In the autumn of 1922, I have been given to understand, some boys playing on a mound of earth in the outskirts of Canea, the Cretan capital, came upon part of the hoard of small silver coins described in this article. Originally, they seem to have been contained in an earthenware jar or pot which in the course of centuries had been broken, allowing the contents to become somewhat scattered. The fragments of the pot were not preserved, and I was unable to get any definite information either as to its size or shape. This is unfortunate as it might have assisted in more nearly fixing the date of burial of the hoard.
On my arrival in Crete, I was able to buy about 700 of these coins; and three months later, 303 others, making in all, 1003 pieces. Evidently after the discovery of the first lot, people began digging operations in the vicinity, and gradually unearthed more and more specimens, showing that at some previous period the original deposit had been much disturbed. The coins themselves fell into the hands of numerous owners—apparently, all the men at work had a share in the spoil, and it took some months of negotiation to get together the 1003 coins on which the following catalogue is based. Before my arrival in Crete, some had already found their way into the hands of local dealers and were thus dispersed, but I am inclined to think that these were not many in number and that I secured the bulk of the hoard as first found, except for about 80 pieces which were acquired by the Government in Athens.
In Crete, coin hoards are not of common occurrence. In twenty years of collecting in the island, this is the first of any size of which I have heard, with the exception of one found a few years ago on the site of Gortyna. This Gortyna find was hurriedly dispersed, barring a few pieces which were seized by the Government, and it has been impossible to learn very much about it.
The chief interest of the present hoard consists in the fact that it presents a great number of dies of a hitherto obscure Cretan mint, of which only a few examples were known, and also increases our knowledge of the lesser silver coinage of Cydonia and Tanos, and their close relation to one another. It is also curious in that it contains coins of only three known Cretan towns—Cydonia, Tanos, and Itanos, whereas non-Cretan places, such as Aegina, Argos, Chalcis, Corinth, Histiaea, and Macedon are all represented, together with a Rhodian didrachm—the only coin of this weight in the entire hoard. Nearly all the coins are hemidrachms or still lighter denominations. The only drachms were one of Itanos, to which reference will be made later, one of Chalcis and two of Corinth.
From the fact that they were found on the site of the ancient Cydonia, it seems probable that the coins with the Aeginetic reverse (Plates I—V), which comprise 586 of the 1003 pieces in my possession, belong to that mint. There is some evidence for this as will be seen, and one naturally expects the bulk of the coins in a hoard to belong to the mint of the district in which they were buried, unless they happened to have been the property of some foreign refugee.
We also find in the hoard 200 trihemiobols of Aeginetic weight, with a seated hound on the reverse (Pl. V), all restruck on Rhodian hemidrachms. These, as we know from the legend, certainly belong to Cydonia as do certain of the obols (Plates VI, VII), so that if we assign the 586 pieces with the Aeginetic reverse to the same mint, we have roughly 800 coins belonging to Cydonia out of the total of 1003. I say "roughly," as only 14 of the 67 obols have been given to Cydonia whereas the number may really be greater, as will be seen when that series is dealt with in the catalogue.
The pieces with the Aeginetic reverse may possibly belong to Tanos, which, from the coins already known and the new types included in this hoard, was evidently so intimately connected with Cydonia that it actually used Cydonian dies for its lighter denominations. We have practically no knowledge of Tanos beyond that given by Svoronos in his Numismatique de la Crète Ancienne, p. 318, where he places it in the immediate vicinity of Cydonia, and one hesitates to assign so large a series to a mint so little known and to which no coins can be definitely attributed except for a small series of obols. On the other hand the following evidence supports the claims of Cydonia to these coins. Svoronos, op. cit., pp. 326–327, attributes a small bronze with a reverse of very much this type to one of two otherwise unknown towns, Thenae or Therapnae, in Crete. The reverse of this coin is identical with the hoard series except that it lacks the small cross-bar dividing one of the four compartments. Svoronos considers this reverse to represent a Greek Theta and, therefore, assigns it to one of the few Cretan towns the name of which begins with TH. He published an excellent example of this same coin in Ephemeris Archaiologike, 1889, Pl. 13, No. 14, where it will be seen how very similar it is to the hoard coins. A variety of this coin among the uncertain bronze of the British Museum (Fig. 1) appears to me to show the letters K Y Δ disposed outside the pattern of the reverse. If my reading is correct, (Mr. E. S. G. Robinson of the British Museum agrees with me,) this would tend to assign all the bronze and silver of this general type to the Cydonian mint. We have the analogy of the obols of Tanos for this curious triangular manner of placing the first three letters of the place-name. (See Plates VI, VII, O: 53 and Q: 53.)
The attribution of this series to Cydonia is further strengthened by the coin shown in Fig. 2, which I have called Type A. This coin, which had been in my possession for some time before the discovery of the hoard, makes it fairly clear that this series with the Aeginetic reverse must belong to either Cydonia or Tanos, but preferably the former, as the head on the obverse is almost identical with one which occurs on certain known types of Cydonian obols, drachms and staters. (Svoronos, Num. de la Crète, Pl. IX, Nos. 15, 16, 23, 28.)
Type A. Vine-crowned head of a nymph to 1., flowing hair, border of dots. Restruck on an earlier flan.
AR .60, wt. 2.19 grm.
