Of Spain, more than of any other country, is it true that the history of a nation reflects the character of its people. From the very earliest times, religious faith has played a prominent part in the life and in the history of the Spaniards. The oncoming of the Moor left no room for a passive theology—the kings and princes of the Spain of the Middle Ages were literally, and in very truth, "Defenders of the Faith". In consequence, and because theirs was so essentially a combination of the religious and the military life, it is not surprising to find many of the Orders of Chivalry originating in the Iberian peninsula during this troublesome period. Nor is it other than might have been anticipated that they gradually disappeared with the suppression of the Arab invaders.
To trace the story of these Orders is peculiarly difficult. Even in Spain, where the records may still be in existence, the task would be Herculean. Fortunately, for the purposes of this monograph, it is superfluous because it has already been very ably and very admirably done in a volume written by Professor Georgiana Goddard King and published by the Hispanic Society of America, entitled "A Brief Account of the Military Orders in Spain". Our concern, herein, is rather with the badges and insignia of these brotherhoods and of those which have followed them, and reference to their history is made only where necessary to make clear facts regarding these emblems.
A further brief word is required regarding our sources. For the earliest orders, the gathering of data and the sifting of conflicting statements regarding origins and reorganizations would be the task of a life-time. The centuries that have elapsed have thrown over such beginnings a veil difficult to penetrate. There is satisfaction, therefore, in finding that the importance of their records was appreciated in the seventeenth century, when the writers were not so removed in point of time from the circumstances which they attempted to fix. Favine in 1620, Ashmole in 1672 and again in 1715, and Giustiniani in 1692, endeavored to gather and sift such material as could be found in their day, and since much of what they wrote is carefully annotated and otherwise bears evidence of careful examination, there is the greater reason for considering it trustworthy. Even then, the writers, again and again, are at a loss. The days when feudalism flourished were given to fighting for existence rather than in writing of what was done. The gathering under one cover of such information as is available regarding the badges of these Orders and of those of a later day, together with the military medals of award, is the object of this volume.
ORDER OF THE OAK OF NAVARRE. This is the earliest Spanish Military Order known to us. It was founded in 722 A. D. by Don Garcia Ximines, a French prince and Count of Bigorre, born in 688 and crowned on May 3, 716, as King of Navarre. He succeeded in driving the invading Moors from Navarre and parts of Aragon, and won for himself and his descendant kings the title of "Most loyal defenders of the Faith." He died in 758 after a reign of forty-two years, and was buried at the hermitage of Saint John Baptist de la Pegna, near his castle. He created this order in thankfulness for his great victory over the infidels, and pledged its members to the defense of the Christian faith. While marching against the Moors in the year 722, Ximines saw in a vision a red cross adored by angels, at the top of an oak. The badge is in the form of a verdant oak tree, at the top of which appears a plain red cross. The cross is described by Guistiniani, the Italian writer, as a cross flory. Andrew Favine, the French writer of 1620, gives little credence to the accounts of the establishment of this Order. He states that Garcia Ximines changed the ancient arms of his family and adopted this device.
ORDER OF THE LILY OF NAVARRE. This seems to have been created in 1048 by Garcia VI, King of Navarre (1034-1054) in honour of his recovery from "a languishing sickness". He dedicated it to the Virgin, hence it is sometimes called the "Order of Saint Mary of the Lily". Favine states that effigies of the successors to Garcia, with this order about their necks, may be seen in the churches of St. Mary of Nagera, St. Saviour de Leyra, St. Mary la Reale of Pampeluna, St. John de la Pegna, and at Ronceau. The order disappeared about the middle of the seventeenth century. Giustiniani, Marquez and Perrot give credit for the institution of the order to Sancho IV (1023-1034), and fix the date of its foundation as 1023. They also differ on the form of the badge, a gold collar of two chains, on which the gothic letter M, for Mary, is repeated. From this collar an oval gold medallion with a lily, surmounted by the letter M, crowned, is suspended.
ORDER OF SAINT SAVIOUR, also called the Order of Aragon, and Saint Sauveur de Mon- tréal. In 1118, Alphonso I, "The Battler", King of Navarre, Aragon, Leon, Castile and Toledo, instituted this order. It consisted of French and Spanish noblemen who had assisted him in his wars. With the conquest of the Moors, the main purpose of the order was achieved; and in the 16th century, its property passed to the Crown. Giustiniani lists the Grand Masters until 1665. Favine says the badge was a red cross, ancrée—sometimes called moline, that is, with the ends divided and turned over.
ORDER OF TRUXILLO. While there appears to have been an order of knighthood in Truxillo (Trugillo) in Spain as early as 1227, little information concerning it is obtainable. In that year, Don Arias Perez Dallego, the Master, took Truxillo from the Moors. Pierre Daviti mentions the existence of this order as early as 1213. Ashmole states "But there is not any Writer that gives an account of what was the Ensign or Badge of the Order", and Clark holds that they combined with the Order of Alcantara.
ORDER OF THE BAND OR SCARF Founded in 1332 by Alphonso XI, King of Leon and Castile (1312-1350), in the city of Vittoria. Favine states that it was instituted in the city of Valencia in 1330; Sansovin gives the city as Burgos, and the year as 1368, while Maigne gives credit to John I and fixes the date as 1390. The order was created as a mark of distinction for those who assisted Alphonso XI in the conquest of the Moors, and only men of noble birth were admitted. The insignia was a red silk band or scarf, worn across the left shoulder and under the right arm. Most of the authorities indicate it as having been shortlived, though Clark states that it was revived in 1700 by Philip V, King of Spain.
ORDER OF THE HOLY SPIRIT (also called Order of the Dove). Founded at Segovia in 1390 by John I, King of Leon and Castile (1358-1390), though Favine makes the date 1379, stating that the order was discontinued on the death of the founder. The badge was a gold collar ornamented with curved and pointed rays of the sun. From this a gold and white enamelled dove with eyes and beak of red, was suspended.
ORDER OF THE LILY OF ARAGON. Ferdinand of Castile (1379-1416) founded this order in 1403. Favine gives the date as 1410, and calls it the Order of the Looking Glass of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Castile. He states that it was transferred to Aragon in 1413 when Ferdinand received that Kingdom, and that it was continued by the sons of the founder and then abolished. The insignia was a gold collar composed of alternate griffons and pots of flowering lilies. Clark and Giustiniani describe an oval pendant, bearing the image of the Virgin and Child.
ORDER OF OUR LADY OF MERCY. James I of Aragon, having been a prisoner of Simon, Earl of Montfort, in France, where he suffered many hardships, vowed if he escaped, to devote his time and energy toward the release of Christian prisoners in the hands of the Moors. This order seems to have been established about the year 1218, some state on St. Lawrence's Day. In 1261, women were admitted to the order. It was combined with the Order of Montesa in 1317, and these two, later, with the Order of Calatrava. The badge is shield shaped, the lower part bearing red and white enamelled stripes (the arms of Aragon), and the upper part the white cross of the Church of Barcelona, on a red field. The whole is surmounted by a ducal coronet.
ORDER OF THE ROSARY OF TOLEDO. Roderick, the Bishop of Toledo, is the reputed founder of this order, in the year 1212. Its object was providing opposition to the Moors, but like most of these orders it had specified religious requirements. The badge is given as a silver and black cross flory, on the centre of which is a gold medallion with the figure of the Virgin holding the Child on her right arm, and with a rosary in the left hand.
ORDER OF ESCAMA OR THE SCALE. In 1420 John II (1406-1454), King of Castile and Leon, founded this order to encourage the nobility to war against the Moors. It was discontinued after the death of the king in 1454. The insignia is a red cross with a surface resembling fish scales, hence the name. Why this device was chosen, the historians fail to divulge.
ORDER OF JESUS CHRIST, or Order of the Militia of St. Dominic. St. Dominic of the Guzman family of Spain founded this order in Languedoc, France, in 1206, to offset the schism of the heretic Albigenses. It was revived in the sixteenth century in Spain under the influence of the Church, and combined with the Papal Order of St. Peter the Martyr. It flourished in Spain for two centuries but is generally conceded to be strictly a religious order. Various names have been assigned, such as The Militia of St. Dominic, Order of the Cross of Jesus Christ, and Order of St. Peter and St. Dominic. The insignia is an oval of gold surmounted by a crown, on the obverse of which is a cross of four fleur-de-lis joined, each arm being half white and half black. On the reverse is an upright cross, with an olive tree on the left and a sword with point upward on the right. The ribbon is red.
ORDER OF THE BATTLE AXE. Founded in 1149 by Raymond Bérenger, Count of Barcelona, to reward the women of Tortosa who, armed with battle axes, contributed largely to the repulse of an attack of the Moors. Little is known of its existence, and the insignia is given as a red battle axe, which the members wore on their cloaks.
ORDER OF CONCORD. Credit is given to Ferdinand, (1200-1252), King of Castile and Leon, for the foundation of this order, though Maigne gives the date as 1261 but without record of its insignia. Other writers do not mention it.
ORDER OF THE STAR. This is said to have been founded by Alphonso V during his reign from 1416 to 1458. The name is derived from a star worn on the cloak by some of the knights. Little else is known of it.
MILITARY ORDER OF CALATRAVA. Sancho III of Toledo, King of Castile, instituted this order in 1158; it was the first military Order in that kingdom. The castle of Calatrava had been taken in 714 from Rodrigo, King of the Visigoths by the Moors, who held it for over four hundred years. Don Alphonso I of Aragon, recaptured it in 1147 and gave it to the Knights Templars as a bulwark against the infidels. Eight years later, the gift was returned. Sancho (son of Alphonso) gave it and the task of its defense to Don Raymond, Abbot of the Monastery of St. Mary de Fitero, in Navarre. He, with Don Diego of Velasquez, fortified the castle and settled there with associates from Castile and Toledo. Thus arose the Order of the Knights of Calatrava or Militia of Calatrava. The Order was approved by Pope Alexander III, September 25, 1164. Pope Benedict XIII assigned them a "cross flory" in 1396. The Mastership of this and of the Orders of St. James of the Sword and of Alcantara, according to Ashmole, were perpetually vested in the crown of Castile in 1523 by Pope Adrian VI. There was but one class of members—Chevaliers, who must be of noble birth. In 1219, the Ladies' Order of Calatrava was instituted by Dona Gazelas Maria Yonnes. The badge is the same as that for the men, a white-enamelled gold-edged diamond on which is a red-enamelled cross fleury, i. e. with fleur-de-lis at the ends; the outer leaves are elongated, to rest upon the arms, and the points turn out. This is surmounted by a trophy of flags and a plumed helmet. The ribbon is bright red watered-silk. Favine says the badge is "A Red Cross Flouredeluced".
Military Order of Calatrava
ORDER OF ALCANTARA. The Order of St. Julian of Pereyro was founded in 1176 by Ferdinand II, King of Leon and Galicia. It derived its name from the town in which their first monastery was built. The badge was a green pear tree sewed to their mantles. After Alphonso IX, King of Leon, had captured the Castilian town of Alcantara from the Moors in 1213, he gave it to Don Martin Fernandez de Quintana, Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava. In 1218, the city of Alcantara was given by the Knights of Calatrava to Don Nunno Fernandez, the third Master of the Order of St. Julian de Pereyro and his fellow knights, who then styled themselves the Knights of Alcantara. In accepting the city they became subject to the Order of Calatrava, and changed their cross to what Favine calls "A Greene crosse Flouredeluced". This insignia is identical with that of Calatrava, save that the colour is green, as is also the suspension ribbon. This order has but one class—Chevaliers, who must be of the nobility. Pope Adrian VI (1552-1523), granted the revenues of this order as well as those of St. James and Calatrava to the crown of Castile for ever.
ORDER OF OUR LADY OF MONTESA, or of St. George. This order was founded in 1316 (or, as some state, in 1317) at Montesa, a city of Valencia, by James II (1291-1327), King of Aragon and Valencia. The knights were subject to the rules of the Order of Calatrava. In 1399, the Order of St. George of Alfama, which had been founded in 1201 at Tortosa, was incorporated into this. Ashmole is the authority for the statement that in 1317 the Order of St. Mary de Merced in Aragon was amalgamated with this Order of Montesa. The badge is diamond-shaped, enamelled yellow, with gold edges and with a plain red-enamelled cross in the center; the whole is surmounted by a trophy of flags and a plumed helmet. The ribbon is bright red watered-silk.
ORDER OF CHARLES III. Sometimes called the Royal and Distinguished Order of Charles III or of the Immaculate Conception. The order was formed by the Sovereign of that name on September 19, 1771, to commemorate the birth of his grandson, Charles Clement. Charles III conferred upon the order the vast estates of the house of Ximenes. The order ranks next to the Golden Fleece in importance, and is awarded for merit and service rendered the State. It is sometimes conferred on foreigners. During the reign of Joseph Bonaparte (1808-1815), with the exception of the Golden Fleece, this and all other Spanish Orders were abolished. There are five classes—Grand Cross, Commanders of the first and second class, Officers and Chevaliers. The insignia is a ball-tipped Maltese cross of gold, enamelled in light blue with white edges. In the angles are gold fleur-de-lis. It is surmounted by a gold crown for the Grand Cross, and by a gold laurel wreath for the other classes. The collar is of gold, composed of fourteen castles, fourteen lions, seven ciphers of Charles III, and six enamelled trophies. On the obverse oval medallion, edged with blue, is the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. On the reverse is the cipher of the founder within two laurel wreaths, encircled by a blue band inscribed VIRTUTI ET MERITO. The ribbon is light blue with a white band in the centre. The Grand Cross plaque, of faceted silver, is similar in shape to the cross, with gold fleur-de-lis in the angles, and has a centre medallion of the obverse of the cross and the motto VIRTUTI ET MERITO. The plaque of the Commanders of the first grade is similar in shape and medallion, but with silver fleur-de-lis, while that for a second grade Commander is of silver but with a centre medallion bearing the cipher of Charles III within a laurel wreath.
ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE. Founded at Bruges on January 10, 1429 (or 1430), by Philip le Bon, Duke of Burgundy, on the occasion of his third marriage, with Isabella, the daughter of John I, King of Portugal. The reign of Philip the Good (1396-1467) was a period of luxury and show, of pageant and display. Bruges, that ancient and attractive city of Flanders, whose exchange is the oldest in Europe, was at that time the seat of the Court of the Dukes of Burgundy. The Letters Patent say the order was dedicated to the Glory of God, the Holy Mother, and to St. Andrew the Apostle. Its object was promoting the Catholic religion and exhorting all men to live virtuously. The Greek fable of the Argonauts under Jason, sailing from Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece, is thought to have led Philip to institute the order, but some believe it was the great revenues he derived from the wool trade of Flanders.
The Order of the Golden Fleece is claimed by Austria as well as by Spain. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (1396-1467), married Isabella of Portugal; their son, Charles the Bold (1433-1477), left but one child, Mary, who, in 1477, married Maximillian I of Austria, a Hapsburg and Holy Roman Emperor. Their son Philip (1478-1506), who married in 1496 the Infanta Joanna of Spain (Joan la Loco, the crazy, the second daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile), thus became later, Philip I of Castile and Aragon. His son Charles (1500-1558) was Charles I of Spain and also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V relinquished the Austrian throne to his brother Ferdinand, having in 1556 assigned the Spanish kingdom and the Netherland provinces to his son Philip II of Spain (1527-1598), to whom he gave the Grand Mastership and treasures of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Since that time the Kings of Spain have claimed the order, while the Hapsburgs of Austria claimed the sovereignty under one of its statutes, which says of the Order, "dont serons nous chef et souverain et aprés nous nos Successeurs, Ducs de Bourgogne." While the territories of the Dukedom of Burgundy went to France, the title has been retained by the Hapsburg family without territorial claim. After the death of Charles the Bold in 1477, Philip le Bel, the son of his only child, Mary of Burgundy, wife of Maximillian I of Austria, became the Grand Master of the Order. The sovereignty of the order remained in dispute between the house of Hapsburg and the Kings of Spain, until Charles II died childless in 1702. Philip V of Spain, a Bourbon and the grandson of Louis IV of France, at this time claimed the Grand Mastership of the Order, and after a long dispute the question was referred to the Congress of Cambrai in 1721, when the Order was recognized both for Spain and Austria and each portion independent of the other. Since the World War, King Albert of Belgium laid claim to the treasures of the order, in the name of the cities of Bruges, Brussels and Ghent, but this was rejected by a committee of three jurists, to whom the question had been referred by the Reparation Commission and which approved the decision of the Committee. The archives and treasures of the Order remain in Vienna, where they had been transferred from Brussels in 1700 by Charles VI, Emperor of Austria, owing to the French wars. The Spanish order is never given to an Austrian nor is the Austrian order awarded to a Spaniard.
The order has always ranked as the most illustrious and distinguished order of Spain; it was the only Spanish order which was not abolished by Joseph Bonaparte in 1808, and was actually confirmed by him in 1809. "The Duke of Wellington was created a grandee of the first class of the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, with the title of the Duke of Cuidad Roderigo, and appointed Captain General of the Spanish Armies. His Grace had two badges, one formerly worn by Emperor Charles V, and the other presented to him at Madrid by the Countess de Chincona, a princess of the Royal house of Bourbon, having been originally the property of the Duc". 1 The insignia of the order is a Golden Fleece suspended at the middle, from a blue-enamelled flint-stone, emitting flames of fire, enamelled red, which in turn is hung from a scroll and medallion. The ribbon is bright red. The grand collar of the order is alternate flint-stones enamelled blue with red flames and double fusils or firesteels interlaced to represent double B's for Burgundy. The insignia of the Keeper of the Rolls (Le Greffier) is an oval medal of gold (55 mm x 45 mm) composed of rays with twelve gold balls on alternate bars; with a white-enamelled oval in the centre, on which is a miniature of the badge, encircled by a red-enamelled band looped at the top. This oval is surrounded by a pointed border of gold, and the decoration is suspended by a bright red ribbon. The insignia of the Austrian order varies at the top and has, on a scroll, the motto Pretium non vile laborum (Not a bad reward for labour).
