Coinage of Caulonia

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Noe, Sydney P. (Sydney Philip), 1885-1969
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Numismatic Studies
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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INTRODUCTION

This study of the coinage of Caulonia was started many years ago in the reasonable expectation that it might provide information that would parallel or clarify the procedure at the mints of its neighbors and add valuable data to the history of these Greek cities in South Italy. The destruction of Caulonia in 389/388 B.C. with the consequent stoppage of its coinage affords a fixed date of considerable significance and some convenience. The scantiness of the literary sources for Caulonia makes the evidence which the coins provide of increased importance.

In the beginning there was no intention of attempting to find a definitive explanation of the enigmatic type. The years which have intervened have shown this to be a wise decision, and although in the discussion I cite many who have attempted an explanation "darkened counsel with wisdom" I leave the solution of this sphinx-like question to some daring student of the future — someone who will perhaps bring an unbiased approach to the elucidation of what the creators of this symbolism had in mind.

To make acknowledgement for the courtesies received during the preparation of this study would involve citing again the names of the many cabinets and collectors listed in the catalogue which follows. Casts, photographs and information have been furnished with prodigal generosity by the Curators of all the great national collections and my thanks to them are both heartfelt and entirely inadequate. Many individual collectors have been no less kind—some of them are no longer with us to receive this expression of gratitude. An initial advantage lay in that Mr. Newell's gathering of the coins of this mint was unusually comprehensive. The debt to my colleagues is great. To Professor Alfred R. Bellinger and to the late Mrs. Agnes Baldwin Brett I am under great obligation for helpful advice. To Miss Margaret Thompson and to Mr. Sawyer McA. Mosser and the members of his editorial staff I owe a debt for cooperation and encouragement that beggars words. To Mr. Raymond W. Johnson is due the credit for the photographic results, often wrung from material that was unpromising. Last but not least, to the American Numismatic Society and the unmatched facilities of its museum, I am glad to make acknowledgement for the opportunity and for the means for completing this work.

The objective, first of all, is to establish a sequence in the coinage, which started with the incuse format (customary in this region) and later, after a period whose length has been estimated largely by conjecture, changed to the double-relief form (customary elsewhere in the Greek world). Little if any effort to place the double-relief staters in order had been made previously; for example, the engraved reproductions of Carelli and Garrucci are deplorably inaccurate and inadequate.

As most students of the coinage of South Italy know, it was the practice of many of these mints to continue using the survivor of a pair of dies with the newly cut die which replaced the outworn one. Because the upper die had to withstand greater stress, it usually broke before the lower one whose longer life was due to the bolstering or buttressing it received from the anvil in which it was set. Although there is little data other than the coins to tell us anything regarding the material from which the dies were made, we do find that the anvil die would often outlast three punch dies and sometimes more. Once this has been recognized it is possible to build up groups of connected dies—GROUPS which often reach considerable extent. By employing other criteria, such as the evidence provided by hoards, or the recurrence of symbols probably to be identified as the badges of magistrates, it is possible to eliminate doubt as to which of two groups must have preceded the other. When all the data has been gathered, a sequence frequently may be established which carries conviction except for the placement of a relatively few singletons for which no connecting combinations exist as yet. Generally, the interpolation of these is unlikely to affect radically the final arrangement.

The sequence submitted here does not claim finality. Perhaps an unpublished variety in possession of some fortunate collector will be all that is needed to clarify uncertainty in the arrangement. Among the double-relief staters there are many known by a single specimen only, and since some of the flans are too small for the dies, the symbol and the form of the inscription are often uncertain. The coins show that dies were often used after cracks or fissures had developed and long beyond the point at which they would have been discarded in larger or better regulated mints. It is the growth of these defects, however, which frequently dispels any doubt as to which of the accompanying dies, whether obverse or reverse, precedes the other.

There is some ground for the feeling that the date in the Historia Numorum for the beginnings of coinage at Caulonia (550) is too early. It would be most helpful if we could fix the date for the change at this mint to coins having both sides in relief and the hoard from South Italy appended (p. 59) provides reason for placing this before 473 B.C. The bronze coins of Caulonia are to be dated shortly before the city's destruction; they are of very great rarity. The introduction of symbols in addition to the type occurs soon after the change from incuse to double-relief. These symbols precede the introduction of single letters, which herein are usually considered to be the initials of die-cutters. At Caulonia these do not extend beyond a two-letter form.1

End Notes

For the procedure at Tarentum, cf. Evans, The Horsemen of Tarentum (London, 1889), p. 45.

THE TYPE

A consideration of Caulonia's coin type should precede the catalogue. A discussion of the interpretations will show the thorniness of the problem. There is very little evidence that is new. Even the excavation of the site by Orsi2 was disappointing in that it disclosed little of significance for our purposes.

A careful description of the coin type is given by Macdonald:3 "Naked male figure, standing with one foot planted in advance of the other; hair bound with diadem and falling in ringlets; in raised right hand a branch; on left arm, which is outstretched, a small figure running forward with head turned back, holding a branch in each hand; in front, a stag on basis, with head reverted." The identification of the larger figure as Apollo seems to be generally agreed upon, 4 but several differing interpretations exist concerning the identification of the smaller figure. 5 Head, offering an unique interpretation to both figures, states the following: "I am inclined to believe that the original name of the town (Kαμλών) may have had a simpler though humbler origin in (Kαμλ ός), a vegetable with a single stalk, such for instance as the Pastinaca sativa, a tall erect plant the stalk of which is flanked by a row of pinnate leaves. The roots of this plant have been cultivated from very remote times as a valuable esculent. Subsequenly, here as elsewhere, a nobler origin and an eponymous oekist would naturally be sought for and identified as Kανλος, son of the Amazon Kleite; and the local plant would be assigned to him as an emblem, just as the σέλινον leaf became the emblem of the eponymous hero of Selinus. On the coins of Caulonia the principal figure would thus represent the mythical founder holding in his raised right hand the παρ άσημον of the city, and on his left arm a small genius running at full speed and carrying apparently the same emblem in each hand. If the earliest coins of Caulonia, like those of so many other cities, were chiefly used on special occasions, e.g., recurrent agonistic festivals ..., then the small running genius with winged feet may have been intended for a personification of 'Аγών or Hermes άγώνιος or δρόμιος ...6

If Head's statement on the founding of Caulonia shows but little connection between the legendary beginning and the coin type, his explanation of that type shows its significance to be far from obvious and his usual acumen in analyzing published opinions to be lacking. This reasoning, based as it is on a series of assumption, discloses its weakness as soon as the initial premise—the identification of the branch—is challenged. The size of this growth is more similar to the laurel than to the pastinaca sativa. Furthermore, the leaves on the coin are pinnate whereas those of the pastinaca sativa are irregular.

The large standing figure is identified by Raoul-Rochette 7 as Apollo. He points out that such a nude, virile figure is to be identified, if this is possible, by the distinguishing attributes and peculiarities or symbols. The long hair of this beardless figure, as well as the diadem, are of a form which can be associated with the youthful Apollo. He feels that the small figure is "Katharmos" a personification of the genius of lustration and rejects Hermes, Perseus, and Boreas as possibilities. The subordination of the winged figure to that of Apollo precludes the suggestion of Hermes and the absence of a single occurrence the caduceus among the symbols on the coinage of the city is surely conclusive evidence that the figure is not Hermes. The lustral branches make it unlikely that this figure is Perseus as does the absence of further symbols associated with him.

Boreas, however, seems a preferable identification for the smaller figure to Lloyd. 8 He endeavors to connect it with the tradition quoted by Pausanias9 that Caulonia was founded under the leadership of Typhon of Aegium. An unconvincing effort to connect Typhon with the daimon of stormy winds is not pressed, but support is claimed from the name given to Cape Zephyrius (between Caulonia and Locri) as the indication of a local cult of this particular wind-god.

It is possible that due to certain climatic conditions Caulonia's daimon type was a wind-god. The coin type of another southern Italian town reflects its climatic conditions; e.g., Metapontum used the ear of barley which was an indication of its agricultural wealth. Caulonia, situated on the coast in a mountainous region, seems to have derived its chief source of wealth from the nearby forests. Apparently this town enjoyed a rather constant water supply furnished by the streams Alaros on the south and Precariti (the modern name) on the north. 10 Lying on the southern slope of the watershed, Caulonia was in the lee and consequently protected from the west and northwest winds in the winter. During the remainder of the year a sea breeze tempered the heat11 and the south and southeast winds prevailed at that time. These favorable conditions may possibly have been attributed by the Cauloniates to a wind-god.

Each figure on the coin carries a lustral branch, an essential part of every sacrifice. 12 Could these branches indicate that Caulonia was cleansed from a pestilence? This is not true of the healthy and prosperous Croton whose later type shows Herakles Oikistas holding a lustral branh13 as Raoul-Rochette 14 points out. Although southern Italy is know to have been conducive to miasmatic conditions, the fact that Caulonia was surrounded by forests and had adequate drainage facilities would seem to indicate that she enjoyed healthful conditions. We may therefore the more warrantably concur with Raoul-Rochett's belief that the coin type did not refer to the city's having been cleansed from a pestilence.

Robinson, in discussing the association on coins of olive and bay with the head of Apollo as signifying his function as god of midday light and heat, recently suggested the following interpretation regarding the coin type in question: It may be suggested that this aspect of the god was well-known in this particular corner of Italy, and should also be recognized in the familiar coin type of neighboring Kaulonia: a youthful figure striding with a branch in his hand and with a secondary figure, sometimes with winged heels, also holding branches, running along his outstretched arm (Traité III 1, Pl. LXX 14–5, Pl. LXXI 1–5). This figure has from time to time been interpreted as a river-god, but the deer that always accompanies him should mark him for Apollo; the lustral branch which he is swinging is the means of fertility, and the little winged figure on his arm symbolizes the same power as the swastika or triskeles, to which incidentally it bears some resemblance. It is interesting to note in this connection that on an early Kaulonian obol (B.M.C. Italy, p. 336, No. 16) Apollo as type is replaced by the triskeles, and that on a group of late fifth-century staters the hair of the striding figure is deliberately treated so that the locks rise from his head like rays...15

The resemblance of the daimon to a swastika or triskeles and the interpretation of the lustral branch as a "means of fertility" do not cary fullness of conviction.

These divergent conceptions by four distinguished numismatists show how difficult it is to arrive at a convincing exposition of the meaning of the type. Let us conclude merely that the chief figure is probably that of Apollo, presented as the city's founder, that the daimon figure still eludes identification, and that the stag is the parasemon of the city.

For some time students of Greek sculpture and numismatics have questioned whether this coin type was originated by a die-cutter or was derived from a sculptural prototype. Percy Gardner rejects the latter suggestion when he writes, "exact and servile imitations of things (statues) however beautiful did not suggest itself to the mind of the artists who executed coin dies..." and concludes, "as long as Greek art was alive, an exact or slavish copy of a statue or a relief was all but unknown"16 Regling holds a similar view but at the same time he feels that the persistence of a coin type almost unchanged for 150 years may indicate derivation from a statu. 17 Raoul-Rochett 18 as well as Macdonald19 consider the latter as a possibility only in the case of the Apollo figure. Macdonald, however, rejects the idea that the stag might be an integral part of a group because it rests upon a separate groundline. 20 But the attitude of dependancy or expectancy to be seen on the part of the small figure and on that of the stag seem to me to indicate a relationship between them. Such an attitude is retained even by the crudest die-cutters up to the time of the disappearance of the two figures from the obverse. The separate groundline of the stag might even be taken to support the possibility of a sculptural prototype.

The daimon figure is in opposition to any consideration of the obverse types as derived from a group sculptured in the round because of the technical difficulty of supporting it mechanically. Nor do known remains of other groups provide a satisfactory analogy. The colored terra cottas found at Locri by Orsi, 21 may have been inspired by such an earlier monumental relief. The remarkable metopes found at Paestum in recent years by Dr. Zanconi Montuori 22 demonstrate how limited the known examples of sculpture from Magna Graecia are, and suggest that important additions to what we know may be awaiting excavation at this site or at the sites of other Greek cities in Italy. But even on the earliest of the incusi at Caulonia, the treatment of the reverse details, especially the delineation of Apollo's long locks of hair, remind one of the like care taken with the folds of the chlamys worn by Poseidon on the reverses of the incuse staters of Poseidona. 23 And certainly the way in which the lustral fillet hangs over the arm of the figure on the latest staters (Plates XIV and XX) implies that the figure is inanimate. As for the stag, the attachment of a long and thin fillet (Plate XI, 139–unique piece from Mr. Newell's collection) as well as the wreath about the stag's neck (Plates VI and VII, 69–70, 72–75, and 77) also seem reasonable as additions to a statue and difficult otherwise to explain as accessories of the type. On only a few of the staters with both sides in relief is the animal represented as moving (Plate IX, 102–3, 106, 110–114).

Although these conditions may not be enough to prove that the type of Caulonia was originally inspired by a sculptural prototype, they do show, it seems to me, that such a derivation is admissible.

The completed form, KAVΛOfigureIATAM, which does not occur until well along in Caulonia's coinage, is analogous to what is found on the coins of neighboring Croton, Poseidonia, and Sybaris (in a single instance). The inscription occurs sometimes on the obverse and sometimes on the reverse, and sometimes singularly enough, it occurs on both. Variants include the interchanging of the letters O and Ω, and also the final figure and M (i.e., a prostrate Σ). The customary form of Σ occurs on the coins of the last group in this study. None of the known specimens of nos. 119-23, 160, and 161 show any inscription. Macdonald, in discussing the significance of inscripionss on ancient coins, mentions that the characteristically Italiot use of the nominative singular adjective of the national name standing by itself is found on Caulonia's coins among othes. 24 In the double-relief coinage with Apollo on the obverse and the stag on the reverse one might supply the words "oekist" and "parasemon" respectively—thereby rendering the readings "(this is the) Caulonian (oekist)" and "(this is the) Caulonian (parasemon)."

The coinage of Caulonia has two clear-cut divisions; namely, incuse and double-relief. The incusi are separable according to flan-diameters. Four steps or gradations are distinguishable. The broadest flan-diameters are found on the earliest coins and the changes to smaller flan-diameters are abrupt rather than gradua1. The last incuse staters approximate in size the first double-relief coins as well as contemporary coins of the neighboring cities of Croton, Metapontum, and Tarentum, 25 and the Sicilian mints of Agrigentum, Gela, Leontini and Syracuse, as the overstrikes testify.

End Notes

Cf. NSc, 1912, 1913, 1915. These excavations afford evidence regarding the temple and the walls of the city. Of the former, the floor and the foundations alone remain, but it was possible to reconstruct a peripteral structure with a fa�ade of six columns, having a roof of Parian marble tiles. This may be an indication that the wealth of the city was greater than the extent of its coinage would have led one to suppose. The city's walls were constructed of boulders from the beds of the streams on either side of the site.
George Macdonald, Coin Types, their Origin and Development (Glasgow, 1905), p. 132.
William Watkiss Lloyd, "On the Types of the Coins of Caulonia," NC X (1847–48); M. Raoul-Rochete, "Observations sur le type du monnaies de Caulonia,, et sur celui de quelques autres médailles de la Grande-Gr�ce et se la Sicile," Mémoires de Numismatique et d'Antiquité (Paris, 1840); E. S. G. Robinson, "Rhegion, Zankle-Messanaa and the Samians," JHS LXI (1946).
HN 2, p. 93; Lloyd, op. cit.; Raoul-Rochette, op. cit.; Robinson, op. cit.
See HN 2, p. 93.
M. Raoul-Rochette, op. cit., p. 25.
William Watkiss Lloyd, "On the types of the Coins of Caulonia," NC, X (1847–1848), pp. 1–20.
Pausanias vi. 3. 12.
Thucydides vii. 25. David Randall-McIver, Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily (Oxford, 1931), p. 53.
Pliny N. H. ii. 62. Norman Douglas, Old Calabria, p. 413.
A Companion to Greek Studies, ed. Leonard Whibley (Cambridge, 1916), p. 405. Cf. Dictionnaire, des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines, ed. Ch. Daremberg, Edm. Saglio and E. Pottier (Paris, 1905), III pp. 1408–1409.
Cf. Plate XIV, nos. 176–181, where the fillet is hanging over the arm of the god.
Raoul-Rochett, op. cit., pp. 33–37.
E. S. G. Robinson, "Rhegion, Zankle-Messanaa and the Samians" JHS, LXI (1946), p. 16.
Percy Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins (Cambridge, 1883), pp. 68–69.
Kurt Regling, in Handbuch der Archāologie, ed. Walter Otto (M�nchen, 1939); "Anhang: Die Münzen," pp. 134–138.
Raoul-Rochett, loc. cit. p. 28.
Macdonald, op. cit., pp. 97 and 132.
Macdonald, op. cit., p. 132.
See RE, s. v. Locri, sec. III and D. Randall-McIver, op. cit., PI. VIII.
For illustrations see G. M. A. Richter, Archaic Greek Art (New York City, 1949), Figs. 204–6. Additional metopes have been found within the past year. Cf. AJA, Vol. 62 (1958), p. 418, pl. 113.
Macdonald, op. cit., p. 97.
George Macdonald, "The Original Significance of the Inscription on Ancient Coins," Proc�s-Verbaux et Mémoires du Congr�s International de Numismatique et d'Art de la Médaille Contemporaine (Bruxelles, 1910), pp. 287ff.
Cf. ANSMN VII, 1957, pp. 13ff.

INCUSE COINAGE

Group A. Nos. 1–26, Plates I–III.

The Caulonian incusi are herein sub-divided into four groups. The first, and the largest numerically, uses the largest flan (c. 30 mm.). Throughout this group, the inscription is limited to the first four letters of the city's name, and it occurs on the obverse only. Fifteen obverse dies with twenty-seven reverses have heen distinguished. On the reverse, the outlined figure of the daimon, being incised in the die, would have been susceptible to possible deepening, but neither this nor any other modificaionn has been detected. Throughout this group, the obverse has a cable border, with the possible exception of no. 25 on which the border is not preserved.

Some justification for the order within Group A should be submitted. These staters will be seen to have their inscriptions in larger letters than are to be found for the succeeding group. Of these letters, the V is different in the later coins of Group A, where it takes a curved form which resembles Y. There is also support for this sequence in the posture of Apollo. On what have been considered the earlier pieces he is shown with his right heel raised, giving a sense of forward movement. For the pieces on Plate II, and notably on nos. 23–25 of Plate III, both feet are flat on the groundline, thereby lessening the feeling of movement. The frontal eye on both obverse and reverse is consistently present. The order of the first four pieces on Plate I is determined by the die-flaw between the initial letters of the inscription. The break behind the head of Apollo, not to be seen in no. 1, is present in nos. 2–4.