The weight 2.19 grm. is perplexing as it is a good deal heavier than the hoard series of this type. It may be meant for a light weight Aeginetic hemidrachm, and the extensive cleaning to which it has been subjected may partially account for its apparent underweight. From its style, it must be earlier in date than any of the hoard series with this Aeginetic type of reverse, with the possible exception of Type B on Plate I.
Belonging to the same series is the coin shown in Fig. 3.
The obverse die seems to be identical with that of Fig. 2.
Incuse square, divided by narrow bands into five compartments. In lower right hand compartment, two dots (acorn?). Overstruck on an earlier flan. This coin is in the Berlin Cabinet and Dr. Kurt Regling, to whose kindness I owe the cast, tells me that it has hitherto been assigned to Aegina following Mionnet's publication of it (Mion- net, III, 599, 43, Pl. xviii, 6). The reverse is almost identical with that of certain coins of Aegina, B. M. Cat. Attica, Pl. xxiv, 13, where what here looks like two dots in one of the compartments, appears to be an acorn. Dr. Regling also tells me he has seen a similar coin in the Cabinet of Mr. Empedocles in Athens which is overstruck on a coin of Sicyon, and which by its style appears to him to be a good deal earlier than the Berlin example.
Traditionally, Aegina figures as one of the original founders of Cydonia (Babelon, Traité, Vol. Ill, p. 1024, and Strabo, VIII, 6,16), and may have maintained an influence on affairs even during the historical period. But our knowledge of the history of Cretan towns in general is very scanty and aside from an endless series of petty quarrels with each other we have little real information about them. Quite recently, however, a certain amount of evidence has come to light which tends to show that Aegina exercised some obscure commercial influence on the town of Cydonia. There is a possibility, first suggested by Prof. J. L. Myres, of Oxford, that some of her turtle money may have been actually struck at Cydonia. Mr. E. S. G. Robinson is trying to collect some direct proof of a turtle mint in Crete, but the evidence is still insufficient for any definite statement. If this theory should prove to be correct, it would help to explain the appearance of the Aeginetic reverse on the large series of these coins in the present hoard.
The question of the date of the hoard is greatly assisted by the presence of the seven tetrobols of Macedon which were issued between 185–168 B.C. (Head, Hist. Num., p. 234) and of the 129 tetrobols of Histiaea which are assigned to 197–146 B.C. or even later. (Hist. Num., p. 364.) The probabilities are that the hoard was buried about 150 B.C., at a conservative guess, perhaps during one of the internecine wars which so constantly ravaged this island. These datable pieces of Macedon and Histiaea raise interesting questions as to the dating of some of the other coins included in the hoard. The series of trihemiobols belonging to Cydonia, with a youthful male horned head on the obverse and a seated hound on the reverse nearly all seem to be struck on hemidrachms of Rhodes of the type with the facing head of Helios. These Cydonian coins, judging by their condition, must have been nearly fresh from the mint at the time of the burial of the hoard. Few of them show signs of wear and many of them are in nearly mint state. According to Hist. Num., p. 464, these pieces were struck between 400–300 B.C. and Babelon, Vol. Ill, pp. 1030–31, No. 1758, places them between 360–300 B.C. Both these dates appear manifestly impossible viewed from the evidence of the hoard. The original issue of Rhodian hemidrachms on which they are restruck is placed in B. M. Cat. Caria, pp. 240–247, at 304–166 B.C., and it is unlikely that they were restruck directly after their first issue. Secondly, the condition of the coins themselves proves that they cannot have been long in circulation when the hoard was buried. This cannot have taken place, at the earliest, before 185 B.C., as shown by the tetrobols of Macedon, and was more probably nearer 150 than 185 B.C. In 166 B.C., a reorganization of the coinage took place in Rhodes, and new types of drachms and hemidrachms appeared showing the rose on the reverse in a shallow incuse square, to distinguish them from the preceding issue which had become shockingly debased in weight. (Hist. Num., p. 640). This new issue was an effort to rehabilitate the Rhodian mint by striking a series of coins of better weight to replace the preceding light weight types which were probably no longer accepted at their face value. It may be that the Cydonian treasury found itself overstocked with hemidrachms of the old type and, the new Rhodian series tending still further to discredit them, decided to restrike the whole lot as trihemiobols of Aeginetic weight.
The whole question of weights of the Cretan pieces in this hoard is a puzzling one, and it would appear that all the Cydonian coins which it contains were intended to pass under both the Rhodian and the Aeginetic standards though under different denominations. These so-called trihemiobols, as has been shown, are really Rhodian hemi- drachms. According to Macdonald, (The Silver Coinage of Crete , British Academy Papers, Vol IX, 1919, p. 18), the Rhodian system was used together with the Aeginetic and debased Aeginetic at Cydonia. Therefore one would have expected these small coins to have passed in Crete at their face value as hemidrachms of Rhodian weight, but this apparently was not the case. At this time the issues actually struck at Rhodes had so lost in weight that the Rhodian drachm was treated in Crete as an Aeginetic hemidrachm (Macdonald, p. 16). The Rhodian-struck hemidrachm apparently shared the same fate, and to solve the difficulty was valued and, as we have seen, restruck as an Aeginetic trihemiobol.
