Medals of the United States Army Medical Department and Medals Honoring Army Medical Officers

Author
Hume, Edgar Erskine, 1889-1952
Series
Numismatic Notes and Monographs
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works
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HathiTrust

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INTRODUCTION

This study considers only medals that have been awarded in recognition of scientific or academic attainment. Consideration of decorations conferred for bravery or distinguished service forms no part of this work. In 1924 the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States published "The Medical Book of Merit: United States Army and Navy Decorations Awarded Medical Officers for Distinguished Service in the World War" (Washington, pp. 69) which may be consulted for the histories and illustrations of such decorations together with the citations of medical officers of the Army and Navy for World War Service.

The difficulty experienced by the author in obtaining data about the medals described herewith and the even greater task of securing photographs of each medal, convinces him that this is a neglected subject, though surely of considerable numismatic interest. About half of these medals are not represented in the numismatic collection of the Army Medical Museum of Washington, though it is one of the most complete of its kind.

My thanks are due to the Curator of the Army Medical Museum, my classmate and longtime friend, Colonel James Earle Ash, Medical Corps, U. S. Army; Mr. Roy M. Reeve, in charge of the photographic laboratory of the museum; the possessors of the several medals who have permitted photographs to be made; to the Executive Secretary of the Asso- ciation of Military Surgeons of the United States, Mr. Stuart Early Womeldorph; the Commandants and Directors of the several schools of the Medical Department for historical and other material from their records, viz: Brigadier-General Addison D. Davis, Assistant Surgeon-General, U. S. Army, Commandant of the Medical Field Service School; Colonel George Russell Callender, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, Director of the Army Medical School (himself the first Sternberg Medalist); Colonel Frederick Bancroft Wright, Director of the Army Dental School; Lieutenant-Colonel Ralph B. Stewart, Director of the Army Veterinary School; Colonel Julia O. Flikke, Superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps; and Mr. George Albert Scheirer of the Surgeon-General's Office, War Department, who has searched the records for pertinent data and whose account of the medals of the several schools appeared in the Army Medical Bulletin No. 33, October 1935; the Rev. David V. McCauley, S. J., Dean of the School of Medicine of Georgetown University has kindly given me full information anent the two Kober Medals with copies of each, which I have deposited in the Army Medical Museum; Dr. Henry E. Meleney, of the Department of Preventive Medicine of New York City University, chairman of the Committee of the American Society of Tropical Medicine which arranged the details of the design and awards of the Walter Reed Medal, and Dr. E. Harold Hinman, Secretary of that Society, have given me full data about the Walter Reed and Ashford Medals, while Mr. W. A. Jamieson, Director of the Biological Division of Eli Lilly and Company gave me a photograph of the Ashford Medal.

Edgar Erskine Hume
Colonel, Medical Corps, U. S. Army


PART I MEDALS OF THE SCHOOLS OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. ARMY

The Medical Department of the United States Army, like all other branches of our military service, maintains certain schools for the training of its officers and men. Such schools form a part of the Army's educational program in effect in both peace and war.

While other branches of the Army have schools long in existence, the Medical Department claims the oldest of those which have continued since their institution with unchanged objectives. There were three service schools in the United States Army when the Army Medical School was established. The oldest, the Artillery School of Instruction at Ft. Monroe, Virginia, was founded in 1824. It is now continued as the Coast Artillery School. The second school in age was the School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, founded at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas in 1881. It continues as the Command and General Staff School. The third school, the School of Instruction for Drill and Practice for Cavalry and Light Artillery, was founded at Ft. Riley, Kansas, in 1887. It continues as the Cavalry School. All three schools have changed radically in scope of instruction given.

Thus, while the Cavalry School and the Coast Artillery School are the successors of schools that were founded before the Army Medical School, they are very different from their forerunners. The Army Medical School during its forty-nine years of existence has served always for the preparation of medical officers for the duties that devolve upon them in the military service. Such duties embrace the practice of medicine, not very different from civil practice, and in addition the exercise of a definite medical specialty—military medicine. That is a specialty that suffers from a handicap that is not faced by other specialties. In the past, particularly before the Army Medical School was founded, the lessons learned by military surgeons in the fierce light of war itself were forgotten before the outbreak of the next war. Thereafter they had to be learned anew, and again in the hard way. It was to preserve such hard-won learning and to foster research in military medicine that the Army Medical School was established.

The Medical Department of the United States Army is composed of the Surgeon-General, a Major-General; his four Assistants, Brigadier-Generals; the Medical Corps; the Dental Corps; the Veterinary Corps; the Medical Administrative Corps and the Nurse Corps. All of these five corps exist in the Regular Army and the National Guard. In addition there is in the Reserve a Sanitary Corps, composed of specialists in sanitation. All of the above are officers. Enlisted men of the Medical Department were formerly known as the Hospital Corps, a term now out of use in the Army, though retained in the Navy. The Enlisted Men, Medical Department, are of the following eleven grades: Master Sergeant, First Sergeant, Technical Sergeant, Staff Sergeant, Technician Third Grade, Sergeant, Technician Fourth Grade, Corporal, Technician Fifth Grade, Private First Class and Private.

The Medical Department of the Army maintains certain special service schools, as they are known. Each is designed to give special instruction to officers and men of the Department. It will be understood that all schools for officers are "graduate schools" in the sense that only graduates of professional schools are admitted. Thus, only Doctors of Medicine, Doctors of Dental Surgery (or Doctors of Dental Medicine) and Doctors of Veterinary Medicine are under instruction at the respective Army schools. None of the Army schools gives degrees or in any way compares in scope with the professional schools and universities of the country.

The Schools of the Medical Department are:

The Army Medical School (established 1893).

The Army School of Nursing (established 1918).

The Medical Field Service School (established 1920).

The Army Dental School (established 1921).

The Army Veterinary School (established 1922).

The School of Aviation Medicine (established 1922).

There have been medals created as awards for academic attainment at all of the above schools, except the School of Aviation Medicine.

These medals have, without exception, been established by private gift, though accepted by the War Department and given official recognition. Winners of the medals are listed as "medalists" in the Official Army Register. The medals, almost without exception, have been awarded not oftener than annually, in each case. But in some years the regular courses of instruction have been altered or omitted, so that the average has been less than one award per year for each medal.

The Army Medical School

The Army Medical School originated in the mind of Surgeon-General William Alexander Hammond (1828–1900), who held office at the period of the War Between the States. He had gone so far with the plan as to select the professors, outline the course of instruction, and provide lecture rooms and laboratories. However, he failed to obtain the approval of the Secretary of War, Honorable Edward McMasters Stanton, and the school never materialized in his time. This much regretted delay was due, probably, to the personal hostility of Mr. Stanton to General Hammond, whom he had tried by court martial and dismissed from the service on a technical charge. Hammond was later exonorated. So this act of Mr. Stanton's must be charged against his record, along with his disloyalty to President Lincoln.

Shortly after George Miller Sternberg (1838–1915), took office as Surgeon-General of the Army in 1893, he created the Army Medical School, being more fortunate than Hammond, and having the support of the Secretary of War, Honorable Daniel Scott Lamont.

Not only is the Army Medical School the oldest of the Army service schools; it also possesses the oldest medal awarded for high academic standing, the Hoff Medal. Most of the line special service schools do not have such medals, though there are two exceptions. The Knox Medal is awarded at the Field Artillery School, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, to the non-commissioned officer making the best showing at the enlisted specialists communications course. A privately endowed Leadership Trophy is presented at the Cavalry School, Fort Riley, Kansas.

The Army Medical School is in Washington. It was at first conducted in the Army Medical Library and Museum building at 7th Street and Independence Avenue (formerly B Street), Southwest. Later rented quarters were provided and finally in 1922 the large building for the school was completed near the Walter Reed Hospital. These two institutions, and other schools of the Medical Department to be mentioned presently, constitute the Army Medical Center.

The Army Veterinary School

Prior to the National Defense Act of 1916 there was no Veterinary Corps in the United States Army. Veterinarians, but without military rank, were attached theretofore to regiments of Cavalry and Field Artillery, and to the Quartermaster Corps. The National Defense Act created a Veterinary Corps as one of the several corps of the Medical Department and transferred to it the veterinarians of Cavalry, Field Artillery and Quartermaster Corps.

A school for veterinary officers, known as The Veterinary School of Meat and Dairy Hygiene, was created in 1920 and announced in War Department Circular No. 271, 16 July, 1920. It was located at the General Supply Depot, Chicago, and formed a part of the scheme of Medical Department training under the Surgeon-General.

Under authority of Army Regulations 350–105, the school was removed to Washington and made a part of the Army Medical Center. Its name was changed to the Army Veterinary School on 11 February, 1922. The removal from Chicago to Washington was authorized by the War Department on 7 July, 1923.

The courses of instruction at the Army Veterinary School are to veterinary officers what those at the Army Medical School are to medical officers, and those at the Army Dental School to dental officers. The three schools are in one building and much of the instruction is common to all three, thereby effecting a saving of time for all concerned.

The Army Dental School

The Army Dental School, now one of the units of the group known as the Medical Department Pro- fessional Schools, was created in 1921, the first class graduating in 1922. The school was first housed in a temporary building at the Army Medical Center, but with the completion of the new building of the Army Medical School and other professional schools of the Medical Department, it has been conducted in this modern and entirely adequate building.