The intriguing changes in the posture of the reverse daimon should be noted. There is a slight shrinkage in the diameter of the flan so that the transition to Group II is less noticeable than between Groups II and III. In this shrinkage, it is the borders which suffer.

Nos. 11–15 come into position because the branches held in each hand of the daimon are minimized as though their significance has been lost. Again, because this figure wears a chlamys it is less simple and direct than in the earlier form. For no. 15, the daimon figure has been omitted from the reverse, a condition which recurs in succeeding groups. The reverses of only twro dies (nos. 1 and 11) show this figure carrying a branch. Can the reason for this omission have been that it offered more complication than the die-cutter was willing to face?

Of the pieces on Plates II and III (nos. 16–26), a sharply bent left arm distinguishes nos. 23–25, with the fore-arm slanting upward instead of horizontal as heretofore. No. 20 is a variety which Garrucci26 desribes from a specimen in his possession as bearing in tiny letters IKETEΣI(A). The first three of these letters are read by him to the left of the head of Apollo and parallel with his arm; the other four follow the rim in front of the stag. The specimens which I have examined show that this reading is unwarranedd and fanciful.

End Notes

P. R. Garrucci, Le Monete dell'Italia Antica (Roma, 1885), p. 186, sec. 17.

Group B. Nos. 27–41, Plates III and IV

Throughout this group the flans are slightly reduced and a tiny circle or annulet, usually with a pellet in its center, is frequently placed above the obverse stag. This is usually and perhaps correctly identified as the letter theta, although Regling reads it as the fifth letter of the ethnic. 27 This letter, if it is a letter, also occurs on the reverses of nos. 27, 29, 34(?), 35, 36 and 39–40, but is is not uniformly placed. These reverse occurrences and the well-defined central dot preclude associating it with the ethnic. Another letter, resembling epsilon or digamma retrograde, occurs between the feet of Apollo on one obverse die (37-39) and is also found on the reverse of one of the varieties associated with this die (nos. 39–40). The first four letters of the city's name occur on the reverses with three exceptions (nos. 21, 28, 29). The assignment of the varieties at the beginning of the group is due to their retention of the cable border. This is almost immediately replaced by a border with dots between two linear circles. Besides this, these first three varieties share with the latest issues of Group A the omission of any reverse inscription. To replace the daimon on the reverse, Apollo is sometimes given a second lustral branch (nos. 30–32, 36, 39), the branch held over his shoulder being indicated very summarily throughout the group. No. 36 has a branch in front of the stag.

Group C. Nos. 42–46, Plate IV.

This group hardly deserves the distinction of being classed separately, since there are but five varieties with a single obverse die. The shrinkage of flan is now more marked (27–26 mm.). The inscription is in five letters and now appears on both obverse and reverse. A long-necked water bird resembling a swan replaces the letter above the rump of the stag. None of the five reverses omit the daimon figure, which, however, does not have the linear outline previously customary.

Group D. Nos. 47–61, Plate V.

The last of the four incuse groups shows further shrinkage of the flan (from 24 to 21 mm. for the smallest) and a growing crudity in the die-cutting, especially for the reverses (cf., no. 58). The ethnic, usually occurring with three letters but sometimes with five letters, is confined to the obverse except for nos. 49, 53, 54, 56, and 57. On nos. 59, 60 and possibly 61, a heron or crane occupies the reverse space usually reserved for the inscription, paralleling the procedure at Croton. The interval between may have been considerable since almost all of the refinements of the incuse process seem to have been forgotten.

Certain of the technical features of these incuse staters call for comment. In their beginnings, there is little or nothing that might be called primitive about either the type or the workmanship. The incuse format itself marks an advanced stage in coining, and although at Caulonia this might be explained by its having been borrowed from Croton, this can hardly be claimed for the type. For analogy regarding the type, we must go to Poseidonia, where the figure of Poseidon immediately reminds one of the heroic statue found in the sea of Cape Artemesion. 28 As has been mentioned, Regling makes a specific exception of the Caulonia and Poseidonia types in formulating his opinion that the die-cutters did not draw their inspiration from statues until the Hellenistic period. 29 In studying the composition or design of the Caulonia type, we note the effectiveness with which it fills the circular field, the nice placement of the inscription and the daimon's figure, and, not least, the proportions of the stag. The avoidance of awkwadnesss in the Apollo figure commands admiration—the torso frontal, the head and lower limbs in profile. The shortening of the right arm is disguised by the hair tresses, so that the contrast is less noticeable.

By comparison, the earliest issues of Poseidonia are less finished and much more primitive than those of Caulonia. For Croton, there are too few elements in common to permit a decision as to difference in incidence. We do not know how long the disaster at the River Sagras antedated the coinage beginnings at Croton (Head dates the latter as 550 B.C.). Croton must have suffered a severe setback, however, in which Caulonia would have shared, being within a short distance from the Sagras. At Caulonia, such refinements as the cutting of the small-scale daimon suggest an interval between the coinage on which it first appears and those of the other cities using the incuse convention. Moreover, the outlining of this figure on the reverses is a technicality not found at Metapontum until well along in the coinage of that city. These conditions point to an earlier beginning at Metapontum, it seems to me, but there is not yet sufficient data for establishing how much earlier.

End Notes

Kurt Regling, Die Griechischen Münzen der Sammlung Warren (Berlin, 1906), p. 22, no. 136.
Cf. article by George E. Mylonas, "The Bronze Statue from Artemision," A J A, XLVIII (1944), pp. 143–160.
Regling, op. cit., in note 17.

DOUBLE RELIEF COINAGE

Group E. Nos. 62–77, Plates VI and VII

In submitting the reasoning behind the arrangement of the double-relief staters, it is fortunate that for the purposes of comparison this group does not greatly overrun a single plate. In one of the fasciculi30 of the Sylloge, the type for the reverse with the branch in front of the stag (here Group F) is given precedence over this group (E), and for that reason the cause for differing should be made clear. In Group E, the obverse inscriptions are of three letters only whereas in Group F they are consistently of four letters. The cable border, a convention inherited from the incuse format, gives place to a dotted border before we reach the end of Group E. Whether the branch characteristic of Group F is considered a symbol or part of the type may be open to question, but the varieties without this accessory are more likely to precede than to follow its introduction, and stylistically, they come earlier rather than later.

The arrangement within the group is simplfiied by the die combinations which dictate the sequence. I have found but seven obverses combined with sixteen reverses; there must be further dies not represented. No. 62 is placed at the very beginning because of the form of its reverse rim and because 64a which immediately follows (by reason of the scale of the inscription letters) occurs in the hoard discussed hereafter (cf. p. 59). This stater is the latest of the Caulonia issues in that hoard — along with it is a single double-relief stater of Poseidonia. The hoard must have been secreted not long after the transition to the double-relief form had taken place at Caulonia and Poseidonia, and to judge from the staters of Metapontum and Croton in this hoard, before the change took place at those two cities. The small-scale letters of the inscription for Group E give place almost immediately to larger ones. The reverses of this group bear no inscription. Those showing the parasemon of the city with a wreath about the neck of the stag (nos. 69, 69a, 69d and 70) are joined to obverses also combined with a wreathless stag which show by the lessened wear of the obverse die that the wreathless form preceded the other, as was to be anticipated. Finally, no. 62 has a reverse, unique among double-relief staters, which has a countersunk rim bearing a border of dots — a form obviously derived from the rim of the incuse reverses. The border of dots on the reverse which immediately follows is minimized at first, but attains decorative importance in Group F.

Group F. Nos. 78–101, Plates VII, VIII and IX

In Group F both obverses and reverses bear inscriptions. In addition the reverses have either a leaf or a branch in front of the stag. The sequence is achieved by working backwards. No. 101, which has the longest inscriptions so far, is placed last because a tendency toward longer inscriptions becomes common in the following group. It also shares the same obverse die with no. 100, where there is a complex of branches on the reverse. Because nos. 88–90 are closely copied from no. 87, the complex of branches is simpler for no. 87 than for the following dies. It is reasonable that the simpler branch should precede the more complicated form, and although we may not determine the progression die by die, it is fairly certain. This suggested evolution is confirmed by changes in the inscriptions, by the placement of the daimon figure, and by the proportions of the stag on both obverse and reverse. It is not certain that nos. 78 and 79, with the leaf instead of the branch, belong at the beginning of the group. The three letter reverse inscription and the scale of the stag seem to entitle them to precedence.

End Notes

SNG II, pl. XIX.

Group G. Nos. 102–117, Plates IX and X

There is a marked change in style between this group and Group F. If the arrangement submitted is correct, there is a clear indication of an extended interval between nos. 101 and 102. In this group both the figures of the obverse Apollo and the reverse stag, instead of having their customary quiet pose, are represented in motion with a vigor little short of violence, alternating with and ultimately returning to a static position. There is notable improvement in the die-cutting which seems to partake of the new vigor in the types. Another innovation is the introduction of symbols or accessories to the type. Except for the reverse of no. 102 these are placed on the obverse. For the succeeding group, these additions are made on the reverse.

Within the coining interval for this group, the daimon figure disappears. Although it had previously been minimized to some extent, it here reaches a limit of crudity and unintelligibility (cf. enlargements of nos. 104 and 107 on Plates XIX and XX respectively). The daimon figure is omitted from nos. 105, 106, 116 and 117 while there are possible traces on nos. 110 and III. On no. 104 the stag is badly placed and on no. 105 which shares the same reverse there is no stag at all. The stag is again omitted on the obverses of nos. 110 and 111. Another change is so casual that it might easily evade observation. The obverse stag, up to this time, has been shown with head reverted, indicating a dependent relationship to Apollo. Beginning with no. 112 the stag's head is like that on the reverse — forward looking — and, except in no. 118, continues in this position.

The order reached is best explained by working backward from no. 117. Nos. 115–117 have a common reverse and on this reverse, the progression of the die break shows that this must be the order. Nos. 113–115 share the same obverse die, the deterioration of which gives this sequence. The bounding stag of nos. 110–113 ties them together. On nos. 107–109, the reverse stag is stationary but the obverse figure of Apollo is not. It agrees perfectly with either no. 106 which precedes or no. 110 which follows. Nos. 105 and 106 (same obverse) have contrasting reverse stags while a common reverse brings no. 104 into place. Nos. 102 and 103 have a common obverse, the latter being more worn. Perhaps the leaves on the reverse of no. 102 are a stylization of the branch of Group F rather than a symbol. On the obverse of no. 116, the spray of three leaves seems to be the prototype of the reverse spray on nos. 118–126, although two berries have been added to the latter.

The additions to the obverse type for this group are very interesting, partly because they successfully elude classification. Their nature is quite different from the more personal symbols (plough, star, oinochoe, etc.) which are accompanied by the initials of the names of magistrates on the late fourth century staters of Metapontum. In the fifth century there are paralells or analogies to the Metapontine symbols. Their occurrence on the reverse generally gives them a less obvious relation or connection with the main type. For if the reverse branch which is common to Group F at Caulonia is a symbol for woods or the forest (a natural enough connotation to indicate the habitat of the stag), the branch added to the obverse of nos. 110 and 111 would have the same significance, although its appropriatenesss or relation to Apollo is less clear. The connection between the conventionalized tree form on no. 107 and the obverse stag is almost obvious, but the sprig on the reverse of no. 102 is so conventionalized as to deprive it of any connection with the stag. The wreath on no. 112 and the birds on nos. 105 and 113 are less easily associated with Apollo although the birds are logical enough as wild life. Moreover, on no. 108 the mask of a fox or hind in a frame of branches would have the same implication.

We thus have an indication that the regularity which had marked Group F has yielded to a period of innovation in Group G, a characteristic which carries over into Group H to a lessened degree.

Group H. Nos. 118–140, Plates X and XI

Whereas Group F was marked by the branch on the reverses, this group is distinguished by a twig or spray with berries or a single leaf. The daimon, which disappeared in the preceding group, is also completely lacking here. There seems to be a slight deterioration in the die cutting and notable changes in the treatment of the inscription, including its omission from both obverse and reverse on nos. 119–123. The figure of Apollo is generally smaller in scale, and the sense of movement on both sides which marked the issues of Group G has quite disappeared by the end of Group H. The die mulings bring into close relationship several pieces which one would have hesitated to associate otherwise.

The ten pieces placed at the beginning of this group, as already noted, have in common a spray of three leaves and two berries in the field of the reverse. It seems reasonable to see in the three-leaved twig on the obverse of no. 116 the prototype of this reverse symbo1. Stylistically, these initial reverses of Group H are inferior to those of nos. 115–117 which fact may imply an interval between nos. 117 and 118. Die combinations and progressing die breaks dictate the order shown as will be seen from the diagram of die combinations.

No. 118 shows a reversion to an earlier form in that the head of the obverse stag is turned back. As with Group G, we occasionally find obverse additions. On nos. 121–123 there is a large insect (in my judgment not a cicada) which also occurs on nos. 127–129, possibly indicating a closer relation between these coins although the mulings seem to indicate the contrary. The reverse symbol on no. 129 is a tree which is far more conventionalized than the other tree forms described previously. On nos. 130 and 131 the reverse spray is given a summary treatment, which marks a time separation from the form used on nos. 118–126.

In the discussion of Caulonia's type I gave reasons for thinking that the placing of the stag in the field with a separate groundline was perhaps an indication that the two figures had been inspired by a local cult statue of Apollo accompanied by a stag with some traditional implication impossible to follow now. In Group G we find the stag's groundline, which had persisted throughout the incuse format, undergoing a change. On nos. 107–109 and 112 there is something resembling the capital of a column beneath the stag. On nos. 130–135 this support has been modified so that it is very much like a statue-basis having high and narrow proportions. On nos. 124–126, however, this basis, which ordinarily is crowned by the figure of the stag, bears a strange animal without antlers and with a huge head which is lowered in somewhat the same way as the head of the charging bull on the staters of Thurium is represented. Gross carelessness seems a more likely explanation than an intentional substitution for the figure of the stag.

Many of the varieties in this group are known in a single or in a small number of specimens, and no. 139 is one of the former. Inscriptions, although worn and in shortened forms, are present for both dies. The fillets hanging from the antlers of the stag, however, give this piece its greatest distinction. Their delicate linear treatment is best seen in the enlargement on Plate XIX. Stylistically, the spread legs of this stag are like those of certain others in this group. The size of the letters of the inscription might give it a placement earlier in the group than is shown here.

Only two specimens of no. 140 are known to exist; one is in Paris and the other in Naples. These have long been known and Raoul-Rochett 31 has written about this type. Although I have included these coins, I consider them suspect. Looking at the reverse first, one notices the rectangular position of the inscription with three letters in a vertical line, which is unlike any found elsewhere in this city's coinage. The position of the stag's antlers is an awkward one when the stance with the spread forelegs is employed. It is the obverse, however, that is most questionable. Both the thick groundline and the heavy, clumsy body of Apollo standing upon it are in contrast to the presentation we have come to know. Moreover, such a clutter of symbols is not found elsewhere. The fountain is not unlike one on the reverse of nos. 155–157, but the lion's-head water spout would more appropriately empty into a basin or pool as it does on the staters of Terina than into a stationary font. In the right field there is an ithyphallic herm facing to right with a filleted bucranium above it. These are unrelated to the figure of Apollo or to each other, and suggest a hand or a mind that is not Greek. The whole design, if such it can be called, bears the earmarks of the counterfeiters of a century or more ago.

It should be noted that die combinations unknown to me may alter the arrangement submitted. For example, nos. 127–129 with the obverse insect, and nos. 130–131 with the reverse leaves and berries may come later rather than where they have been placed. The reverse letters ΔE on no. 127 and Δ on no. 128 might with equal appropriateness entitle these dies to a place in Group I, and the long vertical inscription in tiny letters on the obverse of nos. 130–131 might follow rather than precede nos. 132–134.

Group I. Nos. 141–161, Plates XII and XIII

This group, as was true of some of the preceding classes, provides evidence that the mint of this city was not a large one and that strict regularity of procedure, whether stylistic or mechanical, is lacking. As in previous groups, die combinations bring together staters which have little else in common (cf. nos. 150–151). For this group an ivy leaf symbol is to be found on either obverse or reverse of some of the pieces. Other symbols such as the crab, wreath or octopus occur sometimes with the leaf on the same die and sometimes with the leaf on the combining die. The letter phi (is this a signature such as we find at Terina?) is usually of moderate size. It is found beneath the right arm of Apollo on no. 142, below the base line of the stag on nos. 143–147 and on the reverses of nos. 149–151 and 154 The letter theta, larger in scale, appears on the obverse of no. 150 and in the form ӨE on the obverses of nos. 152–153 and on the reverses of nos. 155–158, as well as on the bronze pieces (nos. 233–234).

The inscriptional data are puzzling, differing forms sometimes occurring on the same stater. As early as nos. 101 and 102 we have the fifth letter, an omicron. This is repeatedly changed to an omega on later dies (nos. 124–125, 130–131, 135, 139, 146, 150, 152, 170–178, 180–181). The final letter of the inscription when given in full, is sometimes N, sometimes M (the prostrate sigma), and on the last dies, sigma in its normal form. The archaic form of the iota (three-stroke) here persists as late as no. 166. 32

There are other irregularities. The obverse stag is sometimes present, sometimes not. In the earlier pieces of the group, he resembles a goat more than a deer. The stag's size differs widely. The figure of Apollo grows steadily heavier — almost pugilistic. His attitude of striding becomes one of running in nos. 158 — 161. His hair is usually short, but in nos. 153–154, tresses over his shoulder are clear. A knot at the back of the head is visible in nos. 162–163. The branch in his right hand interferes with the inscription in nos. 141–145 and, consequently, is so modified that it would scarcely be recognized as a branch if there were no other dies to establish this intention. The reverse stag is frequently heavy and wooden and faces left rather than right in no. 161.

The accessories to the type are intriguing; e.g., the bird with upraised wings in a font on the reverse of nos. 155–156, and on the obverse of no. 155 what seems to be an altar (cf. enlargements on Plate XX). The palmettes at its corners, the strut and the manner in which the legs are joined to the top indicate a structure made of meta1.

On the obverse of nos. 153–154 there are long fillets tied to both arms of Apolllo. 33 I know of no parallel to explain the purpose of these fillets. The tetrobols on Plate XV afford a hint. On no. 216, which is connected with this group by the presence of the letter Φ, the obverse die is first used without the fillet, and then with the fillet. Is it possible that fillets such as this have been added to the city's cult statue (which may originally have inspired the coin type) during an agonistic celebration, and have been used on the coinage with this commemorative implication? This is but one of the unresolved questions raised by Caulonia's coinage.