Another problem is presented by the large series of coins with the Aeginetic reverse. These range in weight from 1.36 to 1.94 grammes, but with an average weight of between 1.60 and 1.70 grammes. Of the 71 specimens belonging to the hoard described below, 11 are under 1.50 grms., 16 range from 1.50 to 1.60 grms., 29 from 1.60 to 1.70 grms., 13 from 1.70 to 1.80 grms., and only 2 examples are 1.80 grms., or over, the heaviest example being 1.86 grms. Five of those below 1.50 grms. were in bad condition or much cleaned, so that the normal low weight for these coins would not be less than 1.50 grms. They seem, as a whole, too light for Rhodian drachms, as in Crete it is the exception to find a drachm of this norm under at least two grammes, and most of them range from 3 to 3.50 grms.— the Cretan series of Rhodian weight being more nearly up to standard than the later issues of Rhodes itself (Macdonald, pp. 16–17). These coins are a good deal heavier than the series of restruck Rhodian hemidrachms discussed above, where the average weight seems to be between 1.20 and 1.30 grms., with a tendency to rise higher rather than lower, but they would be about right for Cretan-struck hemidrachms of Rhodian weight where the drachm usually ranges from 3 grms. to 3.50 grms., which would give a hemidrachm of 1.50 to 1.75 grms.; or, in other words, just what we find in the hoard series. When one tries to fit them into the Aeginetic standard as found in Crete they can only be diobols, a denomination that, so far, has not been recognized in any of the Cretan mints. In the entire Cretan series, only at Polyrhenium do we find a somewhat similar weight. There the coins with the facing bust of Dictynna on the obverse and the standing Apollo on the reverse, seem to approximate the hoard pieces with weights ranging from 1.62 to 2.11 grammes, with an average of 1.80. Macdonald (p. 22) speaks of them as Rhodian hemidrachms and Head, (Hist. Num., p. 475), as hemidrachms of Attic weight. The use of the latter standard in Crete seems to have been very limited, and we find almost no traces of it aside from the series of tetradrachms of Attic weight, which may have been the result of some political or commercial grouping of certain Cretan towns. Accepting, therefore, these coins with the Aeginetic reverse as Rhodian hemidrachms, we find that they would also be right for Aeginetic diobols if, as Macdonald says (p. n), the norm for Aeginetic hemidrachms in Crete is about 2.55 grammes. This would give an obol of .85 and a diobol of 1.70 grms., which is just what we find in the hoard coins, and not far out for the series of Polyrhenium. 1
From the reverses of the hoard coins, one would naturally have supposed that they would bear some relation to the Aeginetic system, but one would have hardly expected them to turn out to be diobols, a denomination which seems not to occur in the mint of Aegina itself or anywhere in Crete, if we except the coins of Polyrhenium just mentioned. If they are really meant to be Aeginetic diobols, they were probably issued to fulfil some commercial need for which the overstruck Rhodian hemidrachms and other small denominations of Cydonia were considered unacceptable. The probable solution of the whole question is, that given the equal use of the two standards by the Cydonian treasury, a coin which could pass in both systems as a definite though different unit of weight was very acceptable, and that the coins with the Aeginetic reverse could be either Aeginetic diobols or Rhodian hemi-drachms, as best suited the needs of the moment.
Of the two Aeginetan coins in the hoard, one triobol is in excellent state, Pl. VIII, 65, and shows few signs of having been in circulation for a long course of years as one would suppose must have been the case. This type, according to B. M. Cat. Attica, p. 139, No. 172, must have been issued before 431 B.C., and that it should still be in circulation by the middle of the second century B.C. without showing more signs of wear, seems incredible. This dating of these pieces with a crescent in one of the compartments of the incuse must be left open to question.
The two Corinthian drachms, Pl. IX, 71, must have been in circulation for a long time, as one belongs to the issue of 350–338 B.C. This coin, however, shows considerable signs of wear. The second piece (issue of 300–243, B.C.) was in very bad state, with a large piece broken out of the side, and is not illustrated.
There were 67 obols of Cydonia and Tanos included in the hoard. Most of these show many signs of wear, especially the types M N, O and P shown on Pl. VI. Types Q, R, S and T, on the other hand, were in fresher state and may have been the issues in circulation at the time of the burial of the hoard, especially R: 56, of which there were 13 examples out of the 67 pieces. The heads on the obverse of types N, P, Q and T seem to be new; at any rate, I have been unable to trace any published examples of them.
The question of sequence for the types with the Aeginetic reverse is not easy to decide, and my arrangement is an arbitrary one. In some cases the reverse of one series running over into another with a different obverse die, has served to indicate the order of sequence; but from the condition of the coins, the different issues must have succeeded one another fairly quickly and, except for type B, none of them had been long in circulation when the hoard was buried. The series with the obverse shown in Plates III to V, Types H and Ha, was the most abundant, numbering about 180 out of the total of 554 pieces, which were sufficiently well preserved for purposes of identification. This type, with its crude copy, I (Pl. IV), and, perhaps, J (Pl. V), were doubtless the dies in use at the time the hoard was hidden.