ORDER OF ST. JAMES OF THE SWORD (Santiago di Campostella). In 1175 this order and the rules governing it were sanctioned by a bull of Pope Alexander III. From this document we learn that its organization had taken place in 1170. There is also, however, evidence that this may have been a reorganization, and that the rather uncertain traditions which assign the be- ginnings of the Order of Santiago to more than a century before this, have some basis. 2 Whatever may have been the statutes or the purposes governing the earlier order, after 1170 its knights took a prominent part in repelling the Moor and in upholding the faith. With the passing of the years, and with the repression of the Moors, the wealth of the order increased greatly, as did also the fame and prowess of its members. In these regards it rivalled the other Spanish orders such as that of Alcantara. In 1493, its property was claimed for the Crown by Ferdinand and Isabella. Membership was limited to the nobility, and in 1312 some provision for the admission of noble-women was made.
The badge of the Order is of enamel, a white oval, edged with gold, on which is a red cross, the arms of which terminate in fleur-de-lis, the upper part of the upright being heart-shaped, the lower shaped like a sword. The oval is surmounted by a gold trophy of flags and plumed helmet, the whole suspended by a bright red ribbon of watered-silk. Portugal has an Order of St. James of the Sword, of which Favine says, 3 "This Order St. "James was Established likewise in Portugall, "where it attained to many Commanderies, confessing Ucles to be Chiefe of the Order: until "the time of the King of Portugall Dom Denys, 4 "who would have a Great Maister and Chiefe "of the Order alone in his owne Kingdome, with-"out any subjection to that of Castile."
ROYAL ORDER OF MARIA LOUISA. Founded on April 19, 1792, by Charles IV (1748-1819) and named in honour of his Queen, Maria Louisa of Parma. The order has but one class and is conferred by the Queen on ladies only. It is under the patronage of Saint Ferdinand. The insignia is a gold Maltese cross, enamelled white with wide violet edges. Between the angles are the alternate towers and lions of Castile and Aragon, connected by gold chains. A gold laurel-wreath surmounts the cross. The obverse medallion bears the effigy of St. Ferdinand in royal robes, and crowned. The reverse has the cipher of the Queen, M. L. surrounded by the legend REAL ORDEN DE LA REYNA MARIA LUISA. The ribbon is violet with a centre band of white.
ROYAL ORDER OF SPAIN. This was established in 1809 by Joseph Bonaparte to reward those who were loyal to the Napoleonic cause. It was abolished in 1814 by Ferdinand VII upon his return to the Spanish throne. There are three grades: Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers. The insignia is a five-pointed red-enamelled star, ball tipped, and edged with gold. On the gold obverse medallion is the tower of Castile, encircled by a blue band inscribed JOS. NAPOLEO REX HISP ET IND. On the reverse medallion is the lion of Aragon within a blue-enamelled band inscribed VIRTUTE ET FIDE. The ribbon is bright red. The plaque is an eight-pointed star of faceted silver rays, on which is a five-pointed red-enamelled star, with a gold lion rampant at the centre.
THE RED CROSS. Founded on July 31, 1864, by Royal Decree. It is divided into three classes: the plaque of honour and merit, the medal of gold and the silver medal. The plaque is an eight-pointed silver-faceted star on which is superimposed a white-enamelled gold-edged Maltese cross, with a gold crown above, and gold castles and facing lions' heads in the angles of the cross. In the medallion is the red-enamelled Geneva cross encircled by a black band with gold letters, OB:CIVES:SERVATOS. The gold medal is composed of eight-pointed rays of gold surmounted by a gold mural crown. In the centre of the rays is a red cross on a white medallion, encircled by IN HOC SIGNO SALUS. This, in turn, is surrounded by a green-enamelled wreath; and under the white centre is a gold shield bearing a white-enamelled Maltese cross. The gold medal is worn suspended from a neck ribbon of white with a wide red stripe in the centre. The silver medal is round with a mural crown above and partly resting on the medal. In the centre is the red Geneva cross on a white shield, encircled by a green laurel wreath; around this, on a white band, is IN HOC SIGNO SALUS, in gold letters. At the lower part and under the shield is a shield of gold bearing a white Maltese cross. This medal is worn, with a white ribbon with wide red stripe in the centre, and suspended from a gold bar-pin.
ROYAL AND MILITARY ORDER OF SAINT HERMENEGILDO. Founded on November 28, 1814, by Ferdinand VII. It is awarded to officers of the Army and Navy for long and distinguished service. The Saint for whom the order was so appropriately named was the son of Leovigild, the last of the Visigothic kings holding to Arianism. Hermenègildo, being converted to orthodox Christianity by his Frankish wife, headed an unsuccessful insurrection. When captured, he refused to abjure his faith, and was executed. He was canonized by Sixtus V during the reign of Philip II. There are three classes: Grand Cross, and Knights of the First and Second Classes—awarded according to rank and length of service. The badge is a white-enamelled gold cross, patté, surmounted by a royal crown. On the obverse medallion of blue enamel is a gold figure of Hermenègildo on horseback, surrounded by a blue band inscribed PREMIO A LA CONSTANCIA MILITAR. On the reverse medallion of gold is F.VII. The ribbon is white with a carmine band in the centre (formerly it was of violet with two white stripes). The plaque is a large Maltese cross, ball-tipped with silver rays in the angles. In the centre is a replica of the above obverse medallion, save that the band with the inscription is enamel, surrounded by a laurel wreath. This order was conferred upon the Duke of Wellington in 1816, by the King of Spain.
ROYAL AND MILITARY ORDER OF SAINT FERDINAND. At a meeting of the Cortes held at Cadiz on January 27, 1811, during the attempt to free Spain from the French domination, it was proposed to institute the Order of the Sword of Saint Ferdinand. On August 31 of that year, the National Order of Saint Ferdinand was adopted. The name was again changed on August 29, 1814, to the Military Order of Saint Ferdinand; and on January 19, 1815, the Royal and Military Order of Saint Ferdinand was founded by the King, Ferdinand VII, and dedicated to Ferdinand II (1200-1252), whose body lies buried in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Seville. The order was reconfirmed by a decree of June 29, 1918, issued by Alphonso XIII. The decoration is awarded for exceptional military or naval service, to officers and enlisted men. There are five classes: the first and lowest consists of a gold Maltese cross, ball-tipped, of white enamel, bearing on the obverse medallion a figure of St. Ferdinand, surrounded by a blue band inscribed AL MERITO MILITAR. The reverse has two globes, crowned, surrounded by a blue band inscribed EL REY Y LA PATRIA. The various classes of this order are issued in several forms. The lowest, or first class, has the cross superimposed on a laurel wreath and surmounted by a similar wreath for suspension. The second class is without the laurel wreath above, the third class is like the first, and the fourth class has an ornamental leaf design above and is not superimposed on a wreath. The fifth or highest class is a plaque of faceted silver rays forming the cross superimposed on a green laurel wreath, with the figure of St. Ferdinand in the centre, encircled by a band inscribed AL MERITO MILITAR. The plaques of the second and fourth classes have four red-enamelled swords, with handles meeting in the centre, the blades forming a cross. There is also a small silver cross for privates, which does not class them as Knights. Another form of this decoration, awarded during the reign of Queen Christina and still given to Generals and other high officers, is styled the Cross of Saint Ferdinand and is composed of four swords with gold handles and red-enamelled blades. The handles meet at the centre with the guards forming a circle, while the blades make the arms of the cross. This is also issued superimposed on a green laurel wreath, but no authority for this variation has been found. The ribbon for this decoration is bright red with a yellow stripe each side.
Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenègildo
The highest class decoration of this order was presented to the Duke of Wellington on April 29, 1812, by the Cortes of Spain, and later in that year they bestowed on him the estate of Soto de Roma in Granada, "in the name of the Spanish Nation in testimony of its sincere gratitude". The decoration was also awarded to other British officers who assisted Spain during the Carlist wars.
ORDER OF ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC, often called the Royal American Order of Isabella the Catholic, was founded on March 24, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, as a reward for loyalty either in the kingdom or in the American colonies of Spain. Later it was awarded for merit. It was placed under the patronage of St. Isabella (1451-1504), surnamed la Catolica, Queen of Castile and wife of Ferdinand of Aragon. It was during the reign of Isabella the Catholic that Columbus discovered America, and during the reign of Ferdinand VII, the founder of this order, that Florida was sold to the United States (1819), and that most of the other American colonies were lost to Spain. One of the objects in establishing this order, apparently, was to reward certain of the American colonial officials and dignitaries.
There are five grades: Grand Cross, Commanders with plaque, Commanders, Chevaliers and Chevaliers of the Silver Cross. The insignia is a red-enamelled Maltese cross, indented at the extremities, with wide-edged gold borders and ball-tipped points, surmounted by a green laurel wreath, and with gold rays in the angles. On the obverse medallion are the pillars of Hercules 5 inscribed PLUS ULTRA, and two blue globes crowned, surrounded by a white band inscribed A LA LEALTAD ACRISOLADA.
On the reverse medallion is FR 7 crowned, within a white band inscribed POR ISABEL LA CATOLICA. The cross of the fifth class is all silver and with no rays in the angles and no enamel. The plaque of the first class is similar to the obverse of the cross, minus the laurel wreath, with gold rays in the angles and with both the above mottoes on the encircling band. The plaque of the second class is smaller and has the cipher of the reigning monarch in the centre. The ribbon is white with broad yellow lateral stripes.
Some authorities state that a silver medal of the order was given to a number of the American Indian subjects, though this is not confirmed. A sixth class was instituted in April, 1907, by Alphonso XIII, consisting of silver and bronze medals, 32 mm. in diameter, bearing on the obverse a replica of the cross without the rays, and on the reverse the crowned monogram of Ferdinand VII.
To judge from the varieties of this decoration, they were very generously bestowed and not very highly valued.
ORDER OF MARIA ISABELLA LOUISA or ISABELLA II. Founded on June 19, 1833, by Ferdinand VII, in honour of his daughter by his fourth wife, Maria Christina of Naples. Its purpose was to reward men of the Army and Navy who were loyal to the Infanta, the presumptive heiress. As Ferdinand had no sons, he abolished the Salic law in Spain about 1830, and at his death in 1833, Maria Isabella Louisa was proclaimed Queen. The Carlist war resulted. For officers, the decoration is a white-enamelled cross moline, with a gold crown above. On the obverse medallion, in a red-enamelled field, is a gold bust of the Queen encircled by a blue band inscribed ISABEL II REINA DE ESPANA. On the reverse, in a red field is M. I. L. encircled by a blue band inscribed AL VALORE MILITAR. The cross for non-commissioned officers is of silver, bearing on the obverse an oval medallion with the initials M. I. L. The reverse is plain and the ribbon is light blue. After 1839, the decoration was awarded for service in the Army or Navy of ten years or over. Many of these decorations were awarded to the detachment of Royal Artillery and Marines, who formed part of the British volunteer forces under General Sir De Lacy Evans K.C.B., who in 1835 was sent in command of the "Spanish Legion" of ten thousand troops, to aid the Queen against Don Carlos. Evans remained two years and gained several brilliant victories. The cross in silver was also given to the British men for service at San Sebastian on May 5, 1836, and at Bilbao on December 24, 1836.
ORDER OF MILITARY MERIT. Maria Isabelle Louisa (Isabelle II) was dethroned in 1868 as a result of the Civil War. The attempt of the Carlists to secure the throne was a continuous source of trouble during her reign of thirty-five years. In order to reward her adherents, Isabella founded this order on August 3, 1864, for the military and civilians and for deeds not of sufficient importance to warrant the conferring of higher orders. It was reconfirmed on December 30, 1889, and is now awarded for individual merit in military operations to officers and soldiers and also to civilians.
The decoration is a plain gold-edged, red-enamelled cross surmounted by a royal crown, the upper arm of which is partly plain. In this plain space is engraved the action and date for which the award is made. The circular medallion bears the Arms of Spain with a Bourbon shield in the centre. The reverse medallion bears the initials of the founder, Y 2, and sometimes those of the reigning sovereign. When awarded to pensioners and for services not in actual combat, the cross is red with a white band on each cross-arm. The ribbon is red with a white stripe in the centre when awarded for war service. For the troops, the cross is all silver with no enamel and the ribbon is white with a red centre.
The plaque is an eight-pointed star of faceted rays on which is a duplication of the obverse of the cross with fleurs-de-lis in the angles and a crown on the upper cross-arm instead of surmounting it.
ORDER OF NAVAL MERIT. This was founded August 3, 1866, for the men of the Navy under conditions similar to those of the Order of Military Merit. The decoration is similar, except that the lower cross arm is longer, and in place of the medallion a gold anchor is superimposed. The ribbon is red with a broad yellow stripe in the centre. The cross for Pensioners has a white stripe on each of the arms and the ribbon is white with a blue stripe in the centre.
Another cross of Merit for the Navy was founded September 22, 1816, to be given to those who took part in the War of Independence of 1808, and a description will be found under the decorations for that period.
ORDER OF CIVIL MERIT. This resembles the cross of Military Merit, except that the enamel is white and the ribbon is white with a red stripe in the centre.
ORDER OF AGRICULTURAL MERIT. This was founded on December 1, 1905, by Alphonso XIII, for those eminent in agriculture. There are three grades: gold with a green ribbon, silver with a green and silver ribbon, and copper with a green knot of ribbon, according to the nature of the award. The decoration is a white-enamelled Maltese cross, double-pointed and ball-tipped, in the centre of which is a medallion with the symbols of agriculture. On the reverse is engraved the name of the recipient, the date and cause of award.
ORDER OF BENEFICENCIA. Founded on May 17, 1856, by Isabella II (1830-1904), daughter of Ferdinand VII, in recognition of humane and charitable work. Some authorities give Ferdinand VII credit for its recreation in 1820 at the time of the cholera epidemic in Manila, but that decoration differs materially (See page 88). There are three grades for the Order of Charity: Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers, and these are awarded both to men and to women. The decoration is a six-pointed, ball-tipped star, enamelled white with black edges; gold rays are in the angles, and the whole is surmounted by a palm wreath. In the centre red medallion is a gold figure of Charity with children, surrounded by a band, on which is inscribed A LA CARIDAD. The medallion on the reverse has in the centre the cipher of the founder Y 2 surrounded by the words BENEFICENCIA PUBLICA. The ribbon is white with a black band on each side. The plaque of the first class consists of the six-pointed star as above described, superimposed on a gold laurel wreath and rays of faceted silver.
CIVIL ORDER OF ALPHONSO XII. This order was founded on May 23, 1902, by King Alphonso XIII in honour of his father who died in 1885. Alphonso XIII (Leon-Ferdinand-Marie-Jacques-Isidore-Paschal-Antoine) the posthumous son of Alphonso XII and Marie Christine (Arch-Duchess of Austria), was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, and proclaimed King of Spain on the day of his birth. His mother ruled as Regent during his minority, and he is the only surviving ruler of that once powerful Bourbon family from which so many European kings have sprung, and who have held such power in the politics of the continent.
The order is bestowed for literary and artistic merit and is composed of three classes: Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers. The badge is composed of rays of violet enamel, on which is a radiant disc representing the sun. Superimposed thereon and within a gold palm and green laurel wreath, is an eagle with spread wings. Above the eagle is A XII, crowned—below, ALTIORA-PETO and a shield bearing the Arms of Spain. The ribbon is violet. The plaque is similar to the badge but larger, and the Commanders wear a large violet silk button on their ribbon.
ROYAL ORDER OF MARIA CHRISTINA. Founded by Alphonso XIII on July 19, 1889, for the Army, and in January of the following year for the Navy. It was discontinued on June 19, 1918, but reinstated March 16, 1925. It is to reward distinguished individual merit, and when given to Generals or Colonels is all gold; for Majors and Lieutenant-Colonels, it is of silver and gold, and for junior officers and enlisted men, it is of bronze and gold. The decoration is a plaque of faceted rays on which is superimposed a cross with laurel wreath entwined and four swords with hilts outward. The arms of the cross have curved ends and bear on the upper arm a gold crown; on the others, a gold fleur-de-lis. In the centre are the Arms of Spain in colour, surrounded by a blue band inscribed AL MERITO EN CAMPANA. The cross is similar to the plaque but smaller, and the ribbon is red and yellow with a white stripe on each side, and carmine edges.
In addition to the foregoing, there were many other decorations established and bestowed upon the Army, Navy and civilians for their efforts to support the throne of Spain. These are given below in order of the events. It will be noticed that many of them were not founded until long after the occurrences for which they were bestowed. In probably no other country have there been so many decorations given for military service and of so great a variety. It seems as if the designers of these have vied with each other in making each new decoration entirely different from its predecessor.
CROSS FOR SAPPERS AT ALCALA DE HENARES, 1808. Founded on October 1, 1817, and awarded to the two Companies of Sappers and Engineers under General Legues, who, at the beginning of the French invasion after the events at Madrid in 1808, refused to serve under the French, and assisted in saving the flags, the military stores and arms of the first division, and in escaping from Alcalá de Henares on May 2, 1808, and fleeing to Sierra de Cuenca.
The decoration is a gold cross ball-tipped and enamelled red, with blue triangles of enamel at the ends of the cross arms, and the whole surmounted by a royal crown. A white medallion in the centre bears six mountain peaks, from one of which flies a white flag bearing the letters Z. M. P., the initials of Zapadores (sappers), Minadores (miners) and Pontoneros (pontoon men). This is encircled by a white band inscribed MI LEALTAD Y VALOR TE CONSERVARON. On the blue reverse medallion is SALIDO DE LOS ZAPADORES MAYO DE 1808. The ribbon is bright red.