The Army Dental School is to the Dental Corps what the Army Medical School is to the Medical Corps. The courses of instruction are similar, with certain obvious differences due to the type of duty performed by the officers of the respective corps. The students at the Army Dental School, together with those of the Army Veterinary School, receive part of their training in the same classes as the officers of the Army Medical School. This is a saving of time for the instructors and also in the use of equipment.

The Army Dental School offers courses for both officers and enlisted men, the latter being trained as dental technicians.

The Medical Field Service School

The Medical Field Service School was established by the War Department on 30 June, 1920, upon the recommendation of the Surgeon-General, Major-General Merritte Weber Ireland. It is located at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. This is one of the oldest posts in the United States Army, having been in continuous military use since its establishment in 1752 by the British Army. Several earlier schools have been conducted at this historic post, including the School for Artillerists, established at the time of the Revolution, the School for Dragoons, established after the War of 1812, a School for Veterinarians conducted after the Civil War, and the Carlisle Indian Industrial School maintained from 1879 to 1918. One of the buildings was erected in 1777 by Hessian prisoners of war captured by General Washington at the battle of Trenton.

The post was used during the World War as a General Hospital and has been under control of the Medical Department of the Army ever since. Its purpose, as the Medical Field Service School, is to train officers and men of the Medical Department in their duties in the field, in both peace and war. Among the subjects taught are tactics, map reading, field sanitation, logistics, military art, training of enlisted personnel, and administration. With the graduation of the Officers' Classes and the Officer Candidate Classes by the middle of the year 1942, the total number of graduates of the Medical Field Service School, including summer camps, is brought up to over twenty-two thousand. The scope of the Medical Field Service School's teaching is summed up in its motto: "To conserve fighting strength."

There are several courses of instruction. The basic course is for junior officers who have just come into the regular service. It is discontinued for the period of the emergency. The advanced course, also temporarily discontinued, is for senior officers soon to come up for promotion examinations. The non-commissioned officers' course is still given. As emergency courses there are a series of short officers' courses, as they are now called, in which officers receive general instruction for about two months. There is now also a course for selected non-commissioned officers, and a few privates, of the Medical Department to qualify them for commissions in the Medical Administrative Corps. Besides these courses there are summer camps in normal times for students of the Reserve Officers Training Corps, and Reserve and National Guard officers.

The School of Aviation Medicine

The School of Aviation Medicine, established 8 November, 1922, is the successor of the Medical Research Laboratory, created during the World War for the study of problems relating to the medical side of aviation. The school trains flight surgeons. It is now located at Randolph Field, Texas. It is not considered here in detail as it awards no medals.

The Army School of Nursing

On 25 May, 1918 the Secretary of War, Hon. Newton Diehl Baker, approved the recommendation of the Surgeon-General of the Army, Major-General William Crawford Gorgas, that there be established the Army School of Nursing, in connection with the Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, "as a method of providing for the rapid expansion of skilled nursing service that the continuation of the war will inevitably demand." Thus the school was an emergency institution growing out of the World War.

The Army Nurse Corps is one of the several corps of the Medical Department of the Army, its status being similar to that of the Medical Corps, the Dental Corps, the Veterinary Corps, the Sanitary Corps and the Medical Administrative Corps. Plans for the Army School of Nursing were made by a board consisting of Colonels William H. Moncrief, Percy M. Ashburn, Warfield T. Longcope, Charles H. Mayo, Winford H. Smith and Robert E. Noble. These were approved by General Gorgas and the school began its work amid the rush and needs of a great war. Besides the senior medical officers just named, several leaders of the nursing profession of America assisted, including Jane Delano, Chairman of the American Red Cross Nursing Service; Dora Thompson, Superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps; S. Lillian Clayton, President of the National League of Nursing Education; and Elizabeth C. Burgess and Annie W. Goodrich, Inspecting Nurses.

The school was organized in three bureaus: (1) General Information, (2) Credentials and (3) Inspection. There were nine members of the professional staff and a clerical staff of thirty. An advisory council of distinguished medical and nursing personnel was appointed by General Gorgas. The faculty comprised the nurse directors and instructors, the medical lecturers and such other assistants as were required in the development of the school. The active support of the American Red Cross was given from the start. Arrangements were made for certain phases of the training to be given at hospitals other than the Walter Reed, where such other institutions had greater facilities for teaching. Thus, in obstetrics, gyn�cology, and p�diatrics, particularly, the instruction was given in the Philadelphia General Hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and others.

The work of the Army School of Nursing was of the highest quality and its graduates have stood well in their profession both in and out of the military service. The school was discontinued in 1933 by order of Surgeon-General Robert U. Patterson, because there was no need for the Army to train nurses when more than the number needed could be obtained from civil training schools. The school was not abolished, merely closed for the time being. It may be opened again should a need arise, which may well be the case during the present war.

THE HOFF MEDAL

(Army Medical School)

The oldest of the medals, presented as awards for academic attainment to graduates of the several schools of the Medical Department of the Army, is the Hoff Medal. It is still awarded, though during the present war such prizes are in abeyance as the regular classes are not being graduated at the Army Medical School. The Hoff Medal is only five years younger than the Army Medical School itself and it is by far the senior medal of the Medical Department.

The Hoff Medal was established by Major, later Colonel, John Van Rensselaer Hoff, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, in memory of his late father, Surgeon and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Henry Hoff, U. S. Army.

On 28 October, 1897 Major Hoff, by letter to the Surgeon-General, Brigadier-General George Miller Sternberg, offered to establish a gold medal, in honor of his father, to be awarded annually to the graduate of the Army Medical School standing highest in his class.

To endow the prize he offered to deposit in the Treasury of the United States, if authorized by Congress, the sum of one thousand dollars, to be known as the Hoff Memorial Fund, the interest on which would be applied to the cost of the Hoff Medal. In the absence of such Congressional authority, which the law requires before the Government may accept private gifts, Major Hoff offered to supply the medal for the coming session of the Army Medical School.

On 5 November, 1897, the President of the Army Medical School, Colonel Charles Henry Alden, replied on behalf of the Surgeon-General, and accepted Major Hoff's gift of the medal for the next session of the Army Medical School. He stated that amid the press of government business it would be all but impossible to obtain an Act of Congress authorizing the acceptance of the Hoff Memorial Fund, but suggested, as an alternative, that a trust fund be established with a trust company, to provide for the annual cost of the Hoff Medal. The Secretary of the Treasury approved of this arrangement, and authorized the preparation of the dies at the United States Mint at Philadelphia. The Surgeon-General offered the Director of the Mint suggestions for the design of the medal.

The first award of the Hoff Medal was made to the class of 1898 at the Army Medical School. Between that time and 1900 attempts were made to obtain Congressional authority for the acceptance of the Hoff Memorial Fund. Though the plan had the support of the Surgeon-General, Congressional authority was not forthcoming.

Colonel Hoff continued to donate the cost of the medal, approximately forty dollars, annually. On 24 May, 1905, he announced that he had made provision in his will for a perpetual trust to provide for a Hoff Medal annually. He died in 1920 and in that year Mrs. Hoff provided the medal.

Colonel Hoff's will, dated 24 December, 1911, named as his executors the Metropolitan Trust Company of New York City and Russell M. Johnstone of Albany. It established the trust for the annual striking of the Hoff Medal in the following terms: "Second. I give and bequeath to the Metropolitan Trust Company of the City of New York City the sum of fifteen hundred dollars in trust nevertheless, to hold and to invest and from time to time to reinvest, to collect the income to be derived from said fifteen hundred dollars and, after deducting the legal expenses of executing said trust, to pay the net income therefrom on the 31st day of December in each and every year to the Surgeon-General of the United States Army, for the purchase of a gold medal by him, of that value, to be known as the Alexander H. Hoff Memorial Medal, in memory of my father the late Brevet Colonel Alexander H. Hoff, Medical Department, United States Army, which medal is to be awarded annually to the student standing highest in the graduation class of the Army Medical School. Should the present Army Medical School be merged into a public service medical school, said medal shall follow; but should said medal not be awarded for ten consecutive years, then and in that case said trust is to cease and determine and I direct my said Trustee to pay over the principal constituting said trust fund, with all income in its hands, to the Trustee of the Fund for Widows and Orphans of deceased clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. In the event of my establishing in my life-time a trust fund for the purpose specified in this paragraph of my last will and testament, then this paragraph is to be void and said sum of fifteen hundred (1500) dollars shall sink into and form a part of my residuary estate."

Surgeon Hoff, whom the Medal Honors

Alexander Henry Hoff was born in Philadelphia, 18 December, 1822, a descendant of a Colonial family of New Jersey. He graduated at the Jefferson Medical College, 1843, and practiced in New York City State, where he was interested in military medicine from an early date. From 1854 to 1856 he was Surgeon-General of New York City. He was commissioned Surgeon of the Third New York City Infantry, 14 May, 1861, and had his baptism of fire at Big Bethel, where a lantern was shot out of his hand. On 3 August, 1861 he was commissioned Brigade Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers, and became director of the fleet of floating hospitals on the Mississippi. He was a skillful operator and did much war surgery. In the latter part of the war he was Medical Director of Transportation, having charge of the distribution of patients to hospitals east of the Alleghanies. He received the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, 13 March, 1865 for "Faithful and meritorious service during the war." He was honorably mustered out of the service on 1 March, 1866. His taste for military life had been established, so that on 14 May of the same year he was commissioned, after examination, Assistant Surgeon, in the Regular Army, with the rank of Captain. He accompanied the first troops to Sitka, Alaska, and later served in San Francisco and at Governor's Island, New York Harbor, until his death on 19 August, 1876. (cf. John Van Rensselaer Hoff's sketch of his father, The Military Surgeon, 1912, xxxi, 47–51)

Colonel Hoff, Founder of the Medal

Colonel John Van Rensselaer Hoff was born in New York City State, 7 April, 1848. He graduated in medicine at Albany Medical College in 1871 and at Columbia in 1874. In the same year he was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon and served at Omaha Barracks, Nebraska, until November the twelfth, when he accepted an appointment as an Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Department of the Army. During the years from 1874–79, his service was on the Western Frontier and he served during this period at Fort Sanders, Wyoming Territory; Fort McPherson, Nebraska; Fort Fetterman, Wyoming Territory.