End Notes

Raoul-Rochett, op. cit. p. 24, note 1, Pl. II, 10.

Group J. Nos. 162–181, Plates XIII and XIV

Both the die combinations and the style of these coins leave hardly any alternative as to the order submitted. The top-knotted Apollo continues on the earliest staters in this group (nos. 162–163), giving way to a god with clipped hair which bears some resemblance to a wig. On nos. 158–161 there is a running Apollo which is replaced on nos. 162–166 by a figure standing with the weight on the left foot, a much more awkward stance than that of the striding Apollo to which we had become accustomed, and to which there is a return in nos. 168–181. The heavy-bodied figure continues to the end of the coinage.

The additions to the type are mostly on the obverse; e.g., turtle, dolphins, star and fibula. There are also large single letters — A on the reverse of nos. 168–173, Ө on the obverse of nos. 173–175, and E on the reverse of no. 175. If these letters are initials of die cutters, those with one letter on the obverse and another on the reverse would show that there were two engravers working concurrently, an indication of a stepped-up coinage which is supported by the relatively large number of surviving specimens of nos. 179 and 180. The significance of the two dolphins is difficult to fathom. The fillet laid across the arm of Apollo on the obverse of the last type is of a familiar form; i.e., wool with terminal tassels. The puzzling symbol on nos. 176–181 has never been satisfactorily explained; it does not resemble a fibula any more than it does a bird trap. The increased scale of the letters in the inscriptions is consistent throughout this group as opposed to that of Group I.

End Notes

For interpretation of inscriptional forms see Macdonald reference cited in note 24.
For enlargements of coins with fillets see Plates XIX and XX.

ENLARGEMENTS

The selection of the coins shown on the two plates of enlargements was given careful thought. The arrangement is designed to emphasize some of the ideas presented in the preceding text, and therefore it does not follow the sequential order in the catalogue. The liberal, yet limited, number shown may be supplemented by the other plates. It would have been highly instructive if a series of enlargements devoted to the daimon had been included to show the changes in form which occur before final disappearance from the obverse. Two of the misunderstood presentations (nos. 73 and 104) appear on these two plates. Enlargements are not so necessary for the incuse staters as they are for the smaller double-relief pieces because of their greater flan diameter.

On nos. 62, 102, 104, 108 and 113 of Plate XIX the increased stride of the main figure is to be noted. This is most marked on no. 102, which, in my opinion, provides a clear indication that Apollo was being presented as moving from the very beginning — nearly or quite as much so as the subsidiary daimon. The static stag on the reverse of no. 62, which comes at the very beginning of the double relief, changes for only a few dies to a realistic and lively animal (see reverses of nos. 102 and 113). The return to the quiet position is observed on no. 139 as well as on no. 155 of Plate XX.

Some of the comparisons emphasized extend from one plate to another. The suggested statue basis on no. 108 is to be compared not only with no. 112 but also with nos. 121 and 124. The addition of the fillet to both obverse and reverse types is shown for the entire bottom row of both plates. Its significance is far from obvious; for discussion see page 6 and for descriptions the catalogue entries (105, 139, 153 and 176–181).

Several of the enlargements have individual interest. No. 73, for instance, is not overstruck as one might think, but in some manner the die has been injured and recut for the injured section. It must have been deplorably bad from the beginning. There are several examples and combinations with differing reverses. The stylized tree on no. 107 differs from previous tree forms; compare also the reverse of no. 129. No. 121b is noteworthy for the large insect symbol and for the long-haired head of Apollo. No. 112 has a fine wreath which differs from the much later die of no. 151. Both obverse and reverse of no. 155 are shown — the obverse to display the altar which seems to be entirely of metal to judge from the palmettes and the supports for its top, and the reverse to illustrate the stylized treatment of the antlers of the stag as well as the bird with upraised wings in a pedestalled water-basin. The letters ӨE connect this with the obverses of the bronze issues.

The reverse of the tetrobol (no. 216) shows the kantharos symbol which does not occur among the staters. Further, the fillet of the obverse is a later addition to this die. The fine style of the heads on nos. 231 and 232 deserves attention — I am unable to find any parallels from which they might have been derived. Except on the bronze coins, heads such as these do not occur in Caulonia's coinage, and as conceptions they are of outstanding quality aside from their originality.


FRACTIONS

Even though there are fairly clear indications that the four divisions of these fractions are not continuous, no sharp separation exists between the two later divisions.

The coinage of small denominations in the incuse form is not prolific. This condition is similar to that found at Metapontum for its incuse coinage. Very few of the incuse fractional issues at Caulonia examined by me have been in good condition; there is seldom one without considerable evidence of circulation. This makes it difficult to find stylistic parallels among the incuse staters. The three-leterr obverse inscription on nos. 201 and 202 and the five-letter inscription on nos. 203–205 do not occur among the dies of the early staters until Group D (cf. Plate V). Likewise, the reverse inscriptions such as those of nos. 202 (mistakenly numbered 203 on Plate XV), 204 and 205 appear relatively late among the staters. The obol bears the triskeles for its obverse type (nos. 206 and 207) and this may have been conceived as a correlative of the daimon as Robinson suggess. 34 That this issue belongs with the incuse pieces is shown by the reverse border which is like that of the staters and tetrobols (cf. Plate IV and no. 208).

The group which follows (nos. 208–214) with the later issues having the subsidiary branch on the reverse, is interesting for the occasional change in orientation for both obverse and reverse types (any significance for which escapes me) and for the minimizing or entire omission of the daimon figure. The striding attitude is more pronounced here than in the first group. The order within the group becomes clear by comparing the rim of no. 208 with that of no. 62 of the staters. This reverse rim, sunken at first, changes to a beaded form.

The third group is significant for the kantharos symbol which does not occur among the staters known to me. There is a further distinctive peculiarity in the fillet which hangs from the arm of Apollo and also in the circumstance that this has been added to a die already in use (no. 216). 35 The sprig with two leaves (obv. of no. 217) is also found among the staters (nos. 120–126) although in the latter occurrence it bears three leaves and two berries.

The youthful head of the fourth group (nos. 229–232) has been thought by Gagliardi 36 to represent a river god because of the horn-like projection on no. 231. In earlier discussions this head is supposed to have had better claim to being that of Apollo. The exquisite style of these dies as well as the ivy leaf symbol on the reverse of no. 230 (paralleled on nos. 150–152 of the staters) marks them as late in the coinage of the city and therefore not much before 389 B.C. I do not trace any notable resemblance to the issues of neighboring mints, with the possible exception of Terina where certain staters and late sixths bear a somewhat similar head.

End Notes

Robinson, op. cit., p. 16.
See p. 6 for previous discussion.
E. Gagliardi, "Di Alcune Monete in Bronzo di Caulonia," Atti e Memorie dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, VI (1930), pp. looff.

BRONZE ISSUES

The bronze coins of Caulonia present problems, some of which have been outlined admirably by Gagliard.37 It is generally thought that the introduction of bronze for coins in the Greek cities did not much antedate 400 B.C. 38 and since Caulonia was destroyed in 389 B.C. these bronzes provide significant data. Before the introduction of bronze for coinage small silver coins of low denominations seem to have sufficed for currency needs. Of the four bronze pieces cited by Gagliardi 39 two are of the same denomination and a third is an issue which Garrucci,40 with strong probability, rejects as the core of a plated coin. Gagliard 41 thinks that this conclusion is less likely because of the patination and the excellent condition of the coin. This coin seems to me to be what Regling calls a mystification."42

Gagliardi's proposed identification of the head on the fractions and on the bronzes as a river god does not carry complete conviction, although the suggestion is an intriguing one.43 If this theory were correct, it would seem that we should have a greater number of appropriately related symbols or other indications associated with a river god than can be cited. The letters ӨE which occur on the obverses of two varieties also occur on the staters (nos. 152–159). The scanty number of bronze pieces known is indicative of their introduction not long before the destruction of the city.

End Notes

Ibid., pp. 99ff.
HN 2, p. 99. Head dates Croton's bronze coinage as beginning 'Before circ. B. C. 400.'
Gagliardi, op. cit.
Garrucci, op. cit., p. 150.
Gagliardi, op. cit. pp. 99–100.
Regling in a letter to the author.
Gagliardi, op. cit. p. 101.

PLATED COINS

Plated coins are fairly frequent in the coinage of Caulonia, and Plate XVI has been devoted to them. Some of these may prove to be counterfeits which are not ancient; e.g., nos. 8, 11 and 12.

The first piece is one of the rare, plated incusi. Comparison with genuine dies will be found rewarding, especially for the reverse where the failure to understand the incuse technique is most noticeable in the rim. The silver coating of the torso and left arm is wanting.

Of the thirteen pieces illustrated, the fruit of a fairly exhaustive search, ten of these plated pieces have a branch or branches in front of the stag on the reverse, an interesting indication that the coinage with this branch extended over a considerable period. In most instances the hand at work is obviously one not familiar with the practices of the mint and betrays itself in one or more of the details; e.g., the over-sized letters on the obverse of no. 3, the letter beneath the body of the stag on the reverses of nos. 6 and 8, the obverse stag facing in the wrong direction on no. 7, and the form of the lustral branch on no. 12. In addition there is usually the tell-tale break in the silver coating and excessive aberrations of weight. This corroboration as to weight is lacking for no. 12, but I believe it is safe to recognize this piece as not a genuine one on the basis of comparisons with the authentic types.


CATALOGUE

The descriptions in the catalogue which follows are of the respective dies rather than of the particular specimen illustrated which may have been selected for its superior condition even though part of the design is off-flan. In some cases all of the known specimens are in poor condition because of wear or over-zealous cleaning, in consequence of which the given coin's inscription will have been taken from a specimen which is not illustrated. As an example, there is but a single example of no. 155 which gives the reverse inscription. This is shown on the plate of enlargements (XX). Occasionally the off-flan portion is supplied by a second variety whose reverse is combined with that of the first.

The abbreviations will, I trust, be self-evident. The great national collections are indicated by their respective cities — Paris, Vienna, Glasgow, with added citation of catalogue numbers, as Glasgow, Hunter 234. "BM-Lloyd SNG 207" is, being interpreted, Specimen in the British Museum, from the Lloyd Bequest, illustrated in the Sylloge Numorum Graecorum (Lloyd), No. 207. ANS-ETN indicates that the specimen is in the collection of the American Numismatic Society, from the benefaction of Edward T. Newel.

The first piece listed is the one illustrated on the plates. When other pieces from the same pair of dies are illustrated an asterisk appears before its catalogue listing and its letter has been added to the number on the plates. Those specimens with a dagger before their catalogue listings are illustrated in enlarged size on Plates XIX-XX and commented upon specifically on p. 16. Reference to illustrated auction catalogues is by the name of either the dealer or owner, with the year of the sale, and the number in the catalogue. The numbers at the bottom of the plates indicate the die-combinations. Thus 38—39—40 shows that the obverses of 38 and 39 were struck from the same die and that the reverses of 39 and 40 come from the same die.


INCUSE STATERS

Group A

1. KAVΛ reading clockwise. Naked figure of Apollo with hair in long tresses and wearing a taenia, advancing to r. on a short groundline. In his uplifted right hand, a branch with pinnate leaves. On his outstretched l. arm, a small naked figure (daimon) running to r., looking backward and holding a large branch in his r. and a tiny one in his l. hand. In r. field, on a second basis or groundline, a stag standing r. but with head turned toward Apollo. Cable border.

Similar to obverse, but incuse. The bodies of Apollo and the stag are intaglio. The smaller figure (with branch in one hand), the antlers of the stag and the branch held by Apollo as well as the fingers of his outstretched hand are indicated by lines which are raised on the flan. The face and hair of Apollo are modelled. The incuse format brings the daimon on Apollo's right arm and the branch in his left hand. Border intaglio with regular divisions apparently controlled from the central point of the die.

a. Berlin –. —
b. Vienna 7.40
c. Paris, De Luynes 682 8.21
d. Ashburnham Coll., Sotheby, 1895, 21 7.84
e. H. C. Hines Coll. (die-break just beginning). 8.24
f. Grandprey Coll., Ciani, Feb. 1935, 46 7.40
g. Luneau Coll., Platt, 1922, 171
h. Sotheby, Apr. 21, 1909, 76 7.78
i. Rosenberg, Mar. 1914, 18 7.70
j. Copenhagen, SNG, 1698 8.01

2. Die of No. 1. A die break back of the neck of Apollo has the appearance of a hair-knot. A flaw (a flaking? of the surface of the die) has developed between the first two letters of the inscription.

Similar to No. 1; the daimon does not hold a branch; the details of the head of Apollo differ.

a. Berlin –. —
b. ANS 8.45
c. ANS-ETN 7.96
d. ANS-WGB Coll., ex Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 547 8.38
e. Locker-Lampson Coll., 43 8.07
f. Cat. J. P. Morgan Coll., 92 8.10
ex Hartwig Coll., 417 8.20
g. Prichard Coll., Sotheby, Feb. 1929, 11 8.42
h. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 571 8.22
ex Merzbacher, 1910, 148 8.20
ex Stiavelli, Rome, 1908, 111 8.20
i. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 572 8.02
j. Schlessinger y Guzman Coll., Sotheby, 1914, 27 8.36
k. Bement Coll., Naville VI, Jan. 1923, 265 7.88
l. Hirsch XIII, May 1905, Rousopoulos, 208 7.83
m. Naville XIV, July 1929, 61 7.24
n. Cahn LXXV, May 1932, 124 7.15
ex Helbing, Oct. 24, 1927, 2591 7.20
ex Helbing, Apr. 1927, 1580
o. Hirsch XXXIII, 1913, 238 7.25
ex Hirsch XI, 1904, 63
p. Hirsch XVII, Feb. 1907, 291 8.17
ex Hirsch XVI, Dec. 1906, 159
q. Naville XVI, 1933, 307 8.22
r. Egger, Nov. 1909, 68 7.86
s. Ratto, Apr. 1911, 104 8.00
t. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 668 7.96
u. Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3434 7.75
ex Naville IV, 1922, 147 7.74
v. Glendining, Mar. 1931, 859 8.77
ex Schulman, June 1930, 18
ex Nordheim Coll., Glendining. Dec. 1929, 696 8.75

3. Die of No. 1.

Similar to No. 2; the feet of the daimon are clearly outlined; the lustral branch held by Apollo is sharply defined.

a. N. Y., Metropolitan Mus., Ward Coll., 98 8.07
b. Providence, Rh. I. School of Design 7.87
c. Naville V, June 1923, (British Mus. Dupl.), 652 7.63
ex Pozzi, Naville 1, 271
d. Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 981 7-38
e. Naville IV, June 1922, 146 7.37

4. Die of No. 1, now much worn.

The head of Apollo large (possibly due to double striking, his body lower in relief (i.e. shallower) than heretofore.

a. Vienna 8.46
b. Ciani, Fixed Price Cat. -. —

5. Similar to No. 1. The muscles of r. arm and legs of Apollo over emphasized. The branch in the r. hand of the daimon points to the chin of Apollo. The horns of the stag are sometimes not struck up sufficiently to be visible.

Thick base line for the stag.

a. ANS-ETN Coll. 8.43
b. Munich 7.46
c. Cat. J. P. Morgan Coll., 91 7.96
d. Cahn LXVIII, 1930, 1024 ex Naville V, June, 1923, 650 (British Mus. Dupl.) 7.79
e. Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 95 8.30
ex Hirsch XVI, Dec. 1906, 158 8.33
f. Hirsch XXXII, Nov. 1912, 7 8.00
g. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 667 ex Engel Gros Coll., Feuardent, Dec. 1921, 10 8.13
h. Benson Coll., Sotheby, Feb. 1909, 99 8.42
i. Merzbacher, Nov. 1909, 2334 8.24

6. Die of No. 5.

Base line for the stag longer than in No. 5. Figure of daimon seldom distinct.

a. Berlin 7.42
b. Vienna 7.50
c. Headlam Coll., Sotheby, May 1916, 192 8.04
d. Glasgow Hunter Coll. p. 126, 2 7.92
e. Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, (Hermitage Dupl.), 163 7.60
f. South Italian Hoard (Noe 507), Cf. pi. XVII, 31 7.76
g. South Italian Hoard (Noe 507), Cf. p. 60, No. 30 7.50
h. Seaby II, 1929, 141 ex Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1023 ex Sambon-Canessa, Paris, June 1927, 487 8.10
i. Cahn LX, July 1928, 134 8.05
j. Naville XV, July 1930, 226 8.03
ex Hirsch XXI, Weber Coll., 440

6A. Inscr. as on Nos. 5 and 6. Figure of Apollo heavier, 1. forearm elongated. Baseline longer. Slender daimon, nearly upright, holds short branches.

The outlined daimon figure exceptionally slender.

a. B. Y. Berry Coll. 8.02

7. Similar. Initial stroke of A curved convexly. Daimon very nearly upright.

Horns of the stag sometimes not visible. Daimon figure leans forward.

a. Naples -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. British Museum -. —
d. Cambridge SNG, 723 7.85
e. Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, (Hermitage Dupl.), 164 7.80
f. Luneau Coll., Platt, 1922, 172

8. Die of No. 7.

Horns of the stag clearly cut, as is also outline of figure of daimon.

a. Boston, Regling-Warren, 139 Brett, 173 8.27
b. Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 982 7.94
c. Aberdeen SNG, 33 7.78
d. Hirsch XIV, Nov. 1905, 127 7.80
e. Cahn LXXV, May 1932, 123 8.69
ex Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3433 8.63
f. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 666 8.28
g. Platt, May 1921, 26 ex Rollin and Feuardent, June 1906, 323, ex H. P. Smith Coll., Sotheby, June 1905, 43 -. —
h. Naville V, June 1923, (British Mus. Dupl.), 649 8.53
i. Naville X, June 1925, 126, Naville I, (Pozz), Apr. 1921 270 8.16
j. Naville X, June 1925, 128 - (?) Hamburger, Oct. 1898, 1 8.20
k. Naville X, June 1925, 127 8.31
l. Naville XIII, June 1928, 150 8.32
m. Naville XIII, June 1928, 151 7.96
n. Naville XV, July 1930, 227 ex Cahn Fixed Price Cat. XXIV, Nov. 1912, 210 8.25

9. Die of Nos. 7 and 8.

Slight differences in the daimon figure, and in proportions of stage.

a. ANS 8.54
b. ANS – J. B. Cammann Coll. 8.25
c. Lockett Coll. 7.89

10. Similar. The А as in No. 5. The thumb of Apollo's outstretched hand is prominent. The stag larger in scale and slightly higher on flan than heretofore.