CROSS FOR VALENÇAY 1808. When Ferdinand VII was sent to Valençay (Indre) by the French in May, 1808, he was accompanied by a number of faithful adherents. He remained in the home of Talleyrand for five years, returning to Spain in March of 1814, when Napoleon's Empire was tottering. On August 23rd of that year, he instituted this decoration for those who had gone with him into exile. It is a blue-enamelled Greek cross surmounted by a gold crown. On the ends of the cross and in the angles are gold flames, and on the blue-enamelled medallion is a gold head of the founder surrounded by a white band inscribed FER NAN DO 7o 1814. The reverse medallion of light blue has in the centre a dog, of gold, beneath which is FIDES, surrounded by two chains and VALENÇAY 1808. The ribbon is violet.
CROSS FOR ADHERENTS OF THE KING. The Spanish subjects who by their loyalty to the king, incurred the displeasure of Don Manuel Godoy, the Prince of Peace, were interned by him in the Chateau of St. Laurenzo. To honour these loyal subjects, Ferdinand VII founded this decoration on December 5, 1814. It is a white-enamelled cross moline with gilt balls in the angles, and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. On the blue medallion encircled by a red band is a golden grid and a palm. The reverse medallion of blue is inscribed POR EL REY / PREMIO / A LA INO / CENCIA. The ribbon is bright red.
MEDAL OF SUFFERING FOR THE COUNTRY. Ferdinand VII created this by Royal Decree on November 6, 1814, as a reward to those who were taken prisoner by the French during the war for Independence. By a later Decree of November 5, 1900, it was awarded to all who were captured during the Cuban and Philippine war, and by a Decree of July 7, 1921, for those wounded in the service or captured in meritorious action.
It is issued in gold for officers and cadets, in silver for others, and is 32 mm. in diameter. In the centre is a castle tower surrounded by the inscription SUFRIMIENTO POR LA PATRIA, around which is a chain within two narrow lines; the whole being encircled with a laurel wreath which forms the edge of the medal. The ribbon is yellow, with narrow green stripes at each side, for those captured; and for the wounded, a red cross is embroidered on the ribbon.
CROSS FOR CIVILIANS IN FRANCE. Founded on June 14, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, and awarded to those who were transported to France on account of their opinions and who refused to recognize the Bonaparte rule. The decoration is a red-enamelled Maltese cross edged with gold and surmounted by a gold laurel wreath; on the blue medallion is an effigy of the king in gold, encircled by a white band inscribed OB EXILIUM PRO REGE ET PATRIA; and on the reverse is the name of the king, FERNANDO VII. The ribbon is of green with a white stripe on each side.
MEDAL FOR VICTIMS OF MAY 2, 1808. The widows, children and near relatives of the victims of the tumult in Madrid on May 2, 1808, when the French first invaded Spain, were awarded this decoration by Ferdinand VII by a Decree of October 27, 1815. It is an oval silver medal bearing on the obverse branches of palm and laurel, in letters of black, Fo VII A LAS VICTIMAS DEL 2 DE MAYO. Above the inscription is a small wreath. On the reverse is PRO / PATRIA MORI / AETERNUM / VIVERE. The ribbon is black moiré silk.
CROSS OF ST. GEORGE FOR JUNTA OF CATALONIA. Instituted on January 15, 1810, by the Supreme Junta and confirmed by Ferdinand VII on March 12, 1815, to reward the members of the Junta of Catalonia for their zeal and patriotism at the beginning of the French invasion of 1808. It is a gold Maltese cross with a red-enamelled Greek cross in the centre, surrounded by a green laurel wreath, and surmounted by a knot of gold ribbon, a fleur-de-lis and a scroll. The reverse is plain; the ribbon is red.
CROSS FOR CABINET COURIERS. These necessary and valuable officials were awarded this decoration for service rendered during the War of Independence. It was instituted on July 9, 1815, by Ferdinand VII. It is a cross, the arms of which are formed by four gold fleur-de-lis. These are connected by a green laurel wreath and the whole is surmounted by a gold crown. In the centre is a large red medallion on which is an effigy of the King, surrounded by a white band inscribed VALOR Y CONSTANCIA POR SU REY Y PATRIA. On the white reverse medallion is LOS CORREOS DE CABINETTE. The ribbon is green with a red stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR ALCOLEA 1808. On the morning of June 7, 1808, the Spanish troops under Echevaria defended the bridge across the Guadalquivir at the village of Alcolea (in Andalusia) to resist the invasion of their country. The French troops under General Dupont outclassed the natives, who retired defeated. On June 3, 1815, the cross was authorized by Ferdinand VII. It was of gold for the officers, and of silver for the privates who had distinguished themselves in this engagement. It consists of two crossed logs in the form of a St. Andrews Cross, enamelled red, surmounted by laurel and palm branches tied with a ribbon, and with a tassel below. On the obverse medallion of white is a triple-arched bridge, around which in gold letters is LA BATALLA DE ALCOLEA . The reverse medallion is inscribed LIBERTAD DE ESPANA 7 DE JUNIO 1808. The ribbon is green.
MEDAL FOR BAILEN 1808. Created on August 11, 1808, by the Junta of Seville in the name of the King (Ferdinand VII), and awarded to the Andalusian army, under General Castaños who defeated the French Army of 20,000, under General Dupont, and compelled their surrender on July 19, 1808, at Bailen, a small town commanding the passes of the Sierra Morena. Dupont was on his way to Cadiz and was hampered at every turn by the Spaniards who bitterly resented the Napoleonic domination. This was after the Little Corsican had placed his brother Joseph on the throne and incarcerated Ferdinand at Valençay (Indre).
The decoration is an oval gilt medal, having in the centre two crossed swords tied with a ribbon, from which hangs an inverted eagle. In the upper part of the field is a laurel wreath and a scroll which bears the legend BAILEN 19 DE JULIO 1808. The ribbon is red with a yellow stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR SARAGOSSA 1808-1809. Ferdinand VII authorized this cross on August 30, 1814, for those who had distinguished themselves in the defense of Saragossa in Aragon from June 16 to August 14, 1808, when the Spaniards under Don Jose De Palafox and Calvo di Rozas, defeated the French troops under Marshal Lefebvre who was compelled to retreat to Pampeluna. When the French again attacked the city in December, 1808, the Spanish were compelled to sur- render on February 20, 1809, after having lost nearly 60,000 men. The Maltese cross, of gold for officers and of bronze for the soldiers, is red enamelled with broad ends surmounted by a mural crown, and bears on an oval white medallion, within a laurel wreath, a figure of St. Mary on a pedestal. On the blue reverse medallion is EL REY A LS. DEF DE ZAR (The king to the defenders of Saragossa). The ribbon is yellow with four narrow red stripes. Don José Velasco Dueñas, writing in 1843, says the cross for the first siege of the city in 1808 was founded March 25, 1817, and that it is white-enamelled and surmounted by a laurel wreath, with a red medallion on the obverse. The cross for those who took part in both sieges was enamelled half red and half white, with a royal crown surmounting it and with fleurs-de-lis in the angles; on the upper cross arm is a mural crown and on the lower a laurel wreath. Both medallions are blue, and the motto is EL REY A LOS DEFENSORES DE ZARAGOSA EN SU 1o Y 2o SITIOS. The ribbon is light blue with two narrow stripes of red and two of yellow on either side.
CROSS FOR LERIN. Founded on July 23, 1811, by the Council of the Regency and awarded to the Cadiz Rifle Battalion who defended the town of Lerin on October 25, 26 and 27, 1808. The decoration is a white-enamelled Maltese cross surmounted by a gold laurel wreath and with gold fleur-de-lis in the angles. The obverse green medallion bears the figure of a lion resting its paw on two globes, with the word LERIN below. The reverse medallion, also of green has LERIN 25 26 27 OBRE 1808. The ribbon is green watered-silk. The officers were awarded this cross, and the privates received a bronze medal.
CROSS FOR MENJIBAR, JULY 16, 1808. Created on April 18, 1816, by the King, for the troops of the Andalusian army under General Theodore Reding, who defended the ferry at Menjibar on that date. The decoration is a red-enamelled cross, superimposed on a white cross with gold balls at the extremities of the arms; fleurs-de-lis are in the angles and the whole is surrounded by a green laurel wreath. The obverse medallion of blue has in the centre a morion, a cuirass, and crossed behind them a sword and lance. The reverse of blue is inscribed F. VII surrounded by MENJIBAR 16 DE JULIO 1808. The ribbon is blue with a red stripe each side. Another cross is described by an Italian authority as having on the reverse, MENJIBAR 16 DE OC., 1808 for a battle which occurred on that date.
CROSS FOR PORTUGAL 1808. Founded on June 22, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, for the Spanish troops, who, in 1808, forsook the French army at Guya, in Portugal, on the outbreak of the War of Independence, and joined the forces fighting for their King. The decoration is a white-enamelled, ball-tipped cross surmounted by a trophy of arms, and with fleurs-de-lis in the angles. The obverse medallion of blue is PRO FERNANDO VII . The reverse centre has PORTUGAL AÑO DE 1808. The ribbon is white with blue edges.
CROSS FOR BUBIERCA 1808. Founded on May 30, 1816, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops engaged in the affair at Bubierca on November 29, 1808. It is a gold cross, saltier, with the arms of white enamel divided in the manner styled moline. The whole is suspended from the crown between the upper arms. On a gold centre medallion is POR F. VII, encircled by a white band inscribed EN BUBIERCA 29 DE NOVIEMBRE 1808. The ribbon is yellow.
CROSS FOR ROSAS 1808. Founded on May 2, 1821, by Ferdinand VII, for those who took part in the defense of Rosas and the castle of Trinidad, on November 7, 12 and 23, 1808. It is a ball-tipped cross, enamelled rose-colour and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. On the white obverse medallion is a picture of the breach in the wall of the fortress of Rosas, above which is a Spanish flag. The whole is encircled by a band inscribed CON BRECHA ME DEFENDI. On the reverse medallion of blue, are three red roses surrounded by a white band inscribed A LOS DEFENSORES DE ROSAS POR FERNANDO VII . The ribbon is dark green edged with rose.
Madrid 1808 Provincial Junta
CROSS FOR MADRID 1808. To the inhabitants of the capital city, who valiantly resisted the entrance of the French on December 1, 2 and 3, 1808, Ferdinand awarded this cross on May 13, 1817. It is a green-enamelled Maltese cross with flames in the angles, and surmounted by a gold crown. On the oval medallion is a mailed right arm holding an upright sword, encircled by a white band on which is inscribed AL VALOR Y FIDELIDAD DE MADRID . The reverse medallion has the arms of Madrid encircled by a white band inscribed EN LOS TRES PRIMEROS DIAS DE DICIEMBRE DE 1808. The ribbon is bright red with a white stripe each side.
CROSS FOR ASTURIAN ARMY 1808. On June 4, 1815, the King authorized this insignia for the Army Corps which defended Asturia against Marshal Ney and Generals Kellerman and Bonnet. It is a white-enamelled cross with a red triangle terminating each of the arms. The whole is surmounted by a green wreath of oak and laurel. The blue medallion has a white cross (the Arms of Asturia) in the centre, encircled by a white band inscribed ASTURIAS NUNCA VENCIDA. On the reverse of white is EXERCITO ASTURIANO 1808. The ribbon is half red and half yellow.
MEDAL FOR TARANCON 1808. Awarded for the army commanded by General Don Franciscus Xavier de Venegas for the engagement of Tarancon in New Castile, on December 25, 1808. It was founded on June 12, 1815, by Ferdinand VII. The decoration is an oval surmounted by two crossed flags and a gold mace. In the white centre is INFAN / TERIA / INVENCI / BLE. This is encircled by a green laurel wreath, and again by a band inscribed EN TARANCON DIA 25 DE DICIEMBRE DEL AÑO DE 1808. The ribbon is red. This medal was awarded in gold to the officers, in silver to the junior officers and in bronze to the privates.
CROSS FOR THE NAVY 1808. Founded on September 22, 1816, and awarded to the men of the Royal Navy who took part in the War of Independence of 1808. The decoration is of gold for the officers and of silver for the sailors. It is a white-enamelled, ball-tipped, cross, surmounted by a wreath and superimposed on a blue-enamelled anchor. The oval medallion of red bears a gold bust of the King while the obverse bears the cipher F VII surrounded by AL VALOR DE LOS MARINOS. The ribbon is red with a yellow stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR PROVINCIAL JUNTA 1808. Founded on November 2, 1818, and awarded to the members of the various Provincial Juntas for their services to the kingdom during the French invasion of 1808. It is a cross, ball-tipped, with golden fleur-de-lis in the angles, and surmounted by a royal crown. The arms of the cross are of purple enamel, rimmed with white and edged with gold. On the obverse oval blue medallion is a gold bust of the King, encircled by a white band inscribed AL ZELO Y CONSTANCIA DE LA JUNTA PROVINCIAL. The reverse medallion bears the arms of the province, varying with each Junta. The ribbon is of five equal stripes, one of black in the centre, two of red adjacent, and white at the edges.
BRACELET FOR THE WOMEN OF THE CADIZ JUNTA 1808. Founded on July 27, 1815, and awarded to women for loyalty or distinguished service during the trying years of 1808-1809 of French invasion. It is a gold oval, to be attached to a bracelet. On a blue field is a crowned mantle, within which is the King's cipher F VII. On an encircling white band is A LA JUNTA PATRIOTICA DE SEÑORAS DE CADIZ .
NORTHERN CAMPAIGN OF 1809. The Council of the Regency founded this cross on March 23, 1809, for the troops under General La Romana, in the campaign of the North in 1809. The decoration is a white-enamelled star of seven points, with gold fleurs-de-lis in the angles, and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. In the blue centre is LA PATRIA ES MI NORTE (My country is my guide). The ribbon is red with black stripes at the sides.
DEFENCE OF GERONA 1809. Founded on September 14, 1810, by the Council of the Regency for those taking part in the defence of Gerona in Catalonia. The decoration is a red-enamelled Maltese cross, with ball tips, surmounted by a green laurel wreath. In the angles are gold castles. On the obverse oval medallion is a gold figure of St. Narcisse (the emblem of the city) surrounded by a gold band inscribed SITIO DE GERONA 1809. On the white reverse is LA PATRIA AL VALOR Y CONSTANCIA. The ribbon is red.
ORDER OF CASTELLO DE AMPURIAS 1809. This Order was founded on March 25, 1817, by Ferdinand VII, for the Second Army of Cataluna, commanded by General Lazan. It is a blue-enamelled Maltese cross edged with gold and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. The obverse medallion of red had two crossed swords encircled by a white band inscribed CASTELLO DE AMPURIAS. On the white reverse medallion is 2 DE ENERO DE 1809. The ribbon is dark blue.
CROSS FOR VALLS IN CATALONIA 1809. This award was made for the battle of Valls which took place on February 25, 1809, and was authorized by Ferdinand VII on April 27, 1815. It consists of a Maltese cross enamelled red, with white edges, and ball-tipped points. The arms of the cross are connected by a laurel wreath, and the whole is surmounted by a similar wreath. The obverse medallion bears the Arms of Catalonia (five white and four red bars) encircled by a white band inscribed EL REY AL VALOR ESFORZADO. The reverse, of red, has in the centre VALLS, surrounded by a yellow band inscribed A 25 FEBRERO DE 1809. The ribbon is white with four narrow red stripes, the colours of Valls.
CROSS FOR MORA AND CONSUEGRA 1809. Instituted March 27, 1817, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops engaged in the actions of Mora and Consuegra on February 18 and 22, 1809. The decoration is a gold white-enamelled Greek cross with gold balls at the extremities of the arms and surmounted by a trophy of arms with flaming grenades of blue in the angles. On the obverse centre are the initials M and C (Mora and Consuegra), and on the reverse is A, for the Duke of Albuquerque, who commanded the troops. The ribbon is plain white.
CROSS FOR LUGO or OF VILLAFRANCA 1809. Founded on March 13, 1817, by Ferdinand VII, for the Galician army under General Nicholas Mahy, for the engagements of May 18 and 19, 1809, near Lugo, and for the recapture of Villafranca del Vierzo in Leon, in March, 1809. It was of gold for officers, bronze for privates, and is a white-enamelled Greek cross surmounted by a crown, and with fleur-de-lis in the angles. The arms of the cross are inscribed BATALLAS DE LUGO / DEL 18 Y 19 / DE MAYO / DE 1809. On the obverse medallion of gold is the Arms of Lugo—a gold chalice with the Host, and on the reverse medallion is the Arms of Villafranca—a crowned lion, facing right. The reverse of the cross arms is inscribed TOMA DE VILLAFRANCA DE VIERZO EL DIA 19 DE MARZO DE 1809. The ribbon is white with green edges.
CROSS FOR ALCANIZ 1809. Founded on May 14, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops of the army of Aragon, who, under command of Don Joachim Blake, were engaged on May 23, 1809, in the battle of Alcaniz in Teruel against Marshall Suchet, commanding the French. The decoration is an elongated four-pointed star, enamelled red, with ball tips, and surmounted by a green laurel wreath and with flames in the angles. On the white obverse medallion is F VII, surrounded by a gold band inscribed AL / CA / NIZ. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red.
CROSS FOR TALAVERA 1809. Founded by the Council of the Regency on December 8, 1810, for the officers who took part in the battle of Talavera in Toledo on July 27, 28, 1809. It is a white-enamelled, ball-tipped, Maltese cross, surmounted by a gold crown; on the upper arm is TALA / VERA; across the centre is 28 DE JULIO, and on the lower arm, DE 1809. The ribbon is half red and half black.
CROSS FOR ALMONACID 1809. Founded on May 30, 1816, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops present at the battle of Almonacid on August 11, 1809. The decoration is a white-enamelled shield superimposed on a green and white cross saltier, the arms of which terminate in triple points. The whole is surmounted by a gold crown, and a gold acorn is at the base of the shield. In the green oval centre is POR Fo 7o , surrounded by the inscription EN ALMONACID 11 DE AGOSTO DE 1809. The ribbon is green with narrow white stripes at the sides.
