Hoard of Folles from Seltz (Alsace)

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Lewis, Naphtali
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Numismatic Notes and Monographs
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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A HOARD OF FOLLES FROM SELTZ (ALSACE)

By Naphtali Lewis

With a Supplement on

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE FOLLIS

By David Lewis

The hoard which forms the subject of the present monograph was found in 1930 at Seltz, a village in the northeastern corner of Alsace, in the ruins of a house that had been destroyed by fire. 1 News of the find was immediately carried to Strasbourg. The next day, M. Claude F.-A. Schaeffer, then Associate Curator of the Musée Préhistorique et Gallo-Romain at Strasbourg, went to Seltz and was able to arrange for the purchase of the complete hoard, with the exception of a few coins which the finders retained as souvenirs.

The hoard was acquired by M. Schaeffer for the Cabinet Numismatique de la Ville de Strasbourg (of which he was then Curator), which received 2000 coins, and the Musée Préhistorique et Gallo-Romain, which received 1200. Of its share, the Musée kept for display only 198 coins and the jar in which the hoard was buried (see below), and distributed the remainder among members of the Cercle Numismatique d'Alsace.

The privilege of publishing this hoard was most graciously offered me by M. Schaeffer when I visited Strasbourg in the summer of 1933. As I could inventory on the spot only a few hundred pieces before returning to Paris, M. Schaeffer himself inventoried the 198 coins of the Musée, and the following month brought with him to the Musée des Antiquités Nationales at St.-Germain-en-Laye, where he had been named to the Assistant Curatorship left vacant by the death of Salomon Reinach, the 2000 coins of the Cabinet Numismatique. With the coins now within such easy reach of Paris, I was able to complete the inventory in the course of the following year. During this time, also, M. Schaeffer secured from several of the members of the Cercle Numismatique d'Alsace inventories of the coins in their possession. (Since only the more common types found in the hoard were distributed, the pieces in private possession not here catalogued—about 1/5 the total number—are presumably merely additional specimens of types already well represented in the Inventory-List below.) The photographs for the Plates were likewise furnished me by M. Schaeffer.

I wish to express here my thanks to M. Schaeffer for his kindness and his invaluable assistance. Thanks are also due Mr. Harold Mattingly of the British Museum, who very kindly answered my questions in connection with the inedita furnished by the hoard.

The Coins of the Hoard 2

The coins were enclosed in a large earthenware jar which was buried in the soil in an upright position, its mouth presumably stoppered. This precaution did not, of course, indefinitely succeed in keeping out soil and moisture. At some time, moreover, the pressure to which the jar was subjected burst one of its sides, causing even greater exposure of the coins, so that when the hoard was found most of the coins were oxidized and many of them matted together. Few of the coins are badly corroded, however; most of them are merely covered with a thin patina of verdigris, and a considerable number are still "à fleur de coin."

The coins (folles) were originally rolled up in leathern containers, just as today coins of equal denomination are rolled up in slips of paper for convenience in handling. The ends of the containers were twisted to make them fit tightly. One such roll is preserved intact, 3 and traces of others from which the leathern containers have long since rotted away are to be found in whole or partial piles or "spilled piles" of coins matted together. 3 Though interesting in themselves, these rolls take on an added significance when we consider how the coins came to be called folles. The word follis originally signified "a leathern money-bag," and the name was later applied to these coins because, instead of being handled individually, they circulated in leathern bags which contained, presumably, a fixed number of coins—in other words, the coin-filled container, instead of a single coin, constituted a unit. 4 Have we not, then, in these leather-covered rolls of coins, the coin-filled containers in question?

The normal diameter for the follis as created by Diocletian in his monetary reform of 295 A.D. has been established as 27–30 mm. 5 There is apparent from the present hoard, however, a distinct tendency, especially in the Gallic mints, toward a slightly smaller coin, 25 or 26 mm. in maximum diameter, before about the year 299 or 300. Throughout the hoard, moreover, elliptical coins are as much the rule as coins approximately round. Thus, some "unreduced" 6 folles show minimum diameters as low as 23 mm. (Diocletian 15, 41; Maximian 57; Constantius 52, 57, 271), and maximum diameters as high as 31 mm. (Diocletian 325; Constantius 266; Galerius 10, 25, 70). "Reduced" 6 folles vary between 23 and 26 mm. Other characteristics also attest the lack of care in the minting of these coins. There are no fixed die-positions: obverse and reverse occur at almost any angle to each other. Few coins have an edge that is even approximately smooth, and a large number have fissures penetrating 10, 12, and even 15 mm. into the coin.

The hoard consists, with the exception of a single Antoninianus (Maximian 9), entirely of folles dating from 295 to 307 A.D. The Emperors represented are:

  • Diocletian—as Augustus and as Senior Augustus
  • Maximian—as Augustus and as Senior Augustus
  • Constantius—as Caesar and as Augustus
  • Galerius—as Caesar and as Augustus
  • Severus II—as Caesar and as Augustus
  • Maximinus Daza—as Caesar
  • Constantine—as Caesar
  • Maxentius—as Caesar

The hoard is in no sense a "collector's hoard," but is definitely representative of the "état de la circulation monétaire" 7 in the Gallic Rhineland at the time of its burial. The presence of the antoninianus (provided the coin is not an intrusion, for which there is hardly any indication) has interest as showing that, despite the fact that Diocletian's currency reform of 295 A.D. provided for the immediate supplantation of the antoniniani by the folles, 8 the smaller coins still circulated (or, at least, remained in existence) as late as 307.

The hoard contains numerous examples of the confusion of Emperors' effigies so frequent at this period—or, more exactly, of the substitution of the portrait of another Emperor, or of a stylized portrait, for the true image of the Emperor whose name appeared in the legend. This substitution, as Maurice has explained, 9 is found on coins issued in one half of the Empire in the name of an Emperor of the other half, or on coins issued shortly after the accession of a new Emperor whose portrait the mints did not yet have. In the present hoard, fortunately, the substitution of effigies does not enter appreciably into the already difficult problem of distinguishing the genio popvli romani folles of Maximian from the similar issues (especially in the Western mints) of Galerius as Augustus, coins in which the identity of obverse legend and reverse leave only the portrait of the Emperor as a criterion of distinction. 10

The Seltz Hoard contains the following inedita (No. 6 is in the possession of M. Robert Forrer; the rest are in the Cabinet Numismatique at Strasbourg):

1.Diocletian 66. Obv. IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Head laureate, right. Rev. M SACRA AVGG ET CAESS NN. Usual figure. image A.D. 303.

This type has hitherto been found only with the portrait of the Emperor laureate and either cuirassed or wearing a paludamentum (cf. Diocletian 65).

2.Diocletian 352. Obv. IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Head laureate, right. Rev. SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN. Usual figure. image A.D. 303–305.

This type has hitherto been found only with the obverse legend IMP C DIOCLETIANVS etc. (cf. Diocletian 346–351, 353–357). The legend of 352 does occur on coins of Siscia (cf. Diocletian 362–363).

3.Diocletian 360. Obv. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P AVG. Head laureate, right. Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Usual figure. image A.D. ca. 300–301.

The Obverse legend is new for Siscia. Both … AVG and … P F AVG have been found heretofore, but not … P AVG (cf. Voetter, Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1920, p. 102).

4.Diocletian 365. Obv. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVGVSTVS. Head laureate, right. Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Usual figure. image A.D. 303.

The complete word AVGVSTVS, instead of the usual abbreviation AVG, is new.

5.Diocletian 376. Obv. IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG. Bust laureate and cuirassed, right. Rev. SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR. Usual figure. A.D. 303.

The mint-marks are practically illegible. The remaining traces of the exergue might suit PT* or PTR. As far as we now know, only the mints of Ticinum, Aquileia and Siscia struck this reverse legend; and no coin of this type is known which has a cuirassed portrait of the Emperor, 11 or which omits P F before AVG in the obverse legend.

6.Diocletian 377. Obv. IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Head laureate, right. Rev. MONETA S AVGG ET CAESS NN. Usual figure. image A.D. 303.