The daimon's figure and the branch held by Apollo often all but invisible.

a. Paris -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. ANS 8.17
d. Boston, Regling-Warren, 138 Brett, 172 7.82
e. R. Jameson Coll., 408 7.82
ex Nervegna Coll., Nov. 1907, 562
f. Glasgow, Hunterian Cat. p. 126, 1 7.93
g. von Wotoch Coll., Sambon, Dec. 1901, 162 -. —
h. Platt, June 1925, 87 7.75
i. Ratto, Apr. 1927, 276 8.05
j. Hirsch, XV, 1906, 758 8.09

11. Similar. The daimon wears chlamys and winged sandals and holds sword or club in r. hand, branch in 1. Feet of Apollo follow curve at rim.

The daimon holds branch as in No. 1. Exergual line follows rim.

a. Naville Xvi, 1933, 304 7.55
ex Hirsch XII, 1904, 37

12. Die of No. 11.

The attempt to indicate the ear of Apollo is noteworthy. The ears, (but not the horns) of stag are indicated.

a. London -. —
b. Hess, Mar. 1935, 237 ex Hirsch XXXIII, Nov. 1913, 237 7.25

13. Die of No. 11-12; a die break connects the tip of the fingers of Apollo with the rim.

Daimon figure differs from Nos. 11 and 12.

a. ANS-ETN, ex Hirsch XXVI, 1910, 42 8.15
b. Barrachin Coll., Ciani, Dec. 1924, 158
ex Rousset Coll., Bourgey, Apr. 1908, 40 7.93
c. Ratto, Num. Stran. 1909, 1007 8.20
d. Egger, Nov. 1909, 69 7.93

14. Die of No. 11-13. Die-break at knees.

The figure of the daimon is so heavily outlined as to seem modelled.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1591, Pl. 50, No. 4 8.08
c. Commerce (N. Y.) ex I. N. Phelps Stokes Coll. 7.86

15. Die of Nos. 11-14.

The figure of the daimon absent and the stag without antlers. The r. forearm of Apollo is unduly elongated.

a. Boston, Regling-Warren 135, Brett 169 8.26
b. British Museum Guide, Pl. 8, 17 8.29
c. Naville V, (British Mus. Dupl.), June 1923, 651 8.11
d. Baranowsky Fixed Price Cat. III, 1934, 4560 -. —

16. The letters are similar in form to those of the preceding die. The daimon does not wear chlamys; the branch held in his 1. hand differs from that in the r.

The daimon figure is intaglio on the coin rather than indicated by raised lines. The head of Apollo unusually small in scale.

a. Arthur S. Dewing Coll., Boston 8.20

17. Similar to No. 11 in that daimon wears chlamys; he is without winged sandals. Inscription more compact than in No. 16.

Figure of daimon is outlined. Apollos branch sketchy. Stag without antlers.

a. Boston, Regling-Warren Coll., 137; Brett 171 8.03
b. Naples -. —
c. Berlin 8.25
d. The Hague -. —

18. Die of No. 17.

The branch held by Apollo is larger in scale than heretofore, and treatment of hair is distinctive.

a. Paris -. —
b. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 679 7.91
c. Hartwig Coll., Santamaria, Mar. 1910, 416 7.10
d. Hamburger, May 1929, 86 8.40

19. Die of No. 17.

Similar to No. 17 in that no branch is visible. The daimon figure differs. Base lines for both stag and Apollo differentiate this die from those of Nos. 17 and 18.

a. Naville XV, July 1930, 225, ex Burel Coll., Feuardent, June 1913, 39 7.92

20. Similar. The inscription has a large V with curved strokes. A die flaw(?) sometimes described as a plant, between the legs of the stag. Daimon without chlamys.

The stag has a small head and a thick, barrel shaped body.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Boston, Mass. Historical Society -. —
c. Carfrae Coll., Sotheby, May 1894, 24 8.37
d. Berlin Dupl. Riechmann XXX, Dec. 1924, 129 7.69
e. Munzhandungg Basel X, 1938, 66 7.71
f. Schulman, Nov. 1913, 97, ex Schulman, May 1912, 35 7.90
g. Helbing, Mar. 1928, 56 7.70

Note: This is the variety on which Garrucci reads IKETEΣI in tiny letters - the first three to the 1. of the head of Apollo, the others to the r. (La Monete dell' Italia Antica, Pt. II, p. 186, No. 17, Pl. CXXV, 17.)

21. Inscription similar to No. 20 but letters smaller.

The hind legs of the stag longer than front ones; a die-break crosses the stag's body.

a. ANS - ex Hoyt Miller Coll., ex Ciani, June 1920, 19 (with two test marks). 7.84
b. Booth Coll., Sotheby, July 1900, 19 7.43
c. Cahn LXXXIV, Nov. 1933, 84 7.80
d. Naville XIV, 1929, 60 8.03
ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 980 8.09
e. Naville XVI, 1933, 305 8.04

22. Similar. The base lines for both Apollo and the stag are continuous rather than dotted as heretofore. The thumb of Apollo's r. hand oversized.

The basis for the stag consists of two lines.

a. Munich 8.70
b. Vienna 7.92
c. Berlin -. —
d. ANS - W. G. Beatty Coll. 7.96
e. Seaby II, July 1929, 142 -. —
f. Hess, Apr. 1936, 394, 7.82
ex Basel Münzhandlung IV, Oct. 1935, 357 7.70

23. Inscription similar to No. 22 save that the A has its cross stroke downward to right. A die fault (?) between the inscription and the rim. The left arm of Apollo sharply bent at the elbow.

Similar to No. 22 save for the bent arm and differing daimon figure.

a. So. Italian Hoard (Noe 507), cf. p. 60, No. 33 7.99
b. Naples -. —
c. Vienna 6.68
d. S.P. Noe Coll. 7.70
e. Vogel Coll., Hess CXCIV, Mar. 1929, 100 7.95
f. Caprotti Coll., Clerici, Mar. 1910, 248 7.40
g. Prowe Coll., Egger XL, May 1912, 238, st. 7.80
h. Basel Münzhandlung X, Mar. 1938, 65 8.02
i. Naville XVI, 1933, 306 7.92
j. Grabow, July 1930, 147 ex J. Schulman, May 1912, 34 7.80
k. Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1022, 7.87
ex Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3435 7.87
l. Brandis Coll., Canessa, May 1922, 115 7.90
m. Hess CCVII, Dec. 1931, 100 7.91
n. Hess, Apr. 1936, 512 7.80
o. Helbing LXX, Dec. 1932, 476 7.70
p. Cahn LXV, Oct. 1929, 42 7.89
q. Baranowsky, Feb. 1931, 246 7.66

24. Inscription in straight lines strokes and vertical. Apollo's l. arm bent as in No. 23. The stag's base line slopes downward to the right.

Stag's head as well as antlers outlined.

a. B. Y. Berry Coll. -. —
b. Berlin -. —

25. Inscription similar to No. 24 save that the A and V have curved strokes. Apollo's bent l. arm short and the daimon figure larger in scale than usual.

Daimon figure sketchily outlined. The eye of Apollo unduly large; his feet wedge-shaped.

a. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 548 7.90

26. Inscription nearly vertical but reading downward and retrograde (counter clockwise). A die-break extends from the ankle of Apollo's l. foot to the rim.

Apollo, with branch replacing the daimon figure. The rim differs from the preceding forms.

a. ANS-ETN 8.04
b. Berlin -. —
c. Glasgow, Hunter Cat. p. 126, 3 7. 11
d. Glendining, Dec. 1927, 548 7.49

Group B

27. Inscription similar to scale of No. 24, and in form of letters to No. 22. The daimon holds branch as in Nos. 18 and 19. In the field, above the hindquarters of the stag, an annulet.

No daimon figure. The annulet in the 1. field is smaller than on the obverse. The coarse border is similar in the manner of its cutting to that of Group A (except No. 26).

a. Boston, Regling-Warren, 136; Brett 170 7.90
b. Cambridge, SNG 724 7.88
c. Naville XVI, 1933, 303 7.90
d. Schulman, June 1924, 291 8.10
e. Schulman, May 1938, 51 7.25

Note: In Dr. Regling's Catalogue of the Warren Collection, the annulet is read as the letter O and consequently the fifth letter of the ethnic. On the reverse dies of 39 and 40, there is a pellet at the center of the annulet. In view of the preponderence of dies without this pellet, it seems questionable to interpret it as the letter Theta.

28. Die of No. 27. The die is badly worn and the annulet barely visible.

Similar to No. 27. A large annulet just below the elbow is visible on b and d. The stag has shorter legs than in No. 27.

a. BMC 7 7.67
b. Munich 6.19
c. Schulman, Mar. 1925, 26 6.63
d. Schulman, Dec. 1927, 70 7.84
ex Bement Coll., Naville VI, Jan. 1924, 264 7.83
e. Schulman Fixed Price Cat. LXII, 1915, 85 (Ordones Coll.). 7.73

29. Four-letter inscription, reading upward from the rim (the A inverted. The daimon figure crude. The annulet in the right field has a pellet at its center and resembles the letter theta.

⊙ in the left field; no daimon figure. Note linear treatment of torso.

a. Fiorelli Coll., Naples, 3318 -. —
b. Santamaria, Jan. 1938, 60 6.97
c. Curinga Hoard (Noe 285), Attie Mem. III, 1917, Pl. II. 7 -. —

30. The four-letter inscription reads counter clockwise. A die-break shows below the r. arm of Apollo, and another just below the letter A.

The inscription in four letters, and reading clockwise, fills the r. field. A second branch, instead of the daimon figure, fills the space above the arm of Apollo.

a. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 546 7.98
ex Hess, Mar. 1918, 120, ex Hirsch XXX, May 1911, 268 8.00

31. Die of No. 30. The A now has the triangle above the cross bar filled by a die-break.

Similar to No. 30 except that there are three letters, and the second branch in the 1. field is smaller.

a. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 680 8.05
b. Paris -. —
c. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3316 -. —

32. Die of No. 30; possibly intermediate between 30 and 31.

Similar to No 30 with differences in the form of the letters and of the branch.

a. J. P. Morgan Coll. Cat., 93 8.00
b. Berlin -. —
c. BMC, No. 5 8.05

33. Die of No. 30.

Similar to No. 32 as to inscription - the letter A has a rounded top. No branch in 1. field.

a. Commerce 7.43

34. Die of No. 30. A new die-break extending from the 1. ankle of Apollo to just before the foreleg of the stag, shows faintly. The V of the inscription now shows the defect of the A.

The inscription similar to No. 32. A letter(?) resembling a repeated theta(?) beneath the arm of Apollo in the 1. field. The second branch held by Apollo is short and faint.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Vienna 7.44
c. C. C. Browne Coll., Sotheby, Mar. 1935, 17.
ex Booth Coll., Sotheby, July, 1900, 19 7.32
d. Glendining, Mar. 1931, 860,
ex Naville XV, July 1930, 224 7.88
ex Cahn XXXV, Nov. 1913, 102 8.10

35. Die of No. 30 - the die-break seen in No. 34 is more pronounced.

Four-letter inscription. Traces of a large annulet above the hind-quarters of the stag. The space above the arm of Apollo now occupied by an involved figure. The head of Apollo is very crude.

a. ANS-ETN, ex Caprotti Coll., Clerici, Mar. 1910, 247 7.50
b. Berlin -. —
c. British Museum 7.56
d. Vienna 7.01
e. Lockett SNG 580, 465
ex Sambon-Canessa, Sale June 1927, 486 8.03
f. So. Italian Hoard, cf. p. 60, No. 34, Plate XVIII, 34 8.13

36. Die of No. 30. The die-break previously noticed now prominently visible. A further break follows the line of Apollo's r. leg from the knee to the rim.

Four-letter inscription. The branch above Apollo's outstretched arm is well defined. The space between the stag and the rim is filled by a second branch which has apparently been mistakenly placed there rather than in the other hand of Apollo.

a. ANS, ex Naville XVI, 1933, 302, and So. Italian Hoard (Noe 507), Plate XVIII, 35. 7.96

37. The inscription in four letters is to be read upward from the rim. A small annulet in the r. field - between the legs of Apollo, a retrograde epsilon or digamma.

The inscription in the r. field reads KAΛO, counter clockwise. The daimon figure in relief holds a branch in his r. hand. The branch held by Apollo is longer than usual, and has leaves on one side only.

a. ANS-ETN, ex Nervegna Coll., Nov. 1907, 561 7.96
b. Br. Mus.-Lloyd SNG 573 8.02
c. Curinga Hoard (Noe 285), Attie Mem. III, 1917, Pl. II, 6 -. —

38. Die of No. 37.

The four-letter inscription, reading clockwise, is KAVΛ. The daimon figure is replaced by a branch.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1592, Pl. 50, 5 7.60
b. Glasgow, Coates Coll. -. —
c. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 665 6.98

39. Die of No. 37 and 38.

A four-letter inscription in the r. field, retrograde, and to be read counter clockwise. Between the legs of Apollo the letter which occurs in the same position on the obverse. A full-size theta in the customary position. A branch above the out-stretched arm of Apollo.

a. Paris -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. Cambrdgee SNG, 725 (Plated) 6.90
d. Strozzi Coll., Sangiorgi, Apr. 1907, 1168 7.95

40. Four-letter inscription reading clockwise with the V inverted. The daimon figure extremely crude and the 1. hand of Apollo pronouncedly oversized. The base line for the stag slants slightly upward to the r. What may be a letter (sigma?) is to be read in the exergue.

Die of No. 39.

a. Cambridge, SNG, 726 7.65

41. Die of No. 40.

Four-letter inscription with the V inverted. The figure of the daimon seems to be cut over a branch. The exergual line is not continuous; it is visible under the r. foot of Apollo and questionable under the other.

a. Glendining, May 1941, 52 -. —

Group C

42. Five-letter inscription reading counter clockwise. The daimon holds large branch in r. hand. In the r. field above the hindquarters of the stag, a long-necked water-bird (heron?). The workmanship throughout is poor. Diameter of die 27 mm.

Five-letter inscription in a vertical line reading downward from the rim. The daimon figure in relief.

a. Paris 7.88
b. The Hague 7.70
c. British Museum 7.88
d. Napies, Fiorelli Coll., 3321 -. —
e. Cambridge, SNG, 727 7.46
f. Lockett Coll., SNG 581, Sale 466, 7.89
ex Naville V, June 1923, 647 7.90
ex Nervegna Coll., Nov. 1907, 565
g. Naville XVI, 1933, 3o1 7.89
h. Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3432 7.88
ex Ratto, Apr. 1911, 105

43. Die of No. 42.

Five-letter inscription in vertical line to be read counter clockwise from the center. Whether the daimon figure is present is not clear from the single specimen recorded. Note conventionlized branch.

a. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 681 8.05

44. Die of Nos. 42 and 43.

Inscription reads as in No. 43, but follows the line of the rim. The prominent exergual line is well defined and curved.

a. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 489 7.35

45. Die of No. 42-44. Note die-break in exergue.

Inscription reads as in No. 43, but is separated from the figure by a wider interval.

a. R. Jameson Coll., 409 7.64

46. Die of No. 42-45. Enlarged die-break shows in exergue.

Five-letter inscription following curve of the rim, to be read counter clockwise. Daimon figure in relief.

a. ANS-ETN 8.43
b. Berlin
c. Berlin
d. Vogel Coll., Hess CXCIV, Mar. 1929, 101 (Plated ?) 6.97
e. Hirsch XVII, 289a ex Ratto, May 1912, 320 7.67
f. Schlessinger, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl. 162 7.80
g. Curinga Hoard (Noe 285), Atti e Mem. III, 1917, Pl. II, 9 -. —

Group D

47. A three-letter inscription to be read upward from the rim. Triple base line beneath the stag. Workmanship crude throughout, especially in the branch and in the outstretched hand of Apollo.

Modelling crude - neither branch nor daimon figure present. The hair of Apollo is given a quilted effect.

a. Vienna 8.05
b. Paris
c. Barlli, Fixed Price Cat. XXXIX, 1937, 101 8.00
d. Hamburger, May 1929, 75 7.55
e. Hess, Apr. 1936, 395 7.70
ex Cann LXVIII, 1930, 1025 7.77
ex Rartto, Jan. 1926, 664 7.71
ex Hirsch Fixed Price Cat. XVII, Feb. 1907, 289a 7.67

48. Die of No. 47, with a probable re-cutting of the body of Apollo and of the stag.

Branch held by Apollo fills the r. field, extending vertically nearly to base line.

a. Berlin -. —
b. ANS 7.46
c. Toronto, Royal Ontario Archeol. Museum -. —

49. Five-letter inscription with smaller letters than heretofore and reading upward from the rim. The base line for the stag slants slightly upward to the r. The exergual line double.

Five-letter inscription in r. field to be read upward from the center. The daimon figure in relief.

a. London -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. Vienna 8.00
d. Copenhagen SNG, 1701 6.46

50. Five-letter inscription to be read counter clockwise from center, the last two letters crowded. The base line for the stag double.

The stag without base line. No branch; no daimon.

a. American Numismatic Society 8.02
b. Berlin -. —
c. Copenhagen SNG, 1700 7.76
d. Baranowsky, Feb. 1931, 248 7.88
ex Ratto, Jan. 1926, 663 7.92
ex Naville V, June 1923, British Mus. Dupl. 648 7.88

51. Similar to No. 50. The head of Apollo is larger.

Similar to No. 50 but differs in position of the figure of the stag.

a. Munich 7.30
b. Munich 7.32
c. Berlin -. —

52. Five-letter inscription similar to No. 50 but less crowded. The base line for the stag slants upward to the r. The exergual line is formed of heavy beads.

Similar to Nos. 50–51 with differences in the proportions of the stag. The r. field is occupied by a vertical branch.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Naples, Fiorelli Coll. -. —
c. Lockett SNG, 582, Sale 467 7.68

53. Five-letter inscription as in Nos. 51-52; the large daimon figure crowds the space above the arm of Apollo.

Five-letter inscription reading upward in r. field, close to figure of Apollo. Long branch in extreme r. field.

a. Naville XVII, Oct. 1934, 86 7.51
ex Lobbecke, Hess, Jan. 1926, 74 7.60
b. Cahn LXXV, May 1932, 125 8.04
ex Helbing, Oct. 24, 1927, 2592, 8.00
ex Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 545 7.98
c. Curinga Hoard (Noe 285), Atti e Mem., III, 1917, Pl. II, 8 -. —

54. Similar to No. 53; the daimon figure and stag differ.

Possibly die of No. 53 altered. Faint traces of inscription; the form of the branch differs.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 683 8.11
d. Naville XVI, 1933, 308 8.22
ex Naville VI, 1923, 263 8.01
ex Sambon-Canessa, Dec. 1907, 51 8.05
e. Bourgey, June 1909, 103 -. —
f. Baranowsky, Feb. 1931, 247 7-51
g. Schulman, May 1938, 52 7.55

55. The five-letter inscription following the line of the rim reads counter clockwise from center. The head of Apollo shows die defects; the stag leans forward.