CROSS FOR ARANJUEZ 1809. The troops present at the engagement of Aranjuez, near Toledo, on August 5, 1809, were rewarded by the King on May 30, 1816, with this decoration—a five-pointed, ball-tipped, blue-enamelled star, bearing on the white centre a gold F 7o with a crown above, and encircled by a white band inscribed ACCION DE ARANJUEZ 5 DE AGOSTO DE 1809. The reverse is plain and the ribbon is blue with white stripes at the sides.
MEDAL FOR TAMAMES. The Spanish troops of the left army, under Martin Carrera, who participated in the battle of Tamames on October 18, 1809, against the French, were awarded this decoration by Ferdinand on July 2, 1815. It is an oval gilt medal surrounded by a green laurel wreath, bearing in the centre a blue sleeved right arm, holding upright a sabre, and surrounded by VENCIO EN TAMAMES OCTUBRE 18 DE 1809. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is blue with a red stripe each side.
MEDAL FOR MEDINA DEL CAMPO. On July 2, 1815, Ferdinand VII created this decoration for the left army engaged in the battle of Medina del Campo in Valladolid, on November 23, 1809—an oval silver medal with a laurel wreath in the centre, encircled by a band inscribed AL VALOR MEDINA DEL CAMPO NOVIEMBRE 23 DE 1809. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is white with a green band each side.
CROSS FOR CUIDAD-RODRIGO. Founded on December 6, 1814, for the soldiers taking part in the sortie of July 10, 1810, and at the time of the second siege of Cuidad-Rodrigo in 1812—gold for the officers and silver for the privates. It is an eight-pointed, ball-tipped gold cross with blue-enamelled edges and surmounted by a mural crown. It bears on the obverse an oval of red enamel on which is a gold castle encircled by a white band. On the white reverse medallion is VALOR / ACREDITADO / EN CUIDAD / RODRIGO. The ribbon is violet.
CROSS FOR ABISBAL, SAN FELIU and PALAMOS 1810. Founded on July 2, 1817, for the troops under the Count of Abisbal, who attacked the towns of Abisbal, San Feliu and Palamos in Castile, on September 13, 1810. It is a gold cross of white enamel with blue-enamelled borders, each arm terminating in three points. A green laurel wreath is entwined about the cross arms. The obverse medallion of blue bears a gold castle surrounded by a white band inscribed ABISBAL PALAMOS Y SAN FELIU. The reverse medallion bears a white fleur-de-lis on a blue field, encircled by a band inscribed SETIEMBRE 13 DE 1810. The ribbon is light blue with diagonal narrow white stripes crossed to form a lattice-work pattern.
MEDAL FOR BAGUR and PALAMOS 1810. An English writer (Tancred) describes and illustrates gold and silver medals given by Spain to certain British naval men of the "Ajax", "Kent" and "Cambrian" for service rendered in forcing the French to evacuate Catalonia. They are described as bearing on the obverse the arms of Spain and Great Britain, joined and crowned, surrounded by the flags of the two kingdoms. Below this is ALIANZA ETERNA, and the whole is encircled by a laurel wreath. On the reverse is BAGUR / 10 DE SETIEMBRE / PA- LAMOS / 14 DE SETIEMBRE / 1810, surrounded by the words GRATITUD DE ESPANA A LA INTERPIDEZ BRITANICA. No description of the ribbon is given, and no Spanish authority mentions this medal, but this is no proof of its not being official as the Spanish authorities consulted mention only those medals given to Spanish citizens.
MEDAL FOR LUCENA 1810. Authorized on October 23, 1816, and awarded for service rendered the kingdom by four citizens, at the risk of their lives in Lucena, Cordova. The recipients Don Fernando Ramirez de Luque, Don Antonio Ortiz Repiso, Don Francisco Polo Valenzuela and Don Francisco d'Assis de la Carrera. The decoration is a white-enamelled star of eight points, in the centre of which on a gold field is a red cross and pedestal on a green hill; surrounding this, is a gold band inscribed CERRO DE LA CAPITULACION, and on the reverse LA LEALTAD PREMIADA POR FERNANDO VII: LUCENA 25 DE SETIEMBRE DE 1810. The ribbon is green, edged with red.
CROSS FOR ASTORGA 1810. Founded on April 10, 1815, by the King, for the troops taking part in the defense of Astorga, Leon, in 1810. This cross is of gold for the officers and of silver for privates. It is red-enamelled with rounded corners and indented arms, in the centre of which is a blue medallion bearing a vertical cannon and a crossed rifle and sword. The cross is surmounted by a bow-knot of ribbon inscribed EN ASTORGA CON VALOR ADQUIRIMOS ESTE HONOR. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is half blue and half white.
CROSS OF ESTRAMADURA 1810. Also called the cross of Albuquerque. On June 5, 1815, Ferdinand VII founded this decoration for the army corps of Estramadura under the Duke of Albuquerque, which protected the retreat of the Government to Isla de Leon, near Cadiz, in 1810. It is a white-enamelled Maltese cross with blue and gold ball-tipped triangles in the angles of the cross-arm ends. The whole is surmounted by a laurel wreath. On the oval medallion is a sinking ship and the pillars of Hercules, surrounded by a white band inscribed SALVO LA NAVE QUE ZOZOFRABA, and on the reverse medallion a radiated eye, surrounded by AL DUQUE DE ALBURQUERQUE Y SU EXERCITO. The ribbon is white with three narrow blue stripes—one each side and one in the centre.
CROSS FOR ALBUHERA 1811. Instituted on March 1, 1815, by the King and awarded to those of the Army of Estramadura who took part in the battle of Albuhera on May 16, 1811. General Castaños and the British forces were victorious over the French under Soult. The decoration is an elongated four-pointed star of red enamel, with ball tips, and flames in the angles, and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. In the centre is an oval white medallion, bearing in gold letters F VII, and surrounded by a gold band inscribed AL BUHE RA. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red with equal bands of blue and black on either edge. This decoration in gold was also given to the officers of the British Army who were present at this engagement.
CROSS FOR CHICLANA 1811. The troops of the Fourth Army who were present on March 5, 1811, at the battle of Chiclana, near Cadiz, were awarded this cross by the King on February 13, 1815. It is a four-pointed, ball-tipped star of red enamel, with a star-shaped centre of black. Two wreaths at its angles, crossing at the centre, are superimposed. The whole is suspended from a crown, the band of which is inscribed CHIC-LANA V DE MARZO 1811. The ribbon is green with a narrow yellow stripe each side.
CROSS FOR ARROYO-MOLINOS 1811. Founded on May 1, 1817, by the King, and awarded to the troops under General Pedro Augustin Giron, who routed the French army under General Girard, and captured 1500 prisoners and much booty. The "cross" is a six-pointed, ball-tipped star, enamelled white, having in the centre a sun with rays, surrounded by a purple band inscribed ARROYO-MOLINOS 28 DE OCTUBRE DE 1811. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is white with two narrow purple stripes each side.
DEFENCE OF TARIFA 1811. Founded on June 4, 1815, by the King for the men of the Fourth Army and of the Navy, who took part in the defence of Tarifa, on the Straits of Gibraltar, in December, 1811. The decoration is of gold for the officers and of silver for the privates and sailors. It is a yellow-enamelled cross, clichée, each arm having three ball-tipped points, and the whole surmounted by a mural crown. The medallion of blue is inscribed A LOS DEFENSORES DE TARIFA, and on the reverse is F VII. The ribbon is blue with an orange stripe each side.
CROSS FOR ARMY OF IZQUIERDA 1811. Founded on May 14, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, for the men of the Galician army—the sixth or left wing—who had distinguished themselves in the mountain engagements of Rioseco, Sornaza, Gueces and Espinosa in 1811. The decoration is an elongated four-pointed star, enamelled red, ball-tipped, with flames in the angles, and surmounted by a laurel wreath. In an oval medallion of blue are the Arms of Galicia, (a gold chalice on a blue field, with small gold crosses in the field), surrounded by a gold band inscribed IZ QUIER DA. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red with a gold stripe each side.
CROSS FOR TARRAGONA. Ferdinand VII founded this on May 14, 1815, for the troops under Don Juan Senen de Contreras, who prolonged the siege of Tarragona by Suchet in 1811 for two months. It is a red enamelled Greek cross with ends terminating in a palmette-shaped ornament of gold and surmounted by a royal crown; across the centre is inscribed ANTES MORIR QUE RENDIR. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red.
MEDAL FOR FIRST ARMY 1811. Awarded to the men of the First Army who had distinguished themselves during the War of Independence, especially in Catalonia in 1811. Founded by the King on March 31, 1811. The decoration is a dark blue-enamelled cross surmounted by a laurel wreath, bearing in the centre medallion the Arms of Catalonia, encircled by a white band inscribed DEFENSOR DE MI REY Y EL PRINCIPADO. On the reverse medallion is inscribed PRIMER EXERCITO. The ribbon is white with red squares woven therein.
CROSS FOR FIRST ARMY. This decoration has been mentioned by Perrot and Trost bu has not been confirmed by other writers. It i a white-enamelled Maltese cross in the form of a horizontal rectangle, surmounted by a flat laurel band, having in the centre of the cross an oval medallion bearing two deer and a small cross, surrounded by a gold band inscribed PREMIERO EXERCITO 1811. The ribbon is given as half red and half purple.
CROSS FOR FIRST ARMY 1813-1814. Described by Perrot and by an Italian authority as being awarded to the men of the First Army for service rendered in the years 1813 and 1814. The decoration is a blue-enamelled five-armed cross on a green-enamelled wreath and surmounted by a crown, having on a gold-edged centre of white AL EXTO VICTORIOSO DEL I EXTO, and on the reverse, POR LAS CAMPANAS DE 1813 Y 1814. The ribbon is described as red with four green stripes.
CROSS FOR SECOND ARMY FOR MURCIA. Founded on March 31, 1815, by the King and awarded to the men of the Second Army who distinguished themselves at the battle of Murcia and in other important events of the strenuous years of the Peninsular Wars. It is a green-enamelled cross, edged with white and with curvilinear arms, surmounted by a green laurel wreath, having in the white centre a gold L crowned (signifying Loyalty) encircled by a band inscribed PREMIO A LA VIRTUD MILITAR, and on the reverse, SECUNDO EXERCITO. The ribbon is green with white edges.
Tarragona Third Army
Second Army Seventh Army
CROSS OF THIRD ARMY FOR LEON and CADIZ. Founded March 31, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops under the Duke of Albuquerque, for services on the Isla de Leon and in the defence of Cadiz, where the attacks of the French were withstood from 1810 to 1812. It is a green-enamelled cross with curved arms and ends, surmounted by a wreath and bearing in the centre medallion of white, the pillars of Hercules and a cliff, encircled by a white band inscribed VENCEDOR DEL ESTRECHO AL PIRINEO, and on the reverse, TERCER EXERCITO. The ribbon is white, with diamonds of green.
CROSS FOR SEVENTH ARMY. Founded on May 19, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, for the troops of that army in the War of Independence, for campaigns in Castile, Asturia, Aragon, Navarre and the Basque provinces, under General Don Gabriel de Mendizabal. It is a green-enamelled cross-pattée, with white edges, and curved arms with convex ends. Gold cannon are crossed in the angles, and the whole is suspended from a gold laurel wreath. In the red medallion is the lion of Aragon, encircled by a white band bearing the legend EL REY AL 7o EXERCITO. The reverse reads REY PATRIA O LA MUERTE. The ribbon is green with a white stripe each side.
CROSS FOR UTIEL 1812. The King founded this decoration on June 20, 1815, to reward the Artillery Corps for its part in the action of Utiel, in Valencia, on August 15, 1812. It is a white-enamelled Maltese cross surmounted by a laurel wreath, bearing an oval medallion on which are two crossed cannon projecting into the upper part of the cross, and F 7. Below, on a scroll, is ACCION DE UTIEL. The ribbon is white with a wide yellow stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR RECOVERY OF SEVILLE 1812. Founded March 17, 1815, by the King, and awarded for the recapture of Seville on August 27, 1812. It is of gold for officers and of bronze for privates. The decoration is a red- enamelled square, on which are superimposed large white-enamelled loops to form a cross, edged with gold wreaths; the whole is surmounted by a green laurel wreath. On the obverse is NO DO, and on the reverse, a blue medallion having in the centre 27 DE AGOSTO DE 1812, encircled by EL REY A LOS RECONQUISTADORES DE SEVILLA. The ribbon is equal stripes of black, red and blue.
CROSS FOR ARMY OF ANDALUSIA. Founded by the King on December 28, 1814, of gold for the officers and of bronze for the soldiers, and awarded to the men of the Reserve Army of Andalusia who distinguished themselves in 1813 in the taking of Pancorbo and in the engagements of Soraura in the Pyrenees and at Nivelle. It is a white-enamelled cross surmounted by a green laurel wreath, having in the centre an effigy of the King on a gold field, encircled by a blue band inscribed EL REY AL EXERCITO DE RESERVA DE ANDALUCIA. The reverse has 1813 on a gold field surrounded by a blue band inscribed PANCORBO PIRINEOS NIVELLE . The ribbon is orange-yellow edged with blue.
CROSS FOR CASTALLA 1813. Authorized by the King on June 27, 1816, for the troops of Mallorquina under General Whittingham, who were present on April 13, 1813, in Castalla against Marshal Suchat. It is a red-enamelled cross, with curved arms joined by a green laurel wreath, and the whole surmounted by a similar wreath, bearing on the obverse white medallion the words CASTALLA 13 DE ABRIL DE 1813, and on the reverse of white, D M, encircled by a gold band. The ribbon is yellow.
CROSS FOR PAMPLONA 1813 and BAYONNE 1814. Founded on June 4, 1815, by the King. This decoration was gold and awarded to all officers and men who took part in the sieges of Pamplona in 1813 and of Bayonne, France, in 1814. It is a five-armed gold cross with double points, ball-tipped, white-enamelled, with gold fleurs-de-lis in the angles; the whole surmounted by a green laurel wreath. The blue medallion edged with gold, has a red diamond thereon inscribed F 7o , around which, in the field, is AL VALOR Y DISCIPLINA. The white reverse reads EN PAMPLONA Y BAYONA ANOS 1813 Y 1814. The ribbon is red, edged with yellow.
CROSS FOR VITORIA 1813. This famous battle between the French-Spanish troops under Joseph Bonaparte and the English-Spanish forces under Wellington (Duke of Cuidad Rodrigo) and Field-Marshal Don Francisco Thomas de Longa, was fought on June 21, 1813. The French were routed, Joseph Bonaparte was nearly captured and fled across the border to St. Jean de Luz in France. The battle of Vitoria was Wellington's decisive victory and was followed by the invasion of France, which induced Napoleon to free the captive King, Ferdinand VII, and permit his return to the throne of Spain. The decoration to commemorate this event was instituted on April 2, 1815, by the King. It is white-enamelled cross patté, with arms having curved sides, superimposed on a laurel wreath. The whole is surmounted by a gold crown. A red-enamelled four-pointed star is imposed upon the cross. On the centre red medallion are three crossed swords tied with a ribbon, inscribed IRURACVAT, and on the reverse white medallion, RECOMPENSA DE LA BATALLA DE VITORIA. The ribbon is of equal blue, red and black stripes.
CROSS FOR SAN MARCIAL 1813. This was awarded to the troops present at the battle of San Marcial, near Bidossa, on August 30, 1813. It was founded by the King on October 24, 1814, in gold for officers and in bronze for the privates. It is a red-enamelled ball-tipped star of four points, suspended by a ring; in the angles are fleurs-de-lis, a lion and a castle of gold. On the centre of the obverse are two crossed swords and a laurel wreath, surrounded by a blue band inscribed EL REY A LOS VENCEDORES EN SAN MARCIAL. The ribbon is half violet and half red.
CROSS FOR ORDAL 1813. Founded on May 1, 1815, by the King, and awarded to the Grenadier column of the second army-corps for the engagement near Ordal, in Catalonia, on September 12 and 13, 1813. The decoration consists of four red-enamelled diamonds, ball-tipped at the three corners, fastened by the fourth to a white-enamelled medallion, encircled by a green wreath, thus forming a cross. Between each arm is a flaming grenade. On the medallion is a blue device flamed, and on the arms, BATALLA / DEL ORDAL / 13 DE 7BRE / DE 1813. The reverse medallion is inscribed REY PATRIA Ó LA MUERTE. The ribbon is violet with yellow edges.
CROSS FOR CARTAGENA DE LAS IN-DIAS 1814. Founded on April 1, 1816, by the King, and awarded to the men of the Army and Navy commanded by Lieut. General Morillo, who took part in the siege of Cartagena, an important harbor of what is now Colombia, in 1814. It was of gold for the officers and of silver for the men. The decoration is a green-enamelled cross with triple-pointed arms, ball-tipped at the centre points. On the obverse medallion is a gold head of the King, encircled by a white band inscribed A SU REY FERNANDO CONSTANCIA Y FIDELIDAD, and on the reverse white medallion, VENCEDORES DE CARTAGENA DE INDIAS. The ribbon is of three equal stripes—the middle of red, the outer of green.
CROSS OF MERIT FOR SAN LORENZO DEL PUNTAL. Founded on April 10, 1815, by the King and awarded to the Artillery Battalion for the defense of the castle of San Lorenzo del Puntal, near Cadiz, in 1814. It is a Maltese cross, enamelled light brown, surmounted by two crossed feathers. The oval obverse medallion depicts a castle with a Spanish flag flying, and is encircled by a white band inscribed VALOR ACREDITADO POR LOS ARTILLEROS DE S. LORENZO DEL PUNTAL. On the gold reverse medallion, POR EL REY D. FERNANDO VII AÑO 1814. The ribbon is green. This cross was awarded to the officers, and a medal like the obverse medallion was given to the men.