This type has hitherto been found only with the Emperor's bust laureate and either cuirassed or wearing a paludamentum (cf. Diocletian 68–70). It is quite possible that the cuirass or paludamentum originally was present but is no longer visible in the coin's present condition.

7.Maximian 250 and 251. Obv. IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Bust laureate and cuirassed, right. Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Usual figure, with altar in form of candelabrum. image A.D. 304–305.

The altar in the GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse has hitherto been found only in coins struck by the mint at Lugdunum. Its appearance here in two coins from the mint of Treviri emphasizes the close association which must have been maintained between the two mints. 12 In addition, No. 250 has the POP VLI interruption of the reverse legend which is typical of the "altar" coins struck at Lugdunum, and No. 251 has the POPV LI interruption which appears on the contemporary (altar-less) issues of Treviri.

8.Constantius 18. Obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Head laureate, right. Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Usual figure. image A.D. 299–300.

This type has hitherto been found only with the portrait of the Emperor laureate and cuirassed (cf. Voetter, Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1917, Tafel XXII). This coin would seem to be, then, a sort of transition piece, issued no doubt only for a short time, from the uncuirassed effigies of the preceding years to the cuirassed busts of the subsequent years. Cf. also Constantius 17, 60–64.

9.Constantius 290. Obv. IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Head laureate, right. Rev. SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN. Usual figure image A.D. 305–306.

This type has hitherto been found only with the obverse legend IMP C CONSTANTIVS etc. (according to Voetter, Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1925, p. 13; cf. No. 2, above. Cohen, however, lists such a coin under Constantius Chlorus No. 261).

10.Galerius 205. Obv. MAXIMIANVS NOB C. Head laureate, rt. Rev. SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR. Usual figure. image A.D. 304–305?

The only obverse legend of Galerius as Caesar hitherto found with this reverse is MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES (cf. Galerius 202–204, 206–215, 225). On the date suggested, see below, p. 13.

11 and 12.Severus 238–248 and 249–261. Obv. IMP SEVERVS PIVS AVG. IMP SEVERVS PIVS F AVG. Bust laureate and cuirassed, right. Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Usual figure. image A.D. 306–307.

These two obverse legends are hitherto unrecorded for Treviri. Their occurrence on coins in London was, indeed, reported many years ago, but Voetter (Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1918, p. 183 note 2) questioned the attribution of those coins to the mint of Treviri, since they are devoid of mint-marks (or were apparently so reported). Mr. Mattingly writes me that an example of IMP SEVERVS PIVS AVG is to be found in the collection of the Rev. E. A. Sydenham, and a specimen of IMP SEVERVS PIVS F AVG in the British Museum.

13 and 14. Constantine 238 and 287. Obv. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS N C. Bust laureate and cuirassed, right. Obv. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOBIL C. Bust laureate, wearing paludamentum, right. Rev. MARTI PATRI CONSERVATORI. Usual figure. image A.D. 307.

The only obverse legend hitherto found with this reverse is FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C (Constantine 239–286). Mr. Mattingly writes that there is a specimen of FL VAL CONSTANTINVS N C in the British Museum.

End Notes
2
Coins are cited by their number in the inventory-list below.
3
Photograph in Forrer, op. cit., Plate XXXIX, 2. A hoard found at Wettolsheim in 1921 had similar remnants of coin rolls: cf. F. A. Schaeffer, publ. cited in note 33, pp. 93–94.
4
Cf. T. Mommsen, Histoire de la monnaie romaine III (Paris, 1873), p. 105 and note 2; O. Seeck, Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft VI, pp. 2833, 2835; J. Maurice, Numismatique Constantinienne III. p. XLI; F. von Schrötter, Wörterbuch der Münzkunde (Berlin and Leipzig, 1930), p. 200.
5
Cf. F. von Schrötter, ibid.
6
See below, p. 13.
7
A. Blanchet, Les trésors de monnaies romaines et les invasions germaniques en Gaule (Paris, 1900), p. VII.
8
Seeck, l. c. (note 4), p. 2834, holds that the antoniniani were not recalled from circulation by the government, but were "schlichtweg verboten."
9
J. Maurice, op. cit. (note 4) I, pp. 4–13.
10
Cf. P. Monti and L. Laffranchi, Bollettino di Numismatica e di Arte della Medaglia I (1903), pp. 8–9; O. Voetter, Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1917, p. 28.
11
Voetter, ll. cc. note 15, assigns all coins from these mints with cuirassed busts to the Second Tetrarchy. Such an assignation may, however, be questioned.
12
The mint at Treviri was created in 295 A.D. by the removal thither of the staffs of the third and fourth officinae of the Lugdunum mint: cf., e. g., H. Mattingly and E. A. Sydenham, The Roman Imperial Coinage V2 [by Percy H. Webb], pp. 212–213.

The Mints

The distribution of the coins among the mints represented is as follows:

Coins in the inventory list (below):

Treviri 2054
Lugdunum 174
Ticinum 65
Roma 58
Carthago 54
Londinium 45
Aquileia 6
Siscia 6
Antiochia 2
Heraclea Thracum 1
[Unattributed] 3
2468

Coins not in the inventory list:

Unidentifiable 14
Coins matted together and preserved thus for display 13 82
Total 2564

This distribution is exactly what we might have expected in view of the provenience of the hoard. Less than 1% of the coins come from the Eastern mints, and among the Western mints Treviri is overwhelmingly predominant.

One of the coins classed as "Unattributed," Galerius 246, bears the mint-marks image If, as is probable, the O is a badly struck Q, the coin is to be assigned to the mint of Roma (cf. Galerius 223).

The establishment of a chronological sequence of the exergual and field marks of the different mints, and the dating of the different issues of folles by this means, were first undertaken by Otto Voetter, who published the results of his researches on the mints of Carthago, 14 Alexandria, Antiochia and Lugdunum, Treviri, Siscia, Aquileia and Roma. 15 More recently, Lodovico Laffranchi has studied the issues during the First Tetrarchy of the mints of Londinium, Lugdunum and Treviri, with particular emphasis on the years 295–297. 16 Laffranchi astutely distinguishes a number of confusing issues, and some of Voetter's datings of the issues of Lugdunum and Treviri must be revised in the light of his study. Voetter's study on Carthago has now been superseded by that of Georg Elmer. 17

For Ticinum alone, of the mints more frequently encountered in this Seltz Hoard, there is no such study, so far as I am aware, for the period between the monetary reform in 295 and the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305. I have attempted, by comparing the Ticinum coins of the present hoard with parallel issues from other mints, to establish a rough chronology of the Ticinum mint-marks found in the hoard. This chronology needs, of course, to be verified—or rather, modified and amplified—by a more complete study of the folles of this mint than is possible from the 65 examples at my disposal. Tentatively, therefore, I offer the following system of dating:

A.D. 300–1 301–2 302–3 303–4
image image image image
A.D. 304–5 18 305 305–7 18 307–9 19
image image image image
S(ecunda officina) or T(ertia officina) may, of course, appear in place of P(rima officina).

End Notes
13
Cf. supra, pp. 1, 3.
14
In Mittheilungen des Clubs der Münz- und Medaillen-Freunde in Wien IV (1893).
15
In Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1923 and 1925, respectively.
16
Numismatic Chronicle, 1927, pp. 233–243.
17
Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1932, pp. 23–36.

Date of Burial of the Hoard

The approximate date at which the Seltz Hoard was buried is easily determined. The latest coins in the hoard, struck in the names of the retired as well as the reigning Emperors, are: Diocletian 29–37 and 320–323; Maximian 27–41 and 515–559; Galerius 28–39 and 196–201; Constantine 1–2, 4–25 and 173–383; Maximinus Daza 3, 9–19 and 289–291. These coins belong to the so-called "first reduction" of the follis. This "first reduction," by which the follis was reduced in diameter to between 24 and 26 mm. and in weight to between 5.0 and 8.0 grams, is generally dated in the latter part of 307 A.D. or early in 308, 20 and constitutes a terminus post quem for the burial of the hoard. A terminus ante quem is found in the absence from the hoard of any coin of Constantine as Augustus, which title appears on his coins toward the end of 307 or early in 308. 21 The hoard must have been buried, then, after the "first reduction" of the follis, and at least before the coins of Constantine as Augustus had become numerous, if not altogether before they were struck—in other words, late in the year 307, or, at the very latest, very early in 308.