The obverse die, as is usually the case, outlasted the reverse, and one finds the same obverse used with a series of different reverses and can note its gradual deterioration until it becomes so nearly indistinguishable that it had to be replaced by a new die. (Pl. I, B and Ba, and series D.) Nine obverse dies occur among these pieces with the Aeginetic reverse. At first I took type Ba on Pl. I to be independent, but it appears to be the die of type B in the final stages of disintegration. The reverse dies number forty-two, which is surprising considering that these coins were practically unknown before the discovery of this hoard.
The obverse types, as is usual in the Cretan series, show extremes of style—some of them being quite good and others very crude. In the series E, F and Fa, on Plates II, III, one sees the original die and its coarser copy in two states. The large series H on Plate III has also its crude copy I. The same reverse in several states is shown on Pl. I, series B:1, B:1a, C:1b and Ba:1c, also C:2, Ba:2a, D:2b and D:2C. Another reverse in several states is shown on Pl. III, Fa:15 and 15a and G:15b. In the above examples, one can follow the changes in the dies, flaws appearing at the corners of the design and a gradual filling and obscuring of the entire surface.
In one or two cases, the pieces with the Aeginetic reverse show slight traces of being restruck on an earlier flan, but in no case have I been able to make out the type of the original. Taking the series as a whole, cases of restriking are very rare in contrast to the trihemiobols where almost every coin shows traces of the older flan.
The obols of Cydonia and Tanos, shown on Plates VI and VII, are very perplexing and, except where they bear inscriptions, it is impossible to say to which mint they belong as the types for the two places are identical. Therefore, I have classed as uncertain several obols which have hitherto been given to Cydonia and have assigned definitely only those bearing legends.
The coins of the hoard were, as a whole, in bad condition, heavily coated with a brownish-grey corrosion, and in many cases the metal itself was so rotten and granulated that some literally fell to pieces in cleaning. Fortunately, there was a sufficient number of sound specimens among the mass to enable me to reproduce the series here illustrated.
Of the coins foreign to Crete, I have thought it unnecessary to illustrate all the examples. This is particularly so in the case of the 129 tetrobols of Histiaea. I have chosen, therefore, specimens which, from either their condition or type, seem worthy of notice.
In addition to the Berlin coin, Fig. 3, and the one belonging to Mr. Empedocles, I have been able to trace but two others with reverses of this Aeginetic type
The British Museum has a specimen of the coin shown on Pl. I, D: 2b, which apparently came from this same hoard as it was bought not long after its discovery, together with one of the Cydonian trihemiobols shown on Pl. V, K. A coin similar to H: 24 of Pl. IV is in Mr. Edward T. Newell's Cabinet, and he tells me that he thinks it came originally from the Pozzi Collection.
In the following catalogue the obverse types are indicated by capital letters, and where they pass through various states of deterioration these stages are further indicated by the addition of a small letter showing the state of the die. Thus C would be the obverse type in its first state, and Ca the die C showing the first signs of wear or deterioration.
The reverse types are indicated by numerals, to which small letters are added for indicating the different states of the die. Thus taking the obverse types B, C and Ba, we find them associated with the reverse die 1, which passes through stages of deterioration indicated by ia, ib and ic, in the last of which the die has become almost entirely obliterated.
The following list gives the number of examples of the varieties contained in the hoard.
|Type||H & Ha||180||Examples|
|Uncertain, owing to state||32||Examples|
|Types K & L||188||Examples|
|Uncertain owing to state||12||Examples|
|Cydonia & Tanos Obols.|
Type B:1. Youthful head (Apollo?) to r., wearing wreath.
AR .53, wt. 1.68 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .58, wt. 1.74 grm. 8 Examples.
Type C:1b. Wreathed head (Apollo?) to r.
AR .50, wt. 1.68 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .52, wt. 1.65 grm. 5 Examples
Type Ba:1c. Wreathed head to r., very rough die.
AR .50, wt. 1.55 grm. 1 Example.
AR .51, wt. 1.62 grm. 11 Examples.
Type D:2b. Head of Apollo or nymph to 1., hair rolled, with long locks hanging down at back of the neck.
AR .55, wt. 1.74 grm. 27 Examples.
AR .57, wt. 1.80 grm. 8 Examples.
AR .52, wt. 1.68 grm. 28 Examples.
AR .50, wt. 1.36 grm. (much cleaned, hence low weight). 6 Examples.
Type Ca:3a. Same die as C, in second state showing flaw above the bridge of the nose. This die is shown on Plate II, Ca.
AR .52, wt. 1.41 grm. 1 Example.
AR .55, wt. 1.74 grm. 6 Examples.
AR .52, wt. 1.16 grm. 2 Examples. Much cleaned, hence low weight.
AR .48, wt. 1.52 grm. 4 Examples.
AR .56, wt. 1.68 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .54, wt. 1.79 grm. 1 Example.
Type E:7. Head of Apollo or nymph to 1., hair rolled with locks hanging down at back of neck; border of dots.
AR .55, wt. 1.72 grm. 16 Examples.
AR .52, wt. 1.39 grm. 26 Examples.
AR .53, wt. 1.52 grm. 14 Examples.
AR .55, wt. 1.63 grm. 37 Examples.
Type F:11. New die similar to E but of coarser workmanship; border of dots.
AR .53, wt. 1.70 grm. 29 Examples.
AR .58, wt. 1.56 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .53, wt. 1.59 grm. 4 Examples.
AR .55, wt. 1.62 grm. 9 Examples.
Type Fa :7a. Same die but beginning to show signs of wear.