Crudely cut die with conventionalized branch as in No. 48. No daimon figure.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Cambridge SNG, 729 7.53

56. Five-letter inscription, reading downward from the rim. Apollo's outstretched hand, the long hair tresses and the attitude of the daimon holding branches in each hand, are distinctive. Border now of beads between two lines.

Five-letter inscription, reading downwad from the rim. The daimon figure is in relief and the branch held by Apollo is stylized. For Apollo's head, pellets indicate the eye and ear, the fillet binding the hair is plainly indicated.

a. Toronto, Royal Ontario Archaeol. Mus.
ex Naville IV, June 1922, 148 8.11
ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 983 8.12
b. Berlin -. —

57. Die of No. 56.

Similar to the die of No. 56; the letters are larger and the branch differs.

a. Cambridge, SNG 728, Vol. IV 8.27

58. Die of No. 56.

Very crude figure of Apollo, without daimon figure, branch or inscription.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1593 7.46
b. Brandis Coll., Canessa, May 1922, 116 7.97
c. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 488 8.00

59. Three-letter inscription, reading upward from the rim. The daimon figure is short and the branch held by Apollo is long. The basis for the stag has a straight line above a dotted one, while the exergual line is dotted. Die has diameter of 22 mm.

Double base line beneath the stag. In the r. field, a, heron facing r.

a. ANS-ETN 7.98
b. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 685 8.09
c. Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 984 7.90
d. A. S. Dewing Coll. 7.93
e. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 549 8.06
ex Ratto, Jan. 1926, 669 8.10

60. Four-letter inscription, reading upward from the rim. A die-break disfigures the hindquarters of the stag.

Similar to No. 59 but both Apollo and the stag are shorter, and there is but a single base line beneath the stag.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1594 8.17
b. Berlin -. —
c. Berlin -. —
d. Vienna 7.88
e. Glasgow, Hunter Cal. p. 126, 4 7.60
f. Glasgow, Hunter Cal. p. 126, 5 7.39
g. Ratto, Apr. 1927, 278 7.80
h. Baranowsky, Feb. 1931, 249
ex Ratto, Jan. 1926, 670 7.95

61. Five-letter inscription, reading upward from the rim. The basis for the stag is double lined.

Similar to No. 59 in its proportions. Possible traces of the heron in the r. field.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Naples, Fiorelli Coll. -. —

Group E

62. Type as on the incuse coins. The branch held by Apollo is pinnate. The exergual line for the figure and the base line for the stag are dotted. The stag without antlers. The inscription KAV is in very small letters and reads clockwise from center. Cable border.

Stag to 1. Exergual line dotted. The border of dots is on a countersunk rim which does not recur at Caulonia. Traces of letters(?) on body of stag on specimen illustrated on plate may indicate that it was overstruck.

a. Berlin
b. Vienna 7.79
c. Dresden 8.10
d. British Museum 7-89
e. Cambridge, SNG, 734 8.02

63. Die of No. 62.

Stag to r., antlers often not struck up. A border of dots shows in specimen a.

a. British Museum 7.93
b. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3330 -. —
c. Baranowsky, Fixed Price Cat., 1929, 1490a -. —
d. Cahn LXXV, May 1932, 126 8.18
ex Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3436 8.15

64. Similar to No. 63 — differences in the branch and placing of inscription.

Stag to r.; exergual line doubled.

a. ANS ex Helbing LXX, Dec. 1932, 477 7.80
ex Naville XVI, 309 (overstruck on Selinus didrachm) from So. Italian Hoard, cf. pi. XVIII, 36
b. *Vienna 7.85
c. Schulman, June 1910, 68 8.30
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1705 7.23

65. KAV in 1. field, reading counter clockwise. The flan, figure and letters of inscription larger than on No.64. A die-break at the end of the nose of the stag. Border of dots on a raised rim.

Stag with long antlers to 1. Exergual line and border dotted.

a. Lockett, SNG, 584; 469
ex Naville V, June 1923 (British Mus. Dupl.), 655 8.14
b. ANS-ETN 8.06
c. Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 990 7.81

66. KAV in 1. field. The cutting of cable border is distinctive. Base line of stag linear; exergual line dotted.

Stag to r. Exergual line straight. Border of very fine dots (cf. specimen b).

a. Berlin
b. *British Museum (over archaic Corinh)
ex Von Wotoch, Sambon, Dec. 1901, 164 7.32
c. ANS-ETIN 7.86
d. Cahn LXXI, Oct. 1931, 112 7.92
e. Cahn LXXXIV, Nov. 1933, 85 7.91
ex Hamburger, May 29, 1929, 77 7.80

67. Die of No. 66.

Similar to No. 66 but exergual line curved and dotted (cf. b.).

a. Berlin
b. *Berlin (struck over Thasos ?)
c. Vienna 7.92
d. Brussels
e. Munich 7.36
f. Paris (De Luynes Coll., 688) 8.00
g. Oxford, Ashmoelean Museum 7.92
h. E. S. G. Robinson Coll., London
i. De Sartiges Coll., Paris, 61
ex Hirsch XVI, Dec. 1906, 161 10.o6(!)
j. Lobbecke Coll., Hess, Jan. 1926, 76 7.80

68. Die of No. 66.

Stag larger in scale than heretofoe.. Heavy exergual line.

a. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 490 (struck over Sybaris ? - cf. No. 98b.) 7.65

69. Die of No. 66.

Stag to r. with wreath about neck.

Antlers do not show on specimens cited.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1598 (over-struck on Agrigentum didrachm) 7.82
b. Vienna 7.75
c. Vienna 7.70
d. *Berlin (over Leontini)
e. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 687 8.03
f. E.S.G. Robinson (o/s Agrigenum) 7.90
g. Athens, G. Empedoless Coll., ex Cahn LX, July 1928, 135 8.14
h. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 671 7.85
i. Commerce 8.00
j. Seaby Sale II, July 1929, 144

70. Die of No. 66.

Stag to r. with wreath diagonally across its neck. Antlers short and nearly straight. On its body, traces of a die-break formed like an H.

a. ANS 7.90
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1704 7.81
c. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 8.20
d. J. Schulman, June 1931, 37 8.16

71. Die of No. 66.

Stag to r., without the wreath and in higher relief than in preceding varieties. Differences in the antlers and elongated head.

a. British Museum 7.90
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.85
c. Athens, G. Empedocles Coll. -. —
d. E. Zygman Coll., N. Y. 7.40
e. Schulman, Dec. 1926, 71 7.87
ex Naville VI, 1924, 266 7.86
exProwe Coll., Egger XL, L, May 1912, 240 7.86
f. Copenhagen, SNG, 1703 7.60

72. KAV reading upward from the rim. Apollo figure similar to No. 71.

The long-necked stag, with wreath as in No. 70, is of larger proportions than heretofore.

a. ANS-ETN 8.15
b. Vienna 7.18
c. Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1026 7.94

73. KAV upward, reading from the rim. Workmanship exceedingly crude. The diagonal strokes of the K do not meet, and both A and V are lop-sided. A single front leg of the stag shows; the fillet (?) of Apollo exaggerated. Torso shows die-fault. The daimon faces (?) Apollo. A faint border of dots is crude and ineffectual.

Stag to r. with wreath about its neck.

a. Berlin (over struck on ?) -. —
b. Gotha -. —

74. Die of No. 73.

The stag smaller and with short antlers and disproportionate head.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Vienna 8.00
c. Frankfurt -. —
d. Cte. Chandon de Briailles 7.91
e. Schulman, May 1938, 53 7.98
ex Glendining, Mar. 1931, 863
ex Naville XV, July 1930, 229
f. G. Hirsch, June, 1935, 46 8.50

75. Die of No. 73.

Similar to No. 74. The ears are unduly long and the wreath heavier. The legs are barely differentiated. Exergual line is of heavy dots.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. Vienna. 7.88
d. ANS-ETN 8.15
e. Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 273 7.95
f. Naville V, June 1923, British Mus. Dupl., 654 8.09
g. Naville XV, July 1930, 228 7.90
h. Santamaria, Jan. 1938, 61 8.05

76. KAΛ (?) upward, reading from center. Similar in style to No. 73.

Stag to r. Smaller than on No. 75. The antlers are shorter and spread more. A short exergual line is present. No wreath.

a. E. S. G. Robinson, London; overstruck 7.80
b. *Lockett, SNG, 585 (Over Corinth) 7.76
c. Dresden 7.14
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1706 7.90
e. Allotte de la Fuye Coll., Florange Ciani, Feb. 1925, 90 7.90
f. Berlin -. —
g. Athens, Empedocles Coll. -. —
h. Rosenberg LXXII, 1932, 124 8.20

77. Die of No. 76.

Similar in scale to No. 76. The antlers and the wreath formed by a series of dots. The exergual line is short.

a. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 577 7.83
b. Vienna 7.52
c. Copenhagen Syll. 1707 7.76
d. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 492 7.75
e. Hamburgerr XCVIII, Apr. 1933, 67 7.96
ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 491 7.90
f. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 672 8.34

Group F

78. Four-letter inscription reading upward from rim. Exergual line and line under stag dotted. Raised border. Workmanship excellent.

KAV horizontal above the stag's back, reading clockwise from the rim. Stag facing r. with a large lanceolate leaf to the r. Border of dots. Die flaws obscure exergue and hindlegs of the stag.

a. British Museum, ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 985 7.94
b. Paris -. —
c. Berlin -. —
d. Dresden 7.85
e. Cambridge, SNG, 735 8.10
f. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3351 -. —
g. Capt. Hollschek Coll., Vienna, 7.85
h. Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 278 8.05
i. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 675 7.93
j. Grabow XIV, 1939, 97 8.00

79. Inscription as in No. 78.

Three-letter inscription reading r. to l. Otherwise similar to No. 78.

a. Cahn LXI, Dec. 1928, 29 7.35

80. Closely similar to No. 78 in style. Four-letter inscription to be read counter clockwise from center.

Four-letter inscription (retrograde). In field to r. in front of stag, a single curved branch, with alternate leaves.

a. E. S. G. Robinsson Coll., London 8.04
b. BMC, 18 7-94
c. Brussels -. —
d. Munich 7.90
e. Glasgow, Hunter Coll., 8 7-73
f. Glasgow, Hunter Coll., 9 7.70

81. Closely similar to No. 80 with differences in stag and the first two letters — the A is larger.

Die of No. 80.

a. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 576 7.76
b. BMC, 18 7-94
c. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 692 8.02

82. Die of No. 81.

Similar to No. 81, but inscription in much larger letters. Border of heavy dots.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Berlin -. —
c. Vienna 8.12
d. The Hague 7.90
e. ANS-ETN 7.96
f. Ratto, Apr. 1927, 283 7.97
g. Naville XVI, 1933, 315 7.85

83. Crudely cut die. The stag's base line slants upward to r.

Three-letter inscription. The branch is a weak version of that on Nos. 80-82 inclusive.

a. Merzbacher, Nov. 1909, 2366 8.10
ex White-King Coll., Sotheby, Apr. 1909, 36
b. Hartwig Coll., Santamaria, Mar. 1910, 420 8.05
c. Helbing LXX, 1932, 479 8.00
d. Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl., 166 7.60

84. Similar to No. 82 but the K of the inscription has the diagonal strokes on the right. Workmanship poor.

Four-letter inscription similar to that of No. 80. The branch in front of the stag much larger in scale, the lowest leaf being on 1. of stem.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Munich 7.85
c. Copenhagen, SNG, 1711 7.88
d. Naville XVI, 1933, 310 7.83
e. Riechmann XXX, Dec. 1924, Berlin Dupl., 130 7.97

85. Similar to No. 81, the stag notably smaller and high on the flan.

Die of No. 84.

a. Copenhagen, SNG, 1710 8.28
b. Capt. Hollschek Coll., Vienna 7.82

86. Die of No. 84.

Closely similar to No. 85. The lowest leaf is large and on the r. of the stem. The border is heavy.

a. British Museum 8.00
b. Berlin -. —
c. Ciani, June 1920, 20 -. —
d. Seaby II, July 1929, 146 ex Feuardent, June 1924, 25 -. —
e. Helbing, Mar. 1928, 58 8.00
f. Münzhadlung, Basel, Oct. 1935, 358 8.01

87. Four-letter inscription, counter clockwise. The A is distinctive. The head of Apollo is out of proportion. The antlers of the stag, vertical.

Diminutive, weakly cut branch; the stag is larger in scale.

a. Gotha 7.83

88. Similar to No. 87.

Three-letter inscription (retrograde). In front of stag, a growth or bough having three branches.

a. BMC-Lloyd, SNG, 575 7.74
b. Berlin -. —
c. Paris -. —
d. Cahn LXXX, Feb. 1933> 67 ex Cahn LX, July 1928, 136 8.00
e. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll., ex Bertone Coll., Platt, Dec. 1931, 156, ex Collignon Coll., Feuardent, Dec. 1919, 56 7.39
f. Riechmann XXX, Dec. 1924, Berlin Dupl. 131 8.02
g. Commerce (Ravel) -. —

89. Die of No. 88.

The K of the inscription has very short diagonal strokes. The weakly cut bough has a small branch on either side of main stem.

a Berlin -. —
b. Dr. Giesecke Coll. 7.92
c. Polese Coll., Canessa V, June 1928, 407
ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 496 7.75
d. Brandis Coll., Canessa, May 1922, 118 7.85
e. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 494 7.30
f. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 673 7.87
g. Ratto, Oct. 1934, 39 8.08
ex Helbing, Mar. 1928, 57
ex Helbing, Apr. 1927, 1581 8.10
h. Hess CCII, Oct. 1930, 2237 8.05
i. Hess, Apr. 1936, 397 7.70
j. Hess, Apr. 1936, 398 7.70

90. Die of Nos. 88 and 89.

Similar to No. 89, (possibly the same die), but legs of stag disproportionately long. There is a branch to the r. below the second leaf from the top of bough.

a. Capt. Hollschek Coll., Vienna 7.87
b. Vienna 7.80
c. ANS ex Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl. 168 7.80
d. Seaby II, July 1929, 143 -. —
e. Cahn LXXI, Oct. 1931, 113 7.95
f. Baranowsky, Fixed Price Cat., 1929, 1490c
ex Brandis Coll., Canessa, May 1922, 118 7.85

91. Four-letter inscription. The A with crossbar upward to r. Die-break (in its beginning stages in specimen a.) shows near the extremity of outstretched hand. (It obliterates the daimon figure in No. 92).

Four-letter inscription with small diagonal strokes for the K. The bough has two well-defined branches of equal length.

a. ANS-ETiN 7.95
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.90
c. Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 277 7.36
d. Cambridge, SNG, 733 7.94
e. Helbing, Apr. 19271 1582 7.85
f. Helbing LXX, Dec. 1932, 478 7.90
ex Helbing, Jan. 1930, 77
ex Vilatini, Mar. 1891, 44

92. Die of No. 91. Die break obliterates the figure of the daimon.

The bough shows two branches with three leaves below their junction.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1712 8.06
c. British Museum ex Bunbury Coll., Sotheby, June, 1896, 195 8.02
d. Athens, G. Empedocles Coll. -. —
e. Dr. Bernhard Coll., St. Moritz -. —
f. Naville XVI, July 1933, 311 7.93
g. Riechmann Fixed Price Cat. 1921, 126 7.89
h. Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl., 167 7.80

93. Four-letter inscription, clockwise. The daimon figure seems running toward Apollo.

Four-letter inscription. The single antler of the stag is distinctive. Bough with three branches, the smallest to the r. Highly finished style.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Munich 7.19
c. Gotha 7.83
d. The Hague 6.70
e. Paris -. —
f. British Museum Cat., 23 7.10
g. British Museum Cat., 20 8.04
h. ANS-ETN 7.82
i. N. Y., Metropolitan Museum, Ward Coll., 99 7.92
j. Cambridge, SNG, 731 7.76
k. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll.
ex Chabanet Coll., Bourgey, Pt. II, 1911, 26 7.68
l. E. Gagliardi Coll. 8.02
ex Naville XIII, June 1928, 153 7.96
m. Eyndhoven Coll., Schulman, Mar. 1924, 18 7.90
n. Lockett, SNG, 586; Sale 471 8.16
ex Stanford Coll., Sotheby, Dec. 1907, 17 8.25
o. Carfrae Coll., Sotheby, May, 1894, Plate I, 18 8.10
p. Hamburger, XCVIII, Apr. 1933, 69 7.52
q. R. Jameson Coll., 411 8.14
r. E. Zygman Coll., N. Y. 6.41
s. Cambridge, SNG, 730 7.92
t. Cambridge, SNG, 731 7.76
u. Cambridge, SNG, 732 8.03
v. Nordheim Coll., Glendining, Dec. 1929, 697 7.90
w. Polese Coll., Canessa V, June 1928, 409 8.04
x. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 497 7.80
y. Bourgey, June 1909, 104 -. —
z. Naville V, June 1923, British Museum Dupl. 657 6.71
aa. Naville V, June 1923, British Museum Dupl. 658 7.81
bb. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 551 7.91
cc. Naville XIII, Oct. 1926, 552 8.04
dd. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 553 7.96

94. Four-letter inscription, counter clockwise.

Die of No. 93.

a. Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 554 8.05

95. Four-letter inscription as in No. 93. The stag with prominent ears and single vertical antler.

Four-letter inscription in large crude letters. The branch in front of the stag larger in scale than No. 93.

a. Berlin -.—

96. Four-letter inscription, counter clockwise. The stag similar to that of No. 91 but smaller in scale.

Three-letter inscription. The bough has three branches. Compare with No. 88.

a. ANS-ETN 7-95
b. Berlin -.—
c. Vienna (much worn) 6.24
d. Naville V, June, 1923, British Museum Dupl. 656 8.13
e. Hamburger XCVIII, Apr. 1933, 68 ex Polese Coll., Cannessa V, June 1928, 405 7.85

97. Four-letter inscription as on No. 96. The stag smaller than on any of the preceding coins. A die break (?) makes the hair of Apollo seem to extend in a long lock down to his breast.