The above considerations are of more than immediate interest, for they may help to fix more precisely the date of the "first reduction" of the follis. Sydenham has shown 22 that the coins of Maximian d n maximiano p f s avg genio popvli romani or genio pop rom (Maximian 27–41, 515–522) and imp c m avrel val maximianvs p f avg or imp c val maximianvs p f avg genio pop rom (Maximian 523–559) were issued from ca. March or April of 307 (marriage of Constantine to Fausta) until the late summer or early autumn of the same year (when Maximian left Gaul to join Maxentius in Rome), contemporaneously with the similar coins of Constantine (as Caesar), in whose mints they were struck. Now theseissues of Maximian consistof both "unreduced" and "reduced" folles. Sydenham suggests that the "reduced" folles may have been issued during Maximian's second visit to Constantine, i. e., after April 308. 23 If these "reduced" folles, which are present in the Seltz Hoard are to be thus dated, the absence from the hoard of any coin of Constantine as Augustus is inexplicable. These difficulties are avoided, however, if we suppose the "first reduction" to have taken place during the issuance of these coins in 307—during the summer of the year, for example. 24

End Notes
18
Cf. J. Maurice, op. cit. (note 4) II, pp. 212–213 and Tableau IX.
19
And recurring for many years afterwards: cf. ibid., pp. 231 ff. and Tableau IX.
20
Cf. H. Mattingly, Roman Coins (London, 1928) p. 224; E. A. Sydenham, Numismatic Chronicle. 1934, pp. 155, 157.
21
Constantine's marriage to Fausta, Maximian's daughter, took place in March (probably March 31), 307 A.D., at which time Maximian conferred upon his son-in-law the title of Augustus. Constantine, however, did not use this title on his coins immediately, as was formerly supposed (e. g., by Maurice, op. cit. [note 4] II, pp. 13, 211), but first began to strike coins as Augustus very late in 307 or early in 308 A.D.: cf. E. A. Sydenham, l. c. (note 20), pp. 155, 158–159, 166. The present Seltz Hoard confirms Sydenham's chronology.
22
L. c. (note 20), pp. 154–155, 166.

Reason for Burial of the Hoard

In 1900, Adrien Blanchet advanced the theory that deposits of Roman coins found in the Rhineland and westward (and, a fortiori, numerous contemporary deposits found within a limited region) were evidences of invasions of Germanic tribes into Gaul at the time of the burial of the hoard; and further, that the location of the different contemporary finds could serve as indices of the route taken by the invaders. 25 The theory is a good one, as Cagnat remarks, "à condition de ne point pousser les choses à l'excés." 26 It is no doubt true that in times of danger, such as those of the invasions, the inhabitants of the regions affected hid their valuables to keep them from falling into the hands of the marauders, and in many cases did not survive to retrieve them when the danger was past. But the number of other possible causes which might have motivated the hiding of any given hoard—avarice, for example, to name but one—are legion; and the habit which has grown up of seeing in each new hoard unearthed in France an indication of another barbarian inroad, 27 is to be deprecated.

The present hoard is a case in point. The only important Germanic invasions about the time of the burial of the Seltz Hoard of which we have any record are those of the Franks. We are told that in 306 A.D. Constantine beat back the Franks who had advanced into Gaul. 28 The Franks were again up in arms, and Constantine once again marched against them shortly after Maximian had rejoined him in Gaul in 308 A. D. 29 Maximian returned to Constantine after his expulsion from Rome by Maxentius. This expulsion took place ca. April of 308. Therefore, even if Maximian went straightway to Constantine, 30 the uprising of the Francs cannot be placed earlier than April or May of 308, and consequently cannot be considered the cause of the burial of the Seltz Hoard, which took place at least four months before. Moreover, an uprising of the Franks, who inhabited the territory around Cologne, can hardly have affected greatly the inhabitants of (what is now) Alsace, especially since Trèves stood as a bulwark between them and the Franks.

End Notes
23
Ibid. Cf. infra, p. 17.
24
Seeck's dating of the "first reduction" early in 307 (Zeitschrift für Numismatik XVII [1890], p. 124) is based on the erroneous assumption that Constantine struck coins as Augustus immediately after receiving that title from Maximian (cf. note 21).
25
Op. cit. (note 7). Blanchet reiterates and extends his theory to the Mediterranean world in Revue numismatique XXXIX (1936), pp. 3–70.
26
Revue archéologique, 1900, p. 336.
27
E. g., Forrer, l. c. (note 1), lacking precise data on the dates of the coins in this Seltz Hoard, suggests the great invasion of 313 A.D. as the cause for its burial (Blanchet, l. c. [note 25], pp. 64–65, follows Forrer); cf. also pp. 184–189.
28
Eusebius, Vita Constantini i. 25; cf. Panegyr. Const. Aug. VI, 11–12 (ed. W. Baehrens, XII Panegyrici Latini [Leipzig, 1911], pp. 209–210).

The Chemical Composition of the Follis (See Appendix)

The follis is generally defined as a billon coin, or as a bronze coin thinly coated with silver to give it the appearance of a silver coin. 31 The bases for these definitions are: 1) Codex Theodosianus ix. 21. 6, a constitutio of the year 349, which takes cognizance of the fact that many money-minters have been removing the silver from the maiorina pecunia and forbids the continuance of this practice under penalty of death; 2) the results of some scattered analyses, made during the last one hundred years, of bronze coins dating from ca. 300 to ca. 340 A. D. In the most comprehensive of these analyses the coins were supposedly all from the mint of Roma; other analyses, until quite recently, were limited to a single coin from Alexandria, Antiochia, Aquileia and Nicomedia. These analyses revealed the presence in folles of Diocletian and Maximian of silver varying in quantity from less than ½% to about 3% and once, 4.18%. 32 It does not seem to have occurred to the writers on the subject that the small amount of silver detected may have been an impurity in the ore used.

In view of the inconclusive nature of this evidence, it seemed obvious that careful analysis of some of the coins of the present hoard would be valuable, even if it did nothing more than lend support to the traditional view. These analyses promised to be all the more interesting, moreover, since the coins come from the Western Mints for which until recently sample analyses have been lacking. 33 Specimens from the mints of Treviri, Lugdunum, Ticinum and Carthago were therefore chosen which, judging from their silvery sheen, might be expected to have a relatively high silver content. The results show that none of these coins contained any silver, except for an occasional trace present as an impurity. 34 The "silvery metal" discernible on the surface of the coins was revealed, on careful examination, to be green (copper oxide), and we are therefore justified in calling into question the "traces luisantes d'argent" heretofore reported on folles and accepted as proof that these coins were silver-washed or -plated. 35 A systematic series of analyses for all the mints is of course needed before the final word can be said on the subject. A priori, however, there seems to be no reason why, at the same period and lacking special circumstances, the folles of some mints should contain silver and those of other mints not; and until further proof is forthcoming, we are probably justified in considering the silver found in the earlier analyses also as impurity. The higher percentage of silver found in those analyses need indicate nothing more than that the copper ore used in the Eastern Mints (and Rome ?) was richer in silver than that used in the Western Mints.

The definition of the follis, at least as issued during the period 295–307 A. D. by the four mints in our tests, must therefore be revised in the light of these findings. The follis was simply a bronze coin. Traces of silver occasionally found in these coins are impurities and not intentional additions.