AR .60 x .50, wt. 1.41 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .56, wt. 1.41 grm. 21 Examples.
AR .50, wt. 1.50 grm. 3 Examples.
AR .55, wt. 1.62 grm. 2 Examples.
Type G:15b, Head of Apollo or nymph to 1., hair rolled, long locks hanging down at back of neck; border of dots. Coarse style.
AR .50, wt. 1.67 grm. 3 Examples
AR .52, wt. 1.58 grm. 4 Examples.
AR .54, wt. 1.59 grm. 7 Examples.
AR .55, wt. 1.62 grm. 3 Examples.
AR .54, wt. 1.62 grm. 4 Examples.
Type H:19. Head of Apollo or nymph to 1. Hair rolled, long locks hanging down at back of neck.
AR .60, wt. 1.59 grm. 5 Examples.
AR .56, wt. 1.55 grm. 3 Examples.
AR .50, wt. 1.62 grm. 2 Examples.
Type I. Similar to Type H but very crude, coarse work. This die, I, and Type H are both associated with the following reverses, Nos. 22–29.
Types H, 1:22.
H:22—AR .52, wt. 1.74 grm. 20 Examples.
I:22—AR. .53, wt. 1.52 grm. 1 Example.
I—AR .53, wt. 1.76 grm. 2 Ex.
AR .57, wt. 1.74 grm. 4 Examples.
Types H, I:24.
H:24—AR .54, wt. 1.68 grm. 4 Examples.
I:24—AR .60 x .50, wt. 1.62 grm. 1 Ex.
H—AR .55, wt. 1.79 grm. 29 Examples.
I—AR .54, wt. 1.65 grm. 11 Examples.
H—AR .53, wt. 1.62 grm. 13 Examples.
I—AR .57, wt. 1.62 grm. 6 Examples.
H—AR .51, wt. 1.72 grm. 19 Examples.
I—AR .50, wt. 1.67 grm. 1 Example.
H—AR .52, wt. 1.57 grm. 17 Examples.
I—AR .52, wt. 1.63 grm. 10 Examples.
H—AR .57, wt. 1.62 grm. 5 Examples.
I—AR .51, wt. 1.42 grm. 1 Example.
Type Ha:30. Same die as Type H, but much worn.
. Similar square divided into five compartments. One of the crossbars is carried outside the square on the right and ends in a ball-like knob. In the centre of each of the three square compartments, a pellet.
AR .50, wt. 1.62 grm. 2 Examples. (This, and the succeeding coins, Ha 130–38, show the die of Type H in a very worn state and must therefore be later than most of the preceding examples of this die.)
AR .57, wt. 1.52 grm.; another example, wt. 1.72 grm. 5 Examples.
AR .57, wt. 1.67 grm. 5 Examples.
AR .62, wt. 1.62 grm. 1 Example.
AR .53, wt. 1.42 grm. 3 Examples.
AR .52, wt. 1.55 grm. 1 Example.
In the following coins, Nos. 37 and 38, we again find the obverse types H and I associated with the same reverses.
Type Ha, 1:37. Same die.
Ha—AR .55, wt. 1.65 grm. 3 Examples.
I—AR .52, wt. 1.48 grm. (Much cleaned, hence low weight.) 3 Examples.
Ha—AR .57, wt. 1.62 grm. 4 Examples.
I—AR .53, wt. 1.46 grm. (Much cleaned, hence low weight.) 1 Example.
AR .50, wt. 1.86 grm. 2 Examples.
Type J:39. Head of Apollo or nymph to r., hair rolled with long locks hanging down at back of neck; border of dots.
AR .54, wt. 1.68 grm. 1 Example.
AR .57, wt. 1.46 grm. 1 Example.
AR .52, wt. 1.59 grm. 4 Examples.
AR .51, wt. 1.67 grm. 6 Examples.
The following series are all struck on Rhodian hemidrachms and have long been recognized as belonging to Cydonia. In the large number, 200 examples, contained in the hoard, two obverse dies could be clearly recognized, and appear below as Types K and L. Of these obverse dies, K occurs the more frequently. The reverse dies are three in number and occur in conjunction with both the obverse types K and L. Most of these dies pass through various states, but I have shown two states only of one of them, in K-L:45 and 45a. In many cases it was possible to make out the symbol and magistrate's name of the original Rhodian flan. A list of those which could be distinguished is given below, and two coins with clear traces of the old flan are shown in Pl. V., L.46 and K:47.
Types K-L:43. Young horned head (Pan?) to 1.; border of dots.
K—AR .55, wt. 1.36 grm. 35 Examples.
L—AR .57, wt. 1.49. 26 Examples.
K—AR .61, wt. 1.16 grm. 46 Examples.
L—AR .56, wt. 1.28 grm. 14 Examples.
Types K-L:45. Same dies but showing signs of wear.
K—AR .62, wt. 1.46 grm. 22 Examples.
L—AR .58, wt. 1.41 grm. 15 Examples.
K—AR .53, wt. 1.24 grm. 15 Examples.
L—AR .54, wt. 1.23 grm. 15 Examples.
Type L:46. Die of Type L badly struck.
AR .60, wt. 1.38 grm.
AR .55, wt. 1.07 grm. (Broken and much cleaned, hence low weight.)
