Excavation Coins from the Persepolis Region

Author
Miles, George Carpenter, 1904-1975
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works
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HathiTrust

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CC BY-NC

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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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IṢṬAKHR EXCAVATIONS

I. MACEDONIA—ALEXANDER THE GREAT (POSTHUMOUS)

1. Alexander III. Ca. 310–300 B.C. Susa. Bronze.

Head of Herakles, r., wearing elephant skin.

Nike standing, holding wreath. At l., head of horned horse; at r.,

AΛ;EΞANΔPOY

I–2–1564 Æ 17, 6.13.

Plate I

Cf. Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Macedonia, Part II (Copenhagen, 1943), no. 1065. For the horned horse symbol see E. T. Newell, The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints (ANS Numismatic Studies, No. 1, New York, 1938), pl. XXII.

II. PERSIS

Of the 15 coins of Persis ten (nos. 3–12) were found in one spot, GI 09, and form a definitely related group. The others were scattered finds. The chronological arrangement below is based largely on G. F. Hill's attributions in B. M. Arabia etc. Hill's preface, pp. clx–clxxxii, summarizes all the earlier literature and especially Col. Allotte de la Fuÿe's important article in Corolla Numismatica, pp. 63–97. References also are made to de Morgan and to de Morgan, Manuel. G. F. Hill's The Coinage of the Ancient Persians in Survey of Persian Art (1938), I, pp. 402–403, IV, pl. 126, is brief and does not illustrate or discuss specifically the types represented here.

2. Pakur, son of Oxathres? Ca. 1st c. A.D. Obol.

Bust of king, 1., bearded; thick back hair; wearing diadem, torque and robe.

Triskeles. Around, illegible inscription.

I–1–894 image 11, 0.35.

Plate I

Cf. B. M. Arabia etc., p. 229, no. 3, pl. XXXV, 3; de Morgan, p. 410, nos. 47, 48, pl. XXXII, 7, 8.

This coin belongs to Hill's Fourth Series, which he dates from the 1st century after Christ to about 224 A.D.; Oxathres is assigned by him to the 1st c. B.C. De Morgan (Manuel, p. 271) places Piruz I (= Pakur?) immediately after Oxathres (perhaps Gocithres of Isidore of Charax), and he dates the latter ca. 57–38 B.C.

3. Pakur? Ca. 1st c. A.D. Drachm.

Bust of king, 1., bearded; thick back hair; wearing diadem, torque and robe with fringe of vertical stripes. Behind head, legend: image

As obverse, but legend, if any, effaced.

I–1–911a image 25, 3.85.

Plate I

This type (and cf. nos. 4–14, below) appears to be unpublished. The closest parallel perhaps is B. M. Arabia etc., p. 229, no. 4, pl. XLVIII, 17. Cf. also de Morgan, pp. 410 to 411, nos. 49–50, pl. XXXII, 9–12, assigned to Piruz II, the second ruler after Oxathres (de Morgan, Manuel, p. 271). The inscription is undeciphered.

4-7. Pakur? Ca. 1st c. A.D. Hemidrachm.

Similar in style to no. 3, but of crude fabric, slightly scyphate, details obscure. No recognizable legends, except possible traces on no. 5.

I–1–911b, c, d, e image 22, 21, 21, 23; 1.60, 1.00, 1.60, 1.25.

Plate I

Cf. no. 3, above, and B. M. Arabia etc., p. 230, nos. 7–9, pl. XXXV, 5–6.

8-12. Pakur? Ca. 1st c. A.D. Obol.

Similar in style to nos. 4–7. No legends remain.

I–1–911f, g, h, i, j image 14, 14, 13, 14; 0.40, 0.50, 0.45, 0.70 (j is a small fragment).

Plate I

Cf. nos. 3–7, above, and B. M. Arabia etc., p. 230, nos. 10–11, pl. XXXV, 7–8.

13. Pakur? Ca. 1st c. A.D. Drachm.

In general similar to nos. 3–12, but of somewhat superior fabric and evidently a different issue. On both obverse and reverse, behind the head, traces of legend. In front of chin, both obverse and reverse, letter Δ or A. Note fringe of robe, similar to no. 3.

I–1–914 image 19, 3.25.

Plate I

14. Kapat or Napat? Ca. late 1st c. A.D. Obol.

Bust of king, l., bearded; wearing tiara with neck piece.

Crude bust, l., bearded; wearing diadem. Around, traces of legend or simulated legend.

I–2–1528 image 8.5, 0.38.

Plate I

Cf. B. M. Arabia etc., pp. 233–234, nos. 12–20 (hemidrachms), pl. XXXV, 20–25, and pl. XXXVI, 1–2 (obverse of the hemi-obol, p. 234, no. 21, pl. XXXVI, 3, is different); cf. also de Morgan, p. 412, pl. XXXIII, 1–13 (Napat, or de Morgan, Manuel, 4th king after Oxathres).

15. Uncertain. 1st or 2nd c. A.D. Hemidrachm?

Bust of king, l., with short beard; wearing tiara with 3 rows of pellets and symbol image; diadem, torque and robe; behind head, triskeles.

"Formal representation of a double diadem with ties" (B.M.); around, bottoms of letters of legend(?).

I–1–907 image 13, 1.20.

Plate I

Cf. B. M. Arabia etc., pp. 237–238, nos. 3–15, pl. XXXVI, 14–19, pl. XLVIII, 15; de Morgan, pp. 413–414, pl. XXXII, 22–26; de Morgan, Manuel, p. 284. These coins, related to the Kapat series, are attributed by de Morgan to "Prince Y," some time between ca. 38 B.C. and 200 A.D. De Morgan describes the reverse type as "figuration barbare du pyrée (?)."

16. Artaxerxes V of Persis = the Sasanian Artaxerxes I? Ca. 210–226 A.D.? Bronze.

Effaced.

Simple fire-altar with 2 steps, column, broad circular or rectangular basin, and flames. At r. and l., T-shaped stools or supports. Border of dots.

I–1–897 Æ 17, 2.00.

Plate I

Cf. de Morgan, pp. 418–419, pl. XXXIV, 24?; de Morgan, Manuel, p. 288, fig. 372.

III. ELYMAIS

17. Phraates, son of Orodes. Early 2nd c. A.D. Bronze. Obscure and largely effaced.

I–2–1894 Æ 14.

Cf. B. M. Arabia etc., type Ac, 2, p. 278, nos. 58ff., pl. XLI, 26.

18-19. Obscure and largely effaced bronze, possibly Elymais; no. 19 has facing bust.

I–2–1788a Æ 14.

1974a Æ 14, 2.16.

Plate I

IV. SASANIAN

20. Bahram III. Ca. 293 A.D. Dirhem.

Bust of king, r., wearing moustache, curly beard, hair in flowing curls; crown surmounted by globe (countermarked with monogram?); diadem, earring and necklace. Border of dots. Around (beginning at 11:30 o'clock and running counter-clockwise): image

Flaming altar with 3 plinths; ribbon, r. and l.; figure at either side facing altar, the one on l. wearing globe and holding sword(?), the one on r. wearing mural crown and holding staff. Legends: at r. image, at l. image Border of dots.

I–2–1549 image 26.

Plate I

It has been customary of late to follow Vasmer and Herzfeld 19 in attributing the rare coins with crowns of this type to Narseh (first type) and to accept the argument that Bahram III struck no coins at all. A recent publication, however,20 persuades me that the older attribution probably is correct, and I have therefore assigned the present specimen to Bahram III. One distinctive feature here is to be noticed: the streamers usually present at the base of the globe surmounting the crown21 are definitely lacking.

21. Khosrau I. Year 27 or 28 = 558 or 559 A.D. Nihāvand. Dirhem.

Usual type. Mint signature: image

I–1–105 image 29 (fragmentary).

Plate I

22. Khosrau II. 590–628 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Bronze.

Usual type of Khosrau II's silver, but in bronze. Reverse, at r.: image

I–1–243b Æ 16.

23. Khosrau II. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Bronze.

Resembles no. 22, but reverse, at r.: image

I–1–339 Æ 17.

Plate II

24-28. Khosrau II. Mints and dates, if any, not preserved. Bronze.

Obscure coins with portrait resemblance and fragments of name legend.

I–1–325, 370, 635, 882, 918 (11–18mm.).

29. Khosrau II (probably). Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Obscure and crude obverse and reverse resembling Khosrau II type. Reverse, at r., image. Obverse and reverse enclosed by double or triple beaded borders.

I–1–220 Æ 17.

30. Khosrau II (probably). Iṣṭakhr (?). Bronze.

Similar to no. 29, but mint signature obscure.

I–1–941 Æ 15.

Plate II

31-87. Unidentifiable Sasanian bronzes. 6th-early 7th c.

57 obscure and largely effaced coins, mostly not exceeding 17mm. in diameter.

See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

End Notes

19
R. Vasmer, "Sassanian Coins in the Hermitage," NC 1928, pp. 297–308; Ernst Herzfeld, Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran , IX, 2 (1938), p. 112; idem, Kushano-Sasanian Coins (Calcutta, 1930), p. 7; cf. K. Erdmann, "Die Entwicklung der Sāsānidischen Krone," Ars Islamica XV–XVI (1951), p. 98; Göbl, pp. 105–106. Paruck objected to this view (RN 1930, pp. 1–6), and so also evidently R. Ghirshman in a private communication to Göbl (op. cit., p. 106).
20
Samuel Eilenberg, "A Sasanian silver Medallion of Varhrān III," Ars Orientalis II (1957), pp. 487–488.
21
Cf. Paruck, pl. VIII, 161–164. Two specimens in Bartholomaei's collection (ibid., pl. V, 2 and 4) appear to lack these streamers, but one cannot tell whether they are actually lacking or whether the specimens were worn at this point and not visible to the plate engraver.

V. SASANIAN OR ARAB-SASANIAN

88-101. Unidentifiable Sasanian or Arab-Sasanian bronzes. 6th–7th c.

14 obscure and largely effaced coins showing traces of usual late Sasanian types; some with possible image mint signature, one (I–2–1785d) with possible image (Bishāpūr) mint signature. Diameters: 16–22mm.

See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

VI. ARAB-SASANIAN

A. SILVER
a) 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh
1. Ardashīr-Khurrah

102. 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh. 68 H. = 687/8 A.D. TART = Ardashīr-Khurrah. Dirhem.

Usual bust. At r., name: image Star l. and r. of crown. In margin: imageلله الحمد image

Usual fire-altar and attendants; star l., crescent r. At r., mint signature: image. At l., date: image

I–2–1732 image 31 (two sectors lacking).

Plate II

Unpublished, but cf. B. M. Arab-Sasanian , pp. 98–99, Ardashīr-Khurrah (normal spelling ART), 68, 69 and 70 H. Walker (B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. cxxx) suggests that TART is the same as ART, "with an added prefix of uncertain value." The provenance of the present specimen is a small piece of evidence in support of this reasonable attribution. To Walker's list of individuals issuing coins at this mint should now be added Qaṭari b. al-Fujā'ah (Miles, Museum Notes VII, p. 203, no. 42) and 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh. For some comment on the town of Ardashīr-Khurrah, see nos. 317–318, below.

2. Bishāpūr

103-107. 22 The same. 67 H. = 686/7 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 99, no. 194, but without countermarks and لله correct. Mint signature is Walker's no. 12b (which also B. M. no. 194 has, although the catalogue gives no. 12). Star l., crescent r. of flames.

I–1–928/1 image 31, 3.54.

Plate II

928/2 image 32, 3.47 (frg. lacking).

928/3 image 32, 3.27 (frg. lacking).

928/4 image 31, 3.50.

928/5 image 31, 2.20 (frgs. lacking).

108-108a. The same. 68 H. = 687/8 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 99, no. 195, but mint signature is no. 12b.

I–1–928/6 image 31, 3.38.

Plate II

928/7 image 33, 3.49.

Plate II

109-134. The same. 70 H. = 689/90 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 100, no. 198, but without countermarks. Mint signature no. 12b. Star l., crescent r. of flames.

I–1–928/8 image 31, 3.62.

Plate II

928/9 image 31, 3.50 (frg. lacking).

928/10 image 32, 2.28 (large frg. lacking).

928/11 image 30, 3.24 (frgs. lacking).

928/12 image 30, 3.32.

928/13 image 31, 3.80.

928/14 image 31, 3.40.

Plate II

I–1–928/15 image 31, 3.67.

Plate III

928/16 image 31, 3.61.

928/17 image 32, 3.18.

928/18 image 31, 3.59.

928/19 image 32, 3.27 (large frg. lacking).

928/20 image 31, 2.68 (frg. lacking).

928/21 image 30, 3.16 (frgs. lacking).

928/22 image 31, 3.30 (frgs. lacking).

928/23 image 32, 3.35 (frgs. lacking).

928/24 image 30, 2.27 (frg. lacking).

928/25 image 31, 3.02 (frg. lacking).

928/26 image 31, 3.41.

928/27 image 31, 3.35 (frg. lacking).

928/28 image 31, 3.54.

928/29 image 31, 3.43.

928/30 image 32, 3.57.

928/31 image 31, 3.55.

928/32 image 31, 3.77.

928/33 image 31, 3.47.

End Notes
22
The find-spot of nos. 103–134 has been described on p. 8.

B. BRONZE
1. Iṣṭakhr

135. 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr? Ca. 63–72 H. = ca. 682–692 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, r., of Khosrau II type. At r.: image Double beaded border. Only 1st quarter of margin preserved.

Usual fire-altar and attendants. At l.: coin lacking. At r.: image. Double beaded border. Only 1st quarter of margin preserved.

I–2–1790 Æ 27 (very fragmentary).

Plate III

This coin appears to be an issue in bronze of the dirhem type bearing 'Abdullāh's name accompanied by the Pahlevi equivalent of amīr al-mu'minīn.23

136. 'Ubaydullāh b. Ziyād. 6X H. = 679–687 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Similar to the dirhems of this governor. Date: image

I–2–1653 Æ 22.

Plate III

The British Museum has a bronze of 'Ubaydullāh b. Ziyād, also struck at Iṣṭakhr, date 59 H. (?).24 The flan of the latter specimen is somewhat larger, but the dies are of the same size as those with which the present coin was struck.

137. Al-Muhallab b. abi-Ṣufrah (?). Ca. 75–78 H. (?) = ca. 694–697 A.D. (?). Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, r., somewhat resembling that of Khosrau II. At l.: image. At r.: image MUHLUP (Muhallab?). Beaded border, interrupted by winged headdress. In margin: image at bottom and left (?). Traces of legend in 1st and 2nd quarters.

image

The space in the center may be occupied by a second line of inscription, or perhaps the coin should be turned 90 degrees and the center taken as an altar, without attendants.

I–2–1727 Æ 20.

Plate III

The attribution is uncertain, but the name almost certainly is MUHLU (or A) P. Cf. the dirhems of al-Muhallab b. abi-Ṣufrah in B. M. Arab-Sasanian , pp. 113–116.

138-141. Al-Muhallab b. abi-Ṣufrah (?). Ca. 75–78 H. (?) = ca. 694–697 A.D. (?). Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Facing bust, bearded, robed, wearing kūfiyah. At l.: image? At r.: image MUHALIP (- I). Beaded border.

Facing bust, wearing radiant or flaming headdress; ribbons, upward, at either side. At l.: (?) image (AFZUT?); at r.: image (ST). Beaded border.

I–1–149 Æ 16.

Plate III

885 Æ 17 (rev. effaced).

Plate III

I–2–1728 Æ 15.

Plate III

1735 Æ 17.

The best preserved obverse is I–2–1728; the reverse bust and especially the mint signature are well preserved on I–1–149; the obverse of I–1–885 is almost totally effaced.

These extraordinary coins are unpublished, but there is a certain amount of related or comparative material that it would be well to assemble here. The obverse bust bears a close resemblance to the head of the sword-girt Caliph on Arab-Byzantine coins.25 Admittedly the hair here appears to be uncovered, but doubtless, as with the Arab-Byzantine coins, the kūfiyah is intended.26 ybrid Arab-Byzantine-Sasanian coins are not unknown (see the publications of Unvala,27 Walker,28 and cf. no. 143, below), but this appears to be the first occurrence of a bust of this type.

As for the reverse, there can be no doubt that this bust is derived from that on certain coins of Khosrau II, the bust with the flaming nimbus which Herzfeld identified as that of the Xvarāsān Xvarrah (Khurāsān Khurrah), "gloria orientis,"29 and which also occurs on certain Hephthalite and related coins.30 A similar bust appears on some small bronze coins found in the French excavations at Shāpūr, which Ghirshman has attributed to Khosrau II, allegedly bearing the dates 16, 20 and 34.31 The obverse of these coins bears a bust with what appears to be a semi-conventional Sasanian headdress, but I should imagine that it is not out of the question that a close examination of better preserved specimens of this type might reveal some characteristics sug- gesting a post-Sasanian attribution. In any case it is interesting to note that there is at least a precedent, if not a parallel, for the use of the reverse bust with the flaming nimbus on small bronze coins found not far from Iṣṭakhr and undoubtedly of local origin. From the same site comes another remarkably interesting bronze,32 which Ghirshman attributes to Ziyād b. abi-Sufyān, bearing on the obverse a bust of Sasanian type but with a peculiar and distinctive headdress, and on the reverse a facing bust, "coiffée d'une haute tiare." The name Ziyād appears in Pahlevi on the obverse, and Ghirshman's supposition that this is Ziyād b. abi-Sufyān is doubtless correct. On the reverse there are two legends, which Ghirshman reads šaš panča (56) and "Bassorah?." In the plate I believe I can see SIHPNJA (53); but the mint signature I cannot read, unless perhaps it is BIŠ for Bishāpūr, which, in view of the fact that the coin is bronze and therefore in all probability of local origin, would be more likely than Baṣrah. If the date is indeed 53, it would well suit Ziyād, who struck dirhems at Bishāpūr in 50, 51, 52, 53 and 54.33 But irrespective of the legends the chief point of interest is the curious facing bust of the reverse which, as Ghirshman points out, doubtless derives from the type of the divinity with the flaming nimbus. Also probably of the same derivation are nos. 160–161, below.