Three-letter inscription (retrograde); K with diagonal strokes very short. Neck of stag badly modelled.

a. Arthur S. Dewing Coll., Boston ex Merzbacher, Nov. 1910, 150 8.06
b. Hirsch XXI, Nov. 1908, 444 8.11

98. Die of No. 97.

Three-letter inscription. The branch or bush is weakly cut.

a. Naville XII, Oct., 1926, 550 8.05
b. *ANS-ETN, struck over rare Sybaris issue; cf. Cat. De Luynes Coll., 557 & ANSMN VII, p. 30.
ex Sambon-Canessa, Dec. 1907, 52 8.12
c. Dresden 7.94

99. Inscription as in No. 96. The neck of the stag longer than in the immediately preceding pieces.

Three-letter inscription. The initial letter distinctive.

a. Munich 8.00
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1709 7.61
c. BMC, 22 7.80
d. E. Gagliardi Coll. 7.45
ex Polese Coll., Canessa V. June 1928, 408
ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 493 7.38
e. Hamburger, May 29, 1929, 78 7.88
f. Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1027 7.92

100. Four-letter inscription, reading as on No. 96. The antlers of the stag are vertical. Figure of Apollo very slender.

Compact inscription of three letters, the vertical stroke of the K doubled. The inscription and the branch or bush in front of the stag are weakly cut.

a. Boston, Regling-Warren Cat., 141, Brett 174 7.91

101. Die of No. 100, possibly deepened.

Stag, crudely cut, to r. The first four letters of inscription in the field above the back of the animal. The O to the 1. of the hocks, and N and I below the body. The border is linear. A die break runs from the K to the neck of the stag.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Berlin, struck over? -.—
c. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.91

Group G

102. KAV counter clockwise. Youthful figure of Apollo (with hair in knot) striding vigorously to r.; the torso almost frontal. Figure of stag high on die. The daimon figure minimized. Border of coarse dots.

Stag bounding to 1. The inscription begins just below the antlers, the first four letters parallel with the back of the stag, ONI in the field to the r. and behind the animal, AT beneath the body, another A just above the fore-legs, while the final sigma is diagonally above the initial letter of the inscription. Below and between the legs of the animal is a branch with five heart-shaped leaves. The border of coarse dots differs markedly from its neighbors.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Munich 7.90
c. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1604 6.34

103. Die of No. 102.

Standing stag, 1.; above KAV. The border is of dots between lines. A huge gouge disfigures this piece.

a. Vienna -.—

104. Four-letter inscription to 1., counter clockwise. The back of the crudely modelled stag touches the kneecap of Apollo. Border of large dots.

Stag to 1., with first four letters of the inscription in front clockwise, and O above its hindquarters. Linear border.

a. ANS-ETN 7.85
b. BementColl., Navile VI, Jan. 1923, 269 (struck over Corcyra) and SNG III, 587 7-83
c. Berlin -.—
d. Munich 7.94
e. Copenhagen SNG, 1713 7.52
f. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (Balliol) 7-58
g. Providence, Rhode Island School of Design 7.81
h. Naville XVII, Oct. 1934, 88
ex Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 96 8.07
i. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 674 7.89

105. Apollo with a broad fillet in two folds hanging from his extended 1. arm. In field to 1., an owl facing to 1. Linear border. No daimon figure and no stag.

Die of No. 104.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.98

104. Four-letter inscription to 1., counter clockwise. The back of the crudely modelled stag touches the kneecap of Apollo. Border of large dots.

Stag to 1., with first four letters of the inscription in front clockwise, and O above its hindquarters. Linear border.

a. ANS-ETN 7.85
b. BementColl., Navile VI, Jan. 1923, 269 (struck over Corcyra) and SNG III, 587 7-83
c. Berlin -.—
d. Munich 7.94
e. Copenhagen SNG, 1713 7.52
f. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (Balliol) 7-58
g. Providence, Rhode Island School of Design 7.81
h. Naville XVII, Oct. 1934, 88
ex Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 96 8.07
i. Ratto, Jan. 1926, 674 7.89

105. Apollo with a broad fillet in two folds hanging from his extended 1. arm. In field to 1., an owl facing to 1. Linear border. No daimon figure and no stag.

Die of No. 104.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.98

106. Die of No. 105.

Stag bounding to r. The eight-letter inscription begins near the rim, to the r. of the hindlegs of the animal, and finishes above the back of the anima1. Linear border.

a. E. Gagliardi Coll. 7.92
ex Schlessinger XIII, 1935, Hermtagee Dupl. 172 7.70
b. Berlin -.—
c. Munich 7.35
d. ANS-ETN 7.92

107. Beautifully modelled figure of Apollo (hair in knot). The stag (on a beaded base line) is in high relief. In the field to the 1., in very low relief, a tree with four pairs of branches, not perpendicular to the exergual line. The daimon figure is weakly cut.

Stag to r. The last three letters the inscription KAVΛONIA TAM — in the field to r. Inscription begins at the lower 1. The I is curved instead of being of the usual three-stroke form.

a. Paris (the coin is pierced).

108. Apollo striding to r. with daimon on outstretched 1. arm. In field to 1., a wolf's (?) scalp, in a diamond-shaped frame formed by the branches of a tree. In the field to r., stag to r. on a statue basis resembling a Doric capita1. Die breaks obscure the figure of the daimon.

Stag to r. Inscription, following the rim, is on the 1. and reads upward; the final letter a sigma, (M), is in front of the nose of the stag.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Paris -.—
c. Vienna 7.89
d. Glasgow, Hunter Cat., 10 7.13
e. ANS-ETN 7.76
f. Cahn LXXX, Feb. 1933, 68 7.73
g. SNG Lockett, SNG, 588, Sale 473 7.91
ex Pozzi Coll., Naville 1, Apr. 1921, 274

109. Die of No. 108.

The inscription begins beneath the nose of the stag and uses the archaistic Y and Λ; the letters AT and AM are in the field to the 1. The border is of the bead and reel' form.

a. Berlin -.—
b. *Cambridge, Leake Coll., 737 6.71
c. British Museum 6.65
d. Cambridge, SNG, 736 7.67
e. Copenhagen, SNG, 1714 7.92
f. R. Jameson Coll., 410 (sharpest specimen) 7.95
g. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 585 7.86
h. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll., ex Naville XII, Oct. 1926, 555 7.74
i. Egger XLV, 1913, 203 7.87

110. Apollo striding to r. In the field to r., a bush or shrub similar to that appearing on Nos. 96 to 99. Heavy linear border.

Stag bounding to r. Beneath its body and between the legs in two lines the inscription KAYΛO-NIATAM. Linear border.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Berlin -.—
c. Benson Coll., Sotheby, Feb. 1909, 101
ex Bunbury Coll., Sotheby, June 1896, 197 6.99
c. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1625 7.91
d. ANS-ETN 5.73
e. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.90
f. R. Jameson Coll., 414 8.03

111. Die of No. 110.

Closely similar to 110. The antlers differ and the letters of the inscription though similarly arranged are not spaced or formed alike. A strange die imperfection (a sinking of the surface?) extends from the antlers downward to and beyond the body of the stag. There may have been a re-cutting of the die of 110 in an effort to minimize the defect.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Berlin -.—
c. ANS 6.68
d. Lockett, SNG 592, Sale 477 7-74

112. Apollo as before. In field to 1., a wreath. In field to r., long-legged stag to r. on an outlined capital or basis. Daimon figure omitted. Linear border.

Stag bounding to r. Above its back, KAY. Linear border.

a. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 690 7.97
b. Berlin -.—
c. G. Empedocles Coll., Athens, ex Ratto, Apr. 1909, 1010 7.80

113. Apollo to r., holding an exceptionally long branch. The daimon and the stag both present. In field to 1. a heron (?) with upraised wings.

Stag bounding to r. In front and to the r., KAV, reading clockwise. Beneath the body of the stag and inverted ΛONIA.

a. Berlin -.—
b. ANS 7.90

114. Die of No. 113.

Stag bounding to r. Inscription following the rim begins beneath the nose of the stag, reads downward and is divided so that the letters ATAM (inverted) come to the 1. of the forefeet. Linear border.

a. Berlin -. —
b. *Paris, De Luynes Coll., 696 7.90
Struck over stater of Ambracia, type Ravel No. 87
c. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 500 7.65
d. ANS, ex Cahn LXXXIV, Nov. 1933, 86 7.65

115. Die of No. 113.

Stag to r. but standing instead of bounding. In field to r. and following the line of the rim KAVΛONIA, the final A almost touching the forefeet of the stag. A die break intersects the forelegs diagonally. Linear border.

a. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 689 8.03
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1715 7.70

116. Apollo to r., with stag to r. but without daimon figure. In field to 1., a spray of three ivy (?) leaves.

Die of No. 115.

a. Vienna 7.79

117. Similar to No. 116 save that the spray is replaced by a single heart-shaped leaf of ivy (?).

Die of Nos. 115 and 116 with the die break advanced.

a. Berlin -.—

Group H

118. Apollo with stag, (head reverted). Inscription in field to 1. KAVΛ vertical, reading clockwise.

Stag to r. In field above its hindquarters, a spray with two leaves and two berries, the upper berry being noticeably larger.

a. Hamburger, May, 1929, 87 8.00

119. Apollo to r. wearing wreath; a tress hangs down over his r. shoulder. Stag, small figure and inscription all wanting.

Die of No. 118.

a. BMC, 26 7.65
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll., ex Brandis Coll. 119 7.87
c. Naville XVI, 1933, 314 7.89
ex Hirsch XX.VI, May 1910, 318 7.92
d. Vienna (identification uncertain) 7.91

120. Die of No. 119.

Standing stag to r. In field to 1. above hindquarters of stag, a twig (three leaves and two berries) with stem noticeably thickened. A die-crack shows beneath the body of the stag. No inscription.

a. Vienna 7.00
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.41

121. Apollo with long hair tresses to r., without daimon. Stag to r., on a statue basis or a capital (?). In field to 1., a fly (?) diagonally upward to 1. No border visible. No inscription.

Die of No. 120.

a. Vienna 7.80
b. Berlin -.—
c. E. S. G. Robinson Coll., London 6.93
d. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.80

122. Die of No. 121.

Similar to No. 121 with differences in the twig and with the body of the stag slightly larger and in higher relief.

a. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 583 7.06
b. N. Y., ANS, E. T. Newell Coll. 7.76

123. Die of Nos. 121 and 122, badly worn(?).

Die of No. 119.

a. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3328 -.—

124. Apollo to r. with branch in upraised r. hand, and with long ringlets of hair over his shoulders. In the field to r., a statue basis with the figure of stag or bull (?) with lowered head to r.

Stag to r. The inscription begins above the head of the stag and terminates with a final Σ in the exergue (cf. rev. of No. 125). Above the hindquarters of the animal, a twig similar to that of No. 122. Note Ω instead of O.

a. British Museum ex Bunbury Coll., Sotheby, June 1896, 195 7.80
b. *Vienna 7.5—8
c. Berlin -.—
d. Munich 7.97
e. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 695 6.68
f. E. Gagliardi Coll. 7.52

125. Die of No. 124, badly broken in the figure and just above and parallel with the exergual line.

Die of No. 124. The exergual line is seen to be double for part of its length.

a. BM-Lloyd, SNG II, 554 8.03

126. Weakly modelled figure of Apollo holding stylized branch. Large stag in field to r. No inscription.

Similar to No. 124. Spray of leaves possibly re-cut. Die fault in 1. field.

a. Capt. Hollschek Coll., Vienna; (fourrée?) 6.85

127. Similar to No. 121, with both stag and insect differing. The tresses of Apollo, so prominent in the preceding die, are replaced by short curly hair.

Standing stag to r. The inscription following the rim, begins beneath the nose of the stag and has the first six letters (with O) in front and to the r., and IATAN to the 1. Between the legs and above the thin exergual line are the inverted letters ΔE.

a. Berlin -.—
b. ANS-ETN 7.71
c. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1617
ex Nervegna Coll., Sambon, Nov. 1907, 574 7-82
d. BMC, 35 (plated) 6.16

128. Die of No. 127. A die break has developed in front of the torso of Apollo.

Similar to No. 127. The first five letters of the ethnic are in the field to the r.; the remaining ones (figureIATAN) are in the 1. field and read upward. Beneath the body of the stag, the letter delta.

a. Vienna 7.90

129. Die of Nos. 127 and 128.

Stag to r. on heavily beaded base line. In field to r., a conventionalized pine (?) tree with four pairs of branches.

a. BMC, 36 7.83
b. Vienna 7.60

130. Apollo to r., without either stag or daimon. The inscription is in a vertical line and reads downwards from the rim. On the two specimens cited, KAYΛΩNI is legible. Linear border.

Stag to r. In field to 1., crudely cut spray of three leaves and two nuts or berries. Inscription in tiny letters starts just above stag's head and reads clockwise. The letters KAV are all that are certain on specimens examined. The ethnic was probably completed as in No. 124.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1628 7.60

131. KAVΛΩNIATAΣ on the 1. in an almost vertical line reading upward and clockwise. Diminutive stag on statue basis in field to the r. Beaded border.

Die of No. 130.

a. BMC, 33 7.49

132. Die of No. 131.

Stag to 1., with long-stemmed leaf in 1. field. Linear border.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Berlin -. —
c. Vienna 7.45
d. Munich 7.77
e. BMC, 34 7.92
f. ANS 6.62
g. R. Jameson Coll., 416 7.86
h. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.85
i. SchlessingerXII, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl. 173 7.80

133. Die of No. 131.

Similar to No. 132 - the antlers and leaf stem differ.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1619 7.86
b. Berlin -. —
c. Lockett, SNG, 589; Sale 474 7.59
ex Münzhandlung Basel IV, Oct. 1935, 361

134. The vertical inscription reads upwards (retrograde) and ends with T beneath the arm of Apollo. Fiorelli gives it as TAIfigureMY. The 1. hand is unduly large. The stag on the pedestal is poorly modelled. Questionable style — possible plated.

Similar to No. 133. The leaf is large and not well indicated.

a. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3328 -.—

135. Apollo to r.; the branch has been eliminated by the inscription so that merely the stem shows. The inscription begins at the lower 1., employs the omega, has the letters ATA to the r. of Apollo and above his outstretched hand, and the final letter N above the head of the tiny stag on a statue basis which occupies the field to the r. Beaded border.

Stag to 1. with leaf in front. Note die break.

a. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 691 7.85
b. Berlin -.—
c. Copenhagen, SNG, 1722 7.5o
d. BM-Lloyd,, SNG, 582 7.80

136. Similar to No. 135, with difference in inscription.

Similar to No. 132.

a. Berlin -.—

137. Apollo, with hair in knot, facing r. Inscription, KAYΛΩNI in 1. field, reading downward from rim.

Die of No. 135.

a. S. P. Noe Coll. (graffito AE) 7.73
b. Vienna 7.76

138. Die of No. 137.

Stag to r. In field to r., KAYΛ reading upwards from rim. Above the hindquarters of the stag, a leaf with curved stem.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1627 7.83

139. Standing figure of Apollo to r. without daimon, stag or symbol. Traces of the first five letters of inscription, which follows the rim are visible beneath the 1. arm. The fifth letter is an omega.

Stag standing to r. From the antlers, which are off flan, a loop and two loose ends of a fillet are hanging. The ends cross the body and extend below it. Slight traces of an inscription are visible — the letters TAM reading downwads,, beneath the nose of the stag.

a. ANS-ETN 8.17

140. Apollo figure (heavy and badly modelled) on short, doubled base line. In 1. field, a lion-head fountain discharging into a basin, similar to that on rev. of No. 155. In r. field, ithyphallic herm to r., with a filleted bucranium above it. Faint linear border.

Stag to r., with exceptionally heavy baseline. The inscription begins at the 1., with KAV reading upward. In a horizontal line above the back of the stag, ΛΩNIA. In vertical line, in front of stag, TAM.

a. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3232 -.—
b. *Paris, De Luynes Coll., 694 7.30

Group I

141. Apollo holds short straight branch. In field to 1., an octopus (?). No recorded specimen shows the beginning of the inscription. On 'a.', the letters ONIAT are visible to the 1. of the head and on 'b', AN to the r.; above the outstretched arm, leaf with curved stem. The stag has short, straight antlers.

In front of the stag, a leaf, tip upward, and with curved stem. Inscription to 1. follows rim.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1616 8.31
b. *Gllasgow, Hunter Coll., 11 7-45
c. Vienna 8.00
d. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3336 -.—
e. Naville XVII, Oct. 1934, 89 7.56

142. Apollo to r. with tiny F below elbow in 1. field. Stag in field to r. Inscription in tiny letters follows the rim to the 1. It is poorly preserved on all specimens recorded but seems to employ the three-stroke I and the last five letters are certainly IATAN.

Stag to r. with exergual line of dots between lines, above which Φ(?) between the feet of the stag. In field to r., a crab with claws upward. The inscription in tiny letters follows the linear border and reads KAVΛONIATAN.

a. BMC, 31 7.88
b. Vienna 7.70
c. Oxford, Ashmolean (overstruck on Corinthian stater) 7.12
d. Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 276 7.76
e. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.85

143. Apollo to r.; the very short branch he is holding is conventionalized. Beneath the stag in field to r. Φ. The inscription in larger letters than in No. 142 KAVΛONIATAM. The last two letters are above the head of Apollo and separated from the rest of the inscription by the branch.

Die of No. 142 now defective.

a. BMC, 30 7.93

144. Die of No. 143.

Oversized stag with badly modelled neck, to r. The inscription in a vertical line reads downward and consists of the letters KAVΛ.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. (This piece probably plated) 6.19

145. Die of No. 143.

Similar to No. 144, possibly the same die after breaks have developed. The first crosses the body of the stag and the second is to the 1. of his forefeet. [The faint traces of the inscription seem different from those of Nos. 143 and 144.]

a. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3334 -.—
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1724 7.77
c. ANS-ETN 7.90
d. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.45

146. Die of No. 143.

Stag to r. In field to r., in a vertical line and reading upward, KAVΛΩ.

a. BMC, 22 7.75
b. British Museum - second specimen shows advanced die breaks 7.76
c. Naville IV, June 1922, 151
ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 989 7.74

147. Apollo with stag to r. Above the rump of the stag, an ivy leaf with curved stem. Beneath his hindlegs, the letter phi.

Stag to r. - KAV .. in front, counter clockwise.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1615 7.81

148. The branch held by Apollo is short. The tips of the stag's antlers touch the outstretched arm.

Stag to r. The inscription begins at lower 1., reading KAVΛONϟ/ATAN — the last four letters in r. field.

a. Munich 7.85
b. BMC, 17 7.93
c. Copenhagen, SNG, 1723 7.52
d. Cambridge, SNG, 740 7.69
e. Cambridge, SNG 739 7.91

149. Die of No. 148.

Similar to No. 148, but with phi or theta above the exergual line between the stag's legs. The inscription is divided as in No. 148.

a. Paris -.—
b. Vienna 7.23

150. Apollo without stag, to r., between his legs, theta. The inscription following the rim has KAV between his head and the outstretched hand. The remainder .. NIA terminates at the 1. foot.