CROSS FOR TOLOSA 1814. Founded on January 30, 1815, by Ferdinand VII, and awarded to the men of the Fourth Army who were in the battle of Toulouse, France, on April 10, 1814. This battle was fought on Easter Sunday and was a decisive victory for the British-Spanish army under the Duke of Wellington, over the French forces under Marshal Soult, and was the final battle of the Peninsular War. Napoleon abdicated on April 12, and had the news spread faster, much bloodshed would have been prevented. The decoration is a blue-enamelled cross with divided curved ends and a gold ball in each end division. Between the cross arms is a crowned column, a sabre and a palm leaf crossed. On the obverse medallion of white are inscribed the words BATALLA / DE TOLOSA / ABRIL 10 DE / 1814, surrounded by a laurel wreath; on the reverse, VALOR Y DISCIPLINA. The ribbon is blue with yellow borders.
DECORATION FOR THE COUNCIL OF THE MESTA. Founded on May 31, 1816, by the King, as a distinction of honour for the members of the Council of the Mesta who had taken part in the meetings of April 26 and May 3, 1815, during the Presidency of Ferdinand. The Mesta is a body of proprietors of black cattle and sheep; annual meetings are held, and it is one of the oldest organizations of Spain, deriving large revenues from the sale of wool. The decoration is a white-enamelled oval surmounted by a royal crown of gold. The obverse centre depicts a sheep, a dog and a shepherd's crook on green grass, with a mountain in the distance. Surrounding this are the words FERNANDO VII AL HONRADO CONCEJO DE LA MESTA , and on the reverse centre is the quartered Arms of the organization. The ribbon is purple with a white stripe each side.
CROSS FOR THE MAJORCA DIVISION. Founded on June 27, 1816, by the King, and awarded to the troops forming the division of Majorca—the largest of the Balearic Islands—during the War of Independence, under Lieut. General Santiago Whittingham. It is a white-enamelled cross with curved arms, surmounted by a gold crown, and with fleurs-de-lis in the angles. On the arms are the gold letters A L D M (A la division Mallorquina), and on the obverse red medallion is a gold bust of the King, surrounded by a laurel wreath. The reverse is inscribed VALOR Y DICIPLINA. The ribbon is red.
CROSS OF MADRID 1818. But two authorities—Perrot and Padiglione, mention this decoration, and it is believed to have been awarded after one of the numerous uprisings in the country. No date has been found for its origin. It is a white-enamelled Maltese cross, ball-tipped, and surmounted by flags and a helmet; fleurs-de-lis in the angles. The blue obverse centre bears the words MADRID 1818, and the reverse PRO FERo VII. The ribbon is blue, edged with white.
SHIELD OF FIDELITY. Instituted by Ferdinand VII on December 14, 1823, to reward special service to his cause from 1820 to 1823. It is silver-gilt, in the form of a sun, bearing in the centre a red-enamelled cross of flames within two green palm-branches, and surmounted by a royal crown of gold. Below, on a white ribbon are the words EL REY A LA FIDELIDAD.
MILITARY CROSS OF FIDELITY. Founded on August 9, 1824, by Ferdinand VII, for the Royalists who defended the throne in the various uprisings of the first epoch from March 7, 1820 to June 30, 1822, and of the second epoch, July 1, 1822 to February 28, 1823, and from March 1 to May 1, 1823. Awarded in gold, silver and bronze, according to the rank of the recipient. The decoration is a cross, the arms of which are formed of rays on which are red grenades, the whole being surmounted by a similar wreath, with leaves through which the ribbon passes. At the centre of the cross is a llama or cross formed of four flames, encircled by a blue band inscribed EL REY A LA FIDELID. MILITAR. On the reverse in a gold-crowned oval, is the arms of the King encircled by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; and on the encircling band of blue is FERNANDO VII A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA RELIGION Y DEL TRONO EN GRADO HEROICO Y EMINENTE. The cross for the second epoch varies from the first. On the reverse is the inscription FERNANDO VII A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA RELIGION Y DEL TRONO. The ribbon is of three equal stripes, two of red at the sides and one of yellow in the centre. On October 10, 1832, Queen Maria Christina awarded this decoration—then called La Constanza Militare, for long service in the Army.
MEDAL FOR EPIDEMICS. Created on March 17, 1829, by Ferdinand VII, for heroic service in the cholera epidemic in Manila in 1820. The decoration is a white-enamelled cross with the arms curved convexly at the extremities and concavely at the sides. The angles are filled by the ball-tipped rays of a red-enamelled, four-pointed star. The whole is surmounted by a laurel wreath. In the centre of the cross is a bust of the King, encircled by a green wreath. The reverse medallion of blue is inscribed FERNANDO VII AL MERITO EN LA EPIDEMIA DE MANILA DE 1820, for those who received this medal during that epidemic. The ribbon is half red and half yellow. This cross was awarded retro-actively to those who had done similar work in other places, and the reverse inscription was changed accordingly. Citations noted are for CANARIES EN 1811, GIBRALTAR EN 1828 and CADIZ EN 1819 Y 1820. In August, 1838, it was altered by substituting the bust of Isabella II on the obverse medallion, the inscription on the reverse being changed accordingly. The laurel wreath was replaced by two palm branches and the ribbon made half black and half purple.
SHIELD FOR VENTOSILLA 1821. Founded on April 11, 1821, and awarded to Sergeant Juan Baya and the seven men under him, for the attack on the streets of Ventosilla on April 5, 1821, on twenty armed rebels who conspired against the Constitutional Government. The decoration is circular in form, 55 mm. in diameter, enamelled red with gold edges. In the centre in black letters is 5 / DE ABRIL / DE / 1821, the whole surrounded by palm and laurel branches of green, within a gold ring. Around this is inscribed EL REY A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA CONSTITUCION in black letters on the red background.
MEDAL FOR JULY 7, 1822. Founded by the Cortez on December 27, 1822, for civilians who aided in opposing the attack on Spanish liberty in Madrid that day. It is a gold medal composed of laurel and palm branches on which are two crossed swords; superimposed is an open book, enamelled white, bearing the words CONSTI / TUCION / POLITICA / DE LA MO / NARQUIA / ESPANOLA / PROMUL / GADA EN / CADIZ AÑO / DE 1812. On the reverse of book, in a blue field, is ACCION / MEMO / RABLE / DEL 7 / DE JULIO / DE 1822. The ribbon is a wide violet stripe, edged on either side with narrow red and yellow stripes.
CROSS FOR CASPUENAS and BRIHUEGA 1823. Founded on October 18, 1842, for the Madrid Militia under Don Juan Martin Diez, who took part against the rebels at Caspuenas and Brihuega on January 24 and 25, 1823. The decoration consists of an eight-pointed star, ball-tipped, with the points enamelled alternately red and white, and surmounted by a green laurel wreath. In the white medallion is 1823 surrounded by a blue band inscribed PREMIO AL VALOR Y SUFRIMIENTO, and on the reverse blue medallion is ACCIONES DE CASPUENAS Y BRIHUEGA . The ribbon is red with a narrow white stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR CUENCA 1823. Founded on January 24, 1837, by the General Cortez, under Isabella II, for the heroic defenders of Cuenca during 1822 and 1823, against the enemies of the Constitution of the Monarchy. It is a six-pointed gold star, ball-tipped, enamelled light blue, with a medallion of white bearing the inscription BENEMERITO DE LA PATRIA, around which is a gold edged white-enamelled circle inscribed LA CORTES GENERALES DE 1823. The reverse centre is inscribed CUENCA2 Y 3 DE MAYO 1823, surrounded by A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA LIBERTAD. The ribbon is blue with two wide white stripes and narrow violet edges. Silver medals also were awarded by the Cortez on August 4, 1823, to the defenders of the Constitution of the cities of Sallent, Porrera and Santa Coloma de Queralt, but no description thereof is obtainable.
CROSS FOR THE FIRE OF 1823. Founded on September 25, 1823, to reward the officers and men of the French army, who on July 20, 1823, assisted in saving the Duke de Angoulème from the fire in the Church and Convent of the Holy Spirit in Madrid. It is a white-enamelled ball-tipped cross, with curvilinear ends, in the angles of which are gold flames. In the centre is an oval medallion on which appears the arms of Madrid—a dog or bear at the base of a green tree which is crowned. Around this on a white band is MADRID 20 DE JULIO DE 1823. The ribbon is bright red, edged with white.
CROSS FOR VALENCIA 1823. Also called the Medal for Valencia. Founded by the Cortez May 23, 1823, for the soldiers and civilians who took part in opposing the French invasion of their country under the Duke ofAngouléme. It is a silver cross of four curvilinear openwork arms, enamelled white and superimposed on a green laurel wreath and four crossed swords, and surmounted by a mural crown and casque. In the centre is a white-enamelled shield inscribed in black letters CON / NUESTRA SANGRE / SELLAMOS / NUESTRO / JURAMENTO. On the arms of the cross, in black, is ISABEL II / Y LAS CORTES / A LOS / VALIENTES; and on the reverse, in a white medallion, is the arms of the city of Valencia; a red flame surmounted by two gold Ls crowned. The blue encircling band is inscribed, DE VALENCIA AÑO DE 1823. The ribbon is yellow with three red stripes. On November 11, 1836, this decoration was again authorized by the government to reward those defending the cause of Isabella II during the Carlist troubles of that year.
CROSS OF CADIZ 1823. Founded June 23, 1836, for the volunteers of the National Militia of Madrid, who accompanied the Cortez and King to Cadiz in 1823. It consists of a five-armed, ball-tipped gold cross, enamelled black with gold battlement walls between the arms. On the white centre is the cipher of the queen Y 2 surrounded by a blue band inscribed A LA M. N. (Milicia Nacional) DE MADRID, and on the reverse is 1823 encircled by a blue band on which isISLA GADITANA. The ribbon is blue, edged with red.
CROSS FOR NATIONAL MILITIA 1823. Founded July 14, 1836, for the volunteers of Madrid who took part in the defence of the Government against the French. It is similar to the above Cross of Cadiz, but varies in the inscription. On the obverse is ISABEL II / A LA / MILICIA NACIONAL / DE 1823, and on the reverse, PATRIOTISMO / Y / LEALTAD.
PLAQUE FOR CADIZ 1823. Founded on February 15, 1841, during the provisional Regency of Maria Christina for the National Militia who were transported to Cadiz to support the siege of that city against the French. It consists of a gold ball-tipped star of four points enamelled blue, superimposed upon a green laurel wreath, bearing in the red centre a gold castle encircled by a white band inscribed CADIZ 1823.
PLAQUE FOR NATIONAL MILITIA 1823. Founded May 12, 1841, for the National Militia which took part in the defence of the liberties of the country against the French in other places than Madrid. It is similar to the above plaque for Cadiz, save that the enamel is violet, the circle is red and the inscription is M. N. ESPEDICIO-NARIA 1823.
CROSS FOR PRISONERS 1823. Founded October 17, 1842, for the members of the army who had been taken prisoners by the French and sent into Spain in 1823 after the Congress of Verona. It was at this Congress that France, Austria, Russia and Prussia had insisted upon Spain altering her Constitution. The decoration is a gold cross, enamelled black with white edges, gold rays in the angles, and in the centre of white a gold castle with laurel branches on either side and around this HONOR, VALOR, CONSTANCIA, 1823. On the reverse shield is a laurel wreath and PRISIONEROS DEL AÑO 1823. The ribbon is black with red and yellow stripes at the edges.
MEDAL FOR VILLAR DE CIERVOS 1823. Founded on October 16, 1823, by the King, and bestowed on twenty-seven citizens of Villar de Ciervos for their distinguished service on August 27th, 1823, in the engagement against the Constitutional band of Don Alonzo Martin, Lieut. Colonel of the regiment of Algarbia, and brother of the notorious Empecinado. This was at the time of the Constitutional uprising, believed to have been brought about by General Rafael del Riego, when the French king sent an army into Spain, commanded by the Duc d'Angouléme, to demand the alteration of the Constitution in accordance with the Congress of Verona in October, 1822. The decoration is a silver medal, in the centre of which is the bust of Ferdinand VII, encircled by A LOS VALIENTES DEFENSORES DE SU REY FERNANDO VII . On the reverse, in horizontal lines is REALISTAS / DE / VILLAR DE CIERVOS / AÑO DE 1823. The ribbon is half white and half red.
PLAQUE FOR ALMERIA 1824. This unusual decoration was instituted by the regency on August 25, 1841, and awarded to those who took part in the unfortunate attack on Almeria on the morning of August 13, 1824, in attempting to restore the National liberty. It is circular in form (55 x 85 mm.), a white enamelled field encircled by a palm and laurel branch, and surmounted by a laurel wreath which is tied at the top with a large flowing knot of white and red-enamelled ribbon. Superimposed on this is a large red-enamelled Greek cross, the centre of which bears a five-pointed gold star with a red centre, on which is L. o. M. (Libertad ou Muerta). On the upper part of the white field of the plaque appear the words MARTIRES DE LA LIBERTAD EN S. BARTOLOME 1824; and on the lower field, ALMERIA.
MEDAL FOR TARIFA 1824. Founded on June 18, 1841, for a number of Spanish citizens under Francois Valdés, who, for ten days defended Tarifa against five thousand insurgents in August, 1824. The decoration is oval, of red-enamelled flames with a golden castle at the centre, from the top of which an armoured arm brandishes a sword. Under the castle is the word VALOR. A laurel wreath surmounts the medal; and on the reverse is a gold oval inscribed TARIFA 1824. The ribbon is of three equal stripes, green (left), yellow (centre) and violet (right).
PLAQUE OF LIBERTY. Founded on May 14, 1841, for those who during 1830 and the following years, assisted in reestablishing the Constitutional Government in Spain. It is circular in form and composed of twenty-two faceted rays, in the centre of which is an enamelled field with two globes or hemispheres, tied with a red band and surmounted by a royal crown. On either side is a pillar of Hercules, one with PLUS, and the other with ULTRA, on white scrolls, joined by a chain. In the background are several mountain peaks in white, from one of which extends an armoured arm holding a sword. This entire device is encircled by a green laurel wreath, intertwined with a red ribbon, inscribed in black letters PATRIA HONOR LIBERTAD / COLUMNAS LIBERTADORAS 1830.
CROSS FOR VARGAS 1833. Founded on February 20, 1838, for the loyalists who took part in the engagement of November 3, 1833, at Vargas during the Carlist uprising of that year. It is a gold Maltese cross, ball-tipped and with gold rays in the angles, superimposed on a violet-enamelled circle, and surmounted by a gold laurel wreath. On the circle in black letters is AL VALOR Y LEALTAD. VARGAS 3 DE NOVRE 1833. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is of equal stripes of orange and violet, with a narrow white stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR SARAGOSSA. Founded by the Regency on April 15, 1842, for the troops of the second battalion of the National Militia of Saragossa, who took part in the suppression of the Carlist rebels under Everisto and Cabrera during the troubles of 1833-1835. It is a white enamelled Maltese cross superimposed on a green laurel wreath, with a diamond-shaped red medallion in the centre, on which is a crowned gold lion, surrounded by a green band inscribed CAZADORES DEL 2o BATALLON DE LA M. N. V. (Milicia Nacional Voluntario) DE ZARAGOZA . The centre of the ribbon is of horizontal lines of red and white of equal width, with perpendicular stripes of blue and white at either side.
MEDAL FOR DEFENSE OF VERGARA 1834. Founded on October 3, 1834, by the Government during the infancy of Isabella II for the women who took part in the defense of Vergara, near San Sebastian, on September 5, 1834. It is an oval gold medal surmounted by a knot of gold ribbon, bearing on the obverse a gold bust of the Queen-mother, Maria Christina, on a red-enamelled field, surrounded by a white band. On the plain reverse, in horizontal lines, are the words AL DENUEDO / DE LAS DEFENSORAS / DE VERGARA / MARIA CHRISTINA / REINA / GOBERNADORA. The ribbon is light blue.
CROSS FOR MENDIGORRIA 1835. Founded September 23, 1835, for the men of the army of the North, who, under General Luis Fernandez de Cordova, won the battle of Mendigorria on July 16, 1835. It is a white-enamelled, gold-edged cross of five arms, ball-tipped and surmounted a laurel wreath. A similar wreath is intertwined between the Arms, and on the red-enamelled medallion is the cipher of the youthful queen Y 2 encircled by a blue band inscribed PREMIO AL VALOR; the reverse medallion has in the centre LE REINA A SUS DEFENSORES encircled by MENDIGORRIA 16 DE JULIO DE 1835. The ribbon is crimson.
Saragossa Chiva 1836
St. Maria del Hort San Sebastian
CROSS FOR ST. MARIA DEL HORT 1836. Founded September 15, 1842, for the militia of Barcelona, who in January, 1836, attacked and captured the fort of Santa Maria del Hort, under the leadership of Colonel Don Antonio Niubo. The decoration is a flesh-colored Maltese cross edged with gold, ball-tipped, surmounted by a green laurel wreath, and having cannon and flames in the angles. The centre medallion has a view of the Sanctuary of St. Maria del Hort, encircled by a white band inscribed AL VALOR CONSTANCIA Y SUFRIMIENTO; and on the reverse blue centre, 23 DE ENERO DE 1836, encircled by a blue band on which is POR EL SANTUARIO DE NRA SRA DEL HORT. The ribbon has narrow stripes of red at the edges, and equal stripes of white separated by one of black.
CROSS FOR CHIVA 1836. Founded on November 30, 1840, by the Provisional Regency for the Militia of Valencia who took part in the mountain engagements of Chiva á Requena on April 2, 1836. The cross is formed of four red-enamelled swords with gold handles, and with gold rays in the centre, surmounted by a green laurel wreath. In the white medallion is the inscription CHIVA / 2 DE ABRIL / DE 1836; and on the reverse, PATRIOTISMO. The ribbon is green with a red stripe each side.