One other bronze issue undoubtedly struck in Fārs and exhibiting an obverse certainly related to the reverse of the coins under discussion should be mentioned in this connection. Herzfeld 34 writes: "In Alt-Shīrāz sind kleine kupferne obolen gefunden, aus der Zeit Khusraus II oder seiner nachfolger, wo auf der Vs. ein roh gezeichneter männlicher kopf mit dem wie gesträubte haare aussehenden flammennimbus des feuergottes erscheint, mit beischrift Dārāb oder Dārāy, bei keiner geschichtlichen figur der zeit bekannter name; auf der Rs. ein menschenköpfiger buckelochse mit der krone Khusraus II, in ihrer letzten form, und beischrift āžāδ-bušaspān oder -būsaspān, der mittelpers. form des medischen gušnasp, gušasp, also wahrscheinlich ein satrapenname: Dārāb S. d. Āzādhbushasp, während die bilder den Feuergott Ādhur und das Gushnasp-feuer allegorisieren." I have seen photographs of the reverse of these coins, but not of the obverse. There is, of course, no evidence that this issue is to be dated after the Arab conquest, but at least we have here another example of the divinity with flaming headdress in south-west Persia.

142. 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. al-Ash'ath(?). Ca. 80–85 H. = ca. 699–704 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, r., resembling that of Khosrau II. At l., downward, in Kufic: [العز[ة لله At r., downward, in Kufic: منصور. Beaded border, interrupted by headdress.

image

Beaded border.

I–1–927 Æ 21.

Plate III

Similar to Allotte de la Fuÿe, p. 75, fig. 5 = Unvala, NC 1937, p. 294, no. 29 = B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 173. Unvala read "......dāt-pēroč i mansūr (?)," suggesting the name of a governor with that of his father and grandfather. The present specimen adds image for the first line and the mint name for the last; it confirms Manṣūr for the 4th, and suggests AUMR... for the 2nd. Unvala's "Dātpērōč, son of Manṣūr," certainly does not seem very likely.

It would appear to me that there is little doubt that this interesting coin is related to dirhems of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad struck at Bishāpūr in 81 H.,35 where the word manṣūr occurs both in Pahlevi and Kufic as it does here. I have therefore tentatively assigned the coin to this famous revolutionary. For other issues of his, see B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 117, nos. I.50 and Mar. 3.

143. 'Abd al-Raḥman b. Muḥammad b. al-Ash'ath(?). Ca. 80–85 H. = ca. 699–704 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, r., resembling that of Khosrau II. Legends at l. largely obliterated, probably image (GDH). At r., downward, in Pahlevi: ... image Margin: effaced except image at l. Dotted border, interrupted by winged head-dress.

Standing figure of Caliph, hands upraised in prayer. Sword in sheath diagonally across body, with handle at the figure's right. Hair arranged in curled locks at either side of head. At l., downward, in Pahlevi: image. At r., downward, in Pahlevi: image. Wide margin, blank. Figure and legends enclosed by dotted circle.

I–1–143 Æ 23, 3.58.

Plate III

Unfortunately the name on the obverse of this unpublished coin is incompletely preserved, but I propose to read it as MNSU [R]; therefore relating it to no. 142 and again suggesting Ibn al-Ash'ath as the issuer. The reverse is extraordinary but not without parallel: the standing figure of the Caliph "orans," in inspiration a Byzantine type, occurs on several Arab-Sasanian coins. In bronze we have a specimen struck at Susa (Shūsh), with a Pahlevi inscription on the obverse and a purely Arabic epigraphical reverse, which Unvala read, probably correctly, as بسم لله | سنة اربع|و ثمنين (i.e., 84 H.).36 In silver there are several specimens of Bishr b. Marwān with three standing figures on the reverse, the central one facing and with hands upraised.37 It is remarkable, however, that on neither of these types is the Caliph sword-girt as he is here: in the present specimen there is a closer affinity with the common standing Caliph Arab-Byzantine type and with the rare Arab-Sasanian imitations of the year 75 H.38 The headdress, however, is quite distinctive: the top of the head appears to be covered with a cap, while the side hair (or is it a part of the covering?) is arranged in large volutes or buns.

As for the reverse Pahlevi legends, the second letter of the mint signature is unfortunately largely missing where the surface of the coin has flaked off, but enough of it is preserved to indicate that probably without any doubt the letter is a T, and therefore the mint is Iṣṭakhr. The word at the left is identical with the word at the left of the "Pegasus" on a fals of Shūsh,39 which Unvala read farroxvīh, "bonheur, auspiciousness,"40 and is perhaps related to a word which occurs in the margin of several dirhems: 'Ubaydullāh b. Ziyād at Kirmān,41 and with a different ending, al-Muhallab b. abi-Ṣufrah at Ardashīr-Khurrah,42 and al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf at Bishāpūr.43

144. Unidentified governor. Ca. 60–90 H. = ca. 679–709 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, r., type of Khosrau II. At l.: image? At r.: image. Beaded border. In margin image preserved at r. In 2nd quarter:بسم الله.

Crude fire-altar and attendants. At l.: image ... At r.: image ... Beaded border. In margin image preserved at bottom.

I–2–1579 Æ 15.

Plate III

The only known governor whose name begins with "T" who struck dirhems of Arab-Sasanian type was Ṭalḥah b. 'Abdullāh; but I cannot recognize this name here.

145. Unidentified governor or anonymous. Ca. 60–90 H. = 679–709 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Crude bust, r., type of Khosrau II. No legends visible. Border of dots. In margin image preserved at r. and below.

Fire-altar with very crudely executed attendants at each side. At l.: image. At r.: ∵. Border of dots. In margin: image four times. In 1st quarter: image possibly for واف.

I–2–1596 Æ 19.

146-147. Unidentified governor or anonymous. Ca. 60–90 H. = ca. 679–709 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Traces of bust, r. (?). At l.: image? At r.: traces of Pahlevi legend. Single beaded border.

Possible fire-altar and attendants, obliterated by fragmentary state of coin and adhering bit of oxide. Above altar (?): image. At l., downward, .. image. At r.: image STKHR. Single beaded border.

I–1–63a Æ 17.

Plate III

166 Æ 17.

This issue is assigned to the Arab period for two reasons. The cross on the reverse doubtless came into the repertory of Arab-Sasanian coinage through the influence of the Arab-Byzantine. For parallels see Walker, Coins from Susa , and a specimen from Naqsh-i Rustam, no. 54, p. 101, below. The latter coin, as well as the present issue, exhibits another characteristic that indicates a post-conquest dating: the remarkable fact that the mint name is written out in full.

148-149. Anonymous. Ca. 80–100 H. = ca. 699–719 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Bust, l., resembling that of Khosrau II; crown extends into margin and interrupts border. At l., downward and retrograde, in Pahlevi: image (for image RVBAK = ravāk, "current"). No legend at r.? Linear border.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

image

Beaded border.

I–2–1578 Æ 21.

Plate III

1991 Æ 18.

Plate III

No. 149 shows traces only of the obverse legend, and the mint signature on the reverse is effaced. It will be noted that the entire obverse is retrograde (not only the Pahlevi legend), for the bust faces left, the opposite of the universal Sasanian numismatic custom. For the word ravāk, see NHR, p. 11, and for other occurrences cf. Unvala, NC 1937, passim, and Walker, Coins from Susa , pp. 236, 240 and 241. I have extended the probable terminal date of these issues to 100 H. because of the developed reverse post-reform legends.

150. Anonymous. Ca. 80–110 H. = ca. 699–729 A.D. Iṣṭakhr? Bronze.

Obscure bust? No legend preserved.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

..... شريك

.....

I–1–938a Æ 20.

This very badly preserved and obscure coin is attributed to Iṣṭakhr by analogy with no. 148.

End Notes
23
Cf. B. M. Arab-Sasanian , pp. 33 ff. Note that there are Iṣṭakhr dirhems of 63 (?) — there are two probably of this date in the Yale University collection — and 66 H.
24
B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 73, no. 108.
25
B. M. Arab-Byzantine>, pp. 22–43, plates VI–VIII. Walker dates those without the Caliph's name or title to ca. 670–685 (50–66 H.), those with titles to ca. 670–690 (50–71 H.), those with 'Abd al-Malik's name to 685 to 705 (65–86 H.).
26
See ibid., pp. xxx, lxx and civ.
27
NC 1937.
28
Walker, Coins from Susa , pp. 238–242; Walker, Bishāpūr , p. 188 (no. XI); B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 25; NC 1952, p. 110, no. 4.
29
Ernst Herzfeld, Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran , IX (1938), pp. 147–158; cf. also idem, Iran in the Ancient East (London and New York, 1941), pp. 330–331.
30
The literature on these Sasanian and Hephthalite coins with the goddess of the flaming nimbus is considerable: see especially the references in Herzfeld's article referred to above; J. Walker in NC 1935, pp. 242–245 (wherein most of the earlier literature is cited); R. B. Whitehead, "Multan: the House of Gold," NC 1937, pp. 60–72; R. Ghirshman, Les Chionites-Hephtalites (Paris, 1948), pp. 41–49; cf. J. M. Unvala, "Hepthalite coins with Pahlevi Legends," Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, IV (1942), pp. 37 ff.
31
R. Ghirshman, "Une monnaie de Zyad I. Abu Sofian [sic], Gouverneur du Fars," in Mélanges Syriens offerts à Monsieur René Dussaud, II (Paris, 1939), pp. 697–701, fig. 2. There were apparently four of these coins. On the one illustrated the date is not legible (to me at least). Several corrections should be made in this article: among others, read abi for Abu throughout; on line 2 of p. 698, read abīhi; in footnote 1, p. 699, read 242 for 192.
32
Loc. cit., fig. 1.
33
See B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. xliv. Ghirshman, op. cit., p. 698, did not have at his command all the data regarding Ziyād's coins and the probable date of his death.
34
Op. cit., p. 147, footnote 2.
35
Miles, Museum Notes VII, nos. 44–45.
36
Cabinet des Médailles; see Unvala, NC 1937, p. 288, no. 10 = B. M. Arab-Byzantine , p. 83, fig. 17. Another specimen is in the Teheran Museum (Walker, Coins from Susa , p. 240, no. 7 = B. M. Arab-Byzantine , p. 83, no. Teh. 4).
37
Walker, NC 1952, pp. 106–107, nos. 1 and 2; Miles, Museum Notes VII, pp. 201–202, no. 40.
38
B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 25, and Walker, NC 1952, p. 110, no. 4; cf. Miles, Miḥrāb and 'Anazah , p. 171, pl. XXVIII, no. 5.
39
Unvala, NC 1937, p. 292, no. 21.
40
Cf. H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi (Uppsala, 1928–1931), I, p. 58, line 5, II, p. 71, frāχuīh, "Gedeihen, Wohlstand, Glück, Segen."
41
B. M. Arab-Sasanian , p. 66, no. 97.
42
Ibid., p. 113, no. ANS. 15, and p. 116, no. ANS. 16.
43
Ibid., p. 119, no. Th. 16.

2. Uncertain Mints

151-152. Uncertain governor. Ca. 60–80 H. = 679–699 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Similar to the usual Arab-Sasanian dirhems, mint and date effaced. سم الله[,] in obverse margin.

I–1–511 Æ (disintegrated).

909 Æ 27 (fragmentary).

153. Anonymous. Ca. 60–80 H. = 679–699 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Bust r., resembling that of Khosrau II. At l.: image At r.: image. Double beaded border. In margin: at bottom image. Traces at r.

Traces of fire-altar and attendants? Single beaded border. Possible image in margin, 2nd quarter.

I–2–1919 Æ 21.

Plate III

154. Al-Muhallab b. abi-Ṣufrah (?). Ca. 75–78 H. (?) = ca. 694–697 A.D. (?). No mint name? Bronze.

Crude bust, r., of type of Khosrau II, but lacking winged crown. At r., downward, in Pahlevi: image Beaded border.

Crude, squat fire-altar and attendants. Evidently no legends. Beaded border. In margin: pellet (?) at top and r. preserved.

I–1–193 Æ 16.

Plate III

The attribution is very uncertain and is suggested only on the basis of a possible reading of the name on the obverse as "Muhallab." Cf. nos. 138–141, above.

155. The Caliph al-Walīd I (?). 86–96 H. = 705–715 A.D. No mint name. Bronze.

Very crude bust of Sasanian style, r. Type of head-dress (or crown?) indeterminate. At l., downward, in Kufic: الوليد. At r., downward: image. Double beaded border.

لا اله

الا الله

وحده

Triple beaded border.

I–1–281 Æ 21.

Plate III

156. The same.

Similar to no. 155, but at 1.: .....الو. At r.: image.

I–2–1542 Æ 17.

Plate IV

157-158. The same.

Probably similar to no. 155, but fragmentary and largely obliterated.

I–1–322 Æ 20.

Plate IV

910 Æ 21.

159. The same.

Similar to no. 155, but headdress consists of a simple rounded cap or turban. At l., downward, in Kufic: الوليد. At r., downward: image (?).

I–2–1948 Æ 19.

Plate IV

I have attributed these remarkable and hitherto unpublished coins (nos. 155–159) to the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd on several grounds. The style, hybrid Sasanian and post-reform Umayyad, would suit al-Walīd's dates.44 No governor or revolutionary by this name in Persia at this time is known. The headdress of no. 159 suggests the possibility that the die-engraver is attempting to represent the Caliph.45 The inscription to the right of the bust is very puzzling. Is it in Kufic or in Pahlevi? On no. 155 it might be an attempt at Kufic, but on no. 156, where the end of the legend appears to be different, it looks more like Pahlevi. On no. 159 it again looks more like Kufic. With great reserve I suggest the possibility that the die-engraver was trying to write amīr al-mu'minīn in abbreviated form.

160-161. Uncertain governor. Ca. 50–80 H. = ca. 670 to 699 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Bust, r. Crown consists of 5–7 coils, tapering to a point at top. Small wings at r. and 1. of center of crown. Legends effaced. Single beaded border.

Traces of fire-altar and attendants. Single beaded border.

I–1–81 Æ 19.

Plate IV

I–2–1795b Æ 14+ (fragmentary).

Plate IV

This type might be pre-Arab, but the curious bust and headdress suggest another Arab experiment of the same general nature as that on the reverse of the coin of Ziyād b. abi-Sufyān from the Shāpūr excavations, discussed under nos. 138–141, above.

162. Anonymous, or uncertain governor. Ca. 50–80 H. = 670–699 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Very crude bust, r., with simple rounded headdress, no wings. Three streamers behind neck. At l.: image? At r.: image? Single beaded border.

Traces of facing bust with simple headdress. Lower part of bust obliterated by a lump of oxidization. Traces of legends in Pahlevi, r. and 1.? Single beaded border.

I–2–1793a Æ 17.

Plate IV

Here again the unusual busts indicate an Arab-Sasanian dating.

163. Yazīd b. .......? Ca. 60–80 H. = ca. 679–699 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Very crude facing bust(?), bearded. At l., downward, in Kufic: زيد... (?). At r., downward, in Pahlevi (?):image. Beaded border.

3-line inscription in Pahlevi: image

Beaded border.

I–2–1535a Æ 25 (roughly rectangular).

Plate IV

The figure on the obverse when inverted appears to present a fern-like plant in a pot; but the direction of the apparently Kufic legend at the left and the apparently Pahlevi legend at the right suggests that the figure is rather a crude bearded bust, as described.

164. Uncertain governor. Ca. 60–85 H. = ca. 679–704 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.46

Winged horse, walking to r. Above: image? Beneath: image. Beaded border.

Largely obliterated, probably fire-altar and attendants, with legends r. and 1. Beaded border.

I–1–321 Æ 25.

Plate IV

It is just possible that the inscription on the obverse is to be read MNSUR, in which case the coin may be related to those which I have tentatively assigned to 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. al-Ash'ath (cf. nos. 142–143, above). On the other hand, if this hesitantly proposed reading is incorrect the coin may well not be Arab-Sasanian at all, as there is nothing else in the preserved epigraphy to distinguish it from a straight Sasanian issue; in which case the specimen should be dated considerably earlier. But a comparable type, in all probability of Arab date, supports the post-conquest attribution. Among the coins found by the French Mission at Susa was one with a similar "Pegasus" on the obverse, accompanied by Pahlevi legends which Mr. Unvala read farroxvīh (cf. no. 143, above) and pēročīh, "victoire."47 The reverse, however, bears a four-line Pahlevi legend giving the name of the governor (?), the word framūt (the equivalent of the Arabic 'amara) and Šūš rowāk, i.e., "current in Susa." The latter phrase definitely indicates a date within the Arab period.48 A similar specimen found at Persepolis is in the Cabinet des Médailles.49 Two other "Pegasus" specimens, one of them bearing the mint signature BIŠ (Bishāpūr), from the excavations at Bishāpūr, have been described but not illustrated.50 As Unvala remarks, "Le Pégase est sans doute emprunté aux cachets sassanides, sur lesquels il figure très souvent. Pourtant il est très probable qu'il représente sur ces monnaies musulmanes le Boraq du Prophète."51

165-166. Uncertain governor. Ca. 60–85 H. = ca. 679 to 704 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Bust, r., with winged headdress of type of Khosrau II. Traces of legend at r. Double beaded border interrupted by headdress.

Traces of 3-line Arabic(?) legend. Triple beaded border.

I–2–1526a Æ 15.

Plate IV

1835 Æ 16.

167-171. Uncertain governors. Ca. 60–85 H. = ca. 679 to 704 A.D. Mints effaced. Bronze.

Five specimens with obverses bearing bust with Khosrau II type headdress and reverse of fire-altar and attendants type. Legends effaced. Fabric suggests Arab-Sasanian attributions.

I–2–1755, 1772e, 1785a (Plate IV), 1786 (Plate IV), 1793b (Plate IV) Æ 14–20 mm.

172. Anonymous? Ca. 80–100 H. = ca. 699–719 A.D. Uncertain mint. Bronze.

Traces of a fern or tree(?) in a square.

Very crude characters:

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: traces of large lettering, between inner dotted and outer linear border.

I–2–1520/56 Æ 20.

Plate IV

End Notes
44
To be sure, there are hybrids of this sort at a slightly later date: cf. NR no. 55, p. 102, below.
45
See my observations in Miḥrāb and 'Anazah , pp. 169–170, with reference to the headdress of the figure on a remarkable transitional dirhem.
46
The existence of this specimen was mentioned by Unvala, NC 1937, pp. 281, 283.
47
Unvala, NC 1937, p. 292, no. 21.
48
Cf. nos. 148–149, above, and the comment there.
49
Unvala, NC 1937, p. 281 and p. 292, no. 22.
50
Walker, Bishāpūr , p. 188, nos. XII–XIII.
51
Unvala, NC 1937, p. 283.

3. No Mint Name

173-175. Anonymous. Ca. 90–120 H. = ca. 708–738 A.D. No mint name. Bronze.

لا اله

الا الله

وحده

Double linear border.

image

محمد

رسول

الله

Double linear border.