What, however, of the constitutio cited above? It cannot be questioned that the government intended the maiorina pecunia to contain silver. However, is it justifiable to transfer bodily the dispositions of 349 A. D. to the period of the Tetrarchies? The history of continual variation in the bronze coinage in the first half of the fourth century makes such a transference more than ordinarily dangerous. An explanation of the meaning of the constitutio, on which I am far from prepared to insist but which I offer rather as a suggestion, is the following: The successive "reductions" of the follis proceeded until, about 340 A.D., the coin had fallen in weight to between 1.5 and 2 grams. In that year or not very long after, the weight was raised to between 4 and 5 grams. 36 May it not be that the maiorina pecunia to which the constitutio of 349 A.D. refers is this heavier coinage as distinguished from the lighter folles coined before the rise in weight? That even in 356 A. D., after a second rise in weight (in 351) to ca. 6 grams, 37 not all folles were of this "somewhat larger coinage" is shown by the summary of Codex Theodosianus ix. 23.1 in the Vatican MS, … ut nulli viatori liceat amplius a mille follibus portare neque centenales (small coins) vel maiorinas, if, as seems almost unquestionable, follis here signifies the coin and not the coin-filled container (cf. supra, p. 00).

End Notes
29
Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 29.
30
There is some doubt on this point: cf. C. Jullian, Histoire de la Gaule VII (Paris 1926), p. 103 note 3.
31
E. g., T. Mommsen, op. cit. (note 4) III, pp. 98–99, 102; O. Seeck, l. c. (note 4), pp. 2832, 2834–2835; J. Maurice, op. cit. (note 4) III, pp. xxxii–xxxiv, xliii–xliv; E. A. Sydenham, Numismatic Chronicle, 1919, p. 155; Gercke-Norden, Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft II2 (Münzkunde, by K. Regling), 2, p. 29; M. Bernhart, Handbuch zur Münzkunde der römischen Kaiserzeit (Haale, 1926), p. 23; H. Mattingly, op. cit. (note 20), pp. 216, 223, 232; A. Segrè, Metrologia e circolazione monetaria degli antichi (Bologna, 1928), p. 436, and Enciclopedia Italiana, s. v. Follis; F. von Schrötter, l. c. (note 4); G. Mickwitz, Geld und Wirtschaft im römischen Reich des vierten Jahrhunderts n. Chr. (Helsingfors, 1932), pp. 83–84; G. Elmer, Verzeichnis der römischen Reichsprägungen von Augustus bis Anastasius (Vienna, 1933), p. 26.
32
J. Maurice, op. cit. (note 4) III, p. xxxiv.
33
Schaeffer, Bulletin de la Société pour la conservation des monumerits historiques d'Alsace, 1926, pp. 114–115, gives the results of analyses made of five folles dating from between 296 and 313 A. D. The coins, from the mints of Londinium, Carthago, Ticinum and Treviri, show only traces of silver.
34
Cf. the similar results in Schaeffer, ibid., and in R. Mond and O. H. Myers, The Bucheum (London, 1934) I. p. 119 (bronze coins, including "reduced" folles, from the mint of Alexandria).
35
T. Mommsen, op. cit. (note 4) III, p. 98 note 1, citing the Vezenaz Hoard described by F. Soret, Mémoires de la Société d'histoire et d'archéologie de Genève I (1841), pp. 240–241. Cf. F. A. Schaeffer, l. c., p. 94.
36
Mattingly, l. c. (note 20), places the change in 340, and gives the new weight as 5.18 grams. Mickwitz, op. cit. (note 31), p. 82, places the change ca. 344 and gives the new weight as 4.3 grams.
37
5.8 grams according to Mickwitz, ibid.

Inventory of the Hoard

The following remarks may serve as a key to facilitate the use of the inventory-list hereinafter.

  • —In the description of the obverse portraits, the following symbols and abbreviations are used:

    image = head laureate, right

    image = head laureate, left

    helm. = head helmeted

    c = bust cuirassed

    p = bust wearing paludamentum

    r = bust wearing imperial robe; holding an olive branch and mappa or papyrus roll

  • —The reverses, being all of well-known types and easily identifiable by the legend or by the references cited, have not been described. A wide space between words, or a space within a word, indicates where the legend is interrupted by the figure.

    In the mint-marks, both 6-pointed and 8-pointed (once 10-pointed) asterisks appear. The 6-pointed asterisk is represented in the printed inventory-list by image.

  • —In giving the weights of a group of more than two identical coins, only the minimum and maximum weights found in the group have been indicated. (Thus, e. g., Diocletian 5–12, weight 9.00–10.90, indicates that these coins vary in weight from 9.00 to 10.90 grams.)
  • —It has been found impractical to include the diameters of the coins in this list. The necessary observations will be found above, pp. 4, 13.
  • —The dates assigned the coins are based on the references cited. On the dates assigned the coins struck at Ticinum see above, p. 13.
  • The following abbreviations are used in the citation of references:

    C. = Henry Cohen, Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain. 2e édition, Vols. VI (1886) and VII (1888). Since the coins of Galerius as Augustus are assigned by Cohen to Maximian (Maximien Hercule, Vol. VI), these are indicated by the letters C. (M. H.).

    E. = Georg Elmer's article cited above, note 17.

    L. = Lodovico Laffranchi's article cited above, note 16.

    M and S = op. cit. supra, note 12.

    S. = E. A. Sydenham's article referred to above, note 20.

    V. = Otto Voetter's articles in Numismatische Zeitschrift, cited above, note 15. The references to these articles are given by the year of the periodical and by page, where the necessary references to Voetter's plates can be found.