Stag to r. with octopus in field to r. Ivy leaf, pointing upward, above the back of the stag, and phi beneath its body. The inscription, reading clockwise, follows the rim at the 1., KAVΛONIATAN.

a. Berlin -.—
b. *Paris -.—
c. ANS-ETN 7.53
d. S. P. Noe 7.70

151. Apollo with stag to r. Wreath of laurel branches with tips downward in field to 1. The inscription in 1. field between the border and the wreath, is KAVΛONIATAN, clockwise.

Die of No. 150 with a break through the octopus beginning to show.

a. ANS-ETN 7.35
b. British Museum 7.81
c. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 581 8.02
ex Num. Straniero,, 1009 8.04
d. Berlin -. —
e. Munich 7.84
f. Copenhagen, SnG, 1725 7.82
g. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.45
h. Hirsch XI, May 1904, 64 -.—

152. Apollo to r. with ⊙E between legs. Stag in field to r. KAYΛΩ reading upwards in field to 1.

Die of Nos. 150 and 151.

a. BMC, 29 7.66

153. Long-haired Apollo to r. A fillet hangs in two lines from the 1. wrist and another from the r. elbow. In field to r., ⊙E. Linear border.

Stag to r. Four (?) letter inscription, in 1. field, reading clockwise.

a. ANS-ETN 7.55
b. Naples, Fiorelii Coll., 3339 -.—
c. Glasgow, Coates Coll., 2831 -.—
d. ANS-ETN 6.72

154. Die of No. 153.

Stag to r. Five letters of the inscription follow the rim, beginning beneath the nose of the stag in the r. field; IATAN in 1. field. Between the inscription and the stag's body, an ivy leaf pointed upward. Above the back of the stag, the letter phi. There is an exergual line.

a. ANS 8.02
b. ANS-ETN 7.90
c. Vienna 7.78
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1726 8.15
ex Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 100

155. In field to 1., reading clockwise, KAV. In field to r., an altar(?), at the corners of which, palmette-finials.

Stag to r. with ⊙E between its legs. In field to r., a bird (duck?) with upraised wings in a basin on a fluted pedestal. Inscription starts at the lower 1. and terminates in a sigma near the tip of the antlers; to be read on e, but off flan on most specimens.

a. ANS ex R. Jamieson Coll., 413 7.92
b. ANS-ETN 7.73
c. Vienna 7.58
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1727 7.94
e. BM-Lloyd, SNG, 586
ex Benson Coll., Sotheby, Feb. 1909, 102 7.54
f. Strozzi Coll., Sangiorgi, Apr. 1907, 1187 7.95
g. Egger XLI, Nov. 1912, 78 7.92
h. Hirsch XXX, May 1911, 271
ex Nervegna Coll., Sambon, Nov. 1907, 575 7.40
i. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.43
j. Athens, G. Empedocles Coll. -.—

156. Apollo to r. Between the legs of the figure, a B reversed. Inscription KAY reads counter clockwise.

Die of No. 155.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Paris -.—
c. Berlin -.—
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1728 7.76
e. Feuardent, - June 1913, 59
ex Sambon-Canessa, Dec. 1907, 55 7.74
f. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 501 7.85

157. Apollo with unusually large stag to r. Inscription off flan?

Stag to r. with ⊙E between legs. No other inscription visible.

a. Coates Coll., Glasgow, 2832 -. —
b. Vienna 7.52

158. Apollo running to r. with an unusually long and stylized branch in his r. hand. No symbol or inscription. Border of widely spaced dots.

Die of No. 157. Break to the r. of the E is now larger. Specimen b. shows break above the head of the stag.

a. British Museum Cat., 25 7.81
b. Berlin -.—
c. Berlin -.—
d. ANS-ETN 7.66

159. Die of No. 158.

Similar to reverses of 158–160; without letters beneath stag and with K]AY[Λ in right field. An imperfect striking.

a. ANS-ETN 7.66

160. Die of No. 159.

Similar to No. 159, but without inscription.

a. Athens, G. Empedoless Coll. -.—

161. Die of No. 159, with extended die break.

Stag to 1. with a possible symbol (die break?) in the field to lower 1.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1637 7.82
b. *Vienna 7.82
c. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3326 -.—
d. Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 502 6.75

Group J

162. Apollo to r. with hair in a pronounced knot at the back of his head and with weight carried by his left leg. A large stag in field to r. In the field to 1., a sea turtle (?) with its head downward.

Stag to r. The inscription beginning at the lower 1. reads KAVΛONIATAM, the last two letters (AM) are in the r. field.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1614 7.78
b. Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1029 7.88

163. Die of No. 162.

Similar to No. 162 except that the last four letters of inscription are in the field to the r.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Paris -.—
c. Vienna 6.68
d. Frankfurt -.—
e. ANS-ETN 7.78
f. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3335
g. Cambridge, SNG 730 7.94
h. Cte. Chandon de Briailles ex Caron Coll., Florange, Feb. 1926, 121 7.70
i. S. P. Noe Coll. 7.68

164. Similar to No. 162, but without symbol. Apollo with cropped hair. Stag with diminutive antlers.

Die of No. 163.

a. Oxford Ashmolean Museum 7.80

165 Similar to No. 164 – possibly a deepened die. Both Apollo and stag in high relief. Linear border.

Later stage of the die of No. 163.

a. Berlin -.—

166. Die of No. 164.

Stag to r. with eight-rayed star beneath its body. The inscription beginning in front of the forefeet reads KAVΛONIATAΣ; it reads upwards and the last three letters are to the 1. of the stag's head.

a. Cambridge, McClean Coll., 1612 7.51
b. BMC, 32 7.15
c. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum (Keble) 7.42
d. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 8.22
e. E. Zygman Coll., N. Y. -.—

167. Apollo to r. Large stag in field to r. in high relief and without base line.

Die of No. 166.

a. BM-Lloyd, SNG II, 578 7.65
b. exHartwig Coll., Santamaria, Mar. 1910, 426 7.60

168. Apollo to r. In field to 1., the letter theta. Linear border.

Stag to r. with A beneath its body. The inscription (in small letters) has KAYΛO to the r., beginning beneath the nose of the stag and NIATAN (both Ns reversed and the I a single-stroke letter) to the 1. (clockwise).

a. Berlin -.—
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll., ex Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 280 7.64

169. Similar to No. 168 with a letter - phi or theta — (possibly a die flaw) in field to 1.

Die of No. 168.

a. ANS-ETN 7.85
b. Glasgow, Hunter Coll., 12 7.47
c. Matteotti Coll., Ratto, Nov. 1908, 182 7.80
d. Cahn., LXXI, Oct. 1931, 115 7.82

170. In a linear circle, Apollo to r. with a dolphin head downward in field to r., and another head upward in field to 1.

Stag to r. with A beneath its body. The first five letters of inscription, (with Ω instead of O to end of coinage, excepting No. 179) in r. field, are to be read clockwise. The remainder (read from the rim) to the 1. and above the stag's body, the Σ having an upright form for the first time.

a. BMC, 37 7.96
b. Berlin -.—
c. Munich 7.67
d. Copenhagen, SNG, 1730 7.75
e. Paris, De Luynes Coll., 693 7.42
f. ANS-ETN 7.74
g. Hess, Mar. 1918, 122 ex Hirsch XXX, May 1911, 270 7.70
h. Naville XII, Oct. 1926,, 557 7.73

171. Die of No. 170.

Similar to No. 170. The A nearer the body of the stag; variations in the inscripiion. A die-break shows at the hoof of the 1. forefoot.

a. Berlin -. —
b. Paris -.—
c. Vienna 7.59
d. ANS - Hoyt Miller Coll. 7.60
e. Siracusa - E. Gagliardi Coll. 7.76

172. Die of Nos. 170-171. A die-break at the r. knee is further developed.

Similar to No. 170. The body of the stag in higher relief and the antlers more extended; further differences in the inscription.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Copenhagen, SNG, 1731 7.24
c. Glasgow, Hunter Coll., 13 7.43

173. Similar to No. 170. The dolphins are in higher relief, and between the legs of Apollo there is a theta.

Similar to No. 172; the antlers differ.

a. Lockett SNG 595, Sale Naville XVII, Oct. 1934, 89, ex Pozzi Coll., Naville I.Apr. 1921, 279, exStozziColl., Sangiorgi, Apr. 1907, 1192 7.83
b. Helbing, Mar. 1928, 59 7.50

174. Die of No. 173.

Similar to No. 172 as to dividing of inscription, but no letter beneath the body of the stag.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Vienna 7.02
c. ANS-ETN ex Hirsch XIII, Rousopoulos, May 1905, 214 7.75
d. R. Jameson Coll., 415, ex Maddalena Coll., Sambon, May 1903, 496 7.69
e. Cahn LXV, Oct. 1929, 43 ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 503 7.35

175. Die of Nos. 173–174.

Beneath the body of the stag, E; the inscription divided as in the foregoing specimens, the final letter (Σ) even with the tip of the curved antlers.

a. Berlin -.—
b. Paris -.—
c. Copenhagen Syll. 1729 7.70
d. Cambridge, McCliean Coll., 1633 7.92
e. Naples, Fiorelli Coll., 3337 -.—
f. Glasgow, Hunter Coll., 14 7.22
g. ANS - W. G. Beatty Coll. 7.93

176. Apollo to r. with fillet hanging in a single line from extended 1. arm; in field to 1., a fibula (?) or bird-trap (?).

Stag to r. The inscription, beginning in field to 1., is very weakly cut, the drill having been used for the extremities of the letters. A die fracture extends across the neck and curves back across the forelegs of the stag. The inscription divides so that the last three letters are in the field to the r.

a. ANS-ETN 7.85
b. Lockett SNG, 593, Sale 478 ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 988 7.73

177. Similar to No. 176; fillet in two sections hangs over arm of Apollo. Faint exergual line.

Die of No. 176.

a. J. P. Morgan Coll., N. Y. -.—
b. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.33
c. Hirsch XXI, Nov. 1908, 448 7.62

178. Similar to No. 177 - possibly the same die with fillet and symbol re-cut.

Stag to r. in high relief. The inscription in coarse letters, starts at the 1. and follows the rim, reading clockwise. It is divided after the sixth letter and terminates with a sigma.

a. BMC, 27 7.63
b. Munich 7.69
c. Archaeologist's Coll., Southeby, Jan. 1898, 25 7–58
d. Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 986 7.66
e. Schlessinger XIII, Feb. 1935, Hermitage Dupl., 170 7.60
f. Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 97 7.70

179. Similar to No. 177 - probably the same die.

The inscription in weak letters begins to the r. at the feet of the stag and reads upward. The omicron is used instead of the omega the iota has three strokes, and the lambda is archaic.

a. Otto Coll., Hess CCVII, Dec. 1931, 101 ex Naville X, June 1925, 129, ex Naville IV, June 1922, 149, ex Sir Hermann Weber Coll., 987 7.64
b. Berlin -.—
c. Berlin -.—
d. Munich 7.83
e. Vienna 7.33
f. Copenhagen, SNG, 1729 7.70
g. BM-Lloyd,, SNG, 579 7.97
k. Naville XVI, 1933, 312, ex Naville VI, Jan. 1923, 271, ex Strozzi Coll., Sangiorgi, Apr. 1907, 1190 7.76
i. Hirsch XXXI, May 1912, 98 7.72
m. Cahn LXVIII, Nov. 1930, 1028, ex Rosenbeg LV, Sept. 1924, 70 7.40
ex Naville V, June 1923, British Museum Dupl., 662 7.36
n. Cahn LXXXIV, Nov. 1933, 88 ex Naville XVI, 313 6.95
o. Hamburger XCVIII, Apr. 1933, 70, ex Polese Coll., Canessa V, June 1928, 403, ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 505 6.10
p. Helbing, Nov. 1928, 3437
ex Sambon-Canessa, June 1927, 504 7.12
q. Rosenberg LXIV, June 1928, 1383 7.60
r. Cahn LXXI, Oct. 1931, 114 7.60

180. Die of No. 179, with die break at center.

Inscription seen best in specimen b.; it starts at the lower r. and divides after the fourth letter, using the omega. The letters are coarse.

a. British Museum Cat., 28 7.59
b. BM-.Lloyd, SNG, 580 7.86
ex Strozzi, Coll., Sangiorgi, Apr. 1907, 1191
c. Berlin -. —
d. Berlin -.—
e. Berlin -.—
f. Paris -. —
g. Munich 7.80
h. Brussels -. —
i. ANS - Danell Parish Coll. 7.93
j. ANS-ETN 7.80
k. E. S. G. Robinson Coll., London 7.84
l. Cte. Chandon de Briailles Coll. 7.52
m. Lockett, SNG, 594; Sale 479 7.71
ex Naville X, June 1925, 130, ex Pozzi Coll., Naville I, Apr. 1921, 275 7.72
n. Athens, Empedocles Coll. -.—
o. Cambridge, SNG, 742 7.75
p. R. Jameson Coll., 412 7.80
q. Cahn LXXV, May 1932, 127 7.70
r. Hamburger, May 1929, 79 7.27
s. Schulman Fixed Price Cat., LXII, 86 7.66
(Ordones Coll.) ex Booth Coll., Sotheby, July 1900, 196

181. Similar to Nos. 178-179. Die-breaks between the legs and elsewhere. The symbol larger than in earlier dies.

Die of No. 180.

a. Oxford 7.27
b. ANS - Hoyt Miller Coll. 7.58

FRACTIONS

Proud of Incuse Format

201. Type of incuse staters - cf. Plate V. Three letter inscription in 1. field reading counter clockwise from center. Beaded groundline. Diameter 17 mm.

Similar to obv. but incuse; figure of daimon omitted. Inscription obliterated (?)

a. Vienna 2.32

202. Similar to 201; inscription more compact. Base line doubled. Diameter 17.5 mm.

Similar to 201 - KAV in r. field.

a. Berlin
b. Berlin

203. Similar; inscription KAVΛO in 1. field. The heavy base line of stag slants slightly downward to 1. Diameter 16.8 mm.

Similar, but no daimon figure and no inscription.

a. Berlin
b. Paris, De Luynes 686 2.86
c. Copenhagen, Syll. 1702 2.40
d. Vienna 2.55

204. Similar. Five letter inscription, reading clockwise from rim (border of dots between lines). Diameter 17.4 mm.

Four-letter inscription, reading counter clockwise from center. No daimon figure.

a. Lockett, SNG, 583 ex Pozzi, Naville I, 1921, 272 2.37
b. British Museum ex Lloyd, SNG, 574 (rev. inscription eroded) 2.28
c. Cambridge, McClean 1595 2.44
d. ANS-ETN 2.17
e. Schlessinger XIII,, 1935, Hermitage Dupl. 2.60
f. Naville V, 1923, 653 2.33

205. Similar to 204 except for figure of daimon and shorter exergual line.

Similar to 204; probably same die.

a. BMC, 15 2.45
b. Hirsch XIII, 1905, 210 2.44

206. Triskeles with pellet at each knee and in center.

First five letters of ethnic with three pellets. Border off-flan.

a. BMC, 16 (wood-cut) 0.499

207. Similar to 206 but with center pellet encircled and knee pellets omitted.

Five-letter inscription as in 206 with rim like those of incuse staters and thirds.

a. Cambridge, McClean, 1596 0.73
b. Paris -.—

Double Relief Period

208. Apollo (without daimon) and stag to r. Four-letter inscription. Border of dots on raised rim.

Stag to r.; border of dots on a sunken rim - cf. No. 62. Raised exergual line with heavy beading.

a. Munich 2.38
b. ANS 2.49

209. Similar; figure of Apollo shows die break at r. elbow. Inscription KAY. Diameter 14.3 mm.

Stag to r. with widely separated antlers. Border of dots.

a. Vienna 2.52

210. Apollo and stag to r. Three-letter inscription in 1. field. Diameter 11 mm.

Stag r. with four-letter inscription above back and large leaf in front. Cf. Nos. 78–79.

a. BMC, 42 1.20

211. Apollo and stag to r. with faintly indicated figure of daimon. Three-letter inscription, reading clockwise from center. Diameter 15.5 mm. Stag small and low on flan. Cf. Plate VIII.

Stag to r. with pinnate branch as in No. 80. Three-letter inscription above back of stag. Border heavy.

a. ANS-ETN 2.30
b. British Museum ex Lloyd, SNG 587 2.30
c. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam SNG 741 2.43
d. Vienna 2.20
e. Vienna 2.01
f. Naville V, 1923, 660 2.41
g. Naville V, 1923, 659 2.13
h. Riechmann XXX, 1924, 132 2.14

212. Similar to 211. The torso of Apollo heart shaped. Figure of daimon uncertain.

Three-letter inscription (retrograde) above stag facing r.; branch in r. field.

a. British Museum ex Lloyd, SNG 588, ex Naville VI, 1923, 270 2.30
b. ANS 2.50
c. ANS 2.11
d. Berlin -.—
e. Naville X, 1925, 131, ex Weber Coll., 992 2.24
f. Riechmann XXX, 1924 (Berlin Dupl.) 2.34
g. Lockett Coll., SNG 590 2.22
h. Sambon-Canessa, 1927, 499 -.—
i. Ratto, 1926, 676 2.32
j. Vienna 2.32
k. Vienna 2.35

213. Apollo, stag and tiny daimon figure facing left. Three-letter inscription in r. field, reading clockwise. Diameter 15 mm.

Die of 212.

a. Paris, De Luynes, 697 2.37
b. ANS-ETN 2.34
c. Copenhagen, SNG 1717 2.29
d. Ratto, 1926, 677 2.34
e. Lockett Coll., SNG 591, ex Weber Coll., 991 2.65
f. Brandis Coll., Canessa 1922, 120 2.40

214. Similar to 213 except that inscription has four letters.

Similar to 213 – the branch is slenderer.

a. British Museum ex Howorth Coll. 2.60

215. Apollo and stag to r. with tiny daimon figure. Three-letter inscription in 1. field, reading counter clockwise. Diameter 15 mm.

Stag to 1. with branch in 1. field.

a. Munich 2.52
b. BMC, 39 2.56

216. Apollo and stag to r. KAV in 1. field reading clockwise from center. In second stage, a fillet hanging from 1. arm of Apollo has been added. Diameter 15.2–17.2 mm.