I–1–150 Æ 18.

Plate IV

626 Æ 19.

Plate IV

I–2–1940 Æ 16.

Plate IV

This type bears conventional post-reform Arabic legends with the addition of the Pahlevi word AFD, "excellent," above the reverse area. The occurrence of isolated Pahlevi words on late Umayyad coins from Persian mints is not uncommon.52

VII. BYZANTINE

176. Tiberius II. Year 7 = 581 A.D. Antioch. Follis.

Similar to B. M. Cat. Imp. Byz. Coins, I, p. 117, no. 98; obverse effaced.

I–1–245 Æ 29, 8.80.

Plate V

177. Heraclius. Ca. 610–613 A.D. Constantinople. Solidus.

Similar to B. M. Cat. Imp. Byz. Coins, I, p. 185, nos. 3–7.

I–2–249 Ꜹ 21, 4.38 (suspension ring).

Plate V

The fact that the coin is ringed for suspension as jewelry suggests that it is an intrusion from a considerably later date. The excavation plot record, incidentally, notes that the coin came from refuse in HE 02, and described the findspot as a "mouse hole."

End Notes

52
Cf. NHR, pp. 11–12; Unvala, NC 1937, pp. 293–296.

VIII. POST-REFORM UMAYYAD

A. Iṣṭakhr

178. Anonymous. 104 H. = 722/3 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

امر الله

بالوفا

والعدل

Double beaded border with annulets between.

بسم الله

ضرب هذا

الفلس .. صطخر

سنة اربع ومـ ...

Linear border.

I–1–252a Æ 20.

Plate V

179. Similar to no. 178, but ∵ beneath obverse area.

I–2–1520/62 Æ 20.

Plate V

180-184. Salm b. al-Musayyib. Ca. 129 H. = 746/7 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله

الا الله

وحده

Margin: بسم الله مما امر به الامير سلم بن

المسيب باصطخر

Margin enclosed by linear borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

Triple linear border.

I–1–100 Æ 19.

114 Æ 19.

Plate V

170 Æ 20.

242 Æ 19.

242a Æ 19.

Plate V

These unpublished coins are interesting in that they fix the correct name of Salm b. al-Musayyib, 'āmil or prefect of Shīrāz on behalf of 'Abdullāh b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Azīz (governor of Baṣrah and Kūfah) in 129 H. Ṭabari refers to him as Muslim b. al-Musayyib,53 and again in another connection he calls him Muslim when speaking of his house in Kūfah; 54 but in two other passages he refers to the same house (dār al-mukhtār) as being the one "now known" (at the time of his primary witness) as that of Salm b. al-Musayyib.55 It is therefore clear that Salm and Muslim are the same person, and our coins establish the fact that Salm is the correct name. Also of interest is the small detail that the 'āmil in Shīrāz was at this time the administrative official of Iṣṭakhr.

185-189. Anonymous. 130 H. = 747/8 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

حـ

Triple linear border; four pairs of annulets; outer thick linear border.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس

باصطخر سنة ثلثين و مئة

Margin between linear or beaded borders, broken by four pairs of annulets.

I–1–407 Æ 22, 1.90+.

654 Æ 20, 1.86+.

I–2–1527 Æ 20.

Plate V

1804 Æ 20.

Plate V

1838b Æ 21.

Plate V

B. Sābūr

190. Anonymous. 81 H. (?) = 700/01 A.D. (?). Sābūr (?). Dirhem.

(sic) لا اله لا

(sic) الله وحد

لا شريك له

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم

سابور (؟) سنة احدي (؟) و ثمنين (؟)

Conventional legends.

I–1–903 image 26, 1.90.

Plate V

The obverse is very crude and almost illegible; the attribution is therefore doubtful. The coin appears to be the product of a provincial and inexperienced die-cutter. Dirhems of Sābūr of the same date with the digit spelled وحد are known.56

191-192. Anonymous. Date if any effaced, ca. 100–132 H. = ca. 718–750 A.D. Sābūr. Fals.

امر الله با

لوفا و العدل

∴بركة

Margin: traces of legend. Margin enclosed by linear borders.

محمد ر

سول الله

∴سابور

Double or triple linear border.

I–2–1739 Æ 19.

Plate V

1803 Æ 20.

Plate V

Cf. Walker, Bishāpūr , p. 189, no. XIV, which is probably the same as these, although both the drawing and the description of the specimen from Bishāpūr indicate that the obverse has no marginal legend, while here it is clear that one was present. Also Walker reads الوفا instead of the usual بالوفا, but I would not say that on the present specimen this is the case. Walker's drawing shows the pyramids of pellets inverted and also a pyramid of pellets above the reverse; on the present specimen this part of the coin is damaged.

End Notes
53
Ṭabari II, p. 1977: مسلم بن المسيّب و هو بشيراز عامل لابن عمر Cf. Zambaur, p. 46.
54
Ibid. II, p. 237.
55
Ibid. II, pp. 520, 533.
56
B. M. Arab-Byzantine , p. 156, no. P.83.

C. Shīrāz

193. Anonymous. 130 H. = 747/8 A.D. Shīrāz. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Triple beaded border, uncertain number of annulets.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب بشيراز سنة ثلثين و مئة

Linear border between area and margin; outer double beaded border. Uncertain number of annulets.

I–2–1954 Æ 22. Plate V

This unique coin is of uncommon interest. Not only is it the first known Umayyad issue bearing the mint name Shīrāz, but, so far as I know, it antedates by 140 years the earliest hitherto recorded coin of this mint (designated by this name), a dirhem of the Abu-Dulafid Aḥmad b. 'Abd al-'Azīz. 57 Another unpublished issue of Shīrāz from the excavations is dated 192 (see nos. 522–552, below); and a few years after this latter date the mint becomes active under the name of Fārs (or Fāris), the name of the province of which Shīrāz was the capital.58 Theoretically Shīrāz was founded by the Arabs on the site of their encampment at the time of the investment of Iṣṭakhr,59 but in all probability the locality had been occupied by the Sasanians before the conquest.60 However, the relatively late date of the commencement of the mint's activity would suggest that the town, if it existed, was not of administrative importance in the early 7th century.

End Notes
57
C. J. Tornberg, Numi Cufici (Uppsala, 1848), p. 98, no. 416.
58
In 203 H.; see the summary of the activities of the Fārs mint in G. C. Miles, "A Ninth Century Hoard of Dirhems found at Susa," in a volume of the Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse, now in press.
59
Le Strange, p. 249.
60
Cl. Huart, s.v. Shīrāz in EI.

D. Wāsiṭ

194. Anonymous. 93 H. = 711/12 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Byzantine, p. 193, no. 536.

I–2–1742b image 26. Plate V

195. Anonymous. 114 H. = 732/3 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Byzantine, p. 196, no. 562.

I–2–1751 image 27 (fragmentary). Plate V

196-197. Anonymous. 116 H. = 734/5 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

Five annulets ʘ between inner double beaded and outer linear borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بواسط سنة ست عشرة و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1518 Æ 21. Plate VI

1619 Æ 21.

Cf. Berlin, no. 2047, and Paris, no. 1520, with 3 annulets (Welin, Wāsiṭ, p. 154).

198. Anonymous. 121 H. = 738/9 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Byzantine, p. 198, no. 571.

I–2–1725 image 26. Plate VI

199-200. Anonymous? 124 H. = 741/2 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Fals.

Effaced.

Double linear border, 2 annulets.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب ... الفلس بواسط سنة اربع و عشرين و مئة

Margin between inner linear border and outer border consisting of inner thin and outer thick circles, with 5 (?) annulets.

I–1–117 Æ 21, 270+. Plate VI

I–2–1968 Æ 20. Plate VI

This appears to be unpublished; at least there is no specimen in the principal catalogues, nor in Welin, Wāsiṭ. Cf. NR no. 58, p. 103, below, with obverse preserved.

201. Anonymous? 126 H. = 743/4 A.D. Wāsiṭ (?). Fals.

Effaced.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: ... بسم الله ضرب هذا ... بواسط (؟) ... ست و عشرين ومئة

I–2–1651a Æ 20.

If the mint name is correctly read this issue also appears to be unpublished.

E. No Mint Name

202-229. Anonymous. No date. Ca. 90–120 H. = ca. 708–738 A.D. No mint name. Fals.

لا اله

الا الله

وحده

Single linear, single beaded or double beaded borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

Borders as obverse.

Diameters range between 19 and 21mm.

I–1–168 (Plate VI), 230, 295, 319, 394, 575, 660, 886 (Plate VI), 890, 916.

I–2–1575 (Plate VI), 1594 (Plate VI), 1736b, 1738b, 1753, 1765 (Plate VI), 1769c, 1777, 1782 (Plate VI), 1805a, 1810 (Plate VI), 1812, 1854, 1859a, 1876c, 1906, 1965a, 1980b.

Most of these are doubtless from Iṣṭakhr and nearby mints in Fārs.

230. Anonymous. No date. Ca. 90–120 H. = ca. 708–738 A.D. No mint name. Fals.

Similar to nos. 202–229, but obverse:

لا اله ا

لا الله

وحده

I–2–1547a Æ 20. Plate VI

231-235. Anonymous. No date. Ca. 90–120 H. = ca. 708–738 A.D. No mint name. Fals.

Obverse as nos. 202–229.

Beaded border.

جائز

محمد

رسول

الله

Beaded border.

I–2–1536b Æ 18. Plate VI

1808b Æ 19. Plate VI

1841 Æ 18.

1970 Æ 17.

1973b Æ 18. Plate VI

The word جائز, "current," occurs on many Umayyad and 'Abbāsid fulūs, beginning with the earliest Arab-Byzantine bronze;61 and also as a countermark on at least one Arab-Sasanian dirhem.62

End Notes
61
See B. M. Arab-Byzantine, index.
62
B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 96, no. 192.

F. Mint Effaced

236. Mint and date, if any, effaced. Ca. 90–132 H. = ca. 708–750 A.D. Fals.

.......

لوفا و[العـ]ـدل

برك[ـة]ـ

Traces of marginal legend between beaded borders.

Effaced.

Triple beaded border.

I–2–1934 Æ 21.

237-255. Unidentifiable post-reform Umayyad bronze coins. Ca. 80–132 H. = ca. 699–750 A.D. Fulūs.

See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

IX. 'ABBĀSID PARTISANS

256-257. Abu-Muslim. Date effaced. Ca. 127–132 H. = ca. 744–750 A.D. Mint effaced. Fals.

لا اله

الا الله

وحده

Margin: كم عليه اجرا الا...

..... المودة القر

(Qur'ān XLII, 22)

Margin between linear borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin:..... ابو مسـ ....

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1935 Æ 22. Plate VII

1938 Æ 20, 1.93. Plate VII

For a discussion of these and related revolutionary coins struck at various mints in both western Persia and Khurāsān, see NHR, pp. 15–17, and the literature cited there; and Dominique Sourdel, Inventaire des monnaies musulmanes anciennes du Musée de Caboul (Damascus, 1953), pp. 5–9, publishing a Khārijite issue of Tanbūk (?), 133 H. Among other things Sourdel makes a proper distinction between Khārijite and 'Abbāsid partisan issues, which I had confused in NHR.

Cf. also no. 504, below.

X. UMAYYAD OR 'ABBĀSID

258-315. Unidentifiable post-reform Umayyad or early 'Abbāsid bronze coins. Ca. 80–140 H. = ca. 699–758 A.D.Fulūs. See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

XI. 'ABBĀSID

A. Arrajān

316. Uncertain governor. 180 or 18x H. = 796/7 or 797–805 A.D. Arrajān. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بارجان[سنة] ... (؟) ثمنين و مئة

Outer linear border.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: مما امر به الامير محمد و ... على يدي ....ـ

Margin between beaded borders.

I–2–1780d Æ 22, 4.05. Plate VII

It is just possible that the letterو precedes the decade of the date, in which case there is also a digit, but there is very little space for it.

The earliest recorded coin of Arrajān, so far as I know, is a dirhem of the year 187 H.63 The town was the capital of the district of the same name, the westernmost of the five kūrahs of Fārs.

End Notes
63
P. Casanova, Inventaire sommaire de la collection des monnaies musulmanes de S. A. la Princesse Ismaīl (Paris, 1896), no. 437.

B. Ardashīr-Khurrah

317-318. Ismā'īl b. 'Ali. 145 H. = 762/3 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس باردشير خرة سنة خمس و اربعين و مئة

Outer linear border.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: مما امر به الامير اسمعيل بن على اكرمه الله

Outer linear border.

I–2–1693f Æ 21, 2.61+. Plate VII

1731f Æ 22, 2.84+. Plate VII

The style of lettering resembles that of contemporary dinars.

Ismā'īl b. 'Ali served in various capacities in Persia and 'Irāq: governor of Fārs in 132, prefect of al-Ahwāz in 133, of Mosul in the same year and in 134, 135 and 138, of al-Baṣrah in 143, and again governor of Fārs in 145, the year in which these coins were struck.64 Other coins of his were issued in the latter year at Iṣṭakhr (see nos. 364–369, below); and we know of still other fulūs of his struck at al-Baṣrah in 143,65 and without mint name or date.66

Ardashīr-Khurrah was both the name of one of the five kūrahs of Fārs and of the chief town of the district (before Shīrāz became the capital), originally known as Fīrūzābād, then as Jūr (Persian Gōr) and again, from Būyid times onward, as Fīrūzābād.67 Designated by the Pahlevi mint signature ART it was an active mint in Arab-Sasanian times,68 and post-reform dirhems were struck here from 80 until

99 H.69 The present coins appear to be the first published bronze issue of the mint. There is, however, an unpublished fals of the year 134 in the Museum of the American Numismatic Society. For other issues of Ardashīr-Khurrah, in some instances specifically named Jūr, see nos. 319–336, below; and re-named Kūrat al-Mahdīyah min Fārs, no. 581–609.

319-322. The Caliph al-Mahdi and Rabī'. 167 H. = 783/4 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

*

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس باردشير خرة سنة سبع و ستين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

○○○

الخليفة

المهدي محمد

امير المؤمنين

ربيع

Beaded border. The three annulets at the top of the area may actually belong to the marginal border.

I–1–364 Æ 17, 1.73+.

I–2–1543 Æ 17. Plate VII

1783 Æ 17. Plate VII

1799 Æ 17, 1.71+. Plate VII

323. Similar to nos. 319–322, but obverse:

الا

لا اله

الله وحده لا

etc.

I–2–1561 Æ 17. Plate VII

Rabī' (beneath the reverse area) is doubtless abu'-Faḍl al-Rabī' b. Yūnus b. 'Abdullāh, a public servant who filled various offices under four Caliphs. He was appointed ḥājib and later vizier by al-Manṣūr; and during al-Mahdi's reign he again performed both these functions.70 Our coins would establish the fact that he was vizier in 167 H. Cf. also nos. 391–477, below, where al-Rabī''s name occurs on coins of Iṣṭakhr of the same date.

324-325. Similar to nos. 319–322, but:

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

جور

Reverse has chain border.

I–2–1589 Æ 18, 1.69. Plate VII

1729b Æ 16. Plate VII

326. Similar to nos. 324–325, but the reverse retrograde.

I–2–1975 Æ 17. Plate VII

Of particular interest is the occurrence of the name Jūr (see above, p. 53) beneath the obverse. The implication would be that the name Ardashīr-Khurrah in the margin was taken to mean the district,71 and that on these coins the specific mint is named. Six years earlier the name Jūr occurs on some coins bearing the district name Kūrat al-Mahdiyah min Fārs (nos. 581–609, below), but otherwise the mint name is unknown to Islamic numismatics.

327-336. Muḥammad [b. Yaḥyâ] Barmaki. 182 H. = 798/9 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

محمد

محمد

رسول

الله

برمكي

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس باردشير خرة سنة اثنتين و ثمنين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

Margin: Qur'ān, IX, 33.

Margin between linear borders.

I–1–895 Æ 19, 2.38.

I–2–1520/35 Æ 19, 2.20.

1520/50 Æ 20, 2.24. Plate VII

1639 Æ 19, 2.39.

1641c Æ 18.

1661 Æ 17. Plate VII

I–2–1673b Æ 19. Plate VII

1762b Æ 19. Plate VII

1864c Æ 19, 1.94+. Plate VII

1989a Æ 19. Plate VII

It is evident that the words beneath the obverse and reverse areas are to be read together, because on coins of Iṣṭakhr and Fasā struck in the same year (nos. 478–489 and 562–580, below), the name Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ is written out in full in the margin together with "Barmaki" beneath the reverse. The governor therefore must be Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ b. Khālid the Barmacide, who was ḥājib at the court until 179 H.72 Other coins of his were struck in 183 H. at Sābūr (see nos. 510–519, below). This Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ was of course a different individual from the man by the same name (but whose ancestor was al-Ḥārith b. Shakhīr) who governed al-Rayy in 179 and 180.73

This is the only bronze issue of Ardashīr-Khurrah of which there has been a previous publication.74

337-338. Anonymous. ix5 H. = ca. 775–800 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

محمد رسول

الله صلى الله

عليه و سلم

Margin: هذا لفلس باردشير........

........خرة سنة خمس و

Outer border consisting of 5 (?) annulets between linear circles.

Margin: Qur'an IX, 33.

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1678 Æ 17. Plate VII

1955 Æ 16.

339. Uncertain governor. Date effaced. Ca. 132–160 H. = ca. 750–777 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah. Fals.

Effaced.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس

باردشير خرة.....ـ

I–2–1590 Æ 20.

End Notes
64
Ṭabari III, pp. 72–75, 81, 84, 123, 142, 301.
65
Paris, no. 1560.
66
Paris, nos. 1648–9; Berlin, nos. 2243–6.
67
Le Strange, pp. 255–256; Cl. Huart, s.v. Fīrūz-Ābād in EI.
68
B. M. Arab-Sasanian, pp. cviii–cix, etc.
69
B. M. Arab-Byzantine, pp. 107–109.
70
References to all the pertinent literature are given by A. S. Atiya in EI, s.v. al-Rabī'. Zambaur (Manuel, p. 6) gives the date of his second vizirate as ca. 166, although Atiya says he never was vizier under al-Mahdi.
71
Cf. other names of provinces or districts on Umayyad and early 'Abbāsid coins, such as Adharbayjān, Arrān, Irmīnīyah (Armenia), Sijistān, Ṭabaristān, Filāsṭīn, etc.
72
W. Barthold, s.v. Barmakides, EI; cf. Zambaur, p. 10.
73
Ṭabari III, p. 645; cf. NHR, pp. 67–68.
74
Tiesenhausen, no. 1336. The word beneath the reverse was not legible on this specimen, but doubtless the issue is the same.