In 1879 he was ordered to New York City City, whence, after promotion to the grade of Captain, he served at Fort Monroe, Virginia. In 1882 he was ordered to the Department of California and assigned as Post Surgeon on Alcatraz Island, then an army post and now well known as the prison for desperate criminals. He served at Alcatraz until 1884; then relieving Surgeon George Miller Sternberg (later Surgeon-General) at Fort Mason in the same state. In 1886 he was on duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; and in 1887 was given leave to travel abroad, on his return being assigned to Fort Reno, Indian territory. After this he took station as Post Surgeon at Fort Riley, Kansas; during which period he spent considerable time with troops in campaign. In the autumn of 1890 he took the field with the Seventh Cavalry and First Artillery at the Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, and was on duty with them from that time to and through the fight with the Big Foot Band at Wounded Knee Creek on December twenty-ninth and thirtieth and at White Clay Creek on December thirtieth of the same year. During the Indian outbreak he conducted himself with marked gallantry in the performance of his duties as Surgeon and was commended in official orders at the time. After the World War, when the Distinguished Service Cross had been created, he was awarded one of these coveted decorations as a recognition of his bravery in the presence of the hostile Indians. The citation states that "when the Indians made a sudden treacherous attack upon the troop, Captain Hoff, with utter disregard for his personal safety, attended to the dressing of the wounds of fallen soldiers."

He was promoted to the grade of Major in 1890 and in 1892 while on duty at Fort Riley, was, at the special request of Governor R. E. Pattison, of Pennsylvania, detailed to accompany him on a tour of inspection of the camp of the Pennsylvania National Guard. In the same year he was relieved from duty at Fort Riley and ordered to report at Fort Columbus, New York. While on duty in New York City Harbor in 1893, he was appointed a representative of the Medical Department of the army to accompany the foreign delegates of the Pan-American Medical Congress to Boston, Saratoga, and other places. In 1896 he was appointed a member of the Board of Officers to meet at Davis Island, New York, for the purpose of revising drill regulations for the Hospital Corps of the army. This was a task greatly to his liking. Thereafter, he once more served in the West at Vancouver Barracks, Washington.

In 1898 Colonel Hoff left Vancouver Barracks in compliance with the orders of the Surgeon-General, having been commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers on that date and appointed Chief Surgeon of the Third Army Corps at Chickamauga Park.

In 1900 he was relieved of duty as Chief Surgeon of the Department of Puerto Rico and ordered to report in person to the Surgeon-General of the Army who sent him to Peking, China, where he was attached to the United States forces. In 1902 he was promoted to the grade of Lieutenant-Colonel and made a member of the Board of Officers to consider the subject of modification of uniform equipment of officers and enlisted men of our Army. In November 1902, he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. There he continued on duty until the Secretary of War designated him as observer with the Russian Army in the Russo-Japanese War. He served at St. Petersburg and in the field with the Russians, and in recognition of his assistance, was awarded the Order of Saint Anne by the Tsar of Russia.

In 1906, he was sent to Manila as Chief Surgeon of the Department of Luzon and continued in the Philippine Islands until the end of 1908. In 1909, he reported as Chief Surgeon of the Department of the Lakes at Chicago and served there for about a year. He was retired from active duty in 1912.

He gave his best to the service of his choice and it was due to his able mind that many changes, and always changes for the better, were made in respect to the organization of the Medical Corps, which he saw grow up and develop from its more simple predecessor, the Medical Department. Colonel Hoff was for a time editor of The Military Surgeon, the monthly journal of The Association of Military Surgeons of the United States.

Colonel Hoff has been honored since his decease by the service that he knew and loved. One of the new large general hospitals which the army has established and which is now in operation at Santa Barbara, California, is known as the Hoff General Hospital. At the Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, a large memorial fountain, partly the gift of Mrs. Hoff, has been erected in his honor. At Carlisle Barracks the academic building of the Medical Field Service School, perhaps the most important single structure that the Medical Department uses in its training program, is named for him. Colonel Hoff is the sort of officer that the Medical Department likes to hold up before its young men as an ideal towards which they must strive. He was ever faithful to the trust placed in him and he never failed to uphold the honor of his corps and give concrete evidence of the true meaning of the expression "an officer and a gentleman."

On 22 June, 1875, Assistant Surgeon Hoff married Lavinia Day, daughter of Brigadier-General Hannibal Day, U. S. Army. She survived Colonel Hoff for several years.

Design of the Hoff Medal

The Hoff Medal is of gold measuring forty-three millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the effigy of Surgeon and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Henry Hoff, U. S. Army, facing left. Above in an arc are the words: a. h. hoff memorial prize and below, in an arc: founded 1897. The medal is bordered by raised dots. The reverse is charged with a wreath of laurel leaves enclosing these words: AWARDED TO FOR HIGHEST STANDING AT THE U. S. ARMY MEDICAL SCHOOL WASHINGTON D. C.

The places for the name of the recipient and, below, the date, are slightly raised tablets, whereon the words are engraved. The reverse, like the obverse, is surrounded by a border of raised dots.

The dies for the Hoff Medal are in the United States Mint, Philadelphia, where the medals are struck annually as needed, upon order of the Director of the Army Medical School, with the approval of the Surgeon-General of the Army.

Eligibility for the Hoff Medal

The terms of Colonel Hoff's gift were such that the Hoff Medal is "awarded annually to the student standing highest in the graduating class of the Army Medical School." In some years no medal has been awarded, either because the faculty did not feel that any student had merited it, or when there was no class graduating at the School. All this was as contemplated by Colonel Hoff when he endowed the medal.

There was no change in the procedure until the World War. The class of 1917 entered the Army Medical School in the regular way. After that class had been under instruction for some weeks, it was decided by the War Department that it would be necessary to put more than one class per year through the school in order to supply the need for new medical officers. The National Defense Act had come into force and the Medical Corps of the Army, instead of being increased in five increments as originally intended, was enlarged suddenly to its full new strength. President Wilson had exercised the powers given him by Congress and had ordered the expansion to take effect immediately.

Therefore the class then at the Army Medical School was continued under a greatly concentrated schedule of work. The hours of instruction were increased and the time otherwise free reduced. The class managed to complete the full quota of hours of instruction and was graduated at the end of February, 1917, instead of the end of May as had been usual. Immediately a second class of 1917 was entered at the Army Medical School under an even more reduced schedule.

When the first class of 1917 graduated the faculty of the Army Medical School realized that the available funds would not permit of the award of two Hoff Medals in one year. Accordingly the medal was not awarded to the student standing highest in the first class of 1917, but was held pending later events. As it worked out there were actually three classes graduated in 1917.

Shortly before the graduation of the third of the classes of 1917, the Commandant of the Army Medical School, Brigadier-General William Hempel Arthur, announced that the three classes of 1917 would be considered as "sections" of one class and the Hoff Medal awarded accordingly. The same arrangement was made with respect to the Sternberg Medal, as we shall see. General Arthur stated that this unsatisfactory arrangement was unavoidable and was made solely because of there being insufficient funds to present a Hoff Medal to each class. In the years since this time there have frequently been more than one class graduated at one of the schools of the Medical Department and there has never been any idea of considering them "sections" of one hypothetical class. The three classes of 1917 had nothing in common except that they received their diplomas in the same calendar year. Each of these 1917 classes was several times as large as the average class that had attended the Army Medical School in previous years, so that the competition for the medals was the more severe. More than one class had been graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in one year, but there was never any thought of considering them "sections" of the same class. It so happened that one of the graduates of the first class of 1917 at the Army Medical School was a member of a board of officers to examine candidates for commission in the Medical Corps. One of the physicians examined was sent to the Army Medical School in time to graduate in one of the later classes of 1917. Two such officers could by no stretch of imagination have been considered classmates.

However, there seemed no other solution at the time and but one Hoff Medal was awarded for the three classes of 1917 and but one for the two classes of 1918. A few years later the widow of Colonel Hoff, who had personally defrayed the cost of the Hoff Medal in the year of Colonel Hoff's death, offered to present a Hoff Medal to the officer who had stood first in the first class of 1917, being the last class that had received the full period of instruction comparable to the previous classes. The first class of 1917, she said in her offer to General Arthur, the then Commandant, was the largest class that has ever attended the Army Medical School. Therefore, with the approval of Surgeon-General Ireland, the Hoff Medal for the first 1917 class was awarded by General Arthur at a ceremony at which Mrs. Hoff was present. Thus the table below shows awards of the Hoff Medal for two classes of 1917. A similar arrangement was made for the Sternberg Medals for 1917.