MEDAL FOR SAN SEBASTIAN 1836. A detachment of the Royal Artillery, led by Lieut. Colonel Colquehoun R.A., was sent by England to assist Isabella II in the Carlist War of that year. A medal was authorized on April 23, 1842, for the British volunteers who were in action on the heights of San Sebastian on May 5, 1836. An English writer says that these were of white metal, and that the officers on their return to England had a die cut and silver medals struck, though Duenas, a Spanish writer, states that they were issued in silver. On the obverse of the medal is a lion, passant, encircled by a collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, surrounded by the inscription ESPANA AGRADECIDA (Spanish Gratitude). On the reverse is a cross pattée with crowns in each angle, in the centre of which is SAN SEBASTIAN 5 DE MAYO 1836, surrounded by a laurel wreath. The ribbon is blue with a yellow stripe each side. In the writer's collection is one of these silver medals, awarded to Captain MacDonald of the 6th Regiment, together with his Order of St. Ferdinand. A pewter medal examined was struck from the same dies. Tancred states that this was an ill-advised expedition, and that many of the Englishmen returned broken down in health and constitution and were unable to obtain employment and that they were found begging on the streets of London.
CROSS FOR ST. SEBASTIAN. Elvin, an English authority, gives a double silver cross, inscribed on the obverse ST SEBASTIAN v. 2da 5o MAYO 1836, and on the reverse the name of the recipient, within a laurel wreath, though it is mentioned by no Spanish authority. Ribbon as above.
SHIELD FOR LODOSA. Founded February 28, 1837, for a corps of cavalry, under General D. Miguel Iribarren, who took part in the affairs at Lodoso in Navarra, on August 19, 1836. The decoration consists of two crossed sabres interlaced by a laurel wreath; through this passes a lance flying a red and white pennant.
CROSS FOR CANTAVIEJA 1836. Founded February 14, 1837, for the troops under General Evaristo San Miguel, who took part in the siege and occupation of Cantavieja, October 31, 1836, during the Carlist war. It is composed of two crossed gold cannon, surmounted by a gold knot of ribbon, above which is a green laurel wreath; on the medallion appears a gold tower in a green field encircled by a white band, inscribed SUFRIMIENTO Y BIZARRIA. On the white reverse medallion is CANTAVIEJA 31 DE OCTUBRE DE 1836, encircled by a green band inscribed POR ISABEL II Y LA CONSTITUCION. The ribbon is dark green, edged with red. The cross for the privates was bronze-gilt.
CROSS FOR BILBAO 1835. Founded on July 6, 1835, by the Queen Regent, and awarded to those who had taken part in the defense of Bilbao on the Bay of Biscay, under the command of Mirasol, during the first siege by the Carlists. It is a four-armed gold Maltese cross with white-enamelled borders, ball-tipped and surmounted by a green laurel wreath with alternate towers and lions in the angles. On the obverse red medallion is a gold bust of the Queen encircled by a similar band inscribed ISABEL 2A PATRIA Y LIBERTAD, and on the reverse red medallion is the arms of the city—a tower, a stone bridge and two mules in the field—surrounded by a blue band inscribed SITIO DE BILBAO JUNIO DE 1835. The ribbon is red with a narrow blue band each side.
CROSS FOR LIBERATORS OF BILBAO 1836. Authorized by Isabella II on January 3, 1837, for the British volunteers who assisted in the Carlist war and who with Cabrera's army raised the siege of December, 1836. This cross was also given to British naval men who assisted General Espartero on December 24 and 25, 1836. The decoration is a gold Maltese cross, ball-tipped, enamelled blue with white edges, and surmounted by a laurel wreath, and with crossed cannon in the angles. On the cross arms are grenades with flames, and in the centre red medallion is a castle encircled by a white band inscribed SALVO A BILBAO; on the reverse medallion is depicted a battered wall encircled by a white band, inscribed EN SU TERCER SITIO 1836. The ribbon is of three equal stripes, two of green at the sides and one of yellow in the centre. The officer's cross was of gold and enamel; those of the rank and file of silver. The latter is found inscribed simply BILBAO 1836, and it is presumed these were given to the Spanish troops who assisted in this engagement, no authority having been found for such.
CROSS FOR DEFENDERS OF BILBAO 1836. Authorized January 3, 1837, by Queen Isabella II for the troops who defended Bilbao in the Carlist war during the siege of December, 1836. It is a gold Maltese cross, each arm terminating in three points, ball-tipped, and with grenades in the angles. A green-enamelled laurel wreath with a gold castle in the centre surmounts the cross. On the obverse medallion of red is a gold tower, encircled by a blue band inscribed DEFENDIO A LA INVICTA BILBAO; on the reverse is a wall and tower encircled by a blue band inscribed EN SU TERCER SITIO 1836. The ribbon is of three equal stripes, two of yellow on the sides and one of green in the centre.
CROSS FOR GRA 1837. Founded on August 4, 1843, for the troops of the Catalonian army under Baron de Meer, to commemorate the defeat of the forces under Don Carlos at Gra on June 12, 1837. It is a red-enamelled gold star of five points, ball-tipped. In the centre is a blue medallion bearing a gold sun and encircled by a white band on which is inscribed GRA 12 DE JUNIO DE 1837. The star is surmounted by a green laurel wreath, through which passes the suspension ribbon of black with two narrow white stripes in the centre.
MEDAL FOR CHIVA 1837. Founded on August 31, 1837, for troops fighting under General Marcelino Oroa, for gallantry at the battle of Valencia on July 15, 1837. Of gold for the officers and of silver for the men. It consists of a circular white medallion with a figured gold border, encircled by a green laurel wreath and surmounted by a knot of ribbon with long streamer ends, on which is DISCIPLINA Y VALOR / VENCEN LA FUERZA. On the obverse centre is inscribed BATALLA / DE CHIVA / 15 DE JULIO / DE 1837. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is orange with a blue stripe at either side.
MEDAL FOR SEGOVIA 1837. Founded on April 25, 1842, for the militia and civilians of Segovia in old Castile, who defended that city against the Carlists on August 4, 1837. It is an oval medallion, on the centre of which is the Arms of the city (a two-tiered aquaduct) surrounded by a blue band inscribed SEGOVIA POR LA LIBERTAD 4 DE AGOSTO DE 1837. This is encircled by gold palm-branches and superimposed on two crossed swords. The whole is surmounted by a green laurel wreath, within which is an open book inscribed CONSTITUCION POLITICA 1837. The ribbon is white-edged with narrow yellow and red bands of equal width, the yellow being outermost.
CROSS FOR 1837. Padiglioni, an Italian writer, is the sole authority for this decoration. He states that it was awarded to the National Militia who assisted in upholding the Constitution of that period. On the obverse the words FIDELIDAD Y CONSTANTIA are inscribed, and on the reverse is CONSTITUCION DE 1837. No further description is given.
CROSS FOR BAEZA, UBEDA and CASTRIL 1838. Founded on February 28, 1839, for the troops under General D. Laureano Sanz, who took part in the engagements of February 5 and 27, 1838, in Andalusia. It is of gold for the officers and of silver for the men, and is in the form of a Maltese cross with the upper arm composed of a double scroll and surmounted by a laurel wreath. On the arms are black-enamelled reserves, from which extend gold hands clasping a wreath of immortelles. The ribbon consists of diagonal bands of black and red, with a narrow black and red edge. On the ribbon is a wide band of gold (or silver) inscribed in black, LA REINA A LOS LIBERTA / DORES DE LAS ANDALUCIAS: / BAEZA, UBEDA Y CASTRIL, / 5 Y 27 DE FEBRERO DE 1838.
CROSS FOR SARAGOSSA 1838. Founded by Queen Isabella II on April 16, 1838, and awarded to the troops and individuals taking part in this engagement against the Carlists. The decoration is a red-enamelled gold cross with curvilinear ends, surmounted by a wreath of laurel and palm. On the obverse medallion of white is COMBATIO / POR LA LIBERTAD / EN 5 DE MARZO / DE 1838. On the reverse, ISABEL II / A LA SIEMPRE / HEROICA / ZARAGOZA. The ribbon is blue, edged with black.
CROSS FOR PEÑACERRADA 1838. This was founded on July 20, 1838, by Isabella II, and awarded to those taking part in the engagement against the Carlists on June 20, 1838, at Peñacerrada. The decoration is a bronze Maltese cross with cannon crossed in the angles; and on the medallion is a castle encircled by the motto LO TOME POR ASALTO. On the reverse medallion in horizontal lines is PEÑACERRADA / 20 DE JUNIO / DE 1838. The ribbon is three equal stripes—red on the sides and black in the centre.
CROSS FOR THE SIEGE OF SOLSONA 1838. Founded on August 20, 1838, by Isabella II, for the troops, under General de Meer, taking part in the siege and capture of Solsona July 21 to 27, 1838, during the Carlist war. It is a gold cross, enamelled black and edged with white, surmounted by a royal crown. In the cross angles are gold lyres, and on the obverse medallion is the arms of the city (a gold sun on a blue field) encircled by a white band inscribed SITIO Y ASALTO DE SOLSONA . On the reverse blue medallion are the initials of the Queen, Y 2 surrounded by the inscription 23 DE JULIO DE 1838. The ribbon is three equal stripes, red in the centre and black on the sides, edged with red. The officers received this cross in gold and the men in silver.
CROSS FOR CHESTE 1838. Founded on May 5, 1841, by the Provisional Regency for the Militia of Valencia for the action at Cheste on December 2, 1838, during the Carlist troubles. It is a cross with concave ends, enamelled white with gold edges, with a green laurel wreath passing above the side arms and under the other arms. In the white centre of the obverse medallion is CHESTE / 2 DE DICIEMBRE / DE 1838; on the gold reverse is AL PATRIOTISMO. The ribbon is white with a narrow green band at the sides.
CROSS FOR INIESTA 1838. Founded at the same time as the above for those taking part in the expedition of Iniesta on December 6, 1838. The decoration is similar except that the cross is red, and on the obverse medallion is inscribed INIESTA / 6 DE DICIEMBRE / DE 1838, and the ribbon is white with wide green bands each side.
CROSS FOR TALES 1839. Founded on August 4, 1843, for the troops under General Leopold O'Donnell to whom the castle and fortress of Tales were surrendered by the troops of Cabrera on August 14, 1839, during the Carlist war. The decoration is a cross formed of two crossed cannon on a green laurel wreath, in the centre of which, on a red field, are three gold castles surrounded by the words TALES 14 DE AGOSTO DE 1839 on a yellow band. The ribbon is blue with three red stripes.
MEDAL FOR PERACAMPS 1840. Founded on June 11, 1840, by Isabella II, for the Catalonian army under Don Antonio Van Halen, who took part in the engagements of Casa-Serra, and at Peracamps on April 24 and 28, 1840, during the Carlist troubles. It was of gold for the officers, bearing on the obverse, within an oak and laurel wreath tied with a blue-enamelled ribbon, a trophy of arms and a blue shield inscribed BATALLAS DE PERACAMPS. On the reverse oval of blue is Y 2 encircled by a white band edged with gold, inscribed 24 Y 28 ABRIL 1840, and displaying two branches of laurel. The ribbon is bright red. A bronze medal for the men was issued without the wreath on the obverse, and carried from a similar ribbon.
Peracamps Sept. 1, 1840
CROSS FOR MORELLA 1840. Founded on July 8, 1840, and awarded to the army of the North who were in the operations before and during the siege and capture of the castle of Morella (the stronghold of Cabrera) from the 19th to the 20th of May, 1840, during the Carlist war. These troops had been led by General Es-partero, the Duke of Vitoria, who had been declared Regent when Queen Christina had been forced to retire to France. The decoration is a six-pointed red-enamelled gold star, ball-tipped and surmounted by a gold mural crown. On the obverse medallion is a gold tower in a blue field, encircled by the inscription EJERCITO ESPE-DICIONARIO DEL NORTE, and on the reverse of blue is a flaming grenade, encircled by the legend MORELLA 30 DE MAYO DE 1840. The ribbon is red, edged with white.
CROSS FOR OLMEDILLA 1840. Founded on August 4, 1843, for the troops under D. Manuel de la Concha, Commanding General of Cuenca, Guadalajara and Albaceta, who fought on the heights of Olmedilla, which brilliant action took place on June 15, 1840. The decoration is a four-armed ball-tipped star, enamelled red with white edges surmounted by a wreath. In the obverse centre, on a red field, is Y 2, the cipher of the Queen, around which on a white band is CONSTANCIA Y SUFRIMIENTO; and on the reverse, OLMEDILLA 15 DE JUNIO DE 1840. The ribbon is blue with two wide white stripes at the sides.
CROSS OF SEPTEMBER 1, 1840. Founded by the Regent on August 12, 1841, for the members of the Juntas and the National Militia who took part in the publication of the Constitution at Madrid on September 1, 1840. It is a "cross" of eight arms, each of which has three stripes and terminates in three points, the inner stripe being of yellow and the outer stripes red. A green laurel wreath is interlaced through the arms. On the obverse medallion of white is the arms of Madrid encircled by a blue band on which are seven gold stars. This, in turn, is encircled by a white band inscribed PRONUNCIAM. DE Io DE SET. DE 1840. On the reverse of gold is an open book of white, encircled by a white band inscribed CONSTITUCION DE 1837. The ribbon is three equal stripes, green, yellow and red.
CROSS FOR CIVIL VALOR. Founded on July 29, 1841, for those citizens who by their patriotism helped to establish in Spain a representative Government. The decoration is a fourarmed cross, each arm divided into three sections, each gold-edged and white-enamelled, terminating in a point. There are gold rays in the angles. In the centre of the red-enamelled obverse, within a palm and olive wreath, is a gold medallion, on which, in a square of white, is the inscription VALOR CIVICO. The ribbon is red with a narrow black stripe each side.
MEDAL FOR CADIZ 1841. Founded by the Regent on April 17, 1842, for the Militia who took part in the Carlist troubles of October, 1841. It consists of a circular medallion superimposed on two crossed flags (yellow and red) and a green laurel wreath, and surmounted by a gold castle. On the obverse medallion are the pillars of Hercules, with the sun rays and an open book of the Constitution in the field. The reverse medallion is inscribed LIBERTAD INDEPENDENCIA OCTUBRE 1841. The ribbon consists of a stripe of yellow edged with red on the left, and of red edged with yellow right.
MEDAL FOR MADRID OCTOBER 7, 1841. Authorized on October 17, 1841, by the Regent, the Duke of Vitoria (General Espartero) for the garrison of Madrid, the National Militia and others who defended Queen Christina against the Carlists, on the night of October 7–8, 1841. It is a bronze gilt medal, surmounted by a royal crown and superimposed on four crossed halberds in pairs. On the obverse, within palm and laurel branches, is a blue oval on which is an open book, inscribed CONSTITUCION DEL AÑO 1837, encircled by a white band, reading DAN SU SANGRE POR LA LEY Y EL TRONO. On the reverse blue oval is NOCHE / DEL 7 DE / OCTUBRE / DE 1841. The ribbon is red with two white stripes each side.
MEDAL FOR PAMPLONA 1841. Founded on October 23, 1841, for the troops of Pamplona who took part in the uprising of the early days of October of that year. It is an oval silver medal having in the centre a crowned lion, rampant, surrounded by a band on which is A LOS DEFENSORES DE PAMPLONA. On the plain reverse, within a laurel wreath is OC- TUBRE, 1841. The ribbon is light blue, with a narrow yellow stripe on each side.
CROSSES FOR CASTILE, ARAGON AND GUIPUZCOA 1841. These decorations were founded by the Regent on October 24, 1841, for the troops and National Militia who took part in the suppression of the rebellion of October and November, 1841, in Castile, Aragon and the province of San Sebastian. They are alike, save for the reverse medallion. It is a star of four elongated rays resembling a cross, ball-tipped, green-enamelled and with balls in the angles. The points are connected by oak leaves, thus forming a wreath; and on the obverse square medallion of blue is a gold sun. The reverse medallion is likewise blue. For Castile, the reverse inscription is A LAS TROPAS FIELES DI CASTILLA LA VIEJA EN 14 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1841. For Aragon, A LAS TROPAS FIELES DE ARAGON Y SU M.N. EN 15 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1841, and for Guipúzcoa, it reads A LAS TROPAS FIELES DE GUIPUZCOA Y SU M.N. EN 27 DE OCTUBRE DE 1841. The ribbon has equal stripes of white and black, the black being to the right.
CROSS FOR THE JUSTICES OF MADRID 1840-1841. Founded December 29, 1842, for the justices of the wards of Madrid for their activities and zeal during the troubles of 1840 and 1841, when the queen-mother, Maria Christina had to retire to France, and Espartero was made Regent for the infanta, Isabella II. The decoration is a Maltese cross, ball-tipped and double-pointed, enamelled blue with white edges. In the obverse medallion of blue is Y 2, encircled by a white band inscribed AL ZELO Y ACTIVIDAD; and on the blue reverse medallion is A LOS ALCALDES DE BARRIO DE MADRID . The ribbon is green with a narrow red stripe each side.
CROSS OF JULY 1843. Sculfort, a French writer, gives a short account of this cross, but no other authority mentions it. It is described as a six-pointed blue-enamelled star, surmounted by a mural crown, bearing on the obverse centre a gold tower and the inscription. LEALTAD CON-STANCIA, and on the reverse JULIO DE 1843.
MEDAL OF ISABELLA II. No Spanish authority has been found for the issuance of this medal, though the writer has two specimens which appear to have been worn. On the edge of one is engraved the name of the recipient, Bertran Fierros and on the other Guillermo Cruz. The medals are silver, 35 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse a laureated head of Queen Isabella II, facing right, surrounded by the title ISABEL 2a REINA DE LAS ESPANAS. On the reverse is the crowned arms of the queen surrounded by mantling and the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The ribbon is three equal stripes, yellow in the centre and red at the sides.