End Notes

1
Cf. R. Forrer, L'Alsace romaine (Paris, 1935), p. 187.

INVENTORY OF THE SELTZ HOARD

DIOCLETIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
LONDINIUM
1–3 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
4 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani
5–12 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
13 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
14 d n diocletiano felicissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
LUGDUNUM
15–16 imp c diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
17 imp c diocletianvs p avg image genio pop vli romani
18 imp c diocletianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
19–21 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
22 imp diocletianvs avg helm., l., c, spear, shield genio popv li romani (altar)
23 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
24 imp diocletianvs avg image p genio pop vli romani (altar)
25 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
26 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
27 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
28 imp diocletianvs avg image p genio pop vli romani (altar)
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.75–9.90 297–303 C. 101; L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.60 297–303 C. 103; L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.00–10.90 297–303 C. 103; L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.00 303–304 C. 87; L. p. 243.
image 8.35 305 C.426.
image 8.25, 8.75 297–298 C. 99; V. '17, p. 27; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.60 298–299 C. 100; V. '17, p. 27; L. p. 243.
image 11.25 298–299 C. 100; V.'17, p. 27; L. p. 243.
image 7.35–9.55 298–299 C. 101; V. '17, p. 27; L. p. 243.
image 12.35 300–303 ——; V. '17, p. 27, and Pl. IX, 21; L. p.243.
image 8.70 303–304 C. 119; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.35 303–304 C. 119 (var.); V. '17, p. 27.
image 12.15 303–304 C. 120; V. '17, p. 27.
image 10.60 303–304 C. 119; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.85 303–304 C. 120; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.75 304–305 C. 119 (var.); V. '17, p. 28.
No. Obverse Reverse
29–36 d n diocletiano p f s avg image r qvies avg vstorvm
37 d n diocletiano p f s avg image r qvies avgg
TREVIRI
38 imp diocletianvs p avg image genio pop vli romani
39–40 imp diocletianvs avg image genio popv li romani
41–43 imp diocletianvs avg image genio popv li romani
44 imp diocletianvs avg image genio popv li romani
45 imp diocletianvs avg image genio popv li romani
46 imp diocletianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
47 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
48–50 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
51 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
52 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
53 imp diocletianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
54 imp diocletianvs avg image genio popv li romani
55 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
56 imp diocletianvs avg image p genio popv li romani
57 imp diocletianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
58 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
59 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
60 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
61 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
62 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
63 imp diocletianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
64 imp diocletianvs p f avg helm., rt., c genio popv li romani
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 6.65–8.60 307 C. 430; V. '17, p. 29.
image 8.30 307 C. 428; V. '17, p. 29.
image 10.60 295–296 C. 100; V. '18, p. 181; L. p. 241.
image 8.15, 10.50 296 C. 85; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 241.
image 8.25–11.00 296–297 C. 85; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 7.50 296–297 C. 86; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.75 296–297 C. 85; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.20 296–297 C. 92; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 11.45 296–297 C. 94; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3
image 7.20, 9.70 296–297 C. 94; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.90 296–297 C. 95; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.10 297–298 C. 91; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.15 297–298 C. 93; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.20 299–301? C. 85; V. '18, p. 182.
image 10.50 299–303 C. 87; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.20 299–303 C. 87 (var.); V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.65 299–301? ——; V. '18, p. 182.
image 10.45 299–303 C. 91; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.80 299–303 C. 91; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.80 299–303 C. 91; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.10 299–301? C. 94; V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.30 299–301? C. 94; V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.30 299–303 C. 93; V. '18, p. 182.
image 11.50 299–303 ——; V. 18, p. 182 and Pl. XI, 12.
No. Obverse Reverse
65 imp diocletianvs p avg image c m sacra avgg et caess nn
66 imp diocletianvs p f avg image m sacra avgg et caess nn
67 imp diocletianvs p f avg image c m sacra avgg et caess nn
68–69 imp diocletianvs p f avg image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
70 imp diocletianvs p f avg image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
71–73 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
74 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
75–76 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
77–85 imp diocletianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
86–87 imp diocletianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
88–197 d n diocletiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
198–319 d n diocletiano felicissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
320 d n diocletiano p f s avg image r qvies av gvstorvm
321–322 d n diocletiano p f s avg image r qvies av gvstorvm
323 d n diocletiano p f s avg image r qvies avgg
TICINUM
324–325 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
326 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 9.30 303 C. 346; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.35 303 Unpublished (see above p. 6).
image 9.20 303 C. 345; V. '18, p. 182.
image 6.95, 8.60 303 C. 344; V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.10 303–304 C. 344; V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.00–11.40 303–304 ——; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.60 303–304 ——; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.35, 10.30 303–304 C. 111; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.70–11.55 304–305 ——; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 10.60, 10.85 304–305 C. 111; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.05–12.80 305 C. 422, 424; V. '18, p. 183
image 7.40–12.20 305 C. 423, 426; V. '18, p. 183.
image 7.35 307 C. 430; V. '18, p. 184.
image 7.65, 8.15 307 C. 430; V. '18, p. 184.
image 6.60 307 C. 428; V. '18, p. 184.
image 9.70, 10.40 300–301? C. 101.
image 9.55 301–302? C. 101.
No. Obverse Reverse
327 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
328–329 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
330 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
331 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
332–333 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
334 d n diocletiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
335 d n diocletiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
336 d n diocletiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
337 d n diocletiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
338–339 d n diocletiano felicissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
ROMA
340 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
341 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
342 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
343 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
344 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 10.40 302–303? C. 101.
image 9.50, 11.30 304–305? C. 436.
image 12.85 304–305? C. 436.
image 10.55 304–305? C. 436.
image 8.65, 9.25 304–305? C. 436.
image 9.10 305 C. 422.
image 9.60 305 C. 422.
image 9.30 305 C. 422.
image 9.55 305 C. 422.
image 8.75, 10.50 305 C. 423.
image 9.90 296–? C. 101; V. '25, pp. 9, 10.
image 9.10 296–? C. 101; V. '25, pp. 9, 10.
image 11.30 296–? C. 101; V. '25, pp. 9, 10.
image 8.20 296–? C. 101; V. '25, pp. 9, 10.
image 11.40 ?–305 C. 101; V. '25, p. 12.
No. Obverse Reverse
345 imp diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
346–351 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
352 imp diocletianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
353–356 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
357 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
AQUILEIA
358 imp diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
359 imp diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
SISCIA
360 imp c diocletianvs p avg image genio pop vli romani
361 imp c diocletianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
362 imp diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
363 imp diocletianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.95 ?–305 C. 94.
image 8.10–10.95 303–305 C. 434; V. '25, p. 12.
image 8.50 303–305 Unpublished (see above, p. 7).
image 8.10–11.70 303–305 C. 434; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.25 303–305 C. 434; V. '25, p. 12.
image 10.50 303 C. 435; V. '23, p. 2.
image 8.95 304 C. 435; V. '23, p. 2.
image 9.90 ca. 300–301 C. 100; V. '20, p. 102; see above, p. 7.
image 9.20 ca. 300–301 C. 101; V. '20, p. 102.
image 8.90 303 C. 4355; V. '20. p. 102.
image 10.55 303–304 C. 435; V. '20, p. 102.
No. Obverse Reverse
HERACLEA THRACUM
364 imp c c val diocletianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
ANTIOCHIA
365 imp c diocletianvs p f avgvstvs image genio popv li romani
CARTHAGO
366–367 imp diocletianvs p f avg image felix adv ent avgg nn
368 imp diocletianvs p f avg image felix a d vent avgg nn
369–370 imp diocletianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
371–374 imp diocletianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
375 imp diocletianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
[UNATTRIBUTED]