The first recipient of the Hoff Medal was First Lieutenant Brainard Spencer Higley, Jr., Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. He died in 1900, before the second Hoff Medal was awarded. Indeed the second Hoff Medal was not awarded until the class graduating in 1902. Years afterwards the Army Medical Museum sought in vain to locate the Hoff Medal that had been awarded Lieutenant Higley. Finally in 1941 the winner of the second Hoff Medal, Colonel James Matthew Phalen, U. S. Army, retired, now Editor of The Military Surgeon, presented his medal to the Army Medical School for its extensive collection of medals of medical interest.

The terms of Colonel Hoff's will, above quoted, provide for the continuance of the Hoff Medal as an award for academic excellence at a public service medical school should one ever be created and replace the Army Medical Museum. Such a school was ever advocated by Colonel Hoff, who envisaged a sort of medical West Point which could prepare medical officers not only for the Army, but for the Navy and Public Health Service as well. A medical academy of somewhat this scope exists in Germany.

Recipients of the Hoff Medal

1898—First Lieutenant Brainard Spencer Higley, Jr. (died 1900).

1899—No award.

The Army Medical School was closed during this period.

1900—No award.

1901—No award.

1902—First Lieutenant James Matthew Phalen (now Colonel, retired).

1903—First Lieutenant Harry Lorenzo Gilchrist (now Major-General, retired).

1904—First Lieutenant Lloyd Llewelynn Smith (now Colonel, retired).

1905—First Lieutenant William Adolphus Duncan (now Lieutenant-Colonel, retired).

1906—First Lieutenant Albert Gallatin Love (now Brigadier-General, retired).

1907—First Lieutenant Frederick Stevens Macy (now Lieutenant-Colonel, retired).

1908—First Lieutenant Mahlon Ashford (now Colonel, retired).

1909—First Lieutenant Henry Clay Coburn (now Brigadier-General).

1910—First Lieutenant Henry Beeuwkes (later Colonel; resigned).

1911—First Lieutenant Henry Poindexter Carter (now Colonel).

1912—First Lieutenant William Bertram Meister (now Colonel).

1913—First Lieutenant Benjamin Beckham Warriner (now Colonel).

1914—First Lieutenant Charles Lewis Gandy (now Colonel).

1915—First Lieutenant Harry Dumont Offutt (now Colonel).

1916—First Lieutenant Edward Allen Noyes (now Colonel).

1917—First Lieutenant Edgar Erskine Hume (now Colonel).

1917—First Lieutenant James Monroe Troutt (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1918—First Lieutenant Robert Adwood Corgin (resigned, 1919).

1919—First Lieutenant Robert Effinger Cumming (resigned as Captain, 1921).

1920—Major Seymour Crandall Schwartz (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1921—Major Albro Lefils Parsons (now Colonel).

1922—Captain William Crames Pollock (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1923—Captain William Davis Gill (resigned, 1928).

1924—Captain Philip Lewis Cook (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1925—First Lieutenant Leon Lloyd Gardner (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1926—Captain Frank Paul Strome (now Lieutenant-Colonel, retired).

1927—Captain Charles Rice Lanahan (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1928—Captain Don Longfellow (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1929—Captain Frank Bolles Wakeman (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1930—First Lieutenant Samuel Foster Seeley (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1931—First Lieutenant Aubrey LeVerne Bradford (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1932—First Lieutenant Walter Lee Peterson (now Major).

1933—First Lieutenant Leonard Theodore Peterson (now Major).

1934—Captain Norman Webb White (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1935—First Lieutenant Fred Howenstine Mowrey (now Major).

1936—First Lieutenant Edwin Stewart Kagy (now Major).

1937—First Lieutenant William Farrall Cook (now Major).

1938—No award.

1939—(First Class) Captain William Darrell Willis (now Major).

1939—(Second Class)—First Lieutenant Herbert Downing Edger (now Captain).

1940—No award.

1941—No award. Medal in abeyance for period of the national emergency, regular courses at The Army Medical School being suspended.

The Hoff Medal has been awarded forty times.

Another Hoff Medal Offered

A second Hoff Medal was offered by the widow of Colonel Hoff in 1929, to be awarded in his honor at the Medical Field Service School. The offer was declined as the result of the following recommendation of Colonel Charles Ransom Reynolds, the Commandant, on 22 June, 1929, to the Surgeon-General:

"It is not believed that another medal should be accepted as an award to a member of the Basic Class in view of the fact that two awards are now being given—one, the Skinner Medal to the member of the class who receives the highest general standing, and the First Division Prize to the student considered best qualified for duty with the medical regiment. These awards cover practically the entire field of instruction given to the Basic Class of the Medical Field Service School. It would therefore be difficult to determine the basis of awarding another medal. If some minor subject were determined upon as the basis of award, it would not be in keeping with the spirit and purpose evidenced by Mrs. Hoff and the chances are that the student qualifying for one prize would likely qualify for all of them."Mrs. Hoff's desire to establish this award is greatly appreciated. Colonel Hoff's service in the Medical Corps of the Army and his great interest in field service are a continuing inspiration to everyone at the Medical Field Service School. We all wish that a Hoff Medal could be accepted as desired by Mrs. Hoff, but we believe that the naming of the main academic building at the Medical Field Service School for Colonel Hoff is a very appropriate recognition of the splendid services of Colonel Hoff in the line of work in which the Medical Field Service School is engaged.

C. R. Reynolds,
Colonel, Medical Corps, Commandant"

THE STERNBERG MEDAL

(Army Medical School)

We have seen that the founder of the Army Medical School was Surgeon-General George Miller Sternberg. Nothing could be more fitting than that a medal in his honor be awarded at that institution for excellence in bacteriology and related sciences. General Sternberg, though no longer in office, was living at the time that the Sternberg Medal was created. It was the gift of a loyal friend of the Army Medical School, First Lieutenant Richard Slee, of the Medical Reserve Corps, U. S. Army, who later attained the grade of Colonel, Officers Reserve Corps. At that time there was no other reserve in the Army and all its officers were of the grade of First Lieutenant. General Sternberg attended the graduation exercises at the Army Medical School and, at Dr. Slee's request, made the presentation of the first Sternberg Medal. (For Dr. Slee's biography, see p. 49).

General Sternberg

George Miller Sternberg was born in Otsego County, New York City, 8 June, 1838. He received his medical education at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City (now Columbia University), where he graduated in 1860. He practiced medicine for a year at Elizabeth, New Jersey, and at the outbreak of the War Between the States was commissioned Assistant Surgeon in the Regular Army. He was present at the battle of Bull Run where, refusing to leave the wounded, he was captured. Declining to give his parole he promptly escaped. Throughout the remainder of the war his work was outstanding and he received brevets of Captain and Major for "faithful and meritorious services."

Thenceforth he served for many years in the West, often against hostile Indians. Before he was forty he received the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel for gallantry in the campaign against the Nez Perc�s. He also fought a still more deadly foe for, as Dr. George M. Kober once said: "I do not know of a single medical officer who faced cholera and yellow fever epidemics as often and courageously as he."

His studies of disinfectants began while he was serving in the West, and resulted in his being awarded the Lomb Prize in 1885, being the chairman of the American Public Health Association's committee on this subject. He was a pioneer in bacteriological work in America. In 1881 he discovered the pneumococcus, the microorganism that causes pneumonia. Some of his photomicrographs, made in 1881, are still unsurpassed, despite more modern apparatus.

His scientific studies of yellow fever proved that the existing theories as to its cause were erroneous, so that thus he laid the way for the later work of Walter Reed. His books on bacteriology played an important part in the development of that science in America. He published in 1892 the first American textbook on the subject.

He advanced through the grades and was made Surgeon-General of the Army in 1893 with the rank of Brigadier-General. He established the Army Medical School within a few months of his appointment, showing that he had already made plans for that institution. He recognized young Walter Reed's ability and sent him to Johns Hopkins for graduate work under Professor William Henry Welch. When the famous Yellow Fever Commission was appointed in 1900, General Sternberg chose Reed as its head. The work of that commission is too well known to require description.

Full of years and of honors General Sternberg died in Washington on 3 November, 1915 and was buried with military honors in the National Cemetery. One cannot better sum up his career than by quoting the epitaph on his monument at Arlington, for it was prepared by no less worthy a hand than that of Prof. Welch:

"Pioneer American Bacteriologist. Distinguished by his studies of the causation and prevention of infectious diseases, by discovery of the microorganism of pneumonia, and scientific investigations of yellow fever, which paved the way for the experimental demonstration of the mode of transmission of that pestilence. Veteran of three wars, brevetted for bravery in action in the Civil War and the Nez Perc�s War. Served as Surgeon-General of the U. S. Army for a period of nine years, including the Spanish War. Founder of the Army Medical School. Scientist, author, and philanthropist, M.D., LLD."

General Sternberg married, 1 September, 1869, Martha, daughter of Thomas Thurston Nelson Pattison of Indianapolis. She survived her husband and endowed the Sternberg Medal at the Army Medical School, as will be related below.

