-6

Ring Weight

611. RAṬL. Fragment. Head portion of a ring weight, covered by light grey patina and peeling at several points.

Round impression at top, 20:

صنعة
رطل
واف

Manufactured a raṭl, full weight.

Oval stamp, 16 × 22, on left shoulder: blank

Oval stamp, 16 × 22, on right shoulder:

امر الامير
حوي بن حوي
اكرمه الله

Ordered the amīr Ḥuwayy b. Ḥuwayy, may Allāh be generous to him.

Green, translucent. Mostly covered by patina.

Unpublished.

Disk Weight

612. WUQIYYA, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Fragment. About half preserved. Counter-clockwise marginal legend, between two circular lines:

بسم الله مما امر به الامير حوي بن
(حو(ي

In the name of Allāh. Among those things which ordered the amīr Ḥuwayy b. Ḥuwa(yy).

Center.

على يدي
صلح بن

*

مسلم

(At the) hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim

Light green, translucent. Slight devitrification. Diam. 60; diam. impression 37.

Unpublished.

A good account was given in Miles, "Muntaza" 51, of the few references in the literature. The published weights of Ḥuwayy b. Ḥuwayy are all coin weights. Launois, Cairo 236 bis and ter does not mention the reverse legend, although they are the same coin weights which Fahmy later published and all have Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim's name in the reverse legend.

HĀSHIM B. SĀLIM

Prefect: 171-2 H. / A.D. 787-8; or 175-6 H. / A.D. 791-2; or 179-80 H. / A.D. 795-6

Coin Weights

613. ONE-HALF DINAR.

بسم الله
مثقال نصف
دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-half dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي هاشم بن سالم

image

At the hands of Hāshim b. Sālim.

Pale blue green, transparent. 22, 2.09.

Unpublished.

The name of this otherwise unknown official was recorded in Launois, Cairo 234, on a dinar weight of the governor Mūsā b. 'Īsā. The same specimen figures also in Fahmy 216. There is, however, no clue, as to during which term of governortship of Mūsā b. 'Īsā the prefect Hāshim served.

614. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

بسم الله
ثلث (sic) مثقل
دينر
واف
على يدي هاشم بن سالم

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-third dinar, full weight. At the hands of Hāshim b. Sālim

Pale green, transparent. 20, 1.37

Unpublished

615. ONE-HALF DINAR, with NĀṢIḤ.

بسم الله
مثقال نصف
دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-half. dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend, in circle:

هاشم بن سالم

Hāshim b. Sālim

Center:

*

و ناصح

and Nāṣiḥ.

Pale green, transparent. 22, 2.10.

Unpublished.

CAM I, 180 may belong here. It is difficult to decide, because in Kufic script the name Wāḍiḥ , as it has been read, does not differ from wa-Nāṣiḥ , except for the initial hook of the alif: واضح or و ناصح. But the alif at the beginning of a word is also sometimes written with an initial hook: image

Against Wāḍiḥ speaks the date of his death, 170 H., whereas Hāshim b. Sālim was appointed by Mūsā b. 'Īsā in 171 H. at the earliest.

616. ONE-THIRD DINAR, with NĀṢIḤ.

image

بسم
الله مثقال
ثلث دينر
واف

In the name of Allāh. A weight of one-third dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

هاشم بن سالم

Hāshim b. Sālim

Center:

و ناصح

and Nāṣiḥ.

Olive green, translucent. 19, 1.39.

Unpublished.

ISḤĀQ B. SULAYMĀN

Governor: 177-8 H. / A.D. 793-4.

Ring Weights

617. RAṬL, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Small fragment of a ring weight, with part of a square impression, 28 × ?; counter-clockwise marginal legend:

الاميراسحق بن سليمن...

(اكـ(ـرمه الله

... the amīr Isḥāq b. Sulaymān, may (Allāh be generous to him).

Center:

ر)طل)
وا)ف)

(r)aṭl (full) weight.

Left shoulder round impression, 18, of which little is preserved:

صلح
ه له

*

Ṣāliḥ

ة لة

Emerald green, almost transparent.

Unpublished.

The small impression is difficult to decipher and too little of the legend is preserved.

618. PROBABLY RAṬL. Fragment. Top of ring weight with round stamp, 26. Clockwise legend: (retrograde).

مما امر به الامير اسحق بن

Among those things which ordered the amīr Isḥāq b.

Center in retrograde:

سليمن

Sulaymān.