C. Iṣṭakhr

340-343. The Caliph [abu'l-'Abbās] 'Abdullāh [al-Ṣaffāḥ]. 133 H. = 750/I A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: مما امر به عبد الله عبد الله امير المؤمنين اكرمه الله

Margin between linear borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة ثلث و ثلثين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1544a Æ 21. Plate VIII

1652 Æ 20.

1897 Æ 19.

1998 Æ 20, 1.75 +. Plate VIII

344-363. The Caliph 'Abdullāh [al-Manṣūr]. 140 H. = 757/8 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

مما امر به

عبد الله عبد

الله امير المؤمنين

الوفا

Border consists of 3 annulets ⊙ alternating with • •, between linear circles.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة اربعين و مئة جائز

Margin between linear or beaded circles, the outer of which interrupted by 5 annulets ◯.

I–1–63 Æ 18.

276 Æ 20, 2.28 +.

312a Æ 18, 1.40 +.

893 Æ 19,1.83 +.

906 Æ 20, 1.57 +. Plate VIII

I–2–1558 Æ 17. Plate VIII

1591 Æ 17.

1593 Æ 16.

1598 Æ 20.

1603a Æ 21. Plate VIII

I–2–1627a Æ 18.

1706 Æ 18.

1836b Æ 18.

1843 Æ 20. Plate VIII

1870 Æ 19. Plate VIII

1879d Æ 19.

1881c Æ 17.

1941 Æ 18.

1959 Æ 19.

1962a Æ 18.

A specimen of this issue was published by Soret in 1854.75 Note جائز at the end of the marginal legend.76

364-368. Ismā'īl b. 'Ali. 145 H. = 762/3 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

Margin: مما امر به الامير اسمعيل بن على اصلحه الله

Margin between linear borders, the outer one interrupted by alternating annulets ○ and ○ ○. Outer thick beaded border.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة خمس و اربعين و مئة

Margin between linear borders, the outer one interrupted by 5 annulets ○. Outer thick linear border.

I–1–257 Æ 22 2.52 +. Plate VIII

936 Æ 19, 1.90 +.

I–2–1569 Æ 21.

1743a Æ 21, 2.58 +.

1846a Æ 22. Plate VIII

369. Similar to nos. 364–368 (mint and date effaced), but margin has: الله ◯ اصلحه ◯ ... اسمعيل بن ...

I–2–1570 Æ 20. Plate VIII

For Ismā'īl b. 'Ali see nos. 317–318, above, struck at Ardashīr-Khurrah.

370-382. Hārūn b. Muḥammad (?). 149 H. = 766/7 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: مما امر به الامير هرون بن [محمد ؟]ـ

Outer border consists of 2 linear circles interrupted by 5(?) annulets ◯.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب باصطخر سنة تسع و اربعين و مئة

Area enclosed by double linear circle. Margin enclosed by inner linear and outer beaded circles interrupted by 5 (?) annulets ◯.

I–1–131 Æ 21.

301 Æ 21, 3.30.

307 Æ 22, 3.23.

335 Æ 21.

382 Æ 21.

937 Æ 21.

I–2–1614 Æ 21.

1704 Æ 20. Plate VIII

1752 Æ 22. Plate VIII

1767 Æ 20. Plate VIII

1800 Æ 20.

1864b Æ 20, 2.12 +. Plate VIII

1933b Æ 20. Plate VIII

I have not been able to identify Hārūn b. Muḥammad (?).

383-390. Al-Rabī' b. al-Khaṭīr (?). 159 H. = 775/6 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: مما امر به الربيع بن الخطير (؟) اصلحه الله

Margin between borders with 4 annulets ◯.

محمد

رسول

الله

(؟)بخ

Margin بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة تسع و خمسين و مئة

Margin between linear borders, with 5 (?) annulets ◯ on outer circle.

I–1–657 Æ 22, 2.16 +. Plate VIII

657a Æ23, 1.84 +. Plate VIII

934 Æ 20.

I–2–1520/70 Æ 23.

1587 Æ 23. Plate VIII

1949 Æ 19.

1963 Æ 20.

2001 Æ 21, 2.48.

The name al-Rabī' is certain, and al-Khaṭīr is probably correct, but I have been unable to find anyone by this name in the chronicles. Both the father's name and the position of the name in the marginal formula eliminate the possibility that the person is al-Rabī' b. Yūnus (cf. nos. 319–323, above, and nos. 391 ff., below).

391-470. The Caliph al-Mahdi and Rabī'. 167 H. = 783/4 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

Border consisting of inner linear circle, circle of dots and outer linear circle; between the latter two, 5 annulets ◯.

الخليفة

المهدي

محمد امير

المؤمنين

ربيع

Margin: ضرب باصطخر سنة سبع و ستين و مئة

Margin between linear circles.

Diameter usually about 17 mm.; maximum weight, 3.04. Æ

I–1–17, 75, 92, 113 (Plate IX), 160, 186, 199, 210, 252, 300, 354, 366, 425, 516, 521, 561, 604, 645, 655b, 884, 887, 893a, 901, 902, 919, 929, 929b, 935a, 948.

I–2–1525, 1550, 1611, 1621 (Plate IX), 1624, 1643, 1647, 1651b, 1651c, 1664, 1667a, 1692c, 16g2d (Plate IX), 1696b, 1697, 1702,1703b (Plate IX), 1711a (Plate IX), 1712 (Plate IX), 1723a, 1724b, 1731a, 1731b, 173rd (Plate IX), 1737, 1741 (Plate IX), 1745, 1754a, 1754b, 1771. 1805b (Plate IX), 1807,1822a, 1838d, 1853b, 1855,1861,1872a, 1874 (Plate IX), 1881a, 1890 (Plate IX), 1896, 1898b, 1924b, 1937, 1961a, 1967a, 1971, 1976, 1984, 1988.

471. Similar to nos. 391–470, but the mint-date formula is on the obverse between an inner linear border and a thick outer linear border; reverse, inner linear border, uncertain number of annulets, thick outer linear border.

I–1–386 Æ 19, 2.60 +.

472-473. Similar to nos. 391–470, but:

لا اله الا

الله وحده

(sic)شريك له

*

Mint-date formula between inner linear border and outer thick linear border.

الخليفة

المهدي محمد

امير المؤمنين

ربيع

Uncertain number of annulets. Outer linear border.

I–1–919a, 17. Plate IX

929a, 17.

474-476. Similar to nos. 391–470, but mint-date formula on obverse between inner linear border and outer thick linear border; and reverse:

○ ○ ○

الخليفة

المهدي محمد

امير المؤمنين

ربيع

One specimen has a pair of annulets at the left; outer linear border.

I–2–1682a Æ 17.

1908a Æ 16. Plate IX

1916 Æ 16.

477. Similar to nos. 391–470 but:

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

بخ

Mint-date formula; outer beaded border.

الخليفة

المهدي محمد

امير المؤمنين

ربيع

*

Alternating ◯ ◯ and ◯ between linear borders.

I–2–1582 Æ 16. Plate IX

The first to describe a coin in general similar to nos. 391 to 477 was Fraehn;77 Lane-Poole published two others similar to the first variety, but with an error in the first line of the obverse on one;78 Nützel described two also similar to the first variety;79 and there is a similar specimen in the Museum of the American Numismatic Society. Rabī' is identified above, p. 54, in connection with coins bearing his name and struck in the same year at Ardashīr-Khurrah (nos. 319–326).

478-488. Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ Barmaki. 182 H. = 803/4 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

ع

Margin: مما امر به الامير محمد بن يحيى اكرمه الله

Margin between inner beaded and outer linear borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

برمكى

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة اثنى و ثمنين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

I–1–932 Æ 20, 2.32+.

I–2–1520/7 Æ 19. Plate IX

1520/63 Æ 19.

1557a Æ 18. Plate IX

1635b Æ 17.

1641b Æ 18.

I–2–1679 Æ 19, 2.14+. Plate IX

1726b Æ 20. Plate IX

1811b Æ 19.

1868 Æ 20. Plate IX

1967b Æ 19.

489. Similar to nos. 478–488, but apparently no ع beneath the obverse.

I–2–1857a Æ 20.

The governor named in the obverse marginal legend (with his family name beneath the reverse area) is the Barmacide Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ b. Khālid, who struck fulūs at Ardashīr-Khurrah and Fasā in 182 H.80 and at Sābūr in 183H.81

The following coins of Iṣṭakhr (nos. 490–497) are only partially preserved and cannot be definitely assigned to any of the above issues. In view of their fragmentary state no useful purpose would be served in describing them in full.

490-497. Uncertain governors. Ca. 132–200 H. = ca. 750 to 816 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fulūs

I–1–376 Æ: reverse margin: .... باصط ....

I–2–1520/65 Æ: reverse margin:ضرب هذا الفلس باصطخر(؟)

1556c Æ: reverse margin: ... باصطخر سنة احد و ...

1731e Æ: obverse margin: ... الامير محمد بن ...

reverse margin: ... هذا الفلس باصطخر سنة...

1778 Æ: probably Iṣṭakhr

1818 Æ: probably Iṣṭakhr

1840 Æ: probably Iṣṭakhr

I–2–1853a Æ obverse margin: .....مما امر به

reverse margin: ... ضرب هذا الفلس باصـ

End Notes
75
Tiesenhausen, no. 710.
76
Cf. no. 231, above.
77
Tiesenhausen, no. 1037.
78
B. M. i, p. 202, nos. 105–106.
79
Berlin, nos. 2131–2132.
80
Nos. 327–336, above, and nos. 562–580, below.
81
Nos. 510–519, below.

D. Al-Ahwāz

498. Anonymous. 140 H. (?) = 757/8 A.D. (?). Al-Ahwāz. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: سنة(sic?)بالاهوز ...

اربعين (؟) و مئة

Outer linear border.

Margin: traces.

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1520/27 Æ 20. Plate IX

The attribution is dubious in every respect.

E. Birāmqubādh

499-502. The Caliph 'Abdullāh [al-Manṣūr]. 141 H. = 758/9 A.D. Birāmqubādh. Fals.

مما امر به

عبد الله عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

محمد

رسول

الله

ببرمقباذ

Border consists of double linear circle broken by alternating ○ and • •, four times.

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس سنة احدي و اربعين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

I–1–938 Æ 21, 2.10+. Plate IX

I–2–1552b Æ 21, 2.85. Plate IX

1744 Æ 21. Plate X

1758c Æ 20. Plate X

The mint of Birāmqubādh has been identified by John Walker and is equated with Arrajān, both of which names were known to Ṭabari.82 A mint (using the signature BRM) was located here in Arab-Sasanian times, and we know of issues of 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Ziyād and al-Ḥakam b. abi'-'Āṣ dated 54 and 58 H. respectively.83 After the coinage reform it continued as a mint, dirhems of the years 79, 80, 90 and 93 being known.84 But no bronze issue of Birāmqubādh was hitherto known, and it is of great interest to learn that the mint was still active under this name as late as 141 H. We have no recorded issue of Arrajān until about 180 H. (see no. 316, above).

F. Madīnat Balkh?

503. The Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd and al-Amīn. 182 H. (?) = 798/9 A.D. (?). Madīnat Balkh (?). Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 170?; mint and date obscure.

I–2–1774 image 25. Plate X

End Notes
82
B. M. Arab-Sasanian, pp. cxiii–cxvi. Cf. G. C. Miles, "Abarqubādh, a new Umayyad Mint," in ANS Museum Notes IV, pp. 115–120, for a further discussion of the confusion between Birāmqubādh, Abarqubādh, etc.
83
B. M. Arab–Sasanian, pp. 85–86.
84
B. M. Arab–Byzantine, pp. 124–125.

G. Tawwaj

504. The Caliph [abu'l-'Abbās] 'Abdullāh [al-Ṣaffāḥ]. 132 H. = 749/50 A.D. Tawwaj. Fals.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin:عليه اجرا الا المودة القربى(sic) قل لا اسلكم

Margin between beaded borders.

سنة اثنين

و ثلثين

و مئة

Margin:بسم الله امر به عبد [الله ا] مير المؤمنين بتوج

Margin between beaded borders.

Counterstamp, consisting of a single letter or a circle, in upper part of reverse area, causing a convexity in the reverse area.

I–2–1555 Æ 20, 1.34. Plate X

A crack, possibly caused by the counter-stamping, is present on the coin at the point where the mint name lies. To judge by the width of the crack there would be a letter between the و and the ج of the name; but on the other side only the letter \ is missing, so it appears that the crack is wider than the flan originally was at this point, and that no letter is missing between و and ج.

This very interesting coin not only is unique but it is the first known example of this mint. Tawwaj was a town on the Ratīn River (now the Rūd-i Ḥilla) in the district of Ardashīr-Khurrah, near Kāzirūn and 32 farsakhs from Shīrāz. It was an ancient town,85 captured by the Arabs in 18 or 19 H. (639–640 A.D.) and thereafter settled by them and embellished with mosques and a dār al-muslinitn.86 The town's chief claim to fame in later Islamic times was its textile production particularly of a type of linen known as tawwazi, produced both in Tawwaj and also in Kāzirūn by artisans from Tawwaj.87

Our interest in this coin is not however limited to its topographical aspects. It will be noted that the obverse margin bears the unusual Qur'ānic quotation Sūrah XLII, 22: "Say, for this I ask no wage of you, save love of my kin." This verse occurs on a number of coins, both dirhems and fulūs, struck by Abu-Muslim and 'Abdullāh b. Mu'āwiyah during the period of the uprisings by 'Abbāsid partisans between 127 and 132 H. (744–749 A.D.).88 On this account one would be inclined at first sight to attribute this coin of Tawwaj also to the 'Abbāsid partisans, were it not for the fact that the reverse margin bears the name and title, amīr al-mu'minīn, of the newly enthroned 'Abbāsid Caliph al-Ṣaffāḥ. The coin therefore is an 'Abbāsid issue and must have been struck after 13 Rabī' I, 132 (30 October, 749), the date of al-Ṣaffāḥ's proclamation. The retention of the propaganda slogan, Qur'ān XLII, 22, is remarkable, but we know that it still must have been on the lips of all well-informed revolutionaries, for Ṭabari tells us that al-Ṣaffāḥ quoted the verse in his inaugural address.89 This is, so far as I know, the first recorded example of a purely 'Abbāsid coin bearing this celebrated passage; the other known issues of the year 132 were struck either before the final success of the revolution, or, at least in the distant mints such as Marv and Balkh, before word was received of al-Ṣaffāḥ's enthronement.

Counterstamps on early 'Abbāsid coins are not at all common, and it is a pity that the present one is illegible. One can only speculate on its significance. Perhaps it validated the coin in Iṣṭakhr; or else it may have legitimized an issue which might have appeared to those who did not examine it carefully to predate the 'Abbāsid rule.

End Notes
85
See Ernst Herzfeld, "Pasargadae," in Klio, VIII (1908), p. 18, citing Strabo, Arrian and Ptolemy.
86
Balādhuri, p. 386; Yāqūt, I, pp. 890–891; Ḥudūd al-'Ālatm, pp. 74, 127, 212, 377 (spelled Tavaz); Fārsnāmā, pp. 114, 135, 163; cf. Le Strange, pp. 259–260.
87
See the numerous references assembled by R. B. Serjeant, "Material for a History of Islamic Textiles up to the Mongol Conquest", Ars Islamica X (1943), pp. 83–84 (also pp. 81–82), and IX (1942), p. 68, XV–XVI (1951), p. 77.
88
See nos. 256–257, above, and the literature cited there. To the list in NHR should be added another specimen of al-Taymarah, 128 H., another of Jayy, 129 H., which have come to my attention (Cora and E. Zygman collections), and one of Balkh, 132 H., published by Ibrahim Artuk in Tarih Dergisi III (Istanbul, 1953), pp. 135–136.
89
Ṭabari III, p. 29.

H. Jayy

505. [Al-Ḥusayn b. al-Jannāḥ]. 191 H. = 806/7 A.D. Jayy. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: هذا ○ بسم الله ضرب

○ و تسعين و مئة ○ بجيى سنة احدي ○ الفلس

Margin between beaded borders.

Effaced.

Margin: ....مولى امير المؤ....

Margin between beaded borders.

I–2–1672 Æ 20. Plate X

In the Cabinet des Médailles there is a comparable coin,90 on which Lavoix read the date 181. Could he have misread it? The date of the present specimen is clearly 191. Beneath the reverse area of the Paris piece is the name محمد, and the reverse margin reads: مما امر به الحسين بن الجناح مولى امير المؤمنين. I have not been able to identify the prefect, a freedman. Jayy was the old name for Iṣfahān.

I. Sābūr

506-507. Mūsâ [b. al-mahdi] and Ṣāliḥ b. Dā'ūd. Ca. 164–165 H. = ca. 780–782 A.D. Sābūr. Fals.

الامير موسى بن

امير المؤمنين

فى ولائة

الامير صلح

حفظه الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب بسابور ولى

عهد المسلمين

Margin enclosed by border consisting of inner beaded circle and outer linear circle, with annulets ○ between.

بن داود

image

Margin: لا اله الا الله وحده لا

شريك له محمد رسول الله

Margin enclosed by double beaded and outer linear circles.

I–2–1612 Æ 20. Plate X

1930 Æ 18. Plate X

On no. I–2–1930 the words بسم الله appear to be the first line of the area rather than to introduce the marginal legend.

The amīr Mūsâ is of course the Caliph al-mahdi's son (al-Hādi), at this time heir to the throne, as stated in the obverse margin. Ṣāliḥ b. Dā'ūd b. 'Ali was appointed governor of al-Baṣrah and its dependencies, Dijlah, Baḥrayn, 'Umān, al-Furaḍ, al-Ahwāz and Fārs in the year 164 H.91 These coins, and nos. 508–520, below, are, so far as I know, the first recorded 'Abbāsid issues of Sābūr. It is curious that none should have been found in the excavations there. Arab-Sasanian and Umayyad coins of the mint (Bishāpūr and Sābūr) are well know; among others see nos. 103–134, 190 to 192, above. The phrasing and arrangement of the legends on the present coins is unusual.

508-509. The Caliph al-mahdi. 167 H. = 783/4 A.D. Sābūr. Fals.

الخليفة

المهدي

امير المؤمنين

.....

سابور

سبع و

ستين و

مئة

Margin (between linear borders?) effaced.

Triple linear border.