376 imp diocletianvs avg image c sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
377 imp diocletianvs p f avg image moneta s avgg et caess nn
DIOCLETIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 9.50 ca. 300–301? C. 106. For date, cf. V. '20, p. 102. (Obverse type here same as at Siscia.)
image 10.45 303 Unpublished (see above, p. 7). For date, cf. V. '17, p. 12).
image 9.85, 10.90 296–297 C. 67; E. p. 26, No. 21.
image 10.45 297 C. 67; E. p. 26, No. 25.
image 8.95, 9.15 297–298 or 299 C. 438; E. pp. 27–28, No. 37.
image 8.80–10.95 298 or 299–304 C. 438; E. p. 28, No. 41.
image 10.10 298 or 299–304 C. 438; E. p. 28, No. 41 (and note ll). 1
image 8.65 303 Unpublished? (see above, p. 7).
image 8.40 303 Unpublished? (see above, p. 8).
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
LONDINIUM
1–3 imp c maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
4 imp maximianvs p f avg spear, shield image c genio popv li romani
5–6 imp maximianvs p f avg (large heaed) image c genio popv li romani
7–8 d n maximiano felicissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
LUGDUNUM
9 imp maximianvs avg bust radiate, rt., c pax avgg
10 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popvli romani
11 imp c maximianvs avg image genio popvli romani
12–13 imp c maximianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
14 imp c maximianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
15 imp c maximianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
16–17 imp c maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
18 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
19–21 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
22 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
23 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.20–9.60 297–303 C. 180; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.70 298–303 V. '18, Plate XXIII; cf. L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.05, 9.60 303–304 C. 162; L. p. 243.
image 9.30, 10.90 305 C. 489.
image 3.80 290–294 C. 438; M and S 399.
image 9.85 295–296 C. 179; V. '17. p. 26; L. p. 241.
image 9.70 296–297 C. 172; V. '17, p. 26; L. p. 242.
image 8.10 297–298 C. 171; V. '17, p. 27; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.85 298–299 ——; V. '17 (and Pl. X, 13); L. p. 243.
image 10.45 298–299 C. 176; V. '17, p. 27; L. p. 243.
image 8.60, 10.10 299–300 C. 218; V. '17, p. 27.
image 10.35 303–304 C. 198; V. '17, p. 27.
image 7.30–13.10 303–304 C. 198; V. '17, p. 27.
image 10.60 303–304 C. 199; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.70 303–304 C. 214; V. '17, p. 27.
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
24 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
25 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
26 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
27–37 d n maximiano p f s avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
38 d n maximiano p f s avg image p genio pop vli romani (altar)
39–39a d n maximiano p f s avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
40 d n maximiano p f s avg globe, sceptre? image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
41 d n maximiano p f s avg image c genio pop rom
TREVIRI
42 imp maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
43 imp maximianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
44 imp maximianvs avg image genio popv li romani
45 imp maximianvs p avg image genio popv li romani
46–49 imp maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
50–51 imp maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
52 imp maximianvs p fel avg image genio popv li romani
53 imp maximianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 7.35 303–304 C. 212; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.30 304–305 C. 199; V. '17, p. 28.
image 8.90 304–305 C. 212; V. '17, p. 28.
image 7.20–9.75 307 C. 223; V. '17, p. 29; S. pp. 154–5.
image 7.40 307 C. 223 (var.); V. '17, p. 29; S. pp. 154–5.
image 7.60, 8.05 307 C. 224; V. '17, p. 29; [S. pp. 154–5].
image 7.60 307 C. 225; V. '17, p. 29; [S. pp. 154–5].
image 7.00 307 C. 142; V. '17, p. 29; S. pp. 154–5.
image 11.25 295–296 C. 159; V. '18, p. 181; L. p. 241.
image 9.40 296 C. 156; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 241.
image 9.00 296–297 ——; V. '18, p. 182 (and Pl. XXIII); L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.30 296–297 C. 156; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.80–9.85 296–297 C. 159; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 8.45, 9.85 296–297 C. 159; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.95 296–297 C. 169; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.85 297–298 C. 153; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
54 imp maximianvs avg sceptre image p genio popv li romani
55 imp maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
56 imp maximianvs p f avg image c moneta sacra avgg et caess nn
57 imp maximianvs p f avg image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
58 imp maximianvs p f avg draped image c m sacra avgg et caess nn
59 imp maximianvs avg image p genio popv li romani
60 imp maximianvs p avg image p genio popv li romani
61 imp maximianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
62 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
63 imp maximianvs p f avg image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
64–68 imp maximianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
69 imp maximianvs avg image p genio popv li romani
70–108 imp maximianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
109 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani
110–247 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
248–249 imp maximianvs p f avg image p genio popv li romani
250 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
251 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani (altar)
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.30 299–303 ——; V. '18, p. 182 (and Pl. XI, 5).
image 8.60 299–301? C. 159; V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.65 303 ——; V. '18, p. 182 (and Pl. XXV).
image 8.40 303 C. 418; V. '18, p. 182.
image 8.60 303 C. 421 (var.); V. '18, p. 182.
image 9.00 303–304 C. 189; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.75 303–304 C. 191 (var.); V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.20 303–304 C. 191; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.90 303–304 C. 192; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.55 303–304 C. 418; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.25–11.70 304–305 C. 189; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 11.50 304–305 C. 189 (var.); V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.75–11.20 304–305 C. 191; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.95 304–305 C. 192; V. '18. pp. 182–3.
image 8.05–13.70 304–305 C. 192; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.55, 10.90 304–305 C. 192 (var.); V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.80 304–305 C. 212; see above, p. 8.
image 10.25 304–305 C. 212; see above, p. 8.
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
252–377 d n maximiano baeatissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
378–514 d n maximiano felicissimo sen avg image r providentia deorvm qvies avgg
515 d n maximiano p f s avg image p genio popv li romani
516 d n maximiano p f s avg image c genio pop rom
517–520 d n maximiano p f s avg image c genio pop rom
521–522 d n maximiano p f s avg image p genio pop rom
523–535 imp c m avrel val maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop rom
536–559 imp c val maximianvs p f aug image c genio pop rom
TICINUM
560 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
561 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
562 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
563 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
564 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
565 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
566–567 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
568 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 7.85–12.50 305 C. 490, 491; V. '18, p. 183.
image 7.00–13.70 305 C. 489, 493; V. '18, p. 183.
image 7.70 307 C. 223 (var.); V. '18, p. 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 6.70 307 C. 142; V. '18, p 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 6.80–8.10 307 C. 142; V. '18, p. 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 7.70, 8.20 307 C. 142; V. '18, p. 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 6.60–9.65 307 C. 141; V. '18, p. 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 4.70–8.00 307 C. 140; V. '18, p. 184; S. pp. 154–5.
image 9.90 300–301? C. 179.
image 9.80 301–302? C. 179.
image 7.95 302–303? C. 179.
image 8.75 302–303? C. 179.
image 9.50 303–304? C. 503.
image 8.70 303–304? C. 503.
image 8.90, 9.40 304–305? C. 503.
image 9.50 304–305? C. 503.
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
569–571 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
572 imp maximtanvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
ROMA
573 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
574 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
575–576 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
577 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
578 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
579–581 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
582 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
583 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
584–586 imp c maximianvs p f avg image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
AQUILEIA
587–588 imp maximianvs p f avg image genio popv li romani
589 imp maximianvs p f avg image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.25–9.15 304–305? C. 503.
image 8.10 304–305? C. 504.
image 8.60 296–? C. 179; V. '25, p. 10.
image 11.10 296–? C. 179; V. '25, p. 10.
image 10.50, 10.55 ?–305 C. 179; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.50 303–305 C. 505; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.45 303–305 C. 505; V. '25, p. 12.
image 7.65–10.70 303–305 C. 505; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.40 303–305 C. 502; V. '25, p. 12.
image 1 9.55 303–305 C. 502; V. '25, p. 12.
image 7.45–11.15 303–305 C. 502; V. '25, p. 12.
image 8.90, 9.95 301 C. 159; V. '23, p. 2.
image 10.60 304 C. 504; V. '23, p. 2.
MAXIMIAN
No. Obverse Reverse
SISCIA
590 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