The following is the list of the Rhodian magistrates' names and symbols as far as they could be made out on this series. For a list of these names and symbols, see B.M. Cat. Caria and Islands, p. 247, Nos. 188–196.
AMEINIAΣ, symbol, bearded ithyphallic term r. 12 Examples.
|1 AMEINIAΣ, term,||1.23 grm.|
|2 AM......, term,||1.29 grm.|
|3 AME.....,||1.16 grm.|
|4 A(M?) . . .,||1.26 grm.|
|5 A term,||1.23 grm.|
|6 AM||1.16 grm.|
|7 AMEINIAΣ||1.23 grm.|
|8 AMEIN. . ., term,||1.21 grm.|
|9 AMEINIAΣ term,||1.23 grm.|
|10 A......., term, P-||1.20 grm.|
|11 . . . INIAΣ,||1.29 grm.|
|12 . . EINIAΣ,||1.28 grm.|
AKEΣIΣ, symbol, dolphin. 4 Examples.
|1 . ..ΣIΣ||1.27 grm.|
|2 ......dolphin||.... grm. (broken)|
|3 ...ΣIΣ||1.29 grm. (broken)|
|4 .. . . IΣ||1.36 grm.|
ANAΞANΔPOΣ, symbol, trident.
1 . NAΞAN.... 1.26 grm.
EYKPATHΣ, symbol, anchor. 10 Examples.
|1 EYKPATH. anchor,||1.29 grm.|
|2 EYKPATHΣ anchor,||1.07 grm.|
|3........P-O anchor,||1.29 grm.|
|4 EYKPA ... P-O anchor,||1.25 grm.|
|5 . . KPATHΣ (broken)||1.12 grm.|
|7 . . . . . . . . anchor,||1.21 grm.|
|8 . . KPA.. . anchor,||1.23 grm.|
|9 ....... . anchor,||1.29 grm.|
|10........P-O anchor,||1.28 grm.|
One coin shows a bunch of grapes as the symbol but no letters can be distinguished. In addition to the above, nearly all of the 200 examples of this series bear some traces of the original flans on either the obverse or reverse. With the exception of the coin mentioned below, the highest weight was 1.52 grm., but the well preserved specimens average from 1.20 to 1.30 grm. as a rule. One of these coins seems not to be struck on the usual type of Rhodian hemidrachms, and weighs 1.74 grm., which puts it in a quite different class to the others. The original obverse shows traces of a facing head to the right; and the reverse, very faint traces of a design in a square or incuse with a bunch of grapes as a symbol. It appears to be one of the early Rhodian hemidrachms of the issue of 408–400 B.C., B.M. Cat. Caria, Pl. xxxvi, 2.
On Plates VI and VII are shown the series of obols of Cydonia and Tanos which numbered 67 examples. Only 14 of these can, with certainty, be assigned to Cydonia and eleven to Tanos. The remaining 42 pieces might belong to either town. Unfortunately these tiny coins of thin metal had suffered greatly from corrosion and were in a very fragile state so that some of the examples shown on Pl. VI leave much to be desired. Also the specimens of what seem to be the earlier types of the series M, N, O, and P were already badly worn before the burial of the hoard, but as one or two of them seem to be unpublished I have thought it advisable to illustrate them, poor though they may be.
The plates are arranged to show the close relationship of the two mints by bringing similar dies together rather than with a view to grouping the coins of each town separately. In some cases the obverse dies of the two places are identical; and the same may have been the case with the reverses where they are without legends, so that it seems quite impossible to assign the uninscribed specimens with any certainty to either one or the other of these mints.
Type M:48. Wreathed head of Apollo or nymph to 1., much worn.
AR .50, wt. .51 grm. (much corroded and cleaned). 1 Example.
This obverse appears to be from the same die as that used for M:5o (below), which clearly belongs to Cydonia.
Type N:49. Head of nymph to r. Crude, heavy fabric.
AR .43, wt. 1.10 grm. 1 Example.
The head on the obverse of this coin seems to be a rough copy of the fine staters of Cydonia signed by Neuantos.
Type M:50. Wreathed head of Apollo or nymph, to r.
AR .42, wt. 1.07 grm. (Svoronos, Pl. ix, 17). 3 Examples.
The obverse, as noted above, seems to be the same as that of M:48.
Type O:51. Head of nymph to 1., crowned with ivy; border of dots.
AR .48, wt. .77 grm. (highest wt. 1.03 grm.) Svoronos, Pl. ix, 27. 9 Examples, all much worn.
Type P:52. Head of Apollo or nymph tor.. Much worn.
AR .51, wt. .71 grm. (much corroded and cleaned). 1 Example.
This coin, which seems to be an unpublished variety, has in the arc of one of the crescents the same badly formed T that we find on the Tanos pieces described below (0:53). The surface of the coin is so worn that it is not clear whether the legend was originally TAN as on the other Tanos pieces.
Type O:53. Same die as O:51.
AR .50, wt. .94 grm. (Svoronos, Pl. xxx, 23). 8 Examples.
Type O:54. Same as O:53.
AR .53, wt. .94 grm. 5 Examples.
This type is published by Svoronos, Pl. ix, 29, as belonging to Cydonia.
AR .42, wt. .93 grm. (Svoronos Pl. ix, 28). 7 Examples.