I–2–1903 Æ 16. Plate X

1997 Æ 16. Plate X

510-519. Muḥammad [b. Yaḥyâ] Barmaki. 183 H. = 799/800 A.D. Sābūr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

*

Area enclosed by double linear border, outside which 5 annulets ⊚.

برمكى

محمد

رسول

الله

محمد

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس بسابور

سنة ثلث و ثمنين و مئة

Margin enclosed by linear borders, the outer of which interrupted by 5 annulets ○.

I–1–315 Æ 19, 1.50+.

I–2–1520/3 Æ 17.

1520/13 Æ 17. Plate X

1520/51 Æ 17. Plate X

1520/54 Æ 18.

1520/61 Æ 19. Plate X

1690d Æ 18.

1700a Æ 18. Plate X

1779b Æ 20. Plate X

1977b Æ 18.

These coins, with "Barmaki" above the reverse and Muḥammad beneath, are to be compared with those of the year 182 struck at Ardashīr-Khurrah, Iṣṭakhr and Fasā (nos. 327–336 and 478–489, above, and 562–580, below).

520. [Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ?] Barmaki. [18?]4 H. = 800 (?) A.D. Sābūr. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

له .....

Margin: ..... امر به(؟)ـ ....

Margin between linear borders.

.....

رسول

الله

برمكى

Margin: الفلس بسابور سنة ....

... ار

Outer linear border.

I–2–1606b Æ 17.

The attribution is based on nos. 510–519, above, but everything except the word برمكى is dubious.

End Notes
90
Paris, no. 1572.
91
Ṭabari III, pp. 501, 503. Cf. Zambaur, p. 40.

J. Madīnat Samarqand

521. [Al-Faḍl b. Sahl]. 201 H. = 816/7 A.D. Madīnat Samarqand. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. i, no. 288.

I–2–1687a image 25. Plate X

K. Shīrāz

522-552. 'Abdullāh b. al-musayyib. 192 H. = 807/8 A.D. Shīrāz. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

*

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس بشيراز

سنة اثنتين و تسعين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

مما امر به الا

مير عبد الله

بن المسيب

بخ

Margin: Qur'ān IX, 33.

Margin between linear borders.

The * beneath the obverse is not always present.

I–1–602 Æ 20, 1.25+. Plate X

I–2–1520/12 Æ 20, 3.06.

1520/18 Æ 20, 2.24.

1520/23 Æ 20.

1520/26 Æ 20.

1520/29 Æ 22.

1520/30 Æ 21.

1520/32 Æ 19.

1520/34 Æ 19.

1520/37 Æ 22, 2.85. Plate X

1520/40 Æ 19.

1520/46 Æ 21.

1520/47 Æ 21.

1520/48 Æ 21, 1.84+.

1520/49 Æ 21.

1520/58 Æ 21.

I–2–1520/66 Æ 19, 1.49 +.

1520/68 Æ 20. Plate X

1520/71 Æ 21, 2.83. Plate XI

1520/73 Æ 20.

1520/74 Æ 19.

1535b Æ 17.

1626b Æ 19.

1658 Æ 21.

1680 Æ 20.

1692b Æ 20.

1762c Æ 19.

1772d Æ.

1820d Æ 20.

1960 Æ 18. Plate XI

1966a Æ 20.

The identity of the governor is uncertain. A certain 'Abdullāh b. al-musayyib is mentioned once in Ṭabari in connection with events of the year 158 H.,92 but this is 34 years before the date of these coins. However, this 'Abdullāh's father was al-musayyib b. Zuhayr, who was a prominent general and official throughout the forties and fifties of the century93 and was governor of Khurāsān as late as 163 to 166 H., in which latter year the province rose in revolt against him.94 A son of his could therefore conceivably have been active in 192 H. There can hardly be any connection with Salm b. al-musayyib who was governor of Iṣṭakhr and Shīrāz ca. 129 H. (nos. 180–184, above).

See no. 193, above, for an earlier issue of the Shīrāz mint.

End Notes
92
Ṭabari III, p. 455.
93
Ibid. III, pp. 3, 21, 80, 135, 195, 293, 382, 384.
94
Ibid. III, pp. 500–501, 503, 517.

L. Fārs

553. Anonymous. 205 H. = 820/1 A.D. Fārs. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بفارس سنة خمس و مئتين

Margin enclosed by inner linear and outer thick linear borders, within which 5 annulets ○.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: Qur'ān IX, 33.

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1921 Æ 20. Plate XI

This unique fals of Shīrāz bearing the province name Fārs was struck two years after the earliest known dirhem on which the mint is designated by this name.95

M. Fasā

554-561. The Caliph al-mahdi and Nuṣayr. No date. 158–169 H. = 775–785 A.D. Fasā. Fals.

الخليفة

المهدي محمد

امير المؤمنين

image

Margin:...(⸮) منصور بفارس ...

Margin between inner linear and outer beaded borders.

ضرب

نصير

بفسا

image

Border image between linear circles.

I–1–284 Æ 17.

655 Æ 19. Plate XI

935 Æ 21.

I–2–1533 Æ 18.

1688b Æ 19, 2.09.

1700b Æ 20, 2.51. Plate XI

1821 Æ 17. Plate XI

1875b Æ 19.

The obverse margin seems to consist of only three or four words, the letter ṣad of what appears pretty definitely to be منصور, Manṣūr, being drawn out to cover nearly 80 % of the circumference. The word بفارس, "in Fārs," is conjectural but quite possible. One of the best preserved obverse marginal legends is NR 61, p. 104, below.

Fasā was an important town between Darabjird and Shīrāz, by the 4th century of the Hijrah almost as large as Shīrāz. Like Tawwaj (see no. 504, above) it was well known for its textiles.96 Fasā was a mint in early post-reform Umayyad times, and dirhems are known of the years 79, 80 and 81.97 A sole 'Abbāsid dirhem attributed to Fasā by Fraehn with a query is dated 166 H.;98 the existence of the present fulūs of approximately the same date tend to confirm this attribution. These coins and nos. 562–580, below, are, so far as I know, the only bronze issues of the mint that have come to light.

It would be difficult to say whether Nuṣayr is the same person whose name occurs (always without patronymic) on a number of contemporary dirhems and fulūs: image Adharbayjān, 166,99 Æ Madīnat al-Salām, 166,100 image and Æ al-Baṣrah, 167,101 image Armīnīyah, 167,102 image al-Baṣrah, 168,103Æ al-mawṣil, 168,104 image Adharbayjān, 169.105 On these coins the name occurs either in isolated position in the area or else in the margin accompanied by the phrase 'alâ yaday, "at the hands of." I have suggested that this man might possibly be a certain eunuch and freedman by the name of Nuṣayr al-Waṣīf who in 169 was in charge of the postal service.106

562-580. Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ Barmaki. 182 H. = 798/9 A.D. Fasā. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

محمد

Margin: O يحيى O محمد بن O الامير O امر به O مما

Margin: between inner linear and outer beaded borders.

محمد

رسول

الله

برمكى

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس بفسا سنة اثنن [اثنين/]و ثمنين و مئة

Margin between linear borders.

I–1–515 Æ 17. Plate XI

562 Æ 18.

653 Æ 19.

905 Æ 18, 2.64.

912 Æ 18, 2.53.

I–2–1520/15 Æ 17.

1520/28 Æ 18.

1530 Æ 18. Plate XI

1610 Æ 17. Plate XI

1622c Æ 17. Plate XI

I–2–1671b Æ.

1689 Æ 18.

1695 Æ 19.

1814 Æ 19. Plate XI

1847b Æ 19.

1850 Æ 18. Plate XI

1912 Æ.

1969 Æ 19.

1986 Æ 19. Plate XI

This issue of Muḥammad b. Yaḥyâ the Barmacide is to be compared with others of the same date struck at Ardashīr-Khurrah (nos. 327–336) and Iṣṭakhr (nos. 478–489), and those of Sābūr issued in 183 (nos. 510–519) and possibly 184 (no. 520).

End Notes
95
See the discussion following no. 193, above.
96
Le Strange, pp. 290, 293–294.
97
B. M. Arab-Byzantine, pp. lxxxv, 169.
98
Tiesenhausen, no. 994.
99
Berlin, no. 780.
100
B.M. i, p. 206, no. 120; Berlin, nos. 2151–8; Paris, nos. 1620–21; Antioch, no. 121; and see below, no. 613.
101
Tiesenhausen, no. 2772; Berlin, no. 2136.
102
Berlin, no. 788.
103
Tiesenhausen, no. 1047; B.M. i, no. 100.
104
Tiesenhausen, no. 1054.
105
B.M. ix, p. 45, no. 88t; Berlin, nos. 781–2; Paris, no. 691.

N. Kūrat al-mahdīyah min Fārs

581–602a. Anonymous. 161 H. = 777/8 A.D. Kūrat al-mahdīyah min Fārs. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Margin: ضرب هذا الفلس سنة احدي و ستين و مئة

Margin enclosed by linear border, outside which 4 or 5 annulets ○.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بكورة المهدية من فارس

Area and margin enclosed by linear borders, outside which 4 (?) annulets ○ and outer beaded border.

I–1–102 Æ 22.

127 Æ, 23, 3.37+.

358 Æ 22, 2.90+.

380 Æ 24, 2.89+.

407a Æ 21.

407b Æ 21, 3.62+.

462 Æ 22. Plate XI

468 Æ 22.

475 & 22. Plate XI

I–2–1554 Æ 24. Plate XI

1574 Æ.

1592b Æ 20.

I–2–1620 Æ 23.

1655 Æ 21.

1691c Æ 20.

1729a Æ 23. Plate XI

1734b Æ.

1740 Æ 24.

1885a Æ 21. Plate XI

1885b Æ 22.

1887 Æ 23. Plate XI

1973a Æ 24. Plate XI

HL 96, refuse Æ 22.

603-608. Similar to nos. 581–602, but above the reverse area: جور

I–1–89 Æ 23, 2.06+. Plate XI

119 Æ 22, 2.58 +. Plate XII

464 Æ 22,4.57 +.

545 Æ 23.

I–2–1573 Æ 24. Plate XII

1756 Æ 21. Plate XII

609. Similar to nos. 581–602, but overstruck obverse on reverse.

I–2–1538b Æ 20. Plate XII

It is curious that only one specimen of these evidently plentiful issues (nos. 581–609) has hitherto been recorded, and this one specimen was double-struck or overstruck like no. 609, so that the publisher was unable to decipher the mint name, although he did read the first part of it, Kūrah. This specimen belonged to F. Soret and was described by him in 1854.107 Soret speculated on the possibility that the mint name was to be read Kūrah al-mu'aẓẓam, and for this reason supposed that the coin may have been struck in Mecca.

Nos. 603–608 are the clue to the identification of this unrecorded geographical name, Kūrah al-mahdīyah min Fārs: the kūrah or district must be Ardashīr-Khurrah, and the mint Jūr, otherwise known as Fīrūzābād, in early Islamic times the chief town of the district.108 The five kūrahs or districts of Fārs: in the classical Arab period were Ardashīr-Khurrah, Sābūr, Arrajān, Iṣṭakhr and Darabjird,109 and at one time during my preliminary study of the Iṣṭakhr excavation coins I came to the conclusion that the Kūrah al-mahdīyah min Fārs: must be either Iṣṭakhr itself, Shīrāz or Sābūr.110 But at that time I had not noticed the significance of the name Jūr on the variety (nos. 603–608). Obviously this new official name for the old Sasanian district was created to honor the Caliph al-mahdi (father of Hārūn al-Rashīd),111 but evidence that it did not continue long in vogue is provided by the issues of 167 H., only six years later, where the old name Ardashīr-Khurrah recurs (nos. 319–326); and the latter designation is still in use in 182 H. (nos. 327–336).

End Notes
106
Antioch, p. 117, citing Ṭabari III, pp. 461, 462, 545.
107
F. Soret, "Lettre à M. Sawelief," Revue de la Numismatique Belge, 1854, pp. 285–286, no. 13 = Tiesenhausen, no. 915.
108
Cf. the discussion under nos. 317–318, above; also nos. 319–323, and (Ardashīr-Khurrah with the amplifying specification "Jūr") nos. 324–326.
109
Le Strange, p. 248.
110
Miles, A brief Report, pp. 495–496. I was mistaken there in equating Ardashīr-Khurrah with Shīrāz; it was not until later that Shīrāz became the capital of the district (see p. 47, above).
111
Another mint renamed in honor of al-mahdi was Rayy, called al-muḥammadīyah, after his given name, in 148 and for many years thereafter (down until the Ghaznavid period). See NHR, p. 31.

O. Al-muḥammadīyah

610. Hārūn al-Rashīd. 170 H. = 786/7 A.D. Al-muḥammadīyah. Fals.

Obverse similar to NHR no. 70 F, reverse similar to NHR no. 70 G.

I–2–1928a Æ 21. Plate XII

611. Anonymous. 193 H. = 808/9 A.D. Al-muḥammadīyah. Dirhem.

Similar to NHR no. 94 A.

I–1–97 image 22.

P. Madīnat al-Salām

612. The Caliph Al-mahdi. 162 H. = 778/9 A.D. Madīnat al-Salām. Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 126.

I–2–1588 image 23. Plate XII

613. The Caliph Al-mahdi Muḥammad and Nuṣayr. 166 H. = 782/3 A.D. Madīnat al-Salām. Fals.

Similar to B.M. i, p. 206, no. 120.

I–2–1666 Æ 21, 2.63.

For Nuṣayr, see nos. 554–561, above.

614. Anonymous. 193 H. = 808/9 A.D. Madīnat al-Salām. Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 226.

I–1–203 image 22, 2.46.

615. The Caliph al-Rāḍi. 323 H. = 934/5 A.D. Madīnat al-Salām. Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 465.

I–2–1583 image 25. Plate XII

Q. Ma'din al-Shāsh

616. Al-ma'mūn as eventual heir. 190 H. = 805/6 A.D. Ma'din al-Shāsh. Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 228.

I–2–1519 image 25. Plate XII

R. Wāsiṭ

617-618. Uncertain governor. 1x6 H. = ca. 753–783 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Fals.

Effaced.

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بواسط سنة ست و .... و مئة

Margin enclosed by double linear border, annulets, outer thick linear border.

Margin: مما امر به الامير محمد(؟) ....ـ

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1520/69 Æ 20. Plate XII

1957 Æ 20.

This issue, unfortunately not wholly decipherable, appears to be unpublished.112

S. No Mint Name

619-621. Anonymous. 156 H. = 772/3 A.D. No mint name. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Double beaded border enclosing 3 annulets ◯.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب سنة ست وخمسين و مئة

Margin between beaded borders, the outer of which interrupted by 3 pairs of annulets ◯ ◯.

I–2–1761 Æ. 21. Plate XII

1780e Æ.

1851 Æ 22. Plate XII

End Notes
112
At least nothing similar seems to be recorded in Welin, Wāsiṭ.

T. Mint Effaced.

622. The Caliph al-mahdi. 166 H. = 782/3 A.D. Mint effaced. Dirhem.

Probably similar to B.M. i, no. 132 (Madīnat al-Salām).

I–2–1686a image 24 (frg., cut in half).

623-629. Period of al-mahdi. 158–169 H. = 775–785 A.D. Mint effaced. Fulūs.

Obscure bronze coins either bearing al-mahdi's name, or a partial date, or exhibiting characteristics of the coinage of al-mahdi.

I–1–31, 55, 179, 412.

I–2–1645, 1701b (Plate XII), 1817 (Plate XII).

630. Muḥammad [b. Yaḥyâ] Barmaki. 182 H. (?) = 798/9 A.D. (?). Mint effaced. Fals.

Similar to the issues of Fasā of 182 H. (nos. 562–580), but برمك (?) instead of برمكى mint and date effaced.

I–2–1520/36 Æ 18. Plate XII

631-632. Uncertain governor. 198 H. = 813/4 A.D. Mint effaced. Fals.

لا اله الا

ده....

......

Border consists of two linear circles, between which alternating image and ○.

... مما امر به الامـ

......

......

Margin: ثمان وتسعين و مئة ...... ضرب هذا الـ

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1849b Æ 17.

1886b Æ 17.

U. Mint and Date Effaced, 'Abbāsid 2nd Century H.

Ca.750–815 A.D.

633-849 d. 221 unidentifiable bronze coins with 2nd century 'Abbāsid characteristics.

See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

V. Mint Effaced, 'Abbāsid 3rd Century H.

Ca.815–912 A.D.

850. The Caliph al-mutawakkil. Date effaced. 232–247 H. = 847–861 A.D. Mint effaced. Dirhem.

I–2–1901 image.

851. The Caliph al-mu'tamid. 272 H. = 885/6 A.D. Mint effaced. Dirhem.

I–2–1585 image.

852. The Caliph al-mu'tamid. Date effaced. 256–279 H. = 870–892 A.D. Mint effaced. Dirhem.

I–2–1992 image. Plate XII

853-854. Mint effaced. Date effaced. Dirhem fragments.

I–2–1657 image (date ends مائتين).

1722 image.

855-856. Mint effaced. Date effaced. Fulūs.

Dates end مائتين.

I–1–643 Æ 17.

I–2–1952 Æ.

XII. SĀMĀNID

857. Manṣūr b. Nūḥ and Aḥmad b. Manṣūr. 3XX = 961–977 A.D. Bukhārā (?). Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Outer margin: بسم الله ضرب

.....(⸮) هذا الفلس ببخارا

Inner margin: (⸮) على يدي

ين و ثلثمائة....و .....

Marginal legends between linear borders.

Margin: مما امر به الامير احمد بن

منصور مولى امير المؤمنين

Margin between linear borders.

I–2–1958 Æ 27. Plate XIII

This coin should be legible in its entirety but I have been unable to read parts of the marginal legends in the photograph. In some respects it is comparable to B.M. ii, no. 411.

XIII. BŪYID

858. Ṣamṣām al-Dawlah and Fakhr al-Dawlah. 38X H. = 990–998 A.D. Mint effaced. Dirhem.

.... لا اله

... وحده لا شر

.....

... الملك

...... القا

...... فخر

.... و ملك

Margin: بسم.....ين و ثلث مائة

Outer border of dots, outside of which annulets ○○ (one pair preserved).

.... صمصام الد

.... وشمس المـ

..... ابو كالـ

image

Margin: traces.

Border of dots enclosing area.

I–2–1760 image 26. Plate XIII

Cf. BM. ii, no. 667, with similar area legends.

859-860. Būyid. Late 4th to early 5th c. H. = late 10th to early 11th c. A.D.

Traces of legends suggest Būyid attribution.

I–2–1674 Æ.

1763a image (frg.).