Blue green, translucent, 42 × 28.

Unpublished.

Disk Weight

619. ONE-HALF? WUQIYYA, with ṢĀLIḤ (B. MUSLIM).

About two thirds to three quarters of a flat oval disk. A rectangular principal impression occupies the upper two thirds of the disk. Counter-clockwise marginal legend along the sides of the stamp:

امـ)ـر الامير اسحق بن)
(سليمن اكـ(ـرمه الله

[...] (ord)ered the amīr Isḥāq b. Sulaymān, may Allāh be (generous to him).

Center:

و)قية)
واف

(Wu)qiyya, full weight.

At the bottom of the disk, round executive stamp, 20.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي صلح

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ.

Center:

image

Dark green, translucent. Total fragment: 44 × 25.

Principal impression: 29 × ? Weight of the fragment: 7.65.

Casanova, p. 385, No. 1.

Casanova published on p. 385, No. 1, a half-wuqiyya weight, completely preserved, on which the marginal legend starts with مما امر and ends with نصف. The illustration is also clear. The executive stamp, on the other hand, is faded.

AL-LAYTH B. AL-FAḌL

Governor: 182 H. / A.D. 798; 187 H. / A.D. 802.

Ring Weight

620. RAṬL, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Upper half of a milk-bottle-shaped ring weight with a small transversal hole in the body and round impression at the top, 35:

مما امر به
الامير الليث بن ا
لفضل رطل و
اف على يدي
صلح بن مسلم

Among those things which ordered the amīr al-Layth b. al-Faḍl, a raṭl, full weight. At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Green, translucent.

Unpublished.

Weight in the Shape of a Stopper

621. ONE-QUARTER RAṬL, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Cylinder-shaped solid block with a narrow neck, resembling a champagne cork. About one-quarter broken off. One round impression at the top.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما) امر به الامير الليث بن)
الفضـ(ـل ر)بع رطل

(Among those things) which ordered the amīr al-Layth b. al-Faḍl, (one)quarter raṭl,

Center:

واف على
يدي صلح
بن مسلم

full weight. At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Blue green, translucent. Height 30; impression 33; diam. top 51, neck 44, base 54.

Unpublished.

Disk Weight

622. ONE-HALF RAṬL KABĪR. Fragment of a large disk weight. Only the last two lines of the square or rectangular principal impression are preserved. Below it, impressed in the thick rim, a round impression.

Rectangular stamps, width 55:

[...]

(نصف رطل كبير (واف

I ω

One half raṭl kabīr, (full weight).

Round stamp, 24:

امر الامير
الليث مولى
امير المؤ
منين

Ordered the amīr al-Layth, mawlā of the commander of the faithful.

Black, opaque. Total diam. 95 × 54.

Unpublished.

The Greek official or artisan I ω is unknown.

623. WUQIYYA, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Round disk weight, with counter-clockwise marginal legend between two circular lines:

بن الفضل بسم ا) لله وقية) (sic) مما امر الامير ليث

Among those things which ordered the amir Layth (b. al-Faḍl) (in the name of Al)lāh, a wuqiyya,

Center:

وا)ف على)
يد)ي صلح)
بن) مسلم)

(full) weight. At the (han)ds of Ṣāliḥ (b.) Muslim.

Light green, translucent. Diam. fragment 59; impression 37.

Unpublished.

The name of the governor is written without the article; ليث, instead of the usual: الليث.

Coin Weights

624. DINAR, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM.

بسم الله امر
الامير الليث بن ا
لفضل مولى امير المؤ
مثقال (sic) منين اكرمه/ab>
دينر واف

In the name of Allāh. Ordered the amīr al-Layth b. al-Faḍl, mawlā of the commander of the faithful, may (Allāh) be generous to him. Weight of a dinar, full weight.

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

على يدي صلح بن مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Center:

العدل

Justice

Pale honey yellow, translucent. 30, 4.14.

Unpublished.

Allāh omitted in the fourth line.

625. DINAR, with 'ABD AL-'AZĪZ B. ḤUMAYD.

بسم الله امر
الليث بن الفضل
مثقال دينر على
يدي عبد العزيز
بن حميد

* * *

In the name of Allāh. Ordered al-Layth b. al-Faḍl a weight of a dinar. At the hands of 'Abd al-'Azīz b. Ḥumayd.

Pale honey yellow, transparent. 30, 4.12.

Unpublished.