General Sternberg's Remarks in Presenting the First Sternberg Medal

"Lieutenant George R. Callender: It gives me great pleasure to present you the first Sternberg Medal, which is awarded to you by the faculty of the Army Medical School for your proficiency in bacteriology and serumtherapy. I highly appreciate the privilege of presenting this medal, which has been provided and named by Dr. Richard Slee, who studied bacteriology under my direction in the Hoagland Laboratory, Brooklyn, N. Y. more than twenty-five years ago."My own bacteriological studies commenced at a time when, so far as I know, no one in this country had made any serious researches in this field of investigation, and the majority of the profession regarded this class of micro�rganisms as of no importance from a pathological point of view. It is unnecessary to point out to you the successive steps in the development of our knowledge since that time, and the great value, especially to preventive medicine, of the facts which have been brought to light by a host of earnest students in the bacteriological laboratories in all parts of the civilized world."It is a matter of gratification to me to know that here, in the Army Medical School, this branch of medical science is given special attention, and that in future those who come here to prepare themselves for the varied and responsible duties of medical officers of the army will have a special incentive to excel in bacteriology."At the same time, I desire to impress upon you the fact that no expert knowledge in any one branch of medical science will justify a neglect of that practical knowledge of medicine and surgery, and that preparation for active field-service which it is essential that every medical officer should possess."You cannot give too much attention to questions relating to the prevention of disease among those whose sanitary interests are committed to your care. But, while the studies you have pursued at the Army Medical School are designed especially to prepare you for those responsible duties, you must not forget that the interests of the sick and the wounded of our army are in your hands, and that these interests and your reputations will depend upon your professional knowledge and skill."It is a matter of great satisfaction to me that the Army Medical School, which I established twenty years ago, has served so useful a purpose and is at present in such a satisfactory condition. Several of its earlier graduates now belong to the faculty of the school."We can point with pride to the achievements of many of those who have received its diplomas, and we confidently anticipate that you, Dr. Callender, and other members of your class will do some notable things in the interest of scientific medicine, and for the reputation of the Medical Corps of the army."I desire to express to Dr. Richard Slee my high appreciation of the honor he has done me by giving this medal in my name. It is now fifty-two years since I received my commission as a medical officer of the army, and when I consider the great progress which has been made in medical science and in the facilities for acquiring a sound medical education since that date, I feel that you are entering upon your career of active service with greatly superior advantages, and that we may justly look to you for superior achievements. I congratulate you upon being the first graduate of the Army Medical School to receive the Sternberg Medal, which I now present to you." (American Journal of Clinical Medicine, August 1913).

Dr. Richard Slee defrayed the cost of the Sternberg Medal annually from the date of its institution, 1913, until 1920, five years after General Sternberg's death. In that year, Dr. Slee relinquished the right to present the Sternberg Medal to General Sternberg's widow, at her request, and created the Slee Medal, to be described presently (see page 48).

Mrs. Sternberg Endows the Medal

Mrs. Sternberg offered to endow the Sternberg Medal in perpetuity, in memory of her great husband. The Surgeon-General, Major-General Ireland, accepted her offer, at the same time approving Dr. Slee's creation of the Slee Medal. Mrs. Sternberg accordingly deposited with the Commandant of the Army Medical School 100 shares, of $10 par value each, in the Washington Sanitary Improvement Company, guaranteed dividend of 5 per cent annually, and yielding approximately eighty dollars per year. The Stock Certificate, bearing the number 1561, is deposited with the Commandant of the Army Medical School, being in the name of the Surgeon-General. By 24 May, 1935 the available balance in the Sternberg Medal Fund had grown to $420.89.

Mrs. Sternberg had new dies prepared at the United States Mint, Philadelphia, where the new type of Sternberg Medal has been struck ever since.

The Sternberg Medal is awarded to the student at the Army Medical School attaining the highest standing in preventive medicine. The winner is selected by the faculty upon the recommendation of the Director of the Department of Preventive Medicine.

The first Sternberg Medal was awarded First Lieutenant George Russell Callender, now Colonel and Director of the Army Medical School. The first Sternberg Medal of the new type (presented by Mrs. Sternberg) was won by First Lieutenant Virgil Heath Cornell, now Lieutenant-Colonel, and sometime Curator of the Army Medical Museum. Both Colonel Callender and Colonel Cornell have deposited their Sternberg Medals on indefinite loan in the collection of the Army Medical Museum. Thus that institution has the first copies of each type. The same arrangements, as above described for the Hoff Medal, were made for the award of the Sternberg Medal in 1917 and 1918.

Design of the Sternberg Medal, First Type

The first type of Sternberg Medal is of gold, measuring forty millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears, within a plain linear circle, the caduceus, badge of the Medical Corps of the United States Army, upon a wreath of laurel leaves. The lower part of the wreath is concealed by a scroll inscribed 1st it. ..... med. corps, u. s. a. with space vacant for engraving the name of the recipient thereon. Around the circumference of the medal is the legend: in honor. brig. gen. geo. m. sternberg, u. s. a., ret'd. founder army medical schoolsoldier - scientist ⋆ The reverse bears the words: PRESENTED BY RICHARD SLEE, M. D. IN HONOR OF GEO. M. STERNBERG SURG. GEN. U. S. A. 1893–1902 FOR EXCELLENCE IN BACTERIOLOGY & SERUM THERAPY ARMY MEDICAL SCHOOL CLASS

The date of the class is engraved in the last line. The design of the medal is in high relief. The medal was executed, after designs of Dr. Slee, by Alva Nelson (1869–1937), Swedish born medallic artist of New York City.

Design of the Sternberg Medal, Second Type

The second type of Sternberg Medal is of gold suspended from a watered silk ribbon of three equal stripes, red-white-blue. The obverse bears the profile of General Sternberg, facing left, with the words obsta principiis above and sternberg below the effigy of the great bacteriologist. To the left, in small letters are the words: citizen - soldier - scientist. To the right, in the same size letters, are the words: founder army medical school, 1893. The reverse bears the words, in an arc above: for proficiency in preventive medicine, and in an arc below: army medical school. In the center, partly enclosed in a wreath of laurel leaves, are these words: ENDOWED BY MARTHA L. STERNBERG IN MEMORY OF HER HUSBAND AWARDED TO SESSION

The name of the recipient and the date of his class are engraved thereon. The suspension of the new Sternberg Medal from a ribbon is, perhaps, unfortunate, for Army Regulations do not permit of its being worn on the uniform. The ribbon hangs from a concealed pin. The diameter of the medal is thirty-nine millimetres.

Recipients of the Sternberg Medal

First Type

1913—First Lieutenant George Russell Callender (now Colonel)

1914—First Lieutenant Alexander Watson Williams (died in France, 1918)

1915—First Lieutenant Raymond Ewell Scott (resigned; now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1916—First Lieutenant Paul Adolph Schule (now Colonel)

1917—First Lieutenant James Stevens Simmons (now Colonel)

1917—First Lieutenant Edmund Benjamin Spaeth (resigned as Major).

1918—Medal not awarded

1919—Medal not awarded

1920—First Lieutenant August John Phillip Pacini (resigned, 1920)

Second Type

1921—First Lieutenant Virgil Heath Cornell (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1922—Captain Raymond Osborne Dart (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1923—Captain Frank Smeeton Matlack (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1924—Captain Albert Glenn Kinberger (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1925—Captain Harvey Robison Livesay (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1926—First Lieutenant William Frank DeWitt (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1927—First Lieutenant William Oscar French, Jr. (resigned, 1927)

1928—Captain Ebner Holmes Inmon (now Lieutenant-Colonel, retired).

1929—First Lieutenant Francis Elbert Council (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1930—First Lieutenant Sam Foster Seeley (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1931—First Lieutenant Karl Rosenius Lunderberg (now Major)

1932—First Lieutenant William Spencer Stone (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1933—First Lieutenant Richard Paul Johnson (now Captain)

1934—Captain Joseph Hamilton McNinch (now Lieutenant-Colonel)

1935—Captain James Hodges Forsee (now Major)

1936—First Lieutenant Frank Hiram Van Wagoner (now Major)

1937—First Lieutenant Beverly Holland (name changed at his request, 1937, to B. Dixon Holland) (now Captain)

1938—Medal not awarded

1939—(First Class)—First Lieutenant William Clark Cooper (resigned)

1939—(Second Class)—Captain Arnold Lorentz Ahnfeldt

1940—Medal not awarded.

1941—No award. Medal in abeyance for period of the National Emergency, regular courses at the Army Medical School being suspended.

The Sternberg Medal, First Type, was awarded seven times. The Slee Medal (see page 48) from the same dies, was awarded three times. The Sternberg Medal, Second Type, has been awarded nineteen times.

THE SKINNER MEDAL

(Army Medical School and Medical Field Service School)

The Skinner Medal was created by one of the fine old field soldiers of the Medical Department, a man who, said Surgeon-General Reynolds, "appreciated the importance to young medical officers of training in medical field service at the beginning of their careers." This officer was Major John Oscar Skinner.

His offer was accepted by Surgeon-General William Crawford Gorgas on 29 March, 1917. This was after the graduation of the first class of 1917 but in time for the later classes of that year. The same decision as to the award, based on the two later classes of 1917 being "sections" of the same class, was made by the faculty of the Army Medical School (see above, p. 25).

Major Skinner, Founder of the Medal

John Oscar Skinner was born in Baltimore, 4 May, 1845. He entered the military service as an Acting Assistant Surgeon (Contract Surgeon) in 1871, and served in that capacity until there was a vacancy in the commissioned ranks of the Medical Department. He was commissioned Assistant Surgeon with the rank of First Lieutenant, 10 March, 1874, and was promoted Major Surgeon, 9 March, 1892. On 20 October, 1893, the year of the opening of the Army Medical School, he was retired for disability incident to the service.