XIV. SELJŪQ?

861. Unidentifiable clipping. Ca. 5th c. H. = ca. 11th c. A.D. Dinar fragment.

Traces of legend suggest the Seljūq period.

I–2–542 image 9 + (frg.). Plate XIII

XV. ILKHĀNID

862. Abu-Sa'īd. 730 H. = 1329/30 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

لا اله الا

محمد ...

......

.......

... السلطان

فى سنة ثلثين

...خان خلـ...

.......

I–2–1811a Æ 19. Plate XIII

863. Sulaymān Khān. 740–744 H. = 1339–1344 A.D. Kabīr Shaykh or Shaykh-i Kabīr. Bronze.

ن

سليما

خان

شيخ

كبير

ضرب

Linear circle and outer border of dots, obverse and reverse.

I–2–1684a Æ 16. Plate XIII

The location of this mint is unknown.113 I have recorded in my files specimens in silver of the Ilkhānids Muḥammad, Ṭoghā Tīmūr and Sulaymān, dated 737,114 738, 739, 73X and 74X.

XVI. AUTONOMOUS PERSIAN

864. Anonymous. 12th–13th c. H. = 18th–19th c. A.D. Iṣfahān. Bronze.

General type of B.M. Shāhs of Persia, p. 219, nos. 26ff. I–1–355 Æ 24, 18.10.

XVII. QĀJĀR

865. Muḥammad Shāh. 1250–1264 H. = 1835–1848 A.D. Irān. Bronze.

Type of B.M. Shāhs of Persia, no. 576.

I–2–1592a Æ 19.

XVIII. UNIDENTIFIABLE

866-1046. 181 unidentifiable bronze coins, the majority, to judge by their fabric, late Sasanian or early Islamic.

See the Inventory for the field numbers of these coins.

End Notes

113
B. Spuler, Die Mongolen in Iran (Berlin, 1955), pp. 129 and 133, lists this mint but does not indicate whether or not it has been identified.
114
Cf. PT 10, p. 88, below.

PERSEPOLIS TERRACE EXCAVATIONS

I. SASANIAN

1. Ardashir I. 224–241 A.D. Dirhem.

Bust of king, r., with moustache, long plaited beard, side and back hair; low crown surmounted by globe.

Legend (beginning at 11:30 o'clock):

Fire-altar on fluted shaft standing on two steps; handles resembling lion's paws resting on incense vessels. At r. image; at l. image.

image

PT–5–64 image 24, 3.85 (broken in 2 pieces). Plate XIII

Cf. Paruck, nos. 37ff., plates II and III. Note that the reverse legend is opposite to the usual order.

2. Khosrau II. Year 31 = 620 A.D. ŠI (?) = Shīrajān (?). Dirhem.

Usual type, with image in obverse margin. Reverse: at r. ـسـ; at l. image

PT–5–373a image 28, 3.00. Plate XIII

The mint mark is Walker's no. 49, which he tentatively assigned to Shīrajān, the old capital of Kirmān province; and I have supported this hypothesis.115

II. ARAB-SASANIAN

3. 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr. 63 H. (?) = 682/3 A.D. (?). ZR = Zaranj. Dirhem.

Usual bust. At r.:

image

Margin, 2nd quarter:

image • بسم الله image

3rd quarter: image

Usual fire-altar and attendants. At r. image; at l. image

PT–5–373b image 27, 2.60 (clipped). Plate XIII

Probably there were two or three pellets (image or ∴) after بسم الله in the margin (as on other coins of 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr's at Zaranj),116 but only one has been preserved as a result of clipping. The writing of the date is enigmatic and I can only suggest 63 as the probable date.

End Notes

115
Cf. Miles, Kirmān.

III. UMAYYAD

Sābūr (?).

4. Anonymous. No date. Ca. 100–132 H. = ca. 718–750 A.D. Sābūr (?). Fals.

...لا الـ

....الا

..وحد

Linear border.

(⸮) سابور

محمد

رسول

•الله

Linear border.

PT–5–388 Æ 19, 1.65. Plate XIII

IV. 'ABBĀSID

a) Iṣṭakhr

5-6. The Caliph al-mahdi and Rabī'. 167 H. = 783/4 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 391–470, pp. 60–61, above.

PT–7–360 Æ 16. Plate XIII

372 Æ 16. Plate XIII

End Notes
116
The only published specimen of 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr at Zaranj (B.M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 32, no. M.20, year 69) is not fully described; but two unpublished specimens in the Museum of the American Numismatic Society (years 66? and 69) have image and ∵ respectively. Both incidentally have image in the 3rd quarter.

b) Al-'Abbāsīyah

7. Yazīd? 171 H. (?) = 787/8 A.D. (?). Al-'Abbāsīyah. Dirhem.

Similar to B.M. i, no. 183, but reverse: above, جائز image; beneath, يزيد?

PT–7–212 image 25. Plate XIII

As is the case with almost all the coins of this mint the legends on this specimen are exceedingly difficult to read. Here an additional difficulty is that the coin is double struck. My reading of the date is doubtful. The word جائز is dubious, but يزيد is almost certainly correct. At all events I have not found in the published literature or in the collection of the American Numismatic Society any other specimen with a similar legend above the reverse area.

c) Mint Effaced

8. Uncertain governor. 2nd c. H. = ca. 750–815 A.D. Mint effaced. Fals.

Conventional formulae, no distinctive legends preserved. PT–5–838 Æ 17.

V. ILKHĀNID

9. Abu-Sa'īd. No date. 716–736 H. = 1316–1336 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Very obscure, probably similar to Naqsh-i Rustam Excavations, no. 68, p. 106, below.

PT–7–227 Æ 16.

10. Muḥammad Khān. 737 H. = 1336/7 A.D. Kabīr Shaykh or Shaykh-i Kabīr. Bronze.

Within square, within circular linear and dotted border:

(sic) السطان

(sic) محمد

خلد ملكه

In segments between square and circle: ·*·

In center, within ornamental triangle within linear and dotted border:

ب

ضر

شبخ

كبير

In segments between triangle and circle:| سنة سبع

ئة...وسـ|و...ن

PT–5–845 Æ 22, 2.50. Plate XIV

For the same mint name on a coin of Sulaymān Khān, see Iṣṭakhr Excavations, no. 863, p. 84, above.

VI. ILKHĀNID OR SUCCESSOR

11-13. Uncertain rulers. Ca. 700–750 H. = ca. 1300–1350 A.D. Mints effaced. Bronze.

Few traces preserved; roughly attributable by style and fabric.

PT–3–10 Æ 23.

18 Æ 16.

19 Æ 25.

VII. MUẒAFFARID

14. Shāh Shujā'. 765–786 H. = 1363–1384 A.D. Idhaj. Dirhem.

Within square formed by elongated bases of surrounding inscription:

Within curved polygonal frame:

بلد

• ايذج

Around: لا اله... الله محمد رسول الله

(sic) اللطان

و امير المؤمنين

لمطاع شاه شجاع ..

...ضرب ايذج

خلد الله ملكه

scroll

PT–3–14 image 18, 1.40. Plate XIV

Quite a few coins of this dynasty struck at Idhaj have been published, but none, so far as I know, of this type. Idhaj, the Māl-Amīr or Malamir of today, lies in Khūzi-stān south-east of Tustar on the Dujayl.117

VIII. TĪMŪRID

15. Tīmūr Gūrkhān and Maḥmūd. Date effaced or no date. Ca. 790–800 H. = ca. 1388–1398 A.D. Shīrāz. Bronze.

.......

.... لسلطان محـ ..

مور كور كان ...

...... لك ...

Within ornamental circle (?):

عدلية

شيراز

PT–5–840 Æ 20, 1.98. Plate XIV

Cf. B.M. vii, nos. 38–43, in some respects similar, but this is a different issue.

IX. AUTONOMOUS PERSIAN

a) Shīrāz

16. Anonymous. 12th–13th c. H. = 18th–19th c. A.D. Shīrāz. Bronze.

Unidentifiable quadruped, walking right.

فلوس

ب

ضر شيراز

PT–5–16 Æ 25, 18.30. Plate XIV

End Notes
117
Le Strange, p. 245.

b) Uncertain Mint

17. Anonymous. Probably 11th–12th c. H. = 17th–18th c. A.D. Mint? Bronze.

See illustration.

PT–5–839 Æ 17X13, 1.45. Plate XIV

18. Anonymous. 12th–13th c. H. = 18th–19th c. A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Lion (?), walking right.

.... فلو

ب

......

PT–5–436 Æ 21, 9.50.

X. UNIDENTIFIABLE ISLAMIC

19. Unidentifiable, probably after 8th c. H. = after 14th c. A.D. Bronze.

Traces of letters on one side.

PT–3–6 Æ 17.


NAQSH–I RUSTAM EXCAVATIONS

I. PERSIS

1. Artaxerxes V and Papek. Ca. 200 A.D. Obol?

Bust of Artaxerxes V, facing; long pointed beard, long side hair. Tiara with star and crescent in center. At r.: image. At l.: image.

Border of dots.

Bust of Papek, left, wearing tiara. At r.: image. At l.: image. Border of dots, overlapping at r.

Border of dots.

NR–1–53 image 11, 0.55. Plate XIV

This type appears to be unpublished. Of comparable style is de Morgan, Manuel, p. 288, fig. 370; and cf. de Morgan, pl. XXXIV, nos. 18–s22.

II. SASANIAN

A. SILVER118

2. Bahram IV. 388–399 A.D. Uncertain mint. Dirhem.

Type of Paruck, nos. 284–286, pl. XIII. Obverse legend abbreviated and barbarous. Reverse: at l. image; at r. image.

NR–2–57 image 25. Plate XIV

3. Bahram V. 420–438 A.D. No mint signature? Dirhem.

Semi-barbarous type somewhat comparable to Paruck, no. 318, pl. XIV. Obverse: illegible inscriptions r. and l. Reverse: no legible inscription, possible traces at r.

NR–2–51 image 30. Plate XIV

4. Hormizd IV. Year 5 = 583 A.D. NIH = Nihāvand. Dirhem.

Type of Paruck, nos. 343ff., pl. XX. Reverse: at r. image; at l image.

NR–1–9/1 image 28 (fragmentary). Plate XIV

This mint signature has been identified by Walker (B.M. Arab-Sasanian, p. civ, no. 45). It is Paruck's no. 134. Göbl for some reason omits it.

5. Hormizd IV. Year 9 = 587 A.D. RD = Rayy. Dirhem.

Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/2 image 27, 2.70 + (frg. lacking).

6. Khosrau II. Year 37 = 626 A.D. DR = Darabjird. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/12 image 32, 3.40.

The mint signature is Paruck's no. 78, Göbl's no. 32.

7. Khosrau II. Year 31 = 620 A.D. MR = Merv. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/10 image 28 (frgs. lacking).

The mint signature is Walker's no. 40a, Paruck's no. 110, Göbl's no. 47 (2nd variety).

8. Khosrau II. Year 33 = 622 A.D. MR = Merv. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/11 image 28, 2.81. Plate XIV

9. Khosrau II. Year 26? = 615 A.D.? NHR = Nahr-Tīrâ. Dirhem.

Usual type. Obverse: image in 2nd quarter. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/8 image 33, 3.23 + (frg. lacking).

10. Khosrau II. Year 35 = 624 A.D. NHR = Nahr-Tīrâ. Dirhem.

Usual type, but in obverse margin, 2nd quarter: image. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–2–15 image 33. Plate XV

Note the unusual marginal legend. The mint signature is apparently a variety of Paruck's no. 130, Walker's no. 44a, Göbl's no. 53, but at all events almost certainly NHR.

11. Khosrau II. Year 7 = 596 A.D. NH = Nihāvand. Dirhem.

Early "beardless" type. Reverse: at r. image at l. image

NR–1–9/3 image 31, 3.28 + (frg. lacking). Plate XV

The mint signature is Walker's no. 43 or 43a, Paruck's no. 130 or 131, Göbl's no. 51.

12. Khosrau II. Year 16 = 605 A.D. NIH = Nihāvand. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/5 AR 32, 3.37. Plate XV

For the mint signature, compare no. 4.

13. Khosrau II. Year 28 = 617 A.D. NH = Nihāvand. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/9 image 31, 3.12 + (small frg. lacking). Plate XV

For the mint signature, compare no. 11.

14. Khosrau II. Year 17 = 606 A.D. RD = Rayy. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/6 image 28, 2.97 +.

15. Khosrau II. Year 34? = 623 A.D.? ST = Iṣṭakhr. Dirhem.

Usual type, but in obverse margin, 2nd quarter: image. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–2–38 image 24 (clipped). Plate XV

16. Khosrau II. Year 35 = 624 A.D. ŠR? = Shīrajān? Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/7 image 31, 2.88 + (frgs. lacking). Plate XV

The mint signature is enigmatic. Perhaps comparable are Paruck's no. 2 (AB, Abrashahr?), his nos. 186 and 208 (uncertain attribution), Göbl's no. 64 and Walker's no. 49, Shīrājan. The latter seems to me the most likely identification. Shīrājan was the late Sasanian and early Islamic capital of Kirmān province.119

17. Khosrau II. 590–628 A.D. Date effaced, ZR = Zaranj. Dirhem.

Usual type. Reverse: at r. image; at l. obscure.

I–1–9/4 image 31, 3.60.

The mint signature is a variant of Paruck's nos. 248–251, Walker's no. 57 and Göbl's no. 73.

End Notes
118
Arranged chronologically by rulers, and alphabetically by mints within reigns.

B. BRONZE

18-20. Probably Khosrau II. 590–628 A.D. Bronze.

Three poorly preserved and obscure bronze coins with obverse bust resembling that of Khosrau II and reverse fire-altar and attendants; one (NR–1–45) possibly bearing the Iṣṭakhr mint signature.

NR–1–45 Æ 16.

51 Æ 27.

56 Æ 13.

21. Late Sasanian. 6th–7th c. A.D. Bronze.

Traces of bust?

Camel (?), walking r.

NR–1–49 Æ 17.

22-29. Late Sasanian. 6th–7th c. A.D. Bronze.

Obscure largely effaced coins recognizable by their fabric as late Sasanian but otherwise unidentifiable.

NR–1–46a Æ 20.

46b Æ 14.

58 Æ 18.

60 Æ 12.

NR–1–61 Æ 14.

62 Æ 13.

63 Æ 16.

NR–2–48 Æ 11.

End Notes
119
Cf. Miles, Kirmān.

III. ARAB-SASANIAN

A. SILVER
a) Anonymous

30. Anonymous (name of Yezdigird III). 20 Y.E.120 = 31 H. = 651/2 A.D. NHR = Nahr-Tīrâ. Dirhem.

Usual type of Yezdigird III, with name at right. In margin, 2nd quarter, traces of Kufic legend جيد (?).

Usual type. At r. image; at l. image. Crescent l., star r. of flames.

NR–1–9/13 image 28, 2.35 + (clipped). Plate XV

Cf. B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 3, no. 2, which has بسم الله in the margin.

b) 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr

1. Ardashīr-Khurrah

31. 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr. 66 H. = 685/6 A.D. ART = Ardashīr-Khurrah. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 29, no. 1.14, except obverse margin: image بسم الله. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image. Star l., crescent r. of flames.

NR–1–9/16 image 32, 3.45. Plate XVI

2. Kirmān

32. 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr. 69 H. = 688/9 A.D. KRMNRMAN = Kirmān. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 32, no. 41, except different dies, no countermarks. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image. Crescent l., star r. of flames.

NR–1–9/17 image 31, 3.61. Plate XVI

Mention of this specimen was made in Miles, Kirmān , footnote 16. The mint signature bears an unpublished variety of suffix, the meaning of which, like the numerous others at the Kirmān mint, is undetermined.121

End Notes
120
Yezdigird era.

c) Ziyād b. abi-Sufyān

33. Ziyād b. abi-Sufyān. 41 Y.E. = 53 H. = 672/3 A.D. DAP = Darabjird. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 40, no. 58, except mint signature image. Star l., crescent r. of flames.

NR–1–9/14 image 31, 3.47. Plate XVI

Walker reads this variety of the Darabjird mint signature as DAR (his no. 18), but it would seem to me that DAP is a more likely reading.

d) ' Ubaydullāh b. Ziyād

34. 'Ubaydullāh b. Ziyād. 62 H. = 681/2 A.D. BJRA = al-Baṣrah. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 59, no. 88. Reverse: pellet r. of mint signature; at l. image. Crescent l., pellet r. of flames.

NR–1–9/15 image 28, 2.31 + (frg. of rim lacking). Plate XVI

End Notes
121
Cf. Miles, Kirmān.

e) 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh
1. Bishāpūr

35-36. 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh. 67 H. = 686/7 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 103–107, p. 26, above.

NR–1–9/18 image 31, 3.51.

9/19 image 32, 3.50. Plate XVI

37. The same. 68 H. = 687/8 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, no. 108, p. 26, above.

NR–1–9/20 image 32, 3.62.

38. The same.

Similar to no. 37, but star l., crescent r. of flames, as on

B. M. Arab-Sasanian, no. 196.

NR–1–9/21 image 31, 3.45. Plate XVI

39-40. The same. 69 H. = 688/9 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 100, no. 197, except: mint signature no. 12b, and date written image. Star l., crescent r. of flames.

NR–1–9/22 image 31, 3.61.

9/23 image 31, 345. Plate XVI

41-45. The same. 70 H. = 689/90 A.D. BIŠ = Bishāpūr. Dirhem.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 109–134, p. 27, above.

NR–1–9/26 image 31, 3.52.

9/27 image 30, 3.47. Plate XVII

9/28 image 30, 2.87 + (clipped).

9/31 image 31, 3.20.

9/32 image 31, 3.30. Plate XVII

(9/36 image 32, 3.48).122 Plate XVII

46. The same.

Similar to nos. 41–45, but date written image.

NR–1–9/33 image 31, 2.85 + (frg. lacking).

47-48. The same.

Similar to nos. 41–45, but no pellet before لله in obverse margin.

NR–1–9/29 image 31, 3.48 + (piece lacking). Plate XVII

9/30 image 31, 3.10. Plate XVII

2. Uncertain Mint

49. The same. 69 H. = 688/9 A.D. VIŠP or NIŠP or NIŠČ, etc.? Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 102, no. B.35, but obverse margin: imageلله الحمد image. Reverse: at r. image Star l., crescent r. of flames.

NR–1–9/24 image 32, 3.40. Plate XVII

50. The same.

Similar to no. 49, but mint written: image.