There seem to be faint traces of a T in the arc of one of the crescents, and of an A in the 1. field, but the coin is much worn. The piece figured in Svoronos under Cydonia (Pl. ix, 28) also shows traces of these letters, so it may be that this is really a worn die of the reverse of P:52 and O:53.
Type Q:53. Head of Apollo or nymph to r. (wreathed?); hair rolled and bound at the back of the neck; border of dots.
AR .43, wt. .77 grm. 2 Examples.
This obverse seems to be unpublished.
Type Q:56. Same die as Q:53.
AR .50, wt. .62 grm. 3 Examples.
The reverse die of this piece seems to be the same as that of R:56 described below and hitherto assigned to Cydonia.
AR .47, wt. .75 grm. 4 Examples.
This reverse is very similar to that given below under S:60 and assigned by Svoronos to Cydonia.
Type R:56. Head of Apollo or nymph to r., hair rolled and bound at back of neck; border of dots.
AR .48, wt. .77 grm. (Svoronos Pl. ix, 13). 13 Examples.
Type R:58. Same die.
Type S:59. Youthful head to r., hair rolled and bound at back of neck; border of dots.
AR .45, wt. .62 grm. 1 Example.
Type S:6o. Same die.
AR .45, wt. .75 grm. 6 Examples.
Type T:61. Youthful head to 1., hair rolled and bound in knot at back of neck. Coarse style.
AR .47, wt. .75 grm. 1 Example.
This seems to be an altogether unpublished type of Cydonia.
Type U:61. Head of Apollo or nymph to r. (wreathed?); hair rolled and bound at the back of the neck; border of dots. Barbarous style.
AR .47, wt. .77 grm. 1 Example.
This coin seems a barbarous copy of Q:57. The presence of the K on the reverse would seem to confirm its assignment to Cydonia.
No. 62. Helmeted head of Athena to l.
AR .51, wt. .58 grm. (Obol. Svoronos, Pl. xix, No. 22, or similar.) 1 Example.
No. 63. Helmeted head of Athena to l.
AR .80, wt. 5.11 grm. (Drachm. Svoronos, Pl. xix, No. 24.) 1 Example.
No. 64. Vase with two neck-handles (or deeply fluted neck) and a vertical handle on the body.
AR .46, wt. .75 grm. 1 Example.
This type has been published by Cameron and Hill, Num. Chron., Fourth Series, Vol. XIII, 1913, No. 22, Pl. xv, 21. It is interesting to find it in this hoard containing such a mass of coins with reverses of Aeginetic pattern. I have always noticed in buying coins on Cretan sites, that coins foreign in origin to the place where they are found will often be similar in type to the issues of the local mint of that district. Thus at Praesos, foreign coins with the reverse type of a bull's head facing are common and the same occurs at Gortyna and Phaistos where Euboïc types are often found. In the mountain towns of the West, Elyros, Hyrtakina, Lisos and Polyrhenium, the silver obols of Sicyon with flying doves are very common, probably because they are almost identical with the local silver obols of this region. In the Messara, I have several times seen drachms of Samos with the incuse lion mask on the reverse, which are again similar to the earlier issues of Gortyna, which controlled this district. This same fact holds good with the bronze coinage, as, for example, Retimo, the ancient Rithymna, where foreign bronze coins with dolphin types are found in considerable numbers; and Cydonia, where bronze with bunches of grapes frequently occur, resembling but not belonging to the Cydonian series.
On the following plates, Nos. VIII to XII, are shown the non-Cretan coins belonging to the hoard.
AR .55, wt. 2.98 grm. (Triobol. B.M. Cat. Attica, Pl. xxiv, 15). 1 Example.
No. 66. Tortoise; badly worn.
AR .47, wt. 2.07 grm. Much cleaned, hence low weight (Triobol. cf. B.M. Cat. Attica, Pl. xxv, 8). 1 Example.
AR .57, wt. 2.33 grm. Much cleaned; hence low weight. (Hemidrachm.) 1 Example.
The symbol on the reverse of this coin does not seem to be given in either the B.M. Cat. or in Babelon.
No. 68. Forepart of wolf to 1.
AR .58, wt. 2.46 grm. (Hemidrachm. B.M.Cat. Peloponnesus, p. 141, No. 60.) 3 Examples.
No. 69. Same.
AR .55, wt. 2.39 grm. Much cleaned hence low weight. (Hemidrachm.) 1 Example.
This coin also seems slightly different to any given in the B.M. Cat.
No. 70. Female head to r., wearing earring; hair rolled. (Badly struck.)
AR .67, wt. 3.49 grm. (Drachm. Cf.B.M. Cat. Central Greece, Pl. xx, 14.) 1 Example.
AR .57, wt. 2.26 grm. Much cleaned. (Drachm. B.M.Cat. Corinth, p. 46, No. 384; Pl. xi, 14.) 1 Example.
No. 72. Facing head of Apollo, very much corroded.
AR .77, wt. 5.24 grm. Much cleaned. (Didrachm. B.M.Cat. Caria, p. 233, No. 27, and Pl. xxxvi, 8). 1 Example.
No. 73. Head of Maenad to r., wreathed with vine and wearing necklace and earring.
AR .52, wt. 2.04 grm. (Tetrobol. B.M. Cat. Macedon , p. 10, No. 27). 3 Examples.