"He was," wrote his old friend, General Jefferson Randolph Kean, in an obituary, "a notable figure in the Old Army of frontier days. He received a medical education of unusual completeness for that day, having graduated in medicine at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and taken special courses at the Universities of W�rtzburg and Vienna, and a course of lectures at the Sorbonne. He retired for disability in 1893, but did not, as is too often the case with retired officers, give up his interest in and his affiliations with his profession, his Corps, and the Association of Military Surgeons. For many years he was Superintendent of the Columbia Hospital in Washington, until compelled by increasing deafness to give up administrative work."

He won his country's highest award for bravery before the enemy. This was in the Modoc War, a tragic episode now forgotten by many. His citation for the Congressional Medal of Honor is: "At Lava Beds, Oregon, 17 January, 1873, he rescued a wounded soldier who lay under a close and heavy fire during the assault on the Modoc stronghold after two soldiers had unsuccessfully attempted to make the rescue and both had been wounded in so doing."

Major Skinner died in Washington on 12 September, 1932.

Eligibility for the Skinner Medal

The Skinner Medal has had more variations in form and in the requirements for eligibility than any other medal in our series. The original offer specified that it should be awarded to the student standing highest in military hospital efficiency and administration. These words occur on the obverse of the medal. The first Skinner Medals were of bronze and struck on Major Skinner's order by the Bailey, Banks and Biddle Company of Philadelphia.

Major Skinner turned over to the Commandant of the Army Medical School the sum of $1,100 in First Liberty Loan Converted 4 1/4 per cent Bonds, registered in the name of the Surgeon-General of the Army.

Under these provisions the Skinner Medal was awarded from 1917 to 1920, inclusive, at the Army Medical School. In 1920 the War Department created the Medical Field Service School at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, as we have seen. The Surgeon-General, Major-General Ireland, felt that the award of the Skinner Medal might now more appropriately be made at the new school.

On 6 November, 1920, Major Skinner not only agreed to the change, but authorized the Surgeon-General to "exercise discretion in any manner relative to the award of the medal." The bonds endowing the Skinner Medal were therefore transferred to the Commandant of the Medical Field Service School, 1 March, 1921. A new design was prepared and the medal cast by the Bailey, Banks, and Biddle Company, Philadelphia.

The Skinner Medal at the Medical Field Service School has always been awarded to the student standing highest in the Basic Class, that is, the class of young medical officers who acquire their training in field duties at the Medical Field Service School. Thus we see that the significance of the Skinner Medal at the Army Medical School and its award at the Medical Field Service School are quite different.

The Liberty Bonds endowing the Skinner Medal having been called for payment by the Treasury, the Surgeon-General on 20 June, 1935, directed the reinvestment of the principal in United States Treasury Bonds, 1955–1960, bearing 2 7/8 per cent. The new bonds are deposited in the safety box of the Central Hospital Fund of the Army in the American Security and Trust Company, Washington.

In 1932, the year of his death, Major Skinner had dies prepared for a new design of the Skinner Medal. They were made at the United States Mint in Philadelphia. The medal was then struck in gold.

In 1935, at the time of the unavoidable reinvestment of the endowment fund at a lower rate of interest, the cost of the Skinner Medal in gold had risen to $61.50 each. The annual income was insufficient to permit the medal thenceforth to be struck in gold, so that a bronze medal, struck from the same dies, was substituted.

Thus the Skinner Medal has been awarded at two schools, the Army Medical School and the Medical Field Service School. It has been of three designs. The first was used at the Army Medical School 1917–1920, inclusive; the second at the Medical Field Service School; the third at the Medical Field Service School since, and including, 1933. The Skinner Medal was of bronze from 1917 to 1932, inclusive; in gold 1933 to 1936, inclusive; and in bronze since, and including, 1937.

Design of the Skinner Medal, First Type

The first type of Skinner Medal is of bronze, measuring 31 millimetres in diameter, and suspended from a watered silk ribbon of three equal stripes of red—white—blue. The ribbon hangs from a concealed pin. The obverse bears, in high relief, the main building of the Walter Reed Hospital, Washington D. C., as it appeared in 1917, before the addition of the wings now existing. On a scroll above are the words: military hospital administration and below: and efficiency. In an inner arc above: di omnia laboribus vendunt. To the left there is a branch of oak leaves and to the right a branch of laurel leaves. The reverse bears, in two arcs, the words: presented by j. o. skinner, major, medical corps, u. s. army and army medical school. In the center there are the words: 1 ST LT................. MEDICAL CORPS U. S. ARMY

with space on first line for the winner's name and below for the date of his class.

Design of the Skinner Medal, Second Type

The Second Type of the Skinner Medal was cast in bronze by the Bailey, Banks and Biddle Company of Philadelphia. It is of dark finish in dull metal and measures fifty-nine millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the allegorical figure of a surgeon ministering to a wounded soldier. Above and toward the right in two curved lines are the words, medical . field . service . school, united . states . army. Below is the motto of the school: to conserve fighting strength. The reverse bears a wreath charged with a shield of the arms of the Medical Field Service School; viz, a sword, point upward, and the Staff of �sculapius crossed. On a chief, an open book, a tent and a wheel. In the center is a scroll bearing the words: SKINNER MEDAL TO MEDICAL CORPS

The name of the winner is cast in the medal and not engraved thereon. The designs on both obverse and reverse are in high relief.

Design of the Skinner Medal, Third Type

The third type of Skinner Medal is struck at the United States Mint, Philadelphia. It measures 38 millimetres in diameter. The first four awards, 1933 to 1936, inclusive, were in gold. Since then the medal has been struck in bronze. The obverse depicts a medical officer, in modern uniform, ad- ministering medical aid to a wounded infantryman, kneeling and leaning on his rifle. To the left of the group are the words: medical field and to the right: service school, united states army. Below, in an arc, are the words: to conserve fighting strength, being the motto of the Medical Field Service School. To the left, in small letters, is the name: j. r. sinnock. The reverse bears the arms of the Medical Field Service School, a sword and the staff of �sculapius in saltire, and in chief an open book, a tent, and a wheel. Above is set for crest, an eagle displayed. Below the shield is a tablet with the words: awarded to.............., with space for the name and rank of the recipient to be added in two lines. Below the tablet are two conventional branches of laurel leaves, in a horizontal line. The medal bears no date.

Recipients of the Skinner Medal

First Type, Bronze—Army Medical School

1917—First Lieutenant James Monroe Troutt (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1918—First Lieutenant Robert Adwood Corbin, (resigned 1919).

1919—First Lieutenant Harvey Davis Thornberg, (resigned 1921).

1920—First Lieutenant William Otis Callaway (resigned 1920).

Second Type, Bronze—Medical Field Service School

1921—Captain Montreville Alfred St. Peter (resigned 1934).

1922—Major Oral Bevely Bolibaugh (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1923—Captain Lewis Bradley Bibb (died 1938).

1924—Medal not awarded.

1925—First Lieutenant Leon Lloyd Gardner (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1926—First Lieutenant Joseph Ignatius Martin (now Colonel).

1927—First Lieutenant George Ellis Armstrong (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1928—Captain Don Longfellow (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1929—Captain Clyde Wakefield Scogin, Dental Corps (retired as Major; deceased).

1930—Captain Elwood Luke Nye, Veterinary Corps (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1931—First Lieutenant Silas Beach Hays (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

Third Type, Gold—Medical Field Service School

1932—Captain Crawford Fountain Sams (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1933—First Lieutenant Achilles Lyons Tynes (now Major).

1934—First Lieutenant Joe Alexander Bain (now Major).

1935—Captain James Hedges Forsee (now Major).

1936—Captain Llewellyn Lancelot Barrow (now Major).

Third Type, Bronze—Medical Field Service School

1937—First Lieutenant Edwin Stewart Kagy (now Major).

1938—Captain Douglas Blair Kendrick, Jr. (now Major).

1939—First Lieutenant John Boyd Coates, Jr. (now Major).

1940—(First class) Captain Eldred La Monte Gann (now Major).

1940—(Second class)—First Lieutenant Charles Ellison Melcher (now Captain).

1940—(Third class)—Captain Oscar Elliott Ursin (now Major).

Thus we see that the first type of the Skinner Medal, bronze, was awarded four times at the Army Medical School. The second type, also in bronze, was awarded at the Medical Field Service School ten times. The third type in gold, was awarded five times at the Medical Field Service School. The third type, in bronze, has been awarded at the Medical Field Service School six times. Like the other medals of the schools of the Medical Department of the Army, the awards of the Skinner Medal are suspended for the present.

THE SLEE MEDAL

(Army Medical School)

The Slee Medal is really a continuation of the Sternberg Medal (see pages 30–40). When, in 1920, the widow of General Sternberg expressed the desire of endowing a medal in honor of her great husband, Colonel Slee generously offered to have the Sternberg Medal that he presented known thenceforth as the Slee Medal. The Slee Medal, therefore, is from the very same dies as the first type of Sternberg Medal.

The existence of two types of Sternberg Medals and likewise a medal bearing the name Sternberg but known as the Slee Medal had been confusing to those interested in numismatics. The Slee Medal was awarded only three times, but, in effect, these three copies should be added to the seven awards of the Sternberg Medal, First Type, since there have been ten awards of the strikes from the original Sternberg Medal dies.

Thus in the years 1921, 1922, and 1923, two medals inscribed "Sternberg Medal" were awarded at the Army Medical School, one being the Slee Medal, from the old Sternberg Medal dies and the other from the new Sternberg Medal dies. After 1923 the annual award of the Slee Medal by Colonel Slee was withdrawn. The dies therefor are still in his possession.