NR–1–9/25 image 32, 348. Plate XVII

The mint signature is a puzzle. The letters can be read in many different ways. Walker (B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. civ, no. 45a and p. cxxv) reads NIH (?) for Nihāvand, but I find it difficult to accept this interpretation. Could it by any chance be a rendering of the old Pahlevi name of Bishāpūr, that is, Wēh-Shāhpuhr? The fact that all the other coins of 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh in this hoard were struck at the mint of Bishāpūr might lend some support to this suggestion.123 The only other known example of this mint signature is on a coin of 'Umar b. 'Ubaydullāh, year 72 (?).124

End Notes
122
This coin, now among those belonging to the Oriental Institute, was found in the envelope marked NR–1–9/36, but the field inventory card for this number (prepared by the writer in 1936) describes a coin of Qaṭari (see no. 53, below). Obviously at some point two coins and envelopes were switched. In order to keep the number of specimens correct I have counted only five specimens of this issue, as one of the others listed above (now in Teheran) may actually be the one now in envelope 9/36.

f) 'Aṭīyah b. al-Aswad

51. 'Aṭīyah b. al-Aswad. 73 H. = 692/3 A.D. KRMAN-RB (?) = Kirmān. Dirhem.

Usual bust. At r.: image

In margin:

image بسم الله ولى الامر image

Usual fire-altar and attendants. At r.: image; at l. image. Star l., crescent r. of flames.

NR–1–9/34 image 31, 3.38. Plate XVIII

Cf. B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 111, no. I.45, dated 73 or 76 (?), with a different mint suffix. Here we have still another variety of these mysterious appended letters. Cf. no. 32, above.

This specimen was mentioned and illustrated in Miles, Kirmān, footnote 22, plate, 3.

52. The same. 74 H. = 693/4 A.D. KRMAN-NHR = Kirmān. Dirhem.

Similar to no. 51, but in 3rd quarter of obverse margin: image. Reverse: at r. image; at l. image.

NR–1–9/35 image 31, 3.72.

Cf. B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 111, no. Th.15, and RIC, no. 29, which however lack the Pahlevi legend in the 3rd quarter of the obverse and have mint signature KRMAN (Walker's no. 28). The mint signature here appears to be similar to Walker's no. 34. The present specimen was mentioned in Miles, Kirmān, footnote 22. An unpublished specimen is a recent American Numismatic Society accession (ANS 57.84) with image in the 3rd quarter of the obverse and mint signature image (Walker's no. 33).

End Notes
123
If the first letter is N, the abbreviation might be for Nāshāpūr, which according to Mustawfi was a form of the name Bishāpūr (Le Strange, p. 263).
124
Miles, Museum Notes VII, no. 37.

g) Qaṭari b. al-Fujā'ah

53. 125 Qaṭari b. al-Fujā'ah. 75 H. = 694/5 A.D. DARTM or DARAWM = Darabjird. Dirhem.

Similar to B. M. Arab-Sasanian, p. 113, no. 220, but mint signature appears to be: image.

NR–1–9/36 image 30, 3.70.

The mint signature is reproduced here from my own transcription of it in the field. It is possible that the letter which I read as a t is blurred and actually is the same as the element on the B.M. specimen, i.e., AW. Unfortunately there is no photograph of the coin and it is presumably in the Teheran Museum. An unpublished specimen in the American Numismatic Society (ANS 56.137) has image. Another variety of the same mint and date (with mint signature DA apparently) has been described since the publication of B.M. Arab-Sasanian.126

Both John Walker and I127 are mistaken in furnishing Qaṭari's name with the definite article. The legend of course does not have it, and he is simply Qaṭari in the chronicles.128

End Notes
125
This is the coin which originally bore the field number NR–1–9/36. Cf. footnote 122, above.
126
T. O. Mabbott in Numismatic Review IV (1947), p. 28, not illustrated.
127
Miles, Museum Notes VII, p. 203.
128
I owe this observation to G. Levi Delia Vida.

B. BRONZE
a) Iṣṭakhr

54. Uncertain governor. Ca. 70–90 H. = ca. 689–709 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Bronze.

Facing head, bearded. Cross above headdress. At r. image; at l. image, and above it image (?). Beaded border.

In center, uncertain figure, possibly a large tall M, with image beneath base line. At r. image; at l. image (APSTAN). Beaded border.

NR–2–2 Æ 20. Plate XVIII

This very interesting coin is unique. The occurrence of the Byzantine cross and M on hybrid Arab-Sasanian bronzes is however not without parallel: cf. Walker, Coins from Susa, nos. 6, 13, 15. The almost complete spelling out of the mint name is met with on two specimens found in the Iṣṭakhr excavations (nos. 146–147, above, p. 35), where also a cross is present above the reverse type, APSTAN, for apastān, is an important addition to the limited Pahlevi vocabulary of Arab-Sasanian numismatics. There can be little doubt about the correctness of the reading, which I owe to my friend Professor Richard N. Frye. The word is common on Sasanian seals,129 the meaning essentially being, "refuge, confidence, faith,"130 I would suggest that here the sense is identical with the Arabic al-wafā', which already appears on some Arab-Byzantine bronzes,131 and soon occurs frequently on bronze coins of pure Arab type,132 as well as on glass weights.133

End Notes
129
P. Horn & G. Steindorff, Sassanidische Siegelsteine (Berlin, 1891), pp. 37–38.
130
Cf. apastām, "Zuflucht," H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi II (Uppsala, 1931), p. 16; apestī, Paruck, p. 274.
131
B. M. Arab-Byzantine, p. 51.
132
E.g., at al-Rayy in 101, 104, 110 and 116 H. (NHR, nos. 26–28, 30); and for others, with or without mint name, cf. B. M. Arab-Byzantine, index.
133
G. C. Miles, Contributions to Arabic Metrology, I (ANS Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 141, N.Y., 1958), index.

b) Uncertain Mint

55. Anonymous, 11x H. (?) = 728–737 A.D. (?). Mint effaced. Bronze.

Crude bust, r., with tall headdress. On breast image. At l., downward محمد; at r., downward (faint) رسول الله. Across face, upward محمد. Double beaded border.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

...لا شريك

Margin: و مئة (⸮) عشر.....بسم الله

Beaded border with annulets (?).

NR–2–3b Æ 21. Plate XVIII

It is a great pity that the reverse of this truly remarkable coin is not completely preserved so that the mint and exact date can be fixed. The word عشر is fairly certain, placing the issue probably in the teens of the 2nd century of the Hijrah; at all events it is after 99 H., because مئة is entirely clear. The combination of a bust of Sasanian inspiration (though no longer the "bust of Khosrau II") with a developed conventional post-reform reverse (one would normally call it the obverse since it bears the first part of the shahadah and the mint-date formula, but I have given precedence to the bust) presents an advanced stage of transitional hybrid. It would be interesting to know whether or not the word محمد across the face is a counterstamp or is on the die itself. Despite the fact that there appears to be no corresponding protuberance on the other side of the coin, I would judge that the word is a counterstamp and that it was intentionally applied to mutilate the face, which one may assume had by this time become distasteful to strict partisans of the nascent Islamic iconoclastic sentiment.

For coins with a somewhat similar bust in combination with a post-reform legend, cf. Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 155–159, P. 38, above.

56. Uncertain. Ca. 80–120 H. = ca. 699–738 A.D. Uncertain mint. Bronze.

An obscure coin with 2 or 3-line legends on each face, the characters either Pahlevi or possibly Kufic engraved by a Pahlevi-writing artisan.

NR–1–59 Æ 22. Plate XVIII

IV. POST-REFORM UMAYYAD

a) Iṣṭakhr

57. Anonymous. 130 H. = 747/8 A.D. Iṣṭakhr. Fals.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 185–189, p. 45 above, but there are evidences on both sides that the specimen was restruck on an earlier coin.

NR–2–30 Æ 21. Plate XVIII

b) Wāsiṭ

58. Anonymous. 124 H. = 741/2 A.D. Wāsiṭ. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده لا

شريك له

Double linear border enclosing 5 annulets; outer broad linear border.

محمد

رسول

الله

Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس

بواسط سنة اربع و عشرين ومئة

Linear border enclosing area; linear border with 3 (of 5?) half annulets enclosing margin; outer broad linear border.

NR–1–48 Æ 20, 2.78. Plate XVIII

Cf. Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 199–200, p. 48, above, probably the same, but obverse effaced.

c) Uncertain Mint

59. Uncertain governor. Ca. 100–132 H. = ca. 718–750 A.D. Fals.

Usual formulae, no significant legends preserved.

NR–1–55 Æ 19.

V. 'ABBĀSID

a) Ardashīr-Khurrah (?)

60. Uncertain governor or anonymous. Date effaced. Mid–2nd. c. H. = ca. 750–790 A.D. Ardashīr-Khurrah (?). Fals.

Effaced except for obverse margin: ...ضرب هذا...(⸮)...باردشـ.

NR–1–52 Æ 20.

b) Fasā

61. The Caliph al-mahdi and Nuṣayr. No date. 158–169 H. = 775–785 A.D. Fasā. Fals.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 554–561, p. 73, above.

NR–2–3a Æ 20. Plate XVIII

c) Kūrat al-mahdīyah min Fārs

62-63. Anonymous. 161 H. = 777/8 A.D. Kūrat al-mahdīyah min Fārs. Fals.

Similar to Iṣṭakhr Excavations, nos. 603–608, p. 76, above, except that beneath obverse, ornament or letter: image

NR–1–50 Æ 23, 2.30. Plate XVIII

2–1 Æ 23. Plate XVIII

c) Madīnat al-Salām

64. Anonymous. 213 H. = 828/9 A.D. Madīnat al-Salām. Dirhem.

Similar to Berlin, no. 1413.

NR–1–54 image 28 (frg., ½). Plate XVIII

e) Mint Effaced

65. Uncertain governor. 15X = 768–776 A.D. Mint effaced. Fals.

Margin: .... (⸮)مما امر به

Margin within dotted borders.

Margin: ....بسم الله ضرب هذ

ـسين ومئة....

Margin within inner dotted border and outer beaded border. Annulets?

NR–2–50 Æ 21.

66. The Caliph al-mahdi. 16x = 777–786 A.D. Mint effaced. Fals.

لا اله الا

الله وحده

لا شريك له

Five annulets between thin inner and thick outer linear borders.

الخليفة [المهدي؟]ـ

محمد

امير المؤمنين

Margin: بسم الله.... ستين و مئة

NR–2–3C Æ 18.

67. Unidentifiable, probably 'Abbāsid. 2nd c. H. = 8th c. A.D. Fals.

Almost completely obliterated.

NR–1–47 Æ 19.

VI. ILKHĀNID

68. Abu-Sa'īd. No date. 716–736 H. = 1316–1336 A.D. Mint effaced. Bronze.

Within polygonal frame surrounded by linear border and border of dots:

بو

ا سعيد

بهادر

Traces of ornament or legend.

NR–2–17 Æ 20. Plate XVIII

Cf. Persepolis Terrace Excavations, no. 9, p. 87, above.

VII. ILKHĀNID OR SUCCESSOR

69. Uncertain ruler. Date effaced. 8th c. H. = 14th c. A.D. Uncertain mint. Bronze.

Within square enclosed by circle:

لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

In center, within circle:

.....

ضر

ب

Margin: ....(⸮)سلطان....

Outer linear border.

NR–2–59 Æ 21. Plate XVIII

VIII. MUẒAFFARID

70. Shāh Shujā'. No date. 765–786 H. = 1363–1384 A.D. Shīrāz. Bronze.

Within double linear border and outer border of dots:

Within double linear border:

شاه

شجاع

(⸮)عا...

شيراز

NR–2–26 Æ 16. Plate XVIII

Evidently unpublished.

71. The same. Shīrāz. Bronze.

Within polygon (?):

......

السلطان المطاع

شجاع

Within double square:

عدلية

شيراز

NR–2–54 Æ 21. Plate XVIII

This type also evidently is unpublished. The title al-mutā' is present on published silver coins of Shāh Shujā'.134

UNIDENTIFIABLE ISLAMIC

72. Coin or token of 9th c. H. (?) = 15th c. A.D. (?). Bronze.

.......

و العز الدئم

.......

Linear border and outer border of dots.

Negative impression of obverse.

NR–1–57 Æ 18.

73. Unidentified Islamic. Bronze.

No field record other than "Islamic."

NR–2–12 Æ 18.