591 imp c maximianvs p f avg image genio pop vli romani
CARTHAGO
592 imp maximianvs p f avg image felix adv ent avgg nn
593 imp maximianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess avcta kart
594–595 imp maximianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
596 imp maximianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
597–601 imp maximianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
MAXIMIAN
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 9.85 ca. 300 C. 179; V. '20, p. 102.
image 10.60 ca. 300 C. 179; V. '20, p. 102.
image 9.65 296 C. 106; E. p. 26, No. 18.
image 9.10 297–298 or 299 C. 509; E. pp. 27–8, No. 39.
image 8.50, 8.95 297–298 or 299 C. 510; E. pp. 27–8, No. 34.
image 9.50 298 or 299–304 C. 510; E. p. 28. No. 42 (hybrid).
image 7.45–9.70 298 or 299–304 C. 510; E. p. 28, No. 42.
CONSTANTIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
LONDINIUM
1–5 constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
6 constantivs nob caes image c genio popv li romani
7–8 constantivs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
9 fl val constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
10 imp constantivs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
11 imp constantivs pivs fel aug image c genio popv li romani
LUGDUNUM
12 fl val constantivs nob c image genio popv li romani
13 constantivs nob caes image genio pop vli romani
14 constantivs nob caes image genio pop vli romani
15–16 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
17 constantivs nob caes image genio pop vli romani (altar)
18 constantivs nob c image genio pop vli romani (altar)
19 constantivs nob cs image c genio popv li romani (altar)
20–22 constantivs nob caes robe, sceptre image genio pop vli romani (altar)
23–24 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
25–27 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
28–30 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
CONSTANTIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 9.60–11.45 297–303 C. 72; L. pp. 242–3.
image 7.90 303–304 C. 62; L. p. 243.
image 8.95, 10.00 303–304 C. 77; L. p. 243.
image 9.30 303–304 C. 84; L. p. 243.
image 9.60 305–306 C. 95.
image 9.40 305–306 C. 98.
image 9.70 295–296 C. 83; L. pp. 240–1.
image 7.90 296–297 C. 61; V. '17, p. 27; L. p. 242.
image 7.70 298–299 C. 61; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.80, 10.50 298–299 C. 61; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.40 299–300 C. 130.
image 7.70 299–300 Unpublished (see above, p. 9).
image 10.30 300–302? C. 138; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.35–12.15 300–303 ——; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.80, 10.75 303–304 C. 120; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.50–10.85 303–304 C. 120; V. '17, p. 27.
image 8.70–10.45 303–304 C. 121; V. '17, p. 27.
CONSTANTIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
31 constantivs nob caes image c genio po pvli romani (altar)
32–33 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
34 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
35 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
36 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
37 constantivs nob caes image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
38–39 imp constantivs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
40 imp constantivs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
41–47 imp constantivs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
TREVIRI
48 constantivs nobil c image genio popv li romani
49–51 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
52–54 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
55–56 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
57–58 constantivs nobil c image genio popv li romani
59 constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
CONSTANTIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 12.80 303–304 C. 121; V. '17, p. 27.
image 7.70, 9.55 303–304 C. 121; V. '17, p. 27.
image 10.40 304–305 C. 120; V. '17, p. 28.
image 10.30 304–305 C. 120; V. '17, p. 28.
image 10.30 304–305 C. 121; V. '17, p. 28.
image 7.80 304–305 C. 121; V. '17, p. 28.
image 9.10, 10.20 305–306 C. 141; V. '17, p. 28.
image 9.50 305–306 C. 141; V. '17, p. 28.
image 8.75–11.15 305–306 ——; V. '17, p. 28.
image 9.80 296 C. 79; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 241.
image 5.90–9.75 296–297 C. 61; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 242.
image 8.95–10.50 296–297 C. 61; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 242.
image 6.90–8.55 296–297 C. 61; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 242.
image 8.80, 9.90 296–297 C. 79; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 242.
image 10.20 297–298 C. 72; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 242
CONSTANTIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
60–61 constantivs nobil, c image genio popv li romani
62 constantivs nobil c image genio popv li romani
63 fl val constantivs nob c image ? genio popv li romani
64 fl val constantivs nob c image genio popv li romani
65 fl val constantivs n c spear, shield image p genio popv li romani
66 fl val constantivs nob c helm., rt., c. genio popv li romani
67 constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
68 constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
69 constantivs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
70 constantivs nobil c image p genio popv li romani
71 fl val constantivs nobil c image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
72–74 constantivs nob c image c genio popv li romani
75–79 constantivs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
80–159 imp constantivs avg image c genio popv li romani
160–174 imp constantivs p avg image c genio popv li romani
175–226 imp constantivs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
227–255 divo constantio pio shroud, robe image memoria felix
TICINUM
256 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
257 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
258–259 constantivs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
CONSTANTIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 10.30, 10.70 299–301? C. 79; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 8.90 299–301? C. 79; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.25 299–301? C. 83?; V. '18. p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.70 299–301? C. 86; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 8.55 299–303 C. 82 (var.); V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 7.85 299–303 C. 85; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 7.15 300–303 C. 62; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.30 303–304 C. 104; V. '18, pp. 182–3; L. p. 243.
image 11.75 303–304 C. 109; V. '18, pp. 182–3; L. p. 243.
image 8.10 303–304 ——; V. '18, pp. 182–3; L. p. 243.
image 8.90 303–304 ——; V. '18, pp. 182–3; L. p. 243.
image 8.85–9.95 304–305 C. 104; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.40–10.70 304–305 C. 109; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.80–12.50 305–306 C. 114; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.50–11.30 305–306 C. 115; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.90–12.00 305–306 C. 116; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 5.10–10.00 306 C. 181.
image 10.10 301–302? C. 61.
image 9.30 302–303? C. 61.
image 8.20, 10.35 303–304? C. 264.
CONSTANTIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
260 constantivs nob cabs image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
261–262 constantivs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
263–266 constantivs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
267–268 imp constantivs p f avg image fides m ilitvm
269 imp constantivs p f avg image fides m ilitvm
ROMA
270 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
271–273 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
274 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
275 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
276 constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
277–279 constantivs nob caes image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
280–282 constantivs nob caes image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
283–284 constantivs nob caes image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
285 constantivs nob caes image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
286 constantivs nob caes image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
287 constantivs nob caes image sacra mon vrb avgg et cabss nn
CONSTANTIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 11.95 304–305? C. 264.
image 7.30, 9.95 304–305? C. 264.
image 9.50–11.90 304–305? C. 264.
image 8.00, 9.25 305–306 C. 41.
image 11.30 305–306 C. 41.
image 8.75 296–? C. 61; V. '25, p. 11.
image 7.30–11.05 ?–305 C. 61; V. '25, p. 12.
image 11.30 ?–305 C. 61; V. '25, p. 12.
image 8.65 ?–305 C. 64; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.70 ?–305 C. 61; V. '25, p. 12.
image 7.75–9.30 303–305 C. 267; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.00–11.90 303–305 C. 267; V. '25, p. 12.
image 7.15, 9.00 303–305 C. 267; V. '25, p. 12.
image 8.85 303–305 C. 263; V. '25, p. 12.
image 7.30 303–305 C. 263; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.70 303–305 C. 267; V. '25, p. 12.
CONSTANTIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
288–289 constantivs nob caes image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
290 imp constantivs p f avg image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
ANTIOCHIA
291 fl val constantivs nob caes image genio popv li romani
CARTHAGO
292 constantivs nob caes image felix adve nt avgg nn
293 constantivs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess avcta kart
294–301 constantivs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
302 constantivs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
303 constantivs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
CONSTANTIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.70, 9.50 303–305 C. 263; V. '25, p. 12.
image 9.95 305–306 C. 261; see above, p. 9.
image 7.95 304–305 C. 89; V. '17, p. 12.
image 9.90 296 C. 35; E. p. 26, No. 19.
image 8.95 297–298 or 299 C. 270; E. pp. 27–28, No. 39.
image 8.95–11.30 297–304 C. 271; E. pp. 27–28, Nos. 35 and 43.
image 9.25 297–304 C. 271; E. pp. 27–28, No. 35.
image 9.20 298 or 299–304 C. 271; E. pp. 27–28, No. 43 (hybrid).
GALERIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