Recipients of the Slee Medal

1921—Captain Philip Palmer Green (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1922—First Lieutenant George Francis Cooper (resigned, 1923).

1923—Captain Charles Booth Spruitt (now Colonel).

Colonel Slee, Founder of the First Sternberg Medal and the Slee Medal

Richard Slee was born in Brooklyn on 15 September, 1867 and received his medical education at the Long Island College Hospital, where he graduated in 1891. His scholarship won him the Dudley Gold Medal and the Lewis Anatomical Prize. He early came under the influence of the great bacteriologist, General Sternberg, and from him learned much of what was still a new science. Later he became Sternberg's assistant. It was as a result of General Sternberg's opinion regarding the method of distributing smallpox vaccine dried on ivory points, the method employed at that time, that Dr. Slee established a biological laboratory at Swiftwater, Pennsylvania, to produce glycerinized vaccine. The United States Army was his first customer. This virus was used during the Spanish-American War and later for the prevention of smallpox in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. These laboratories have since been consolidated with the National Drug Company and are under the direction of Dr. Slee's son, Captain Arthur M. Slee.

In 1908 the United States Army created its first Reserve, the Medical Reserve Corps. Dr. Slee was among the first to be commissioned in this new group. From this time forth he took a very active interest in military affairs. Dr. Slee was always an active officer of the Medical Reserve Corps, which prior to the enactment of the National Defense Act, had but one grade, that of First Lieutenant.

In 1913 he was Sanitary Officer, Third Division, at the Gettysburg Reunion. In 1914–1915, he was on active duty at the Medical Officers Training Camp at Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania. In 1916 he was Sanitary Officer at this camp. He completed the correspondence courses for regular medical officers, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1915–1916. He devised the Slee venereal prophylactic packet that was widely used during the punitive expedition under General Pershing into Mexico.

In June, 1917, less than two months after the United States entered the World War, Dr. Slee was ordered to active duty at Camp Crane, Allentown, Pennsylvania, where the United States Army Ambulance Service was under training. He remained at this post throughout the period of the war. He was promoted Major at the time he reported for duty; Lieutenant-Colonel, 15 June, 1918; and Colonel, 12 April, 1919. When the first commanding officer of Camp Crane, Colonel Elbert Elvero Persons, went to Italy in command of the Ambulance Service with the Royal Italian Army, Colonel Slee succeeded him in command of Camp Crane, 17 May, 1918. He continued on duty to the end of the work of the camp and on 12 April, 1919, closed the camp. His son, Captain Arthur M. Slee, went to Europe under Colonel Persons's command, being the commander of Ambulance Section No. 565.

Colonel Slee continued his active work in the Army Reserve. On 7 September, 1922 he organized and was placed in command of General Medical Labora- tory No. 1, Slee Laboratory Unit, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania. He was the first National Commander of U. S. Army Ambulance Service Association, 1920–1921. He was an official representative at the burial ceremonies of the Unknown Soldier at the National Cemetery, Arlington, and presented a copy of the U. S. Army Ambulance Service's Medal.

He retired on 1 October, 1937, and makes his home at 80 Ralph Avenue, White Plains, New York. He is looked upon by the Medical Department of the Army as one of its faithful friends, a good soldier, and a valued medical officer.

THE DENTAL CORPS MEDAL

(Army Dental School)

In 1924 officers of the Dental Corps, U. S. Army, were invited to contribute to a fund to establish a medal for academic excellence at the Army Dental School. Thus was created the Dental Corps Medal. The conditions of the award were laid down by the faculty of the Army Dental School, with the approval of the Surgeon-General. It was decided that the medal would be awarded annually to the officer attaining the highest general average at the Army Dental School. The fund was collected by the Director of the Army Dental School as custodian.

It was announced that the award should be retroactive and thus include the graduates standing highest in the classes of 1922 and 1923. The Army Dental School had been created in 1922 as one of the Medical Department Professional Schools, at first in connection with the Army Medical School and now at the Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C.

The dies for the medal were made by the Bailey, Banks and Biddle Company of Philadelphia, and the medals therefrom have been struck in gold. No permanent fund for the Dental Corps Medal was ever established.

In 1934 the award of the medal was discontinued and as its further presentation was not contemplated, the dies were deposited for safe-keeping in the office of the Surgeon-General of the Army. A balance of about one hundred dollars remaining in the fund was used in part to defray the cost of a portrait of the late Colonel Robert Todd Oliver, chief of the Dental Corps, which may be seen in the Army Dental School (The Army Medical Bulletin, July, 1935, No. 32, 58–59).

Design of the Dental Corps Medal

The Dental Corps Medal is of gold, measuring 47 millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears a hand holding a flaming torch. Above this, there are five mullets or five-pointed stars, and to the right the emblem of the Dental Corps of the United States Army, being a caduceus upon which the letter D is superimposed. Above, in an arc, are the words: the dental corps, and below, also in an arc, the words: united states army. The reverse bears a wreath of laurel leaves surrounding these words: THE CORPS MEDAL AWARDED TO FOR HIGHEST STANDING ARMY DENTAL SCHOOL WASHINGTON

The place for the name of the winner is a slightly raised tablet and space is provided below for the date. Though different in execution, the reverse of the Dental Corps Medal is similar to that of the Hoff Medal (see pages 23–24).

Recipients of the Dental Corps Medal

1922—Captain Clarence Constantine Olson (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1923—Captain William Crittenden Webb, Jr. (retired as Lieutenant-Colonel).

1924—Captain Walter Davis Vail (now Colonel).

1925—Captain Edward Crawford Alley (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1926—Captain James Barton Mann (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1927—Captain George Robert Kennebeck (now Colonel).

1928—Captain Lynn Harold Tingay (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1929—Major John Lloyd Schock (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1930—Captain Earl George Gebhardt (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1931—Major Samuel John Rohde (later Lieutenant-Colonel; died, 1942).

1931—Captain Roger Giles Miller (now Major).

1933—Captain Clarence Price Canby (now Major).

1934—Major Bruce Harold Roberts (now Colonel, retired).

The Dental Corps Medal was awarded thirteen times.

THE DeVRIES MEDAL

(Medical Field Service School)

The DeVries Medal was the gift of the late Colonel Joseph Carlisle DeVries (1874–1941), Medical Reserve, United States Army, a graduate of the Medical Field Service School and an officer deeply interested in its welfare. The offer of the medal was made by Colonel DeVries in a letter to the Commandant of the School, Colonel Percy Moreau Ashburn, dated 14 November, 1922. Colonel DeVries said, in part:

"To show my appreciation for what I obtained in way of military knowledge at the school, may I offer a medal to be awarded to the officer attaining the highest mark in drill in the Department of Enlisted Training—this man to be selected by Major Bastion from each Basic Course for Reserve Officers?"

Major Bastion, above mentioned, is Joseph Edward Bastion, now Colonel, Medical Corps, then in charge of the Department of Training at the Medical Field Service School. Colonel DeVries a month later wrote again to the Commandant giving his wishes concerning the medal:

"Regarding my medal, it is to be limited to Reserve Officers, provided there are ten or more. Otherwise it is to include National Guard officers. The latter would carry it off each time on account of the fact that they are in constant touch with things military at the armories, while the Reserve officer is very apt to be and remain 'rusty,' unless he be given the advantage of training at our school and is willing to make the most of his opportunities and profit thereby ... " (Letter of 18 December, 1922).

Carrying out the responsibility placed upon him by the donor, Major Bastion prepared the following rules respecting the award of the DeVries Medal, of date 10 March, 1923.

"The following rules will govern the awarding of the DeVries Medal in the subject of Drill and Command:
  • Drill:
    • Such close order drill as is given in this course.
    • Litter drill.
    • Ambulance loading.
    • Sabre drill.
  • Grading will be done as follows:
    • Covering knowledge of Drill Regulations, Infantry, and Sanitary Drill Regulations as pertain to litter drill and ambulance loading, by
      • Daily marks on these subjects;
      • Practical tests;
      • Written test.
    • Ability of the student as a drill master, to be determined by
      • Methods used by student in imparting the drill Regulations to the class;
      • Manner of giving commands;
      • Ability to detect faults in drill movements, and the correction of same;
      • Bearing of the student before the class."

Under these rules the DeVries Medal was awarded in the years 1923 and 1924. Before the time for the award of the 1925 medal, the then commandant, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ransom Reynolds, (later Major-General and Surgeon-General of the Army), wrote to Colonel DeVries, 23 September, 1925:

"What would you think of changing the terms under which the DeVries Medal is to be awarded to the present and future classes, so that it would go to the officer who gets the highest general standing in the class? At the present time it is given to the officer who does best in drill and command, therefore it goes to the one who is really the best drilled officer and who can drill troops best. The course for National Guard and Reserve Officers has been changed. It is no longer a basic course, but is a field officers course in which the subjects of drill and command are given for the sole purpose of demonstrating and illustrating the methods of training. There are other far broader subjects falling under the Department of Training, such as mobilization and the preparation of mobilization plans, training problems, orders and schedules. In other words, the subjects for which your medal was to be awarded have been minimized and now constitute only a small part of the course. Colonel McCamant gives a medal to the officer who does best in Military Hygiene and Sanitation ...