End Notes

134
Cf. B.M. vi, nos. 671 ff.

INVENTORY OF FIELD CATALOGUE NUMBERS IṢṬAKHR

Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–I–17 391
31 623
34 633
55 623
63 344
63a 146
63b 237
67a 31
67b 866
71 633
75 391
81 160
89 603
92 391
93 31
96 866
97 611
100 180
102 581
105 21
113 391
114 180
116 31
117 199
119 603
120 237
126 237
127 581
131 370
136 633
142 31
143 143
145 258
I–1–146 633
148 31
149 138
150 173
160 391
166 146
168 202
170 180
179 623
181 258
184 633
186 391
189 258
191 258
193 154
197 633
199 391
203 614
205 31
210 391
211 258
220 29
220a 31
225 237
226 31
230 202
231 31
241 633
241a 633
242 180
242a 180
243 258
243a 31
I–1–243b 22
245 176
248 31
252 391
252a 178
257 364
267 31
276 344
278 258
281 155
282 633
283 633
284 554
290 633
291 866
295 202
300 391
301 370
302 633
306 633
307 370
312 633
312a 344
313 258
315 510
318 258
319 202
319a 633
321 164
322 157
325 24
333 258
335 370
I–1–336 258
337 31
339 23
341 633
344 633
354 391
355 864
358 581
359 31
363 633
364 319
366 391
370 24
372 258
376 490
380 581
382 370
385 31
386 471
388 633
389 633
393 633
394 202
406 258
407 185
407a 581
407b 581
412 623
413 31
414 633
424 31
425 391
425a 866
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–1–436 31
462 581
464 603
468 581
474 633
475 581
477 633
481 258
484 258
485 258
511 151
515 562
516 391
519 633
521 391
529 633
545 603
561 391
562 562
572 31
573 31
575 202
591 31
598 31
602 522
604 391
626 173
626a 258
627 31
629 31
631 31
635 24
643 855
645 391
646 258
647 31
652 31
653 562
654 185
655 554
655a 31
I–1–655b 391
657 383
657a 383
658 633
659 258
660 202
882 24
883 31
884 391
885 138
886 202
887 391
889 633
890 202
892 258
893 344
893a 391
894 2
895 327
896 258
897 16
898 633
901 391
902 391
903 190
905 562
906 344
906a 633
907 15
908 633
908a 633
909 151
910 157
911a 3
911b 4
911C 4
911d 4
911e 4
911f 8
911g 8
911h 8
I–1–911i 8
911j 8
912 562
912a 633
913 633
914 13
916 202
918 24
919 391
919a 472
921 633
927 142
928/1 103
928/2 103
928/3 103
928/4 103
928/5 103
928/6 108
928/7 108
928/8 109
928/9 109
928/10 109
928/11 109
928/12 109
928/13 109
928/14 109
928/15 109
928/16 109
928/17 109
928/18 109
928/19 109
928/20 109
928/21 109
928/22 109
928/23 109
928/24 109
928/25 109
928/26 109
928/27 109
928/28 109
928/29 109
I–1–928/30 109
928/31 109
928/32 109
928/33 109
929 391
929a 472
929b 391
932 478
933 866
934 383
935 554
935a 391
936 364
937 370
938 499
938a 150
940 31
941 30
942 31
943 31
948 391
1–2–13 866
114 866
249 177
278 633
542 861
1515 866
1516a 31
1516b 633
1518 196
1519 616
1520/1 866
1520/2 633
1520/3 510
1520/4 633
1520/5 258
1520/6 258
1520/7 478
1520/8 633
1520/9 633
1520/10 866
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–2–1520/11 633
1520/12 522
1520/13 510
1520/14 633
1520/15 562
1520/16 633
1520/17 633
1520/18 522
1520/19 633
1520/20 866
1520/21 633
1520/22 633
1520/23 522
1520/24 866
1520/25 633
1520/26 522
1520/27 498
1520/28 562
1520/29 522
1520/30 522
1520/31 866
1520/32 522
1520/33 633
1520/34 522
1520/35 327
1520/36 630
1520/37 522
1520/38 633
1520/39 258
1520/40 522
1520/41 633
1520/42 866
1520/43 633
1520/44 633
1520/45 633
1520/46 522
1520/47 522
1520/48 522
1520/49 522
1520/50 327
1520/51 510
I–2–1520/52 866
1520/53 258
1520/54 510
1520/55 633
1520/56 172
1520/57 258
1520/58 522
1520/59 633
1520/60 633
1520/61 510
1520/62 179
1520/63 478
1520/64 633
1520/65 490
1520/66 522
1520/67 866
1520/68 522
1520/69 617
1520/70 383
1520/71 522
1520/72 633
1520/73 522
1520/74 522
1521 237
1522 31
1523 633
1524 866
1525 391
1526a 165
1526b 633
1527 185
1528 14
1529 237
1530 562
1531 866
1532 866
1533 554
1534 633
1535a 163
1535b 522
1535c 258
I–2–1536a 633
1536b 231
1537 633
1538a 866
1538b 609
1538c 633
1539 633
1540 866
1541 633
1542 156
1543 319
1544a 340
1544b 237
1545a 866
1545b 633
1545c 866
1546 237
1547a 230
1547b 88
1547c 866
1548 866
1549 20
1550 391
1551 237
1552a 866
1552b 499
1553 866
1554 581
1555 504
1556a 237
1556b 633
1556c 490
1557a 478
1557b 866
1558 344
1559 866
1560 633
1561 323
1562 31
1563 31
1564 1
I–2–1565 31
1566 31
1567 866
1568 633
1569 364
1570 369
1571 633
1572 633
1573 603
1574 581
1575 202
1576 31
1577a 31
1577b 866
1578 148
1579 144
1580 866
1581 88
1582 477
1583 615
1584 258
1585 851
1586 633
1587 383
1588 612
1589 324
1590 339
1591 344
1592a 865
1592b 581
1593 344
1594 202
1595 633
1596 145
1597 866
1598 344
1599a 237
1599b 866
1600a 31
1600b 633
1601 866
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–2–1602 31
1603a 344
1603b 866
1604 31
1605 866
1606a 88
1606b 520
1607 866
1608 633
1609 633
1610 562
1611 391
1612 506
1613 866
1614 370
1615 633
1616 633
1617 633
1618 866
1619 196
1620 581
1621 391
1622a 633
1622b 866
1622c 562
1622d 633
1622e 866
1623 866
1624 391
1625a 633
1625b 31
1626a 866
1626b 522
1627a 344
1627b 633
1628 866
1629 633
1630 866
1631 633
1632 866
1633 88
I–2–1634 866
1635a 633
1635b 478
1636 866
1637 866
1638 633
1639 327
1640 633
1641a 866
1641b 478
1641c 327
1641d 633
1642 866
1643 391
1644 866
1645 623
1646 633
1647 391
1648 633
1649 633
1650 866
1651a 201
1651b 391
1651c 391
1652 340
1653 136
1654 633
1655 581
1656 866
1657 853
1658 522
1659 633
1660 633
1661 327
1662 633
1663a 633
1663b 31
1664 391
1665 866
1666 613
1667a 391
I–2–1667b 633
1668 866
1669a 866
1669b 866
1670 633
1671a 866
1671b 562
1672 505
1673a 866
1673b 327
1674 859
1675 633
1676 866
1677 866
1678 337
1679 478
1680 522
1681a 866
1681b 633
1682a 474
1682b 866
1683 633
1684a 863
1684b 633
1685a 866
1685b 258
1685c 866
1686a 622
1686b 633
1687a 521
1687b 866
1687c 633
1687d 633
1687e 633
1687f 866
1688a 633
1688b 554
1689 562
1690a 633
1690b 633
1690c 866
I–2–1690d 510
1691a 866
1691b 633
1691c 581
1691d 633
1692a 866
1692b 522
1692c 391
1692d 391
1692e 866
1693a 633
1693b 866
1693c 633
1693d 633
1693e 866
1693f 317
1694a 258
1694b 866
1694c 633
1694d 866
1695 562
1696a 866
1696b 391
1697 391
1698 633
1699 633
1700a 510
1700b 554
1701a 258
1701b 623
1702 391
1703a 866
1703b 391
1703c 633
1703d 633
1703e 633
1704 370
1705 633
1706 344
1707 633
1708a 866
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–2–1708b 633
1708c 866
1709 258
1710 31
1711a 391
1711b 88
1712 391
1713 633
1714 866
1715 88
1716 866
1717 633
1718a 866
1718b 866
1719 633
1720a 866
1720b 633
1721 866
1722 853
1723a 391
1723b 633
1723c 866
1724a 633
1724b 391
1724c 866
1725 198
1726a 258
1726b 478
1726c 88
1727 137
1728 138
1729a 581
1729b 324
1729c 633
1730 633
1731a 391
1731b 391
1731C 866
1731d 391
1731e 490
1731f 317
I–2–1732 102
1733 633
1734a 866
1734b 581
1735 138
1736a 866
1736b 202
1737 391
1738a 237
1738b 202
1739 191
1740 581
1741 391
1742a 866
1742b 194
1743a 364
1743b 866
1744 499
1745 391
1746 633
1747 866
1748 866
1749 633
1750 866
1751 195
1752 370
1753 202
1754a 391
1754b 391
1755 167
1756 603
1757 866
1758a 258
1758b 866
1758c 499
1759 633
1760 858
1761 619
1762a 237
1762b 327
1762c 522
I–2–1763a 859
1763b 866
1764 237
1765 202
1766 31
1767 370
1768 633
1769a 866
1769b 866
1769c 202
1769d 258
1770 866
1771a 391
1771b 258
1772a 866
1772b 633
1772c 633
1772d 522
1772e 167
1773 866
1774 503
1775 258
1776 866
1777 202
1778 490
1779a 633
1779b 510
1780a 866
1780b 633
1780c 633
1780d 316
1780e 619
1780f 633
1781 633
1782 202
1783 319
1784 31
1785a 167
1785b 88
1785c 866
1785d 88
I–2–1785e 31
1786 167
1787 866
1788a 18
1788b 633
1789 866
1790 135
1791b 88
1791d 31
1792a 88
1792b 31
1793a 162
1793b 167
1794 866
1795a 31
1795b 160
1796a 31
1796b 88
1797 88
1798 31
1799 319
1800 370
1801 633
1802 258
1803 191
1804 185
1805a 202
1805b 391
1806 633
1807 391
1808a 633
1808b 231
1809 866
1810 202
1811a 862
1811b 478
1812 202
1813 633
1814 562
1815 633
1816 633
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–2–1817 623
1818 490
1819 866
1820a 258
1820b 633
1820c 866
1820d 522
1821 554
1822a 391
1822b 866
1822c 633
1823 633
1824 866
1825 633
1826 633
1827a 866
1827b 633
1827c 866
1828a 633
1828b 633
1828c 258
1828d 866
1829 633
1830 866
1831 633
1832 866
1833a 633
1833b 866
1833c 633
1834 866
1835 165
1836a 866
1836b 344
1837 258
1838a 633
1838b 185
1838c 866
1838a 391
1839a 258
1839b 866
1840 490
I–2–1841 231
1842 866
1843 344
1844 633
1845 866
1846a 364
1846b 633
1847a 633
1847b 562
1848 633
1849a 866
1849b 631
1850 562
1851 619
1852a 866
1852b 258
1853a 490
1853b 391
1853c 866
1854 202
1855 391
1856 633
1857a 489
1857b 633
1858a 866
1858b 633
1859a 202
1859b 633
1859c 258
1859d 866
1860 633
1861 391
1862 633
1863a 866
1863b 258
1864a 866
1864b 370
1864c 327
1864d 633
1865 866
1866 258
I–2–1867a 866
1867b 633
1867c 866
1867d 633
1868 478
1869 633
1870 344
1871 866
1872a 391
1872b 258
1873a 866
1873b 258
1874 391
1875a 633
1875b 554
1876a 633
1876b 866
1876c 202
1876d 633
1877 633
1878a 633
1878b 633
1879a 866
1879b 237
1879c 866
1879d 344
1880a 633
1880b 633
1881a 391
1881b 866
1881c 344
1882 866
1883 258
1884 866
1885a 581
1885b 581
1886a 237
1886b 631
1887 581
1888 633
1889 866
I–2–1890 391
1891 633
1892 237
1893a 866
1893b 866
1894 17
1895 633
1896 391
1897 340
1898a 633
1898b 391
1899 633
1900 866
1901 850
1902 866
1903 508
1904 866
1905 633
1906 202
1907 866
1908a 474
1908b 633
1908c 633
1909 633
1910 633
1911a 866
1911b 866
1911c 633
1911d 633
1911e 866
1912 562
1913 866
1914 633
1915 866
1916 474
1917 866
1918 258
1919 153
1920 866
1921 553
1922 258
Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
I–2–1923 866
1924a 633
1924b 391
1925 633
1926 866
1927 633
1928a 610
1928b 866
1929 633
1930 506
1931 866
1932 633
1933a 866
1933b 370
1934 236
1935 256
1936 31
1937 391
1938 256
1939a 633
1939b 866
1939c 258
1940 173
1941 344
1942 31
I–2–1943a 258
1943b 866
1944a 866
1944b 866
1945 237
1946 866
1947 258
1948 159
1949 383
1950 866
1951 633
1952 855
1953 866
1954 193
1955 337
1956 866
1957 617
1958 857
1959 344
1960 522
1961a 391
1961b 866
1962a 344
1963 383
1964 866
I–2–1965a 202
1965b 633
1966a 522
1966b 633
1967a 391
1967b 478
1968 199
1969 562
1970 231
1971 391
1971a 633
1972 866
1973a 581
1973b 231
1974a 18
1974b 866
1975 326
1976 391
1977b 510
1977c 258
1978 866
1979a 633
1979b 866
1980a 633
1980b 202
I–2–1981 866
1982 258
1983 866
1984 391
1985 633
1986 562
1987 88
1988 391
1989a 327
1989b 633
1990 633
1991 148
1992 852
1993 633
1994 31
1995 258
1996 237
1997 508
1998 340
1999a 633
1999b 633
2000 633
2001 383
2002 258
HL 96 ref. 581

PERSEPOLIS TERRACE

PT–3–6 19
10 11
14 14
18 11
19 11
PT–5–16 16
64 1
373a 2
373b 3
388 4
PT–5–436 18
838 8
839 17
840 15
845 10
PT–7–212 7
227 9
360 5
372 5

NAQSH-I RUSTAM

Field No. Numismatic Cat. No.
NR–1–9/1 4
9/2 5
9/3 11
9/4 17
9/5 12
9/6 14
9/7 16
9/8 9
9/9 13
9/10 7
9/11 8
9/12 6
9/13 30
9/14 33
9/15 34
9/16 31
9/17 32
9/18 35
9/19 35
NR–1–9/20 37
9/21 38
9/22 39
9/23 39
9/24 49
9/25 50
9/26 41
9/27 41
9/28 41
9/29 47
9/30 47
9/31 41
9/32 41
9/33 46
9/34 51
9/35 52
9/36 41,53
45 18
46a 22
NR–1–46b 22
47 67
48 58
49 21
50 62
51 18
52 60
53 1
54 64
55 59
56 18
57 72
58 22
59 56
60 22
61 22
62 22
63 22
NR–2–1 62
2 54
3a 61
3b 55
3c 66
12 73
15 10
17 68
26 70
30 57
38 15
48 22
50 65
51 3
54 71
57 2
59 69

BACK

INDEX OF DATES

  • ca. 310–300 B.C. 19
  • ca. 1st c. A.D. 20–1
  • 1st or 2nd c. A.D. 22
  • 2nd c. A.D. 22
  • ca. 200 A.D. 91
  • ca. 210–226 A.D. 22
  • 224–241 A.D. 85
  • ca. 293 A.D. 23
  • 388–399 A.D. 91
  • 420–438 A.D. 91
  • 558 or 559 A.D. 24
  • 581 A.D. 43
  • 583 A.D. 92
  • 587 A.D. 92
  • 590–628 A.D. 24–5, 94
  • 596 A.D. 93
  • 6th–7th c. A.D. 25, 95
  • 605 A.D. 93
  • 606 A.D. 93
  • ca. 610–613 A.D. 43
  • 615 A.D. 92
  • 617 A.D. 93
  • 620 A.D. 85, 92
  • 622 A.D. 92
  • 623 A.D. 94
  • 624 A.D. 93–4
  • 626 A.D. 92
  • 31 H. 95
  • ca. 50–80 H. 39–40
  • 53 H. 96
  • ca. 60–80 H. 37, 40
  • ca. 60–85 H. 40, 42
  • ca. 60–90 H. 35
  • 62 H. 96
  • 63 H. 85
  • ca. 63–72 H. 28
  • 66 H. 95
  • 67 H. 26, 97
  • 68 H. 25–6, 97
  • 69 H. 97–8
  • 6X H. 28
  • 70 H. 27, 97–8
  • ca. 70–90 H. 101
  • 73 H. 99
  • 74 H. 99
  • 75 H. 100
  • ca. 75–78 H. 28–9
  • ca. 80–85 H. 32–3
  • ca. 80–100 H. 36, 42
  • ca. 80–110 H. 37
  • ca. 80–120 H. 103
  • ca. 80–132 H. 51
  • 81 H. 45
  • 86–96 H. 38
  • ca. 90–120 H. 43, 49–50
  • ca. 90–132 H. 51
  • 93 H. 48
  • ca. 100–132 H. 46, 86, 104
  • 104 H. 44
  • 114 H. 48
  • 116 H. 48
  • 11X H. 102
  • 121 H. 48
  • 124 H. 48, 103
  • 126 H. 49
  • ca. 127–132 H. 51
  • ca. 129 H. 44
  • 130 H. 45, 47, 103
  • 132 H. 66
  • ca. 132–160 H. 57
  • ca. 132–200 H. 64
  • 133 H. 57
  • 1X6 H. 79
  • 140 H. 58, 64
  • 141 H. 64
  • 145 H. 53, 58
  • 149 H. 59
  • mid–2nd c. H. 104
  • 156 H. 79
  • 158–169 H. 73, 80, 104
  • 1X5 H. 56
  • 159 H. 60
  • 15X H. 105
  • 161 H. 75–6, 104
  • 162 H. 78
  • ca. 164–165 H. 68
  • 166 H. 78, 80
  • 167 H. 54–5, 60–2, 69, 86
  • 16X H. 105
  • 170 H. 78
  • 171 H. 87
  • 180 or 18X H. 52
  • 182 H. 55, 63, 65, 75, 80
  • 183 H. 70
  • 184 H. 71
  • 190 H. 79
  • 191 H. 68
  • 192 H. 71
  • 193 H. 78
  • 198 H. 81
  • 2nd c. H. 81, 87, 105
  • 201 H. 71
  • 205 H. 73
  • 213 H. 105
  • 232–247 H. 81
  • 256–279 H. 81
  • 272 H. 81
  • 3rd c. H. 81–2
  • 323 H. 79
  • 3XX H. 82
  • 38X H. 82
  • Late 4th–early 5th c. H. 83
  • ca. 5th c. H. 83
  • ca. 700–750 H. 88
  • 716–736 H. 87, 106
  • 730 H. 83
  • 737 H. 88
  • 740–744 H. 84
  • 765–786 H. 88, 106–7
  • ca. 790–800 H. 89
  • 8th c. H. 106
  • after 8th c. H. 90
  • 9th c. H. 107
  • 11th–12th c. H. 90
  • 12th–13th c. H. 84, 89–90
  • 1250–1264 H. 84

INDEX OF MINTS AND PLACES 1

  • Abarqubādh 65
  • al-'Abbāsīyah 87
  • Adharbayjān 55, 74
  • al-Ahwāz 53, 64, 69
  • Antioch 43
  • Ardashīr-Khurrah 24, 25, 26, 34, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 62–3, 66, 70, 75, 77–8, 95, 104
  • Armīnīyah (Armenia) 55, 74
  • Arrajān 52, 65, 77
  • Arrān 55
  • ART 24, 95
  • Baḥrayn 69
  • Balkh 65, 67
  • al-Baṣrah 31, 44, 53, 69, 74, 96
  • Birāmqubādh 64, 65
  • Bishāpūr 25, 26, 27, 31, 34, 41, 46, 69, 97, 98, 99
  • BIŠ 25, 26, 27, 97, 98
  • BJRA 96
  • Bukhārā 82
  • Constantinople 43
  • DAP 96
  • Darabjird 74, 77, 92, 96, 100
  • DARAWM 100
  • DARTM 100
  • Dijlah 69
  • DR 92
  • Dujayl 89
  • Elymais 22–3
  • Fārs 47, 52–3, 69, 73, 74
  • Fasā 56, 63, 70, 73, 74, 75, 80, 104
  • Filāsṭīn 55
  • Fīrūzābād 53, 77
  • al-Furaḍ 69
  • Gōr 53
  • Idhaj 88
  • Irān 84
  • Irmīnīyah 55
  • Iṣfahān 84
  • Iṣṭakhr 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 44, 45, 47, 50, 53, 55–6, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 70, 72, 75, 77, 86, 94, 101, 103
  • Jayy 67, 68
  • Jür 53–4, 55, 76, 77
  • Kabīr Shaykh 84, 88
  • Kazīrūn 66–7
  • Khurāsān 30, 72
  • Khuzistān 89
  • Kirmān 34, 85, 94, 96, 99
  • KRMAN 100
  • KRMAN-RB 99
  • KRMAN-NHR 99
  • KRMNRMAN 96
  • al-Kūfah 44–5
  • Kūrat al-mahdīyah min Fārs 54–5, 75, 76, 77, 104
  • Macedonia 19
  • Ma'din al-Shāsh 79
  • Madīnat al-Salām 74, 78, 79, 80, 105
  • Māl-Amīr (Malamir) 89
  • al-mawṣil (Mosul) 53, 74
  • Mecca 77
  • Merv 67, 92
  • MR 92
  • al-muḥammadīyah 77, 78
  • Nahr-Tīrâ 92, 93, 95
  • Nāshāpūr 99
  • NH 93
  • NHR 92, 93, 95
  • NIH 24, 92, 93, 99
  • Nihāvand 24, 92, 93, 99
  • NIŠČ 98
  • NIŠP 98
  • Persis 19–22, 91
  • Ratīn River 66
  • al-Rayy 56, 77, 92, 93, 101
  • RD 92, 93
  • Rūd-i Ḥilla 66
  • Sābūr 45, 46, 56, 63, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 77, 86
  • Samarqand 71
  • Shāpūr 30, 39
  • Shaykh-i Kabīr 84, 88
  • Shīrajān 85, 94
  • Shīrāz 31, 44–5, 47, 53, 66, 71, 72–4, 77, 89, 106, 107
  • Shūsh 33–4, 41
  • Sijistān 55
  • ST 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 94
  • STKHR 35, 101
  • Susa 19
  • ŠI 85
  • ŠR 94
  • Ṭabaristān 55
  • Tanbūk 52
  • TART 25
  • Tawwaj 66, 67, 74
  • al-Taymarah 67
  • Tustar 89
  • 'Umān 69
  • VIŠP 98
  • Wāsiṭ 48, 49, 79, 103
  • Weh-Shāhpuhr 99
  • Zaranj 85, 86, 94
  • ZR 85, 94
  • No Mint Name 20, 21, 22, 23, 37, 38, 43, 49, 50, 79, 85, 91
  • Mint Name Effaced 24, 25, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 51, 52, 59, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 90, 91, 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107

End Notes

1
The pages on which excavation coins of a given mint are described appear here in bold face type.

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES

  • 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. al-Ash 'ath 32–3, 41
  • 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Ziyād 65
  • 'Abdullāh al-Ṣaffāḥ (abu'l-'Abbās) 57, 66–7
  • 'Abdullāh b. Mu'āwiyah 67
  • 'Abdullāh b. al-musayyib 71–2
  • 'Abdullāh b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz 44
  • 'Abdullāh b. Zubayr 28, 85–6, 95
  • Abu-Muslim 51, 67
  • Abu-Sa'īd 83, 87, 106
  • Aḥmad b. 'Abd al-'Azīz 47
  • Aḥmad b. Manṣūr 82
  • Alexander III 19
  • al-Amīn 65
  • Ardashir I 22, 85
  • Artaxerxes I (Sasanian) 22, 85
  • Artaxerxes V (Persis) 22, 91
  • 'Aṭīyah b. al-Aswad 99
  • Bahram III 23, 24
  • Bahram IV 91
  • Bahram V 91
  • Barmaki 56, 70–1
  • Bishr b. Marwān 34
  • al-Faḍl b. Sahl 71
  • Fakhr al-Dawlah 82
  • Gocithres 20
  • al-Hādi 69
  • al-Ḥajjāj b. Yūsuf 34
  • al-Ḥakam b. abi'l-'Āṣ 65