The prefect 'Abd al-'Azīz b. Ḥumayd is unknown in the literature. This weight belongs to the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Inventory No. 6354, 1925). I extend my warmest appreciation to Hofrat Dr. Egon Komorzynski, director of the Museum, for kind permission to include this rare document.

The governor al-Layth b. al-Faḍl is well known from the chronicles, however Cat. 620-625 are the first glass weights or stamps with his name to be published

MAḤFŪẒ B. SULAYMĀN

Finance Director: 187-9 H. / A.D. 802-4

Ring Weight

626. RAṬL KABĪR. Fragment. Two square impressions at the top, both 22 × 22. Left:

بسم الله
رطل كبير
واف

In the name of Allāh. raṭl kabīr, full weight.

Right, counter-clockwise marginal legend:

( بسم الله امر) الامير محفوظ بن سليمن ابقا(ه الله)

(In the name of Allāh. Ordered) the amīr Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān, may Allāh pre(serve him).

Sea green, translucent Total diam. 80 × 43.

Unpublished.

A large blister has been detached from the stamp. The marginal legend was easily reconstructed, but only the last line of the center is preserved. It is very much effaced, but I believe it is: المؤمنين. If so, it may be the end of: (mawlā amīr) al-mu’minīn: مولى امير المؤمنين.

Disk Weight

627. WUQIYYA KABĪR, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. 'IRBĀḌ. About half an oval disk weight. Square principal impression, 22 × 22. Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما امر به الامير) محفوظ بن سليمن ابقاه الله)

(Among those things which ordered the amīr) Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān, may Allāh preserve him.

Center:

على يدي
عبد الله
بن عرباض

At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ.

Two round impressions, (each 18), with identical legends; one on the left side, the other at the bottom, and both in the rim of the weight:

وقية
كبير
واف

image

Wuqiyya kabīr, full weight.

Light grass green, nearly transparent.

Unpublished.

The prefect 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ is unknown in the chronicles. His name has been recorded on two dinar weights (EAG I, 128 and Launois, Maspéro 15). Moreover, a one-third-dinar weight was issued in his name alone (see Cat. 629) and the vessel stamp Cat. 629A).

Coin Weight

628. DINAR, with ṢĀLIḤ B. MUSLIM. Broken, part missing.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend in dotted circle:

بسم (الله امر الامير) محفوظ بن سليمن دينر واف

In the name of (Allāh. Ordered the amīr) Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān a dinar, full weight.

Center, in double circular line:

على يدي
صلح بن
مسلم

At the hands of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim.

Pale green, translucent. 38.

Unpublished.

This weight proves that Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim was still prefect under Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān, sometime between 187 and 189 H. It was formerly thought that the final date of Ṣāliḥ b. Muslim’s activity was in 180 H.

'ABD ALLĀH B. 'IRBĀḌ

Prefect: ca. 187-9 H. / A.D. 802-4

Coin Weight

629. ONE-THIRD DINAR.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

بسم الله مثقال ثلث دينر واف على
يدي

In the name of Allāh. Weight of one-third dinar, full weight. At the hands of

Center:

عبد الله
بن عرباض

'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ.

Reverse:

(على يد(ي
(عبد ا(لله بن
(عربـ(ـاض

At the hands (of) 'Abd A(llāh b.) 'Irb(āḍ).

Caramel brown, translucent. 19, 1.37.

Unpublished.

Vessel Stamp

629A. Fragment of the handle of a vessel, with the executive stamp stil attached:

(على يدي؟)
عـ)ـبد الله بن)
عـ)ـرباض)

(At the hards ?) (of 'A)bd Allāh b. ('I)rbāḍ.

Pale green, translucent. 15.

Unpublished.

'ABD ALLĀH or 'UBAYD ALLĀH B. MUḤAMMAD

Governor: 189-90 H. / A.D. 804-5.

Disk Weight

630. ONE-HALF RAṬL. Fragment of an oval disk weight. An executive stamp is preserved and traces of another, similar stamp are visible. Although in the legend the weight is termed one-half raṭl, from the size and shape of the fragment it is evident, that it was only a wuqiyya.

على يدي
عبد الله بن
محمد نصف
رطل واف

At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad. One-half raṭl, full weight.

Green, translucent. Stamp 21.

Unpublished.

This official may be identical with the 'Abd Allāh or 'Ubayd Allāh mentioned in Wiet, Maqrīzī , p. 124, who was governor from 15 Shawwāl 189 H. until 10 Ramaḍan 190 H. and is also recorded in Zambaur, p. 27, as 'Ubayd Allāh b. Muḥammad. Of course, at the date this weight was issued, he must have held some executive post only, as indicated by على يدي.