* No. 74. Similar.
AR .57, wt. 1.87 grm. Much cleaned. (Tetrobol. B.M.Cat. Macedon , p. 10, No. 23). 2 Examples.
No. 75. Similar.
AR .56, wt. 1.81 grm. (Tetrobol. B.M. Cat. Macedon , p. 10, No. 26). 2 Examples.
Through an error, the obverses and reverses of Nos. 74 and 75 have been incorrectly placed on the plate.
In the following series it will be noted that the weights are very irregular, ranging from 1.62 to 2.30 grm. The probable explanation of this irregularity is given by Babelon, Traite, Vol. III, p. 210, where he assumes that these light weight coins were issued to challenge the supremacy of the Rhodian hemidrachms which were circulating in such great numbers at this time. The whole hoard shows the influence of these Rhodian coins as we have already seen in connection with the Cydonian series, and it is interesting to note that the foreign pieces for the most part conform to the same standard.
The hoard contained 129 of the coins of Histiaea. For the most recent discussion of this mint, see Newell, Octobols of Histiaea , Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 2, New York, 1921; also B.M. Cat. Central Greece, pp. 128–135.
No. 76. Female head to r. usually wearing earring, necklace and vine wreath; hair rolled. Behind head, X.
IΣTI AIEΩN. Nymph Histiaea seated to r., on stern of a galley and holding a stylis. On galley, wing; beneath, E (?).
AR .60, wt. 1.87 grm.
There are slight variations in the grouping of the letters of this inscription, but save where they are of importance, they will not be mentioned, and the ethnic will be understood to read as above. All the following coins up to No. 101 show the galley decorated with a wing, which must be understood in the description of the succeeding pieces.
AR .55, wt. 2.25 grm.
No. 78. Similar, behind head, A.
AR .58, wt. 2.07 grm. B.M.Cat. 79, p. 131, or similar. 2 Examples.
AR .63 x .55, wt. 1.81 grm.
AR .61, wt. 2.13 grm. B.M.Cat. 54, p. 129, or similar. 3 Examples.
AR .58, wt. 2.04 grm. B.M.Cat. 74, p. 131.
AR .61, wt. 1.92 grm.
AR .56, wt. 2.24 grm.
AR .60, wt. 2.07 grm.
AR .60, wt. 2.13 grm.
AR .53, wt. 2.20 grm. B.M.Cat. 77, p. 131.
AR 59, wt. 2.18 grm.
No. 88. Hair standing out in loose locks.
AR .62, wt. 1.74 grm.
AR .56, wt. 2.20 grm.
AR .55, wt. 1.72 grm.
AR .62, wt. 2.20 grm. B.M.Cat. 6o, p. 130. 4 Examples.
AR .61, wt. 2.26 grm.
AR .60, wt. 2.04 grm.
AR .55, wt. 1.78 grm. B.M.Cat.58, p. 130.
AR .55, wt. 1.87 grm.
AR. 60, wt. 2.30 grm.
No. 97. Head with flying locks of hair.
AR .56, wt. 1.86 grm.
No. 98. IΣTIAIEΩN. Barbarous style.
AR .60, wt. 1.74 grm.
AR .55, wt. 2 grm. B.M.Cat. Pl. xxiv, 9, or similar.
AR .60, wt. 1.91 grm. 2 Examples.
AR .62 x .53, wt. 1.79 grm. B.M. Cat. 119, p. 134, or similar. 3 Examples.
AR .55, wt. 1.94 grm. B.M.Cat. 109, p. 133, or similar. 2 Examples.
AR .58, wt. 1.81 grm.
AR .58, wt. 1.87 grm. 3 Examples.
No. 105. Behind head traces of letter or symbol.
AR .58, wt. 2.07 grm.
AR .58, wt. 1.62 grm. B.M.Cat. 123, p. 134. 3 Examples.
AR .61, wt. 2.04 grm.
The following coins are not illustrated but are included in the catalogue for purpose. of reference.
No. 108. Obverse die of No. 99 and similar.
AR .60, .55, .58, wt. 2.30, 2.11, 2.09 grm. Babelon, Traité, III, Pl. cxcviii, 29. 3 Ex.
No. 109. Obverse die of No. 80.
AR .63, wt. 2.13 grm. B.M.Cat.45 p. 129, or similar.
AR .55, wt. 2.10 grm. B.M.Cat. 36–38, p. 128, or similar.
AR .58, wt. 1.85 grm. B.M.Cat.131, p. 135, or similar.
AR .60, wt. 1.82 grm. B.M.Cat. 125–126, p. 134, or similar. 3 Examples, different dies.
AR .53, wt. 1.74 grm. B.M.Cat.117, p. 134, and similar. 3 Examples, different dies.
AR .67, wt. 1.81 grm. B.M.Cat.108, p. 133, or similar.
There are seventy of these coins of Histiaea in addition to the above, but a good many of them are in bad condition with the symbols and legends largely obliterated, so that I have not attempted to illustrate or describe them.
Babelon, Traité, Vol. III, Pl. cclx, 11, shows a coin of Aptera as silver which in the text p. 1022, No. 1741 bis, he gives as bronze and yet describes it as an Aeginetic diobol. The coin really is bronze, and an error has crept into the Plate.