Stag with short antlers to r. with kantharos above and letter phi below body. The inscription reads counter clockwise from center — KAVΛONI to r. and ATAN to 1. In late stage, a die break makes letter phi look like a ewer.

a. BMC, 41 (without fillet) 2.53
b. Munich (Obv. illustrated) 2.07
c. Munich (rev. illustated d) 2.09
d. ANS-ETN Coll. 2.18
e. ANS-ETN Coll. 2.36
f. Copenhagen, Syll. 1718 2.07
g. Cahn 84, 1933, 87 2.26
h. Naville XII, 1926, 558 1.81
i. Vienna 1.70

217. Similar, with fillet hanging in two sections and without stag. In 1. field a sprig with two leaves. Diameter 16.4 mm.

Stag to r. with badly proportioned kantharos in upper 1. field.

a. Vienna 2.18
b. Copenhagen SNG 1732 1.93

218. Apollo and stag to r. with inscription occupying place of daimon. [K]AVΛONI in 1. field, AT above 1. arm of Apollo, A above and M (?) in front of stag. Cf. No. 135.

Stag to r.; kantharos between antlers and body of stag.

a. Paris, De Luynes, 698 1.90

219. Apollo to r. without stag or daimon and with fillet hanging from extended arm. In r. field, KA; in l., V.

Three(?) letter inscription in front of stag to r.; ivy(?) leaf above.

a. British Museum ex Lloyd, SNG 589 and Sir H. Weber Coll. 994 1.01

220. Similar to 219 but without fillet; figure slender.

Stag to r. Inscription KAVΛO clockwise from center; the letters widely spaced, the V between legs of stag.

a. BMC, 45 0.96
b. Munich 1.29

221. Similar to 220, the figure heavier.

Three letter inscription clockwise from center in r. field. A pellet above haunches of stag.

a. Naville X, 1925, 132, ex Pozzi, Naville I, 1921, 281 1.09

222. Apollo to r.; no (?) inscription. Diameter 15 mm.

Stag to 1. with leaf as in No. 132. No inscription.

a. BMC, 40 2.35

223. Apollo and stag to r. K in 1. field. Diameter 11.5 mm.

Stag to r. K over stag's back.

a. Copenhagen, SNG, 1719 1.28
b. Berlin -.—

224. Apollo and stag to r. with daimon, In 1. field K. Diameter 12 mm.

Stag with long legs, to 1. Base line high.

a. ANS-ETN Coll. 1.00
b. BMC, 44 1.26
c. Vienna 1.10
d. Naville V, 1926, 661 1.31

225. Apollo to r. without inscription or subsidiary figures; a die break in 1. field. Diameter 13.2 mm.

Long-necked stag to r.; no inscription

a. ANS-ETN Coll.
ex Ratto, 1/25/26, 678 1.02

226. Die of 225. Diameter 12.2 mm.

Stag to r. in circle of widely separated dots. No inscription and no exergual line.

a. Vienna 1.10

227. Similar but with uncertain objects in r. and 1. fields.

Die of 226.

a. BMC, 43 1.13

228. Apollo to r.; no inscription. Diameter 11 mm.

Stag to r.; no inscription.

a. Copenhagen, SNG 1721 0.44

229. Wreathed youthful head to r. (Apollo?) in linear circle. Hair in club knot at back.

Stag to r.; KA on r., V to 1., Λ above.

a. BMC 47 0.66

230. Die of 229.

Stag to r.; KAV to r. Ivy leaf above stag.

a. BMC, 46 0.76
b. Paris, De Luynes, 699 0.78

231. Youthful head to r. with small horn or projecting lock of hair, surrounded by inscription. KAVΛONIATAM. Diameter 11.5 mm.

Stag to r.

a. Paris, De Luynes, 700 0.87

232. Youthful head r. with first six letters of ethnic in front and IA behind head.

Stag to r.; heavy linear border.

a. BMC, 48 0.79
b. BMC, 49 0.94

Bronze Coins (Plate XVI).

233. Head similar to that of No. 232, but facing 1. Diameter 11 mm.

Stag to r.; KAY in r. field reading upward.

a. Marchese E. Gagliardi Coll. 1.20

234. Head similar to that of No. 232, with projecting lock or horn. Diameter 15 mm.

Stag to r.; letter A of inscription visible.

a. Marchese E. Gagliardi Coll. 3.10
b. Same Coll. 2.90

Plated Coins (Plate XVI).

Incuse

P1. Four-letter inscription reading counter clockwise. The protruding eye ball of Apollo, the curved branch, and the figure of the daimon are all at variance with the Caulonia type. The silver plating is broken away so that the copper core shows for almost the entire torso. Border of dots between two lines. Diameter 29 mm.

Apollo and stag incuse, but without daimon or lustral branch. The rim shows the die cutter completely at a loss. The cut surface of the die smaller than obverse.

N. Y., ANS. 7.80

Double relief

P2. Cf. Plate VIII for prototype. Three-letter inscription.

Three-letter inscription. The formalized branch is abnormal. Cf. No. 82.

Hunterian Coll. Cat. I, p. 127, No. 7 -.—

P3. Four-letter inscription — the letters are oversized. The beads of the border are too large. No exergual line.

Stag to 1. — it is not so found among the genuine staters with the branch as part of the design.

London, BMC 24 7.06

P4. Four-letter inscription. Head of Apollo disproportionately large.

Four-letter inscription. Three-fold branch in front of stag. Cf. No. 96.

London, BMC 21 7.19

P5. Four-letter inscription. Stag nearly obliterated by hole through flan.

Four-letter inscription. Three-fold branch in front of stag. Cf. No. 96.

Vienna 6.56

P6. Inscription KAM reading counter clockwise. Poor workmanship.

KAV retrograde above the back of the stag, V between its legs. Two-fold branch in front, but shorter than on prototype.

Berlin -.—

P7. Inscription obliterated. Stag faces to 1.

Three-letter inscription and two-fold branch which is out of scale.

N. Y., ANS 8.51

P8. Three-letter inscription. T between the legs of Apollo. Traces of brockage at lower r.

Three-letter inscription above stag, and T between legs. The stag's antlers and the branch are abnormal.

Naville XVI, 316, ex Naville VI, 68 8.45

P9. The fly (?) symbol is like that on No. 121.

Similar to No. 110.

Copenhagen 5.22

P10. Similar to No. 127.

Similar to No. 127, the E obliterated by a surface cavity.

London, BMC 35 6.16

P11. Body of Apollo over-large in scale; between his legs, TAN (?).

Four-letter inscription above the back of the stag which has 1. fore leg raised awkwardly. Crude three-fold branch in front.

Cambridge, McClean Coll. 1609 7.94

P12. Five-letter inscription reading downward from rim. Crudely modelled stag high on flan. The lustral branch of unusual form.

Stag similar to form in group H.

Berlin -.—

P13. Inscription and daimon figure lacking.

Stag to r. In r. field letters AM, the termination of the inscription.

N. Y., ANS 7.10

THE SOUTH ITALIAN HOARD

This hoard is said to have been found in 1929 southeast of Taranto near the coast. The facts known about it have been generously communicated to me by a numismatist who wishes his name withheld. According to his information, the hoard did not contain more than thirty-eight coins. Similar hoards previously unearthed in South Italy have been inadequately recorded, if at all, and therefore the value of studying this find is enhanced. What may be learned from this hoard could probably have been deduced from earlier discoveries if we had an accurate statement regarding them. Since almost all of the pieces have been reproduced on the plates and since those not so reproduced have their dies identified with published pieces to which reference is comparatively easy, the descriptions have been abbreviated. The entry in the Hoard Bibliography NNM 78 is under No. 507. The catalogue follows:

TARENTUM

Weight
1. Obv. Taras r., holding squid. Rev. Hippocamp 1. with scallop shell. Dies of McClean 533, Pl. XXI, 5. Not on Plates. 7.85
2. Obv. Taras on dolphin r. with shell. Rev. Oekist seated r., holding kantharos. Vlasto, Taras Oikistes, type 7a. Now BM, Lloyd SNG 131. 7.92

METAPONTUM

3. Obv. Barley ear with MET on r. Rev. Barley ear incuse.
4. Cf. Noe, Metapontum 1,58 7.85
4. Similar. Metapontum 1,59. 6.92
5. Similar. Metapontum 1,85. 7.85
6. Inscription divided. Cf. Metapontum 1,89 for obv., 94 for rev. 7.64
7. Metapontum 1,92. 7.64
8. Obv. Barley ear w. META in 1. field and ram's head downward on r. Rev. Die-break in r. field. Now BM ex A.H. Lloyd Coll., Syll. 11,306. 7.83
9. Four letter inscription on r. A new obv. die. Cf. Metapontum 1,73–78 for obv. and 76 for rev. 7.86
10. Not listed in Metapontum, I, but cf. 134. 7.79
11. Metapontum 1,126. 7.94
12. Metapontum 1,116. 7.58
13. Metapontum 1,169. 7.98
14. Cf. Metapontum 1,187 (inscription differs slightly). 7.85

SYBARIS

15. Obv. Bull 1. with VM in exergue. Rev. Same type incuse. 7.67
16. Similar. Naville Sale XVI, 228. 7.78
17. Similar. Not illustrated. 7.61
18. Similar. A fragment broken away. Not illustrated. 6.76
19. Similar except that inscription is above the bull. 7.85

CROTON

20. Obv. Tripod w. three-letter inscription in 1 field. Rev. Tripod incuse. 8.20
21. Similar. 7.49
22. Similar but flan slightly smaller than above. Not illustateed 7.61
23. Obv. Tripod w. crab in 1. field and three-letter inscription in r. Rev. Type incuse w. chelys in 1. field and three-letter inscription on r. 7.88
24. Similar to above but sharper. 7.53
25. Obv. similar to 23 above, but flan reduced to 23 mm. Rev. Dolphin in r. field and three-letter inscription on 1. 7.55
26. Obv. Three-letter inscription to 1. of tripod, heron or crane on r. Rev. without inscription or symbol. 7.88
27. Similar except that inscription reads upward. Naville Sale XVI, 324. 7.95
28. Similar to 26 and 27 above except that inscription is on r. and heron in 1. field. 7.64
29. Obv. Tripod w. three-letter inscription in small letters on 1. Rev. Eagle flying r. on sunken field. Diameter 20 mm. Naville Sale XVI, 328. 7.30

CAULONIA

30. No. 6f in Catalogue, p. 22. 7.50
31. Same dies as 30 above; 6g in Catalogue, p. 22. 7.76
32. No. 23a in Catalogue, p. 25. 7.67
33. Same dies as above. 7.99
34. No. 35f in Catalogue, p. 27. 8.13
35. No 36a in Catalogue, p. 27. 7.96
36. No. 64a in Catalogue, p. 32. Now ANS ex Helbing Sale LXX, 1922, 427 and Naville XVI, 309. Overstruck on didrachm of Selinus. 7.80

POSEIDONIA

37. Obv. Poseidon r., four-letter inscrption. Rev. Bull 1., four-etterr inscription. Cf. BMC 25. 7.99

GELA

38. Obv. Androcephalous bull r. Rev. Nike crowning horses drawing biga to r. Tetradachm. Cf. Babelon, Traité 2266, Pl. LXXVII, 13. 16.77

Because the study of this South Italian hoard had to be made from casts or photographs without reference to the coins themselves except in a few instances, deductions from relative wear are not dependable. Nos. 2, 36 and 37 in double relief are comparatively the sharper. The stater of Poseidonia seems weakly struck rather than worn. The staters of Sybaris show more wear than the earliest staters of Metapontum, and the late small-flan issues of Croton are sharper than the spread-flan varieties. There is, consequently, confirmation of the accepted belief in the gradual constriction of the flans for the coinage of Metapontum and Croton. The presence of the tetradrachm of Gela suggests a relationship between Magna Graecia and Sicily (not sufficiently recognized hitherto) for which over-strikes (cf. no. 36) offer supporting evidence as I have tried to show in a separate paper.44

The double-relief stater of Poseidonia (no. 37) along with the one of Caulonia (no. 36) and the Tarentine seated-oekist type (no. 2) have great significance considering the length of the output of their respective mints. Tarentum had always favored the small flan staters except for a brief dallying with the incuse form, which, however, never approached the 30 mm. diameter reached by the finest incuse pieces of nearby Metapontum (cf. no. 8). Gela, Agrigentum and Leontini were growing in importance at this time, and all three were putting forth extensive issues of didrachms. Can it be that their example had some influence on Caulonia and Poseidonia? Applying Keary's theory of morphology,45 the choice of the smaller, thick flanned form might have been induced by competition in a market in which such forms were prevalent. Velia and Naples would have provided this condition for Poseidonia since neither of these cities had struck incuse coins. Only in weight do these coins resemble the Corinthian staters struck at this time.

As Babelon46 recognized, the change to the size of the Sicilian didrachms at Metapontum can be dated rather closely, since a Metapontum stater (no. 234) is struck over a scarce didrachm of Syracuse which Boehringer47 dates after 474 b.c. If this is so, the Metapontum overstrike would have been struck after 474 b.c.; at present a more exact date cannot be determined.

Considering that the present hoard is said to have been found not far to the southeast of Taranto and near the coast, it seems strange that there should have been only two coins of that city among the thirty-eight. Evans48 thought that the seated-oekist type was initiated in 473 b.c., in which year the army of the Tarentines was defeated by the Messapians and many of the younger men of the city were slain. Vlasto49 dates the introduction of this type as c. 485 b.c. The oekist-type coin in this hoard shows wear. The style seems to indicate a date earlier than 473 b.c. Vlasto's date, therefore, seems preferable.

The defeat of the Tarentines could have provided ample inducement for the secretion of this hoard in 473 b.c. The numerical preponderance of staters from Metapontum and Croton in a hoard found not far from Tarentum is striking. A fleeing citizen of Tarentum might have hastily gathered these coins in the belief that they would have been more easily exchangeable than the staters of his own city. The preponderance of issues other than Tarentine might be interpetted as indicating the holdings of a maritime trader. It is difficult, however, to read any significant evidence from the make-up of the accumulation. In any event the staters of Sybaris, destroyed more than two decades previously, must have been still circulating at Tarentum. The total amount, sevent-eight drachms, hardly indicates a wealthy owner. I believe that these sparse findings point to a quick gathering together of resources rather than to savings made over a period of years.

No close parallel is provided by any of the three comparable published hoards. The Taranto Hoard, to judge from the portion published by Babelon,50 is earlier, but it gives very little help. The Cittanuova Find (Bibliography 253) is inadequately described and is without illustrations; it seems to have been buried shortly after this one. The Curinga Hoard was found at a considerable distance from Tarentum, and had no Tarentine issues in the portion published — it offers the closest analogies, especially as to the date of buria1. There is the same heavy proportion of Metapontum staters, the same inclusion of a few staters of Sybaris and a showing of the staters of Croton and Caulonia similar to that in this South Italy Hoard. Although the Curinga Hoard is not intact, there is good reason to think that a dependable cross-section is provided in what is recorded. Its burial must have come close to 470 b.c., possibly a little later.

There would be a step forward if we could use the presence of no. 36 to fix the date for the change at Caulonia from the incuse form to double relief, for we should then have determined the length of the period during which the coinage had both sides in relief, since the date for the destruction of the city in 389/388 is unquestioned. Within these years, a period slightly less than a century, there are seventy-six obverse dies recorded in this study. Since for several years there have been no additions to this list despite diligent searching, additions in any considerable number seem improbable. But to reason that we can estimate the average life of these obverse dies by dividing the number of years in this period by the number of dies is over-simplification. In the first place there are indications that the coinage of this moderate-sized colony of Croton was not continuous. Regling is of the opinion that this was true for Terina, where he records only thirty-eight obverse dies for its entire coinage.51 Head suggests that in some cities coining may have been coincident with agonistic festivals — periodic rather than annu1.52 The stater commemorating games in honor of Achelous at Metapontum offers an illustration of such an issue. A group of Caulonian tetrobols have for symbol an amphora, and this symbol does not occur in the stater issues. An interval during which only tetrobols were struck seems highly probable. Secondly a steady or regular supply of silver ore is unlikely. The coinage needs of the city must have varied from year to year. Finally, the obverse die frequently outlived the reverse. There are nineteen combinations of one obverse with two reverses, nine with three and one with no less than six; in consequence there must have been variance in the period during which the individual dies were in use. Under these circumstaness the "life span" can have little chronological dependability.

It is probable that the defeat of the Tarentines in 473 b.c. caused the secretion of other accumulation, and the value of our find may be greater for comparison than for its inherent evidence. It clearly seems to indicate that Poseidonia and Caulonia had changed the form of their coinages to double relief some years before it was buried and that Croton and Metapontum had not done so, and this deduction is supported by the Cittanuovo and Paestum hoards. Vlasto's date (c. 485) for the introduction of the seated-oekist type53 gains support as against that of Evans. The presence of the single tetradrachm of Gela bolsters the implication of commercial relations with Sicily which is further emphasized by overstruck coins of that island. Finally, the continuing circulation of the staters of Sybaris is an interesting phenomenon.

End Notes

ANSMN VII, 1957, pp. 24ff.
Charles F. Keary, Morphology of Coins (1886).
Babelon, Traité, no. 2078, Pl. LXVI, 16.
Boehringer, E. Die Münzen von Syrakus (Berlin, 1929) no. 497, Pl. 30, Z 4.
Evans, op. cit., pp. 3 and 32.
M. P. Vlasto, Taras Oikstes, NNM 15 (1922), p. 23.
E. Babelon, "Trouvaille de Tarente," RN XVI (1912), pp. 1–40.
Kurt Regling. "Terina", Program z. Winckelmannsfeste, 1906.
HN 2, p. 99.
Vlasto, op. cit., p. 15.

BACK

PLATES

Group A. Nos. 1–26, Plates I–III.

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Group B. Nos. 27–41, Plates III and IV

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Group C. Nos. 42–46, Plate IV.

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Group D. Nos. 47–61, Plate V.

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Group E. Nos. 62–77, Plates VI and VII

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Group F. Nos. 78–101, Plates VII, VIII and IX

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Group G. Nos. 102–117, Plates IX and X

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Group H. Nos. 118–140, Plates X and XI

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Group I. Nos. 141–161, Plates XII and XIII

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Group J. Nos. 162–181, Plates XIII and XIV

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FRACTIONS XV

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Bronze Coins (Plate XVI).

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Plated Coins (Plate XVI).

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SOUTH ITALIAN HOARD XVII

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SOUTH ITALIAN HOARD XVII

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ENLARGEMENTS XIX

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ENLARGEMENTS XX

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