LONDINIUM
1–2 maximianvs nob caes image c genio popv li romani
LUGDUNUM
3 c val maximianvs nob c image genio pop vli romani
4 c val maximianvs nob c image genio popv li romani
5 c val maximianvs caes image genio popv li romani
6 c val maximianvs caes image genio pop vli romani
7 c val maximianvs nob c image genio popv li romani
8–9 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
10 maximianvs nob caes image genio pop vli romani (altar)
11 maximianvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
12–17 maximianvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
18 maximianvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
19 maximianvs nob c image p genio pop vli romani (altar)
20 maximianvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
21–22 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
23–25 imp maximianvs avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
26–27 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
GALERIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.90, 10.00 297–303 C. 57; L. pp. 242–3.
image 10.30 295–296 C. 74; L. p. 240.
image 10.45 295–296 C. 74; L. p. 240.
image 9.40 295–296 C. 72; V. '17, p. 26; L. p. 241.
image 8.45 295–296 C. 72; V. '17, p. 26; L. p. 241.
image 9.30 295–296 C. 74; V. '17. p. 26; L. p. 241.
image 8.55, 10.15 298–299 C. 56; V. '17, p. 27; L. p. 243.
image 10.95 300–302? C. 101; V. '17, p. 27.
image 9.20 303–304 C. 92; V. '17, p. 27.
image 6.40–12.35 303–304 C. 92; V. '17, p. 27.
image 7.80 303–304 C. 93; V. '17, p. 27.
image 10.25 304–305 C. 92 (var.); V. '17, p. 28.
image 9.95 304–305 C. 93; V. '17, p. 28.
image 7.75, 9.75 305–306 C. (M.H.) 198; V. '17, p. 28.
image 9.55–11.40 305–306 C. (M.H.) 199; V. '17, p. 28.
image 8.70, 9.10 306–307 C. (M.H.) 212; V. '17, p. 28.
GALERIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
28–33 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
34–38 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
39 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop rom
TREVIRI
40 c val maximianvs nob c image genio pop vli romani
41–42 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
43 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
44 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
45–47 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
48 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
49 maximianvs nobil c image genio popv li romani
50 maximianvs nobil caes image genio popv li romani
51 maximianvs nobil caes image genio popv li romani
52 maximianvs nobil c draped image c genio popv li romani
53 maximianvs nob caes image m sacra avgg et caess nn
54 maximianvs nob caes image c moneta s avgg et caess nn
55 maximianvs nob c image c genio popv li romani
56 maximianvs nob c image c genio popv li romani
57–58 maximianvs nob caes image c genio popv li romani
GALERIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 6.40–9.30 307 C. (M.H.) 212; V. '17, p. 29.
image 6.80–7.10 307 C. (M.H.) 214; V. '17, p. 29.
image 9.05 307 C. (M.H.) 138; V. '17, p. 29.
image 9.95 295–296 C. 74; V. '18, p. 181; L. p. 241.
image 8.50, 10.30 296 C. 56; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 241.
image 9.40 296 C. 56; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 241.
image 12.00 296–297 C. 56; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 7.85–9.05 296–297 C. 56; V. '18, p. 182; L. pp. 242–3.
image 9.50 299–301? C. 56; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.85 299–301? C. 64; V. '18, p. 182, L. p. 243.
image 9.25 299–301? C. 68; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 10.45 299–301? ——; V. '18, p. 182 and Pl. XIII, 3; L. p. 243.
image 9.85 299–303 C. 65; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.45 303 C. 149; V. '18 p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 8.40 303 C. 144; V. '18, p. 182; L. p. 243.
image 9.45 303–304 C. 89; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.60 303–304 C. 89; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 7.40, 8.75 303–304 C. 88; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
GALERIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
59–60 maximianvs nob caes image c genio popv li romani
61 maximianvs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
62–67 maximianvs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
68–71 maximianvs nobil c image c genio popv li romani
72 maximianvs nobil c draped image genio popv li romani
73 imp maximianvs avg image c genio popv li romani
74–83 imp maximianvs p avg image c genio popv li romani
84–195 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
196 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
197–198 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop rom
199–201 imp maximianvs p f avg image c genio pop rom
TICINUM
202–204 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
205 maximianvs nob c image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
206–209 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
210–213 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
214 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
215 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
GALERIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.65, 9.85 303–304 C. 88; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 10.80 303–304 C. 83; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.35–12.40 303–304 C. 83; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 8.00–9.25 304–305 C. 83; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 11.65 304–305 C. 83; V. '18, pp. 182–3.
image 9.90 305–307 C. (M.H.) 189; V. '18, p. 183.
image 8.40–11.15 305–307 C. (M.H.) 191; V. '18, p. 183.
image 8.20–12.15 305–307 C. (M.H.) 192; V. '18, p. 183.
image 7.80 307 C. (M.H.) 192; V. '18, p. 184.
image 6.25, 7.30 307 C. (M.H.) 138; V. '18. p. 184.
image 7.25–8.15 307 C. (M.H.) 138; V. '18, p. 184.
image 9.60–11.80 303–304? C. 188.
image 9.10 304–305? Unpublished (see above, p. 9).
image 8.45–12.00 304–305? C. 188.
image 8.85–10.40 304–305? C. 188.
image 10.00 304–305? C. 188.
image 8.45 304–305? C. 188.
GALERIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
216 imp c maximianvs p f avg image fides m ilitvm
217–218 imp c maximianvs p f avg image fides m i litvm
219 imp c maximianvs p f avg image fides m i litvm
220 imp c maximianvs p f avg image fides m i litvm
ROMA
221 gal val maximianvs nob c image genio popv li romani
222 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
223 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
224 maximianvs nob caes image sacra mon vrb avgg et caess nn
AQUILEIA
225 maximianvs nob caes image sacra monet avgg et caess nostr
CARTHAGO
226 maximianvs nob caes image felix adv ent avgg nn
227 maximianvs nob caes image felix adve nt avgg nn
228–229 maximianvs nob caes image felix ad v ent avgg nn
230 maximianvs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess avcta kart
231–232 maximianvs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
233–235 maximianvs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
GALERIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 11.20 305–307 C. (M.H.) 114.
image 9.35, 9.63 305–307 C. (M.H.) 114.
image 10.00 307 C. (M.H.) 114.
image 9.95 307 C. (M.H.) 114.
image 7.95 296–? C. 75; V. '25, p. 11.
image 7.65 296–? C. 56; V. '25, p. 11.
image 10.25 ?–305 C. 56; V. '25, p. 12.
image 8.20 303–305 C. 189; V. '25, p. 12.
image 12.20 303 C. 188; V. '23, p. 2.
image 9.70 296 ——; E. p. 26, No. 20.
image 9.70 297 ——; E. p. 26, No. 28.
image 9.10 9.25 297 ——; E. p. 26, No. 32.
image 9.45 297–298 or 299 C. 190; E. pp. 27–28, No. 40.
image 7.45, 8.65 297–298 or 299 C. 191; E. pp. 27–28, No. 36.
image 8.10–9.15 298 or 299–304 C. 191; E. p. 28. No. 44 (hybrid) 1
GALERIUS
No. Obverse Reverse
236–237 maximianvs nob cabs image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
238–243 maximianvs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
244–245 imp maximianvs p f avg image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
[UNATTRIBUTED]
246 maximianvs nob caes image genio popv li romani
SEVERUS II
LONDINIUM
1–3 severvs nobilis c image p genio popv li romani
4 severvs nobilissimvs c image p genio popv li romani
5 severvs nobiussimvs caes image p genio popv li romani
LUGDUNUM
6–8 severvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
9 fl val severvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
10 fl val severvs nob c image c genio pop vli romani (altar)
11 fl val severvs nob c image c genio popv li romani (altar)
TREVIRI
12–72 fl val severvs nob c image c genio popv li romani
73–75 fl val severvs nob caes image c genio popv li romani
GALERIUS
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 8.55 298 or 299–304 C. 191; E. p. 28, No. 44 (hybrid)
image 7.45–10.45 298 or 299–304 C 191; E. p. 28. No. 44.
image 8.15, 9.20 305–306 C. (M.H.) 510; E. p. 30, No 64.
image 7.20 ca. 300 C. 56 (see above, p. 11).
image 8.70–11.10 305–306 C. 21.
image 10.15 305–306 C. 23.
image 8.90 305–306 C. 24.
image 8.35–10.60 305–306 C. 43; V. '17, p. 28.
image 10.90 305–306 C. 44; V. '17, p. 28.
image 11.40 305–306 C. 44; V. '17, p. 28.
image 10.80 305–306 C. 44; V. '17, p. 28.
image 7.00–12.20 305–306 C. 36; V. '18, p. 183.
image 9.45–10.50 305–306 C. 39; V. '18, p. 183.
No. Obverse Reverse
76–138 fl, val severvs nobil c image c or p genio popv li romani
139–237 imp severvs p f avg image c genio popv li romani
238–248 imp severvs pivs avg image c genio popv li romani
249–261 imp severvs pivs f avg image c genio popv li romani
TICINUM
262 severvs nob caesar image virtvs av gg et caess nn
ROMA
263 severvs nob caes image sac mon vrb avgg et caess nn
CARTHAGO
264 fl val severvs nob caes image salvis avgg et caess fel kart
MAXIMINUS DAZA
LONDINIUM
1 maximinvs nobilis c image c genio popv li romani
2 maximinvs nobilissimvs caes image p genio popv li romani
3 gal val maximinvs nob c image c genio pop rom
LUGDUNUM
4 maximinvs nob c image p and c genio pop vli romani (altar)
5 maximinvs nob c image p and c genio pop vli romani (altar)
Mint Marks Weight (grams) Date (A. D.) References
image 7.50–12.60 305–306 C. 37; V. '18, p. 183.
image 7.60–12.65 306–307 C. 40; V. '18, p. 183.
image 8.55–10.90 306–307 Unpublished for Treviri (see above, p. 9).
image 8.45–12.20 306–307 Unpublished for Treviri (see above, p. 9).
image 9.10 305–306 C. 70.
image 9.70 305–306 C. 62.
image 6.35 305–306 C. 64; E. p. 30. No. 65 (hybrid complementary to E. note 14).
image 10.55 305–307 C. 75.
image 8.55 305–307 C. 79.
image 9.20 307 C. 56; cf. infra, Nos. 19, 290–291.
image 9.45 305–306