"I would suggest, therefore, that you consider a change in the terms under which your medal is to be awarded and to give it to the officer who receives the highest general standing in the Field Officers Class."

Colonel DeVries acquiesced in this and thereafter the DeVries Medal was awarded to the officer standing highest in the class composed of field officers of the Reserve and National Guard.

Colonel DeVries, Founder of the Medal

Joseph Carlisle DeVries was born in New York City City, 26 May, 1874. He received his medical education at the Medical Department, New York City University, where he graduated as a Doctor of Medicine in 1895. Thereafter he had considerable postgraduate medical training. He was house physician at the Loomis Consumptive Hospital; junior physician at the Manhattan State Hospital, Ward's Island and Central Islip, New York; house surgeon at the Methodist Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia. He was Professor of Pathology and Physical Diagnosis at the National University, Washington, D. C., and Visiting Physician at the Emergency Hospital of Washington. He was attending physician at various times at a number of other hospitals.

He was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army (Contract Surgeon), during the Spanish-American War and from 1903 to 1904 was a Lieutenant, junior grade, in the Medical Corps of the U. S. Navy. From 1906 to 1909 he was Captain, Medical Corps, New York City National Guard, being promoted Major in 1917. From 1918 to 1919 he was a Captain, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, being promoted Major, Medical Reserve, 1919; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1922; and Colonel, 1925.

During the Spanish-American War he served at Lester U. S. General Hospital at Chickamauga Park, Georgia, and in the U. S. Hospital at Ponce, Puerto Rico. During the World War he was an instructor at Camp Greenleaf, Georgia, where so many reserve medical officers were trained for war duties. He was later on duty at Camp Hancock, Georgia, and at Spartanburg, South Carolina. He was a member of the Discharge Board at Camp Upton, New York, at the end of the war and was for a time in command of the 302nd Medical Regiment, 77th Division. He also commanded Hospital Center No. 6.

As a specialist in tuberculosis he had long service with the Veterans' Administration, retiring in April 1941. His interest in the Medical Reserve of the Army was great at all times. He had active duty nearly every summer, being often at Carlisle Barracks. It was while here that he offered to present the DeVries Medal at the Medical Field Service School.

Colonel DeVries died on 27 July, 1941, at Washington Sanitarium, Takoma Park, Maryland, a suburb of Washington. The above information concerning Colonel DeVries has been supplied by his son, Mr. Van Beuren W. DeVries of Washington.

Design of the DeVries Medal

The DeVries Medal, manufactured by the firm of Dieges and Clust of New York City, measures 42 millimetres in its longest and 31 millimetres in its shortest dimensions. The medal is enamelled in colors and is, in effect, an enlargement of the metal badge, representing the arms of the Medical Field Service School, worn as a part of the uniform of the personnel of the school. The only difference is that the DeVries Medal bears the words De Vries Medal horizontally across the middle of the medal. The arms of the Medical Field Service School, as depicted on the DeVries Medal are: Sanguine, in chief: an open book, a tent and a wheel; argent, in base the staff of �sculapius and a naked sword point down, in saltire. Though the heraldry may not be entirely above criticism, the shield represents the book of knowledge, the tent typifies field service and the wheel refers to transportation. The staff of �sculapius, the rod with a single serpent entwined, is the ancient badge of the medical art, while the sword pertains to the military service. The reverse of the DeVries Medal is of plain gold. The first copy issued was engraved: LEADERSHIP AND PROFICIENCY IN DRILL DURING SHORT BASIC COURSE FOR RESERVE OFFICERS AT THE MEDICAL FIELD SERVICE SCHOOL U. S. A., CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA. AWARDED BY LT. COL. JOSEPH CARLISLE DE VRIES MED. O. R. C.

There is no place for the name of the recipient, the only space being that for the date. The medal is suspended from a ribbon of deep red, almost maroon. It is possible that the engraving on the reverse of the medal, being done by hand in each case, may have varied somewhat in the eight examples struck. The later awards were for highest standing in the National Guard and Reserve Officers Course. The first copy was not enameled.

Recipients of the DeVries Medal

1923—Captain Eugene Farmer Sanford, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1924—Colonel Thomas Jefferson McCamant,1* Medical Reserve. U. S. Army.

1925—Lieutenant-Colonel Roy McLeay Fortier, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1926—Major Edward Joseph Cringle, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1927—Lieutenant-Colonel Ralph Thomas Knight, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1928—Major Francis William Moore, Medical Corps, New York National Guard.

1929—Major Erl Armitage Baber, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1930—Captain Gordon Friedrich Helsley, Medical Corps, California National Guard.

THE HOSKINS MEDAL

(Army Veterinary School)

The Hoskins Medal was created in honor of Doctor William Horace Hoskins, a prominent veterinarian, who had greatly assisted the Veterinary Corps of the Army in its fight for official recognition. The medal was sponsored by the American Veterinary Medical Association and was approved verbally by the Surgeon-General of the Army in 1924.

The cost of the Hoskins Medal was borne, 1924–1925, by voluntary contributions of veterinary officers of the Regular Army. At the annual meet- ing of the American Veterinary Medical Association at Portland, Oregon, in 1925, the responsibility for the annual cost of the Hoskins Medal was assumed by that body. Thereafter the medal was presented by the Association to the Director of the Army Veterinary School for award to each class of graduates.

The medal was cast in gold by the Bailey, Banks and Biddle Company of Philadelphia. The molds were acquired by A. H. Dondero, manufacturer of military insignia, Washington, and he supplied the Hoskins Medals as long as they were authorized. The medal was discontinued with the award for 1924. The molds have been deposited for safekeeping in the office of the Surgeon-General, U. S. Army.

Dr. Hoskins, whom the Medal honors

William Horace Hoskins was born at Rockdale, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 23 July, 1860. Receiving preliminary education at the public schools of his native county, he graduated as a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine at the American Veterinary College, New York City, 1881.

He began the practice of his profession in Philadelphia, 1881, being also a member of the veterinary faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, teaching veterinary jurisprudence, ethics and business methods. He continued in Philadelphia until 1917, when he became Dean of the New York City State Veterinary College, New York City University. At the same time he was Professor of Jurisprudence and Clinical Medicine at that institution.

Dr. Hoskins was a prolific writer for professional journals, and was editor of the Journal of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Archives for many years. He was a member of The Pennsylvania State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners, and served both as its secretary and its president. In 1889 and 1895 he helped to frame the legislation relating to the practice of veterinary medicine in Pennsylvania. From 1888 to 1893 he was secretary of the American Veterinary Medical Association and was its president from 1893 to 1896, its only president who has served for three terms.

He was for many years a member of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Committee on Army Legislation, being frequently its chairman. The work of this committee had much to do with the creation of the Veterinary Corps of the Army. It was in recognition of this long service to his profession and the Veterinary Corps that the Hoskins Medal was named in his honor.

Dr. Hoskins died in New York City, 10 August, 1921. His obituary in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, September, 1921, contains the following paragraph:

"The latter years of Dr. Hoskins's life were spent principally as an educator, and he proved successful in this, particularly in securing substantial endowments for his work. His kind sympathetic nature led him to note the sufferings among the poor of the great metropolis where he resided and be became identified with community welfare in the poor sec- tions of New York City. Through the death of Dr. Hoskins the profession suffers the loss of an outstanding practitioner, higher veterinary education an ardent advocate, the veterinary college an eminent instructor, veterinary literature a valuable contributor, the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Army veterinary service a staunch supporter, the A. V. M. A. a faithful energetic worker, the country a loyal patriotic citizen, and most of us in the profession have lost a dear unselfish personal friend."

Dr. Hoskins's two sons, both Doctors of Veterinary Medicine, are Dr. Cheston M. Hoskins of Philadelphia and Dr. H. Preston Hoskins of Evanston, Illinois. The latter has supplied the data for this biographic sketch.

Design of the Hoskins Medal

The Hoskins Medal is of gold, measuring 63 millimetres in diameter. The medal bears, on the obverse, the figure of the wise centaur, Cheiron, known in Greek mythology as the teacher of warriors. The right hand holds a bandage and the left the cup of knowledge. Around the border are the words: united . states . army . veterinary . school, and to the left the date, 1924. Upon the pedestal upon which Cheiron stands are the initials of the artist, J.R.S. [John R. Sinnock]. The reverse bears a shield with these words: HOSKINS MEMORIAL MEDAL AWARDED TO

Space for two lines is provided for engraving the name of the winner and the date, in full, not merely the year. In a wide border about the shield there is an endless branch of laurel leaves.

Major Davis of the Army Medical Museum has recently inspected the plaster matrix from which the Hoskins Medal has been cast. He considers it in such poor condition that it is doubtful whether it can again serve its purpose.

Recipients of the Hoskins Medal

1924—First Lieutenant John Harold Kintner (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1925—Captain François Hue Kari Reynolds (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1926—Captain George Jacob Rife (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1927—Captain Harry John Juzek (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1928—Captain Nathan Menzo Neate (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1929—Captain George Leslie Caldwell (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1930—Captain Gerald Woodward Fitzgerald (now Colonel).

1931—Captain Raymond Randall (now Colonel).

1932—Second Lieutenant Ralph William Mohri (now Major).

1933—Second Lieutenant Russell McNellis (now Major).

1934—Major Herbert Kelley Moore (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1935—Medal not awarded.

1936—First Lieutenant Bernard Francis Trum (now Captain).

1937—First Lieutenant William Edwin Jennings (now Captain).

1938—First Lieutenant