Medal for Morocco 1860
MEDAL FOR MOROCCO 1860. Awarded to troops taking part in the African campaign of that year against the Moors. The decoration is of silver and white metal. A round medal is superimposed on a cross and surmounted by a crown. On the obverse of the medal is a bust of the youthful Queen Isabella II, facing to the left, within a laurel wreath and surrounded by CAMPAÑA DE AFRICA; on a scroll below is 1860, and on the lower arm of the cross is an inverted crescent. The reverse is inscribed SERRALLO / SIERRA-BULLONES / TOR-RE-MARTIN / LOS CASTILLEJOS / MON-TENEGRON Y ASMIR / CABO NEGRO / KELELI / TETUAN / LARACHE Y ARCILA / SAMSA / UAD-RAS. The ribbon is red. No Spanish authority has been found for this medal, though the writer has one of silver and one of white metal. It is mentioned by Cuomo, an Italian, and described by Sculfort, a French writer.
CIVIL ORDER OF MARIA VICTORIA. Founded July 7, 1871, by Amadeus I, and awarded by the Minister of Instruction and Public Works, for distinction in the arts and sciences, but owing to the very short reign of Amadeus the order was soon abolished. Amadeus I, the Duke of Aosta, was born at Turin in 1845, the second son of Victor Emmanuel of Savoy. He was called to the Spanish throne as the first Constitutional King of Spain in 1870, after the abdication of Isabella II. He soon wearied of the position owing to the Carlist troubles, and retired in 1873.
The decoration is a four-armed cross, the ends of which are triple-pointed and enamelled red and white, and with rays in the angles. On the arms are the symbols of the four provinces of the kingdom, and in a blue-enamelled centre, edged with gold, is the cipher of the Queen, M.V., within a laurel wreath. On the reverse arms of the cross are the words CIENCIAS, INDUSTRIA, ARTES, LETRAS. The plaque of the Grand Cross was a plain Greek cross, enamelled red, superimposed on a white band and a laurel wreath, resting on silver rays. On the extremities of the cross arms are shields bearing the Arms of the provinces of Spain, and in the centre is a gold M. V., crowned. On the white band is inscribed ARTES, LETRAS, INDUSTRIA, CIENCIAS.
There were three classes to the Order: the Grand Cross, which had the plaque, Commanders who wore the cross suspended from a ribbon around the neck, and the chevaliers who wore it on the breast with a smaller ribbon. There are thirteen varieties of the ribbon, given by Cuomo, an Italian writer, according to the nature of the award, such as yellow for medicine, red for jurisprudence, black and green for naval construction, etc.
MEDAL FOR 1862. The only information obtainable for this medal is derived from Sculfort, a French writer, who describes the piece in the collection of the Musée de l' Armée, in Paris. It is an oval of gold, encircled by a white band, in the centre of which is an open book inscribed NIHIL PRIUS FIDE, encircled by a laurel wreath. On the reverse of the medal is 28 DE MAYO 1862. The ribbon is described as green with a white stripe in the centre.
MEDAL FOR VOLUNTEERS IN CUBA 1871. No date has been found for the creation of this medal by Amadeus I during his short and troubled reign. It was awarded to the men of the Army and Navy serving in Cuba. It is an oval silver medal within an oak and laurel wreath 60 x 39 mm. including the crown which sur- mounts the medal. Obverse: the head of the king to left, and the inscription * AMADEO 1o REY DE ESPAÑA A LOS VOLUNTARIOS DE LAS ISLA DE CUBA *. Reverse: the arms of Spain charged with those of Savoy and the family of the king, superimposed on the pillars of Hercules bearing the motto Plus ultra, between which is a radiant sun, the whole within a wreath, encircled by * DEFENSORES DE LA HONRA Y DE LA INTEGRIDAD NACIONAL *, and below, 1871. The ribbon is seven alternate stripes of maroon and orange.
Medal for Volunteers in Cuba 1871
Another medal of silver, 42 x 39 mm. but without the crown, has a ribbon of three equal stripes, purple, white and purple; while still another with the crown is 44 x 22 mm., but the obverse inscription reads AMADEO PRIMERO etc. This has a ribbon similar to the first.
MEDAL FOR VOLUNTEERS IN PORTO RICO. No authority has been found for the issuance of this oval medal which is of silver or bronze-plated, and 30 x 54 mm. including the crown. Obverse: the head of Alfonso XII to left within a linear oval, above which is INTEGRIDAD DE LA PATRIA, and below CONSTANCIA. Reverse: a Paschal lamb on a rock in water, above which, F. 1., all within a linear oval; below, VOLUNTARIOS DE PUERTO-RICO. The ribbon is red with a wide yellow stripe in the centre.
CROSS FOR CIVIL GUARD OF MADRID 1870-1873. Amadeus I created a decoration for the Civil Guard of Madrid, which protected him during his reign of but three years. From the meagre information obtainable and from the French authority, Eculfort, the decoration is described as bronze, in the form of a narrow-armed cross, the arms of which are connected by a laurel wreath. Around this is a narrow ribbon inscribed AMADEO I. A LA MILICIA CUIDADANA. On the reverse is a white enamelled cross and 28 SBRE. 1868. 28 ENERO 1871. No ribbon is described.
MEDAL FOR CARRACA 1873. Authorized on October 8, 1873, for the defenders of the arsenal at La Carraca in July of that year. It is in the form of an oval bronze medal, 38 x 31 mm., surmounted by a mural crown, and bearing on the obverse an allegorical figure of Spain, holding a flag in the right hand and supporting an anchor, and the words LEALTAD DESINTERES VALOR JULIO DE 1873, encircling the same. On the reverse, within an oak and laurel wreath, is A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA CARRACA. LA PATRIA AGRADECIDA. The ribbon is green with a red edge.
MEDAL OF ALFONSO XII. Founded on September 8, 1875, for the Army and Navy taking part in the Carlist Wars of 1868 to 1876. It is 35 mm. in diameter, of silver or white metal according to the rank. On the obverse is a bust of the King facing left, above which is ALFONSO XII; each side and below is A LOS EJERCITOS EN OPERACIONES; and on the reverse within a crowned laurel wreath, VALOR DISCIPLINA LEALTAD; above—a crown. The ribbon is yellow with two narrow red stripes. Bars are worn on the ribbon, signifying the engagements in which the recipient took part.
MEDAL FOR CIVIL WAR OF 1873-1874. Authorized by Alfonso XII on June 5, 1876, and awarded to the troopers who helped suppress the insurrection led by the Pretender, Don Carlos. This was awarded in silver to the officers and in bronze to the men. On the obverse is an effigy of the King facing left, encircled by ALFONSO XII. A LOS EJERCITOS VENCADORES DE LOS CARLISTAS V DEFENSORES DEL ORDEN SOCIAL EN 1873 Y 1874. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath and surmounted by a crown, is VALOR / DISCIPLINA / LEALTAD. The ribbon is red with a narrow yellow stripe in the centre. Bars were issued for the various engagements—those for the Navy were Cantabria, Cadiz and Mediterraneo.
Medal for Bilbao, 1874
MEDAL FOR BILBAO 1874. Authorized on June 10, 1874, and awarded to the Army and Navy under Marshal Serrano and General Concha who delivered Bilbao from the besieging forces under Don Carlos in May of 1874. The medal is of silver and bronze, in the form of an oval, 40 x 32 mm., in the centre of which is the Arms of the city (a sea wall and narrow tower, with two mules in the upper field) encircled by AL EJERCITO LIBERTADOR Y DEFENSORES DE LA INVICTA BILBAO 2 DE MAYO DE 1874. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red with a yellow stripe in the centre. Bars are worn on the ribbon for the several actions—Onton, Montano, Abanto and Munecas-Galdames.
MEDAL OF CITY OF BILBAO 1874. This decoration was given by the city of Bilbao to those who aided in the deliverance of the city from the siege of the Carlists. It is of bronze, bearing on the obverse an allegorical seated figure, representing the city, protected by a warrior. Below is a view of the city, and the legend HONOR PATRIA Y LIBERTAD. On the re- verse, within an oak and laurel wreath, BILBAO A SUS DEFENSORES SITIO DE 1874. The ribbon is red, edged with yellow. Sculfort, the French writer, is the only authority who mentions this medal.
MEDAL FOR PUIGCERDA 1874. Created by Alfonso XII on September 8, 1874, for the troops taking part in the Carlist war, at Sagunto, Numancia, Gerona and Tarragona. It is a bronze medal having on the obverse the motto, LOS DEFENSORES DE PUIGCERDA, LA PATRIA RECONCIDA. AGOSTO Y SEPTIEMBRE DE 1874, and on the reverse the Arms of the city. The ribbon is half red and half yellow.
MEDAL FOR TERUEL 1874. Created on July 4, 1874, for the defenders of the city during the Carlist war. It is bronze, bearing on the obverse the Arms of the city and encircled by the inscription A LOS DEFENSORES DE TERUEL, LA PATRIA AGRADECIDA. 3 DE JULIO DE 1874. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is half yellow and half red.
MEDAL OF CERVERA 1875. By a Royal Decree of June 12, 1875, authority was given the city of Cervera in Navarra, to issue a medal for those who took part in the defense of the city on February 16, 1875, against the Carlists. Although de Sosa mentions it, he gives no description.
MEDAL OF MADRID 1876. This was apparently awarded by the Province of, or city of, Madrid for those assisting in the civil disturbances of that period. It is bronze, shield-shaped, 48 x 29 mm., surmounted by a closed wreath tied with a wide ribbon. On the obverse is the head of Alfonso XII to right, and the inscription ALFONSO XII REY DE ESPANA. The reverse bears the Arms of Madrid crowned and the inscription LA PROVINCIA DE MADRID AGRADECIDA A SUS HIJOS 1876. The ribbon is half red and half yellow. No authority has been found for its creation.
MEDAL FOR CUBA 1868-1878. This was founded on June 27, 1873, and later awarded to the Army and Navy taking part in the suppression of the insurrections on that island during these ten years. It is of silver and white-metal, diamond-shaped, and encircled by palm and laurel branches entwined with a narrow ribbon. On the obverse is an allegorical figure representing Spain, seated before the pillars of Hercules and two globes, holding in the right hand a laurel wreath and with the left hand resting on a shield bearing the Spanish Arms, with a ship at sea in the field. In the exergue is CAMPAÑA DE CUBA. On the plain reverse is ESPAÑA AL VALIENTE EJERCITO QUE PELEA EN DEFENSA DE LA PATRIA 1873. The ribbon is red with a narrow black stripe in the centre, and narrow silver bars are worn on the ribbon showing the number of years in service.
Medal for Cuba 1868-1878
MEDAL FOR CUBAN VOLUNTEERS 1868-1878, 1882. Created on July 22, 1882, and awarded to volunteers who took part in the insurrections of those years. It is a round silver medal with fleurs-de-lis at the sides, forming a cross. In the centre of the medal is the head of Alfonso, facing left, and the inscription ALFONSO XII A LOS VOLUNTARIOS DE CUBA 1882. The reverse reads CONSTANCIA PATRIOTISMO ABNEGACION. The ribbon is red, with a yellow stripe in the centre, on which the bars are worn denoting years of service, such as 10 Anos de Servicio, 15 Anos de Servicio, etc.
MEDAL FOR JOLO 1876. Authorized on October 7, 1876, for the troops who took part in the campaign against the Sultan of Jolo in the Philippines. On the obverse is the laureated head of the King, facing left, and the words ALFONSO XII 1876. On the reverse is the word Jolo surmounted by a cross in a glory and encircled by a laurel wreath entwined with a ribbon inscribed, PATICOLO, TAPUL, CACUTLA-PAC, PARANG, MAYBUN, LIANG. Below this is an inverted crescent. The ribbon is of three red and two yellow vertical stripes equal in width.
MEDAL FOR MINDANAO. Founded October 7, 1895, for the troops taking part in suppressing the insurrection of the Tagals in 1890-1891, and against Emilio Aguinaldo in 1894-1895. This was of iron, bordered with a circle of gilt metal, bearing on the obverse the busts of the Queen and the youthful King (Alfonzo XIII) facing right and the words CAMPANAS DE MINDANAO, and on the reverse within a palm and laurel wreath the dates, 1890-1891, 1894-1895. The ribbon is yellow with two green lateral stripes, and bars were given, showing the years of service.
MEDAL FOR VOLUNTEERS IN PHILIPPINES. This is described by but one authority, Sculfort, of Paris. Said to have been awarded the troops volunteering in the insurrection of Aguinaldo in 1897. It is an oval silver medal, bearing on the obverse the Arms of the Empire of the Indies, and the words, ESPAÑA A SUS LEALES HIJOS LOS VOLUNTARIOS FILIPINOS and on the reverse is VOLUNTARIOS NOVILIZADOS POR DECRETO DE 16 DE OCTUBRE 1897. The ribbon is half red with yellow borders.
MEDAL FOR LUZON 1896-1897. Authorized on January 26, 1898, and awarded to the troops employed in suppressing the insurrection on the island of Luzon. It is of bronze. On the obverse is the youthful bust of the King, Alfonzo XIII, facing right, and the words A LOS LEALES VOLUNTARIOS E FILIPINAS. The reverse reads, CAMPAÑA / DE / LUZON / 1896-1897. The ribbon is half yellow and half red.
MEDAL FOR PHILIPPINES 1896-1898. Authorized on January 26, 1898, and awarded to the troops who took part in the campaigns of those years; and, later, in the Spanish-American War. It is issued in bronze, is shield-shaped and surmounted by a gilt laurel wreath. It bears on the obverse the youthful bust of the King to left, and the words ALFONSO XIII AL EJERCITO DE FILIPINAS. The reverse is inscribed VALOR / DISCIPLINA Y LEALTAD / 1896-1898, and the ribbon is of four red and four yellow stripes, with bars for the various engagements.
MEDAL FOR CUBA 1895-1898. Created by Royal Decree of February 1, 1899, and awarded to the troops who took part in the Second Insurrection and in the war with the United States. It is of bronze, edged with laurel, surmounted by a gilt royal crown, bearing on the obverse the busts of the Queen and the youthful King, Alfonso XIII, surrounded by CAMPAÑA DE CUBA 1895-1898; and on the reverse the cipher of the King encircled by AL EJERCITO DE OPERACIONES. The ribbon is of five equal stripes of purple and four of red. Bars are worn on the ribbon, denoting engagements, such as Santiago de Cuba.
MEDAL FOR CUBAN VOLUNTEERS 1895-1898. Authorized at the same time and awarded to the native Cubans taking part in the above campaigns. It is similar to the above save that on the obverse the inscription is A LOS LEALES VOLUNTARIOS DE CUBA, and on the reverse the inscription is CAMPAÑA DE CUBA 1895-1898. The ribbon also is similar.
MEDAL OF ALFONSO XIII. Founded June 19, 1902, by the King to reward the officials and troops taking part in guarding the royal family and to commemorate his taking the oath of office in Madrid on May 17, 1902. It was issued in gold, silver and bronze, and bears on the obverse the bust of the King, facing left, and his title ALPHONSVS XIII D. G. HISP. REX. On the reverse, within oak and laurel branches is 17 MAI 1902, crowned. The ribbon is red and suspended from a buckle of the same metal as the medal.
MEDAL OF MARIA CHRISTINA or of the REGENCY. One year after taking the oath of office, King Alfonso created this medal—May 16, 1903—in testimony of his personal gratitude to his Royal Mother and to commemorate her seventeen years of service as Regent. The medal of silver was given to the officials of the Court and royal household, while the bronze medal was given to the Royal Guards and servants of the court and household. On the obverse are the jugated busts of the Queen Mother and the youthful King, facing left, encircled by the inscription, M. CHRIST.HISP. REG. CATH. PIETATE AC PRUDENTIA EXIMIAE MATRIDI LECTAE. The ribbon is blue with a wide red stripe in the center.
MEDAL OF MELILLA 1909, 1911 and 1912. Founded by Royal Decrees of March 20, 1910, and Sept. 8, 1912, for troops who took part in the several campaigns in the territory of the Rif, in Northern Africa. It is an oval silver, or bronze, medal, surmounted by a crown, bearing on the obverse the bust of the King, facing left, wearing a spiked helmet, and encircled by a laurel wreath; the lower side reads, CAMPAÑA DEL RIF; and on the reverse is a figure of a winged Victory holding aloft a palm branch in the right hand, and below a laurel branch in the left hand. In the field is a fort and radiant sun. On the lower field are the Arms of Spain and of Melilla, with laurel branches and 1909; at the top is REINANDO DON ALFONSO XIII. The ribbon is yellow with a red stripe each side, and bars are issued for the various engagements, such as Sidi-Hamet-el Hach, Gurugu, Quebdana, Taxdirt-Hidum-Zoco el Had, Nador Zeluan-Zoco el Gemis, Atlaten, Penon-Alhucemas, Kert, Garet de Beni-bu-Yahi, Beni-bu-Gafar y Beni-Sidel.
MEDAL FOR AFRICA 1911. Founded by Royal Decree on September 8, 1912, as acknowledgment of important civil and military services rendered in Africa, in promoting the establishment of the Protectorate. It is of bronze, 35 mm., and bears on the obverse a bust of the King and the words ESPAÑA Y AFRICA. Reverse: an allegorical figure of Spain with the right hand on the royal shield and the left extended to the Rif coast of Africa. The ribbon is yellow and red, edged with green. Bars are issued to be worn on the ribbon for the various engagements— Casablanca, Larache, Larache-Alcazar and Ceuta.
MEDAL FOR MOROCCO. Created June 29, 1916, by Royal Decree, for the troops who took part in the campaigns of that region. It is an oval silvered-bronze, or bronze medal, 40 x 28 mm., bearing on the obverse the bust of the King, Alfonso XIII, facing left, wearing a spiked helmet and encircled by a laurel wreath—at the lower left is MARRUECOS. The reverse is similar to the medal of Melilla 1909-11-12, save that the 1909 is omitted. The ribbon is green, and bars are given for the different engagements— Larache, Melilla, Tetuan, Ceuta .