631. ONE-HALF DIRHAM.

مما امر به الا
مير عبيد الله
بن محمد مثقال
نصف درهم
واف

Among those things which ordered the amīr 'Ubayd Allāh b. Muḥammad, the weight of one-half dirham, full weight.

Brown, translucent. 20, 1.35.

Unpublished.

The amīr 'Ubayd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-'Abbāsi, also known as Ibn-Zaynab, was governor of Egypt between 189 and 190 H. and is well known from the chronicles. Al-Kindī (p. 1411) and others call him 'Abd Allāh, but in Zambaur his name is 'Ubayd Allāh and so is it in Wüstenfeld Vol. 2, p. 24. It may be deduced from the above that 'Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad and 'Ubayd Allāh b. Muḥammad are the same person and identical with the above mentioned governor.

Another problem arises from a dinar weight published in Launois, Cairo (No. 243), and re-published as Fahmy 120, of an amīr 'Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad, with the joint prefects 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ and 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ is the best known of the three officials; he was in office from 133 to 141 H. and also from 165 to 169 H. If the amīr 'Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad and the prefect 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ of Launois and Fahmy’s weight are the same persons who were in office between 187 and 189 H., then it is difficult to accept that 'Āṣim b. Ḥafṣ was still active and held an appointment in 187 H., 54 years after he began his career. The only possible explanation may be that Launois’ and Fahmy’s 'Abd Allāh b. Muḥammad is an earlier amīr of the same name. On the other hand, 'Abd Allāh b. 'Irbāḍ’s dates are fixed between 187 and 189 H. by his association with Maḥfūẓ b. Sulaymān.

Vessel Stamps.

632. EXECUTIVE STAMP.

على يدي
عبيـ)ـد الله)or عبـ)ـد الله بن)
محمد

image

At the hands of

('Ab)d Allāh b. (or 'Ubay)d Allāh Muḥammad.

Light yellow green, transparent. 22.

Casanova, p. 374, No. 187.

AL-KHAṢĪB B. 'ABD AL-ḤAMIĪD

Finance Director: 190-1 H. / A.D. 805-6.

Ring Weight

633. RAṬL KABĪR, with MUKARRAM B.KHĀLID. Fragment. Less than one half preserved. Round impression at top, 29:

مما امر به الامير
الخصيب بن عبد الحميد
ابقاه الله على
يدي مكرم
بن خلد

Among those things which ordered the amīr al-Khaṣīb b. 'Abd al-Ḥamīd, may Allāh preserve him. At the hands of Mukarram b. Khālid.

Second round stamp, 18, on the right shoulder:

رطل كبير
واف

full weight. Raṭl kābīr

Dull green, translucent, but mostly covered by drab patina. 69 × 48.

Unpublished.

Disk Weight

634. UNCERTAIN WEIGHT, probably ONE AND ONE-HALF WUQIYYA, with MUKARRAM B. KHĀLID. Round disk weight with thick rim, about one-third missing.

مما (امر به الا)مير
الخصيب بن عبد الحميد
اكرمه الله على
يدي مكرم بن خالد

Among those (things which ordered the a)mīr al-Khaṣīb b. 'Abd al-Ḥamīd, May Allāh be generous to him. At the hands of Mukarram b. Khālid.

Light green, translucent. Total diam. 51; stamp 28. Actual weight 29.75

Unpublished.

Although there is no denomination on the weight, it seems to be a one and one-half wuqiyya piece. As around a third of the weight is missing, the reconstructed piece would weigh 45 to 47 gm. As the wuqiyya of this period (starting with the caliph al-Mahdī) weighs ca. 31 gm, our specimen should be a one and one-half wuqiyya weight.

The finance director al-Khaṣīb b. 'Abd al-Ḥamīd, though not in al-Kindī, is noted in Wiet, p. 312, in Wiet, Maqrīzī , p. 124 and also in Weil, p. 167.

AL-ḤUSAYN B. JAMĪL

Governor: 190-2 H. / A.D. 805-7

Coin Weight

635. DINAR, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. ABĪ BAKR? and 'ALĪ B. AL-SAFRADĪ. Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما امر به الامير الحسين بن جميل عبد (الله بن ا)بى بكر

Among those things which ordered the amīr al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl 'Abd (Allāh b. A)bī Bakr.

Circular line, in which a counter-clockwise legend:

على يدي على بن السفردي

At the hands of 'Alī b. al-Safradī.

Inner dotted circle, in which eight pointed star: *

Reverse, counter-clockwise legend, between two circular lines:

على يدي على بن السفردي

At the hands of 'Alī b. al-Safradī

Center: image

Light green, translucent. 28, 4.18.

Unpublished.

Only the beginning and end of the name of al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl’s lieutenant is legible, so that the reading, although probable, is subject to caution. I could find no official responding to this or to a similar name in the literature, nor is there any indication as to the prefect.

The governor al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl entered office on 10 Ramaḍān 190 H. and was recalled on 12 Rabī 'II 192H. He is in al-Kindī, pp. 142-144, Zambaur p. 27, Wüstenfeld, pp. 24-25, and Wiet, Maqrīzī, pp. 124-125. For the interpretation of the prefect's name I am indebted to Prof. S. D. Goitein.

MĀLIK B. DALHAM

Governor and Finance Director:

22 Rabī' II 192-4 Ṣafar 193 H. / Feb. 24-Nov. 27, A.D. 808

Disk Weight

636. WUQIYYA, with 'ABD ALLĀH B. 'ĪSĀ.

About half of an oval disk weight.

Principal impression, 25:

(مما امر (به
(الامير (مالك
(بن دلهـ(ـم ا
(بقاه ا(لله

∆Λ

Among those things which or(dered) the amīr (Mālik) b. Dal(ham), may Allāh preser(ve him).

∆Λ

Executive stamp, impressed into the rim, 20:

على يدي
عبد الله
بن عيسى

image

At the hands of 'Abd Allāh b. 'Īsā.

Light green, barely translucent 37 × 49. Actual weight 17.90

Unpublished.

For the prefect 'Abd Allāh b. 'Īsā see also Cat. 643-645. According to the documents in this collection, he was perfect under Mālik b. Dalham and al-Ḥasan b. al-Baḥbāḥ, i.e. between 192 and 194 H.

The two figures in the last line of the principal stamp look like the Arabic numerals 58 (٥ ٨) but at this period there is no example of figures written in Arabic numerals on the glass. I believe them to be rather the Greek letters delta and lambda (∆Λ), standing for the initials of some unknown official or artisan in the dār al-'iyār.

637-638. DINAR.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما امر به الامير مالك بن دلهم ابقاه الله

Among those things which ordered the amīr Mālik b. Dalham, may Allāh preserve him.

Counter-clockwise internal legend:

مثقال دينر واف

Weight of dinar full weight.

Center (eight pointed star): *

637. Pale honey yellow, translucent. 28, 4.27.

638. Pale honey yellow, translucent. 25, broken.

Casanova, p. 381, No 43; Petrie 214; Launois, Cairo 244-246; Launois, C.d.M. 28-29; Fahmy 230-234; EAG. I. 106; Miles, "Corning" 44.

639. DINAR, with AL-ḤUSAYN B. JAMĪL and 'ALĪ B. AL-SAFRADĪ.

Counter-clockwise marginal legend:

مما امر به الامير مالك بن دلهم ابقاه الله

Among those things which ordered the amīr Mālik b. Dalham, may Allāh preserve him.

Counter-clockwise internal legend:

مثقال دينر واف

Weight of dinar, full weight.

Center: (eight pointed star): *

Reverse, counter-clockwise marginal legend in circular line:

امر الامير الحسين بن جميل

Ordered the amīr al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl.

Counter-clockwise internal legend in double circular line:

على يدي على بن سفردي

At the hands of 'Alī b. Safradī.

Internal circular line. Center: *

Light green, translucent. 21, 4.18.

Unpublished.

According to this document, the outgoing governor, al-Ḥusayn b. Jamīl, collaborated for a certain time with the newly appointed governor, Mālik b. Dalham. The prefect 'Alī b. Safradī is the same official as on Cat. 635; therefore, he must have been in office between 190 and 193 H.

CALIPH AL-AMĪN MUḤAMMAD

193-8 H. / A.D. 808-13

Ring Weight

640. RAṬL. Intact, but worn and a few small chips missing. Two identical oblong, 25 × 22, impressions, overlapping. The stamps may have been square, originally; the overlapping could easily cancel a narrow strip at the junction of the two stamps.

Identical legend on both stamps:

مما امر به
الامين

Among those things which ordered al-Amīn.