MILITARY MEDAL. Founded on June 29, 1918, by Alfonzo XIII, and awarded to officers and enlisted men of the Army and Navy for meritorious service in action. It is of oxidized iron, 42 mm., and bears in the centre of the obverse an allegorical female figure representing Spain, holding a laurel wreath in her right hand, and in the left hand supporting a shield on which are two lions' heads. In the field is the sea, land and the setting sun. Encircling this design is a silver band and a laurel wreath. At the top is a castle, and at the bottom of the wreath is a plate bearing in relief, AL MERITO EN CAMPAÑA. The reverse bears a crowned shield on which is the arms of Spain with a palm one side and a sword the other; below this, on the plate is the name of the Campaign, such as MARRUECAS, etc. The ribbon is white, edged with yellow; in the centre are the national colours—one yellow stripe in the centre, and red each side. There is a gilt bar-pin. In case of a second award being bestowed, an oxidized iron bar is added to the ribbon.
MEDAL OF THE SOMATENES OF CATALUNA 1918. Created by Royal Decree of February 6, 1918, as a reward to the armed Somatenes of Cataluna for their service in preserving peace and social order in that district. It is called the medal of Constancy, and is a three-armed cross, enamelled red with white edges, on a wreath of olive branches. The upper arm of the cross is surmounted by a gold crown, to which is attached the suspension ring. On the obverse centre medallion is depicted the Virgin of Monserrat, the guardian of the Somatenes. In the blue background is shown the mountains surrounding her sanctuary. Encircling the medallion is a white band inscribed SOMATENES ARMADOS DE CATALUNA . On the reverse medallion is PAU, PAU, Y SEMPRE PAU (Peace, peace and always peace), encircled by a red band inscribed CONSTANCIA, PATRIO- TISMO, ABNEGACION. The ribbon is purple, and bars are issued denoting the length of service.
After Ferdinand VII abolished the Salic law in Spain in 1829, and following the placing of the Infanta Isabella II on the throne as Queen in 1833, there was much trouble with the adherents of Don Carlos V. This continued through the reign of Isabella II and that of Amadeus I, who wearied of his position as Constitutional King and retired in 1873. During his three-year reign, the Duke of Madrid, Don Carlos VII, the Pretender and chief of the Carlist party, gave much trouble to the Government by claiming the right of succession and raising the standard of revolt in the Basque Provinces. This Carlist War lasted several years and was not suppressed until 1876 by Alfonso XII.
It is natural that the Carlists should have desired some form of decoration to indicate their loyalty and their participation in the several attempts to secure the throne. Don Carlos VII not only prepared to coin money, but authorized medals and decorations for his adherents. No Spanish authority has been found for these, but Elvin, an English writer, mentions certain of them, and the description of others is taken from the pieces themselves. They are included to afford the student information regarding them. Some writers class them as Spanish, although they are not official.
CROSS FOR VILLAR DE LOS NAVARROS. Given to the troops of Don Carlos V who took part in this battle in Lower Aragon on August 24, 1837, against the Spanish forces under the Cristino General Buerens. The medal is said to have been designed by H.R.H. the Infante Don Sebastian Gabriel, the nephew of Don Carlos V, who commanded the Carlist forces. The decoration is a four-armed cross of white and red enamel, formed by lances with pennons, and with two cannon and a musket in gold forming another cross on the cross arms, and swords in the angles. This is surmounted by a green laurel wreath, across which is a scroll inscribed VILLAR DE LOS NAVARROS. On the obverse medallion is a hermitage surmounted by a cross, with one in front, encircled by a band inscribed CANADA DE LA CRUZ; and on the reverse centre of which is C.5 within laurel branches, and surmounted by a crown, encircled by a red band inscribed DIA 24 DE AGOSTO DE 1837. The ribbon is violet with two white stripes at either side.
Cross for Huesca 1837
CROSS FOR HUESCA 1837. Conferred by Don Carlos V on the troops who took part in this battle in upper Aragon on May 24, 1837, it is a four-armed cross, formed of scrolls bearing grenades, with helmets and crossed muskets in the angles. This is surmounted by two crossed pennons of red and white, and a green laurel wreath, in which is C. V. On the obverse medallion of blue is HUESCA, surrounded by a white band inscribed in gold letters ESPEDICION REAL; and on the reverse medallion of blue is 1837, encircled by a white band inscribed 24 DE MAYO. The ribbon is yellow with three violet stripes at either side.
CROSS AND MEDAL OF CARLOS VII. Founded by Don Carlos VII in 1874, and awarded to officers and men who remained faithful to the Carlist cause between 1833 and 1840, and during the second campaign of 1872-1876. It is a white-enamelled cross pattée moline, with gold edges and surmounted by a gold crown. A green laurel wreath connects the arms, and on the obverse medallion are the arms of Castile, Leon and Bourbon, enamelled in natural colours and surrounded by a white band inscribed CARLOS VII POR LA GRACIA DE DIOS REY DE LAS ESPANAS, and on the arms of the cross, ABNEGACION, VIRTUD, TALENTO, LEALTAD, PATRIA DIOS REY 1874. On the blue reverse medallion is C 7, with a white encircling band inscribed RESTAURACION CATOLICO MONARQUICA. The ribbon is yellow with red edges.
The silver medal for privates is similar to the cross, with no enamel. The ribbon is the same as for the officers.
CARLIST ORDER OF CHARITY. Founded in 1874 by Don Carlos VII, awarded for charitable acts and especially for hospital work among the forces. The decoration is a red-enamelled Maltese cross with small white-enamelled flowers in the angles, and surmounted by a crown connected by two scrolls, like C's, for the attachment of a suspension ring and ribbon, which is white with a black stripe at either side. The obverse medallion, of white, bears in the centre a red heart with a crown of thorns around it and a cross above. On the encircling band is LA CARIDAD 1874. The reverse medallion bears a red-enamelled M for Mary. This order is not recognized in Spain, and, like the other Carlist decorations, is not allowed in official dress.
MEDAL FOR MONTEJURRA 1873. This is a bronze medal in the form of a Greek cross with fleurs-de-lis in the angles and surmounted by a royal crown, bearing on the large round centre medallion the date of the engagement, 7, 8, 9, NOVIEMBRE 1873, encircled by the words PATROCINIO DE LA SMA VIRGEN; and on the arms of the cross is PATRIA DIOS REY. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is red. Padiglione and Sculfort are the only writers who mention this medal, and no Spanish authority for its foundation has been found. No data is given regarding its authorization or the purposes of its award.
MEDAL FOR VIZCAYA 1874. Awarded to the troops who took part in operations by the Carlists at Vizcaya and who were compelled to flee to the North. The decoration is bronze, round, and edged with a laurel wreath and three fleurs-de-lis, to form a cross, and surmounted by a royal crown. On the obverse is a laureated bust of the Pretender, Don Carlos VII, facing right, encircled by the words A LA FE Y AL HEROISMO DEL EJERCITO REAL DEL NORTE. The reverse reads BATALLAS / DE / VIZCAYA / DE / ENERO A MAYO / 1874. No description is given for the ribbon, and no Spanish authority has been found for the medal. It is described by Sculfort and Padiglione only. The writer has a specimen of this medal in his collection.
From the War Medal Record, Vol. I, Spink & Son, London, 1896.
Cf. King, Military Orders in Spain , p. 172, ff.
Burke and Archer state that Alphonso Henrique (1112-1185) established the order in Portugal.
Denis was King of Portugal from 1279 to 1325.
The Pillars of Hercules or "World's End" were represented by the Greek geographers as the Capes of Calpe. in Spain, and Abyla, in Africa, at the western entrance to the Mediterranean. For centuries, these were the limits of enterprise to the seafaring men of the Eastern World.
|Abisbal, S. Feliu, Palamos 1810, Cross for||18||67|
|Adherents of the King, Cross for||46|
|Africa 1911, Medal for||142|
|Agricultural Merit, Order of||38|
|Albuhera 1811, Cross for||70|
|Alcaniz 1809, Cross for||17||63|
|Alcantara, Order of||12|
|Alcolea 1808, Cross for||14||49|
|Alfonso XII, Medal of||130|
|Alfonso XIII, Medal of||139|
|Almeria 1824, Plaque for||97|
|Almonacid 1809, Cross for||18||64|
|Alphonso XII, Civil Order||13||40|
|Andalusia, Cross for Army of||78|
|Aranjuez 1809, Cross for||64|
|Arroyo-Molinos 1811, Cross for||19||71|
|Astorga 1810, Cross for||19||68|
|Asturian Army 1808, Cross for||56|
|Baeza, Ubeda and Castril 1838, Cross for||27||110|
|Bagur and Palamos 1810, Medal for||67|
|Bailen 1808, Medal for||14||49|
|Band or Scarf, Order of the||5|
|Battle Axe, Order of the||9|
|Beneficencia, Order of||12||38|
|Bayonne 1814, Cross for||80|
|Bilbao 1835, Cross for||26||106|
|Bilbao 1874, Medal for||32||132|
|Bilbao 1874, Medal of City of||132|
|Bracelet for Women of Cadiz Junta 1808||58|
|Bubierca 1808, Cross for||15||54|
|Cabinet Couriers, Cross for||48|
|Cadiz 1823, Cross of||24||93|
|Cadiz 1823, Plaque for||94|
|Cadiz 1841, Medal for||29||118|
|Calatrava, Military Order of||1||9|
|Cantavieja 1836, Cross for||26||106|
|Carlist Order of Charity||152|
|Carlos VII, Cross and medal of||38||150|
|Carraca 1873, Medal for||129|
|Cartagena de las Indias 1814, Cross for||21||82|
|Caspuenas and Brihuega 1823, Cross for||23||91|
|Castalla 1813, Cross for||21||78|
|Castello de Ampurias 1809, Order of||60|
|Castile, Aragon, Guipuzcoa 1841, Crosses for||29||121|
|Cervera 1875, Medal of||133|
|Charles III, Order of||2||13|
|Cheste 1838, Cross for||113|
|Chiclana 1811, Cross for||19||71|
|Chiva 1836, Cross for||25||103|
|Chiva 1837, Medal for||27||109|
|Civil Guard of Madrid 1870-1873, Cross for||129|
|Civil Merit, Order of||38|
|Civil Valor, Cross for||29||118|
|Civil War of 1873-1874, Medal for||130|
|Civilians in France, Cross for||47|
|Concord, Order of||9|
|Council of the Mesta, Decoration for the||84|
|Cross for 1837||110|
|Cuba 1868-1878, Medal for||33||134|
|Cuba 1895-1898, Medal for||139|
|Cuban Volunteers 1868-1878, 1882, Medal for||136|
|Cuban. Volunteers 1895-1898, Medal for||139|
|Cuenca 1823, Cross for||91|
|Cuidad-Rodrigo, Cross for||66|
|Defenders of Bilbao 1836, Cross for||26||108|
|Defence of Gerona 1809||59|
|Defense of Vergara 1834, Medal for||100|
|Epidemics, Medal for||23||88|
|Escama or the Scale, Order of||8|
|Estramadura 1810, Cross of||19||70|
|Fidelity, Shield of||87|
|Fidelity, Military Cross of||22||87|
|Fire of 1823, Cross for the||92|
|First Army 1811, Medal for||73|
|First Army, Cross for||74|
|First Army, 1813-1814, Cross for||74|
|Golden Fleece, Order of the||Frontispiece||15|
|Gra 1837, Cross for||108|
|Holy Spirit, Order of the||6|
|Huesca 1837, Cross for||37||150|
|Iniesta 1838, Cross for||114|
|Isabella II, Medal of||122|
|Isabella the Catholic, Order of||9||30|
|Izquierda 1811, Cross for Army of||72|
|Jesus Christ, Order of||8|
|Jolo 1876, Medal for||136|
|July 7, 1822, Medal for||23||90|
|July, 1843, Cross for||122|
|Justices of Madrid 1840-1841, Cross for||121|
|Lerin, Cross for||15||52|
|Liberators of Bilboa 1836, Cross for||107|
|Liberty, Plaque of||98|
|Lily of Aragon, Order of the||6|
|Lily of Navarre, Order of the||4|
|Lodosa, Shield for||26||104|
|Lucena 1810, Medal for||18||68|
|Lugo or Villafranca, Cross for||62|
|Luzon 1896-1897, Medal for||138|
|Madrid 1808, Cross for||16||56|
|Madrid 1818, Cross of||86|
|Madrid Oct. 7, 1841, Medal for||29||120|
|Madrid, Cross for Civil Guard of||129|
|Madrid 1876, Medal of||134|
|Majorca Division, Cross for the||22||86|
|Maria Christina, Royal Order of||41|
|Maria Christina or of the Regency, Medal of||140|
|Maria Isabella Louisa or Isabella II, Order of||10||33|
|Maria Louisa, Royal Order of||4||22|
|Maria Victoria, Civil Order of||125|
|Medal for 1862||126|
|Medina del Campo, Medal for||66|
|Melilla 1909, 1911, 1912, Medal of||34||140|
|Mendigorria 1835, Cross for||100|
|Menjibar 1808, Cross for||15||53|
|Military Medal 1918||35||144|
|Military Merit, Order of||11||34|
|Mindanao, Medal for||137|
|Montejurra 1873, Medal for||39||152|
|Mora and Consuegra, Cross for||17||62|
|Morella 1840, Cross for||28||116|
|Morocco 1860, Medal for||30||124|
|Morocco 1916, Medal for||34||144|
|National Militia 1823, Cross for||94|
|National Militia 1823, Plaque for||96|
|Naval Merit, Order of||36|
|Navy 1808, Cross for the||57|
|Northern Campaign of 1809||59|
|Oak of Navarre, Order of||3|
|Olmedilla 1840, Cross for||117|
|Ordal 1813, Cross for||82|
|Our Lady of Mercy, Order of||7|
|Our Lady of Montesa, Order of||13|
|Pamplona 1813 and Bayonne 1814, Cross for||80|
|Pamplona 1841, Medal for||120|
|Peñacerrada 1838, Cross for||112|
|Peracamps 1840, Medal for||28||114|
|Philippines 1896-1898, Medal for||138|
|Philippines, Medal for Volunteers in the||137|
|Porto Rico, Medal for Volunteers in||128|
|Portugal 1808, Cross for||54|
|Prisoners 1823, Cross for||24||96|
|Provincial Junta 1808, Cross for||16||58|
|Puigcerda 1874, Medal for||133|
|Recovery of Seville, Cross for||77|
|Red Cross, The||5||23|
|Regency, Medal of the||140|
|Rosas 1808, Cross for||16||54|
|Rosary of Toledo, Order of the||7|
|St. Ferdinand, Royal and Military Order of||7||26|
|St. Ferdinand, Cross of||8||28|
|St. George for Junta of Catalonia, Cross of||14||48|
|St. Hermenègildo, Royal and Military Order||6||24|
|St. James of the Sword, Order of||3||18|
|St. Maria del Hort 1836, Cross for||25||102|
|St. Saviour, Order of||4|
|St. Sebastian, Cross for||104|
|San Lorenzo del Puntal, Cross of Merit for||22||83|
|San Marcial 1813, Cross for||21||81|
|San Sebastian 1836, Medal for||25||103|
|Sappers at Alcala de Henares, Cross for||14||43|
|Saragossa 1808, 1809, Cross for||15||50|
|Saragossa 1838, Cross for||27||112|
|Saragossa, Cross for||25||99|
|Second Army of Murcia, Cross for||20||74|
|Segovia 1837, Medal for||27||109|
|September 1, 1840, Cross for||28||117|
|Seventh Army, Cross for||20||76|
|Seville, Cross for Recovery of||77|
|Solsona Siege, Cross for||28||112|
|Somatenes of Cataluna 1918, Medal of the||145|
|Spain, Royal Order of||22|
|Star, Order of the||9|
|Suffering for the Country, Medal of||46|
|Talavera 1809, Cross for||17||63|
|Tales 1839, Cross for||114|
|Tamames, Medal for||18||64|
|Tarancon 1808, Medal for||16||57|
|Tarifa 1824, Medal for||24||98|
|Tarifa 1811, Defence of||72|
|Tarragona, Cross for||20||73|
|Teruel 1874, Medal for||133|
|Third Army of Leon and Cadiz, Cross for||20||76|
|Tolosa 1814, Cross for||22||83|
|Truxillo, Order of||5|
|Utiel 1812, Cross for||21||77|
|Valencay 1808, Cross for||44|
|Valencia 1823, Cross for||23||93|
|Valls in Catalonia 1809, Cross for||17||60|
|Vargas 1833, Cross for||24||99|
|Ventosilla 1821, Shield for||90|
|Vergara 1834, Medal for Defense of||100|
|Victims of May 2, 1808, Medal for||47|
|Villar de los Navarros, Cross for||36||148|
|Villar de Ciervos 1823, Medal for||96|
|Vitoria 1813, Cross for||80|
|Vizcaya 1874, Medal for||39||154|
|Volunteers in Cuba 1871, Medal for||31||126|
|Volunteers in the Philippines, Medal for||137|
|Volunteers in Porto Rico, Medal for||128|
SPECIAL BABIN CATALOGUES
NAZI MEDALS AND DECORATIONS BY SAWICKI
84 Pages with 199 Illustrations
401 items listed with dates and reason for issuance. Plus section of German Medals 1870-1933:32 ills., 38 medals listed with complete list of pertaining bars. Only authoritative book of its kind published in English. LIMITED EDITION. $3.00
UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA OF THE NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NAZI) 68 plates Uniforms, insignia, medals, flags, armbands. $1.50
WAR MEDALS OF THE CONFEDERACY by Belden, 1912. BABIN REPRINT. 75c
CAP BADGES OF THE CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 1914-1919
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F-28 FOREIGN WAR MEDAL CATALOGUE F-28
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U. S. PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES 1789-1956
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RIBBONS AND MEDALS by Dorling Ribbons colored. Fully Illustrated. $5.50
A History of the UNIFORMS OF THE BRITISH ARMY by Major Barnes, 336 pages, 24 plates in brilliant color. Fine for miniaturists $6.50
MOUNTED TROOPS OF THE BRITISH ARMY 1066-1945 by Colonel H. C. Rogers Profusely illustrated in color and b/w. 1959. $6.50
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BR. MEDAL CHART (in color) folded. Full size Illustrations $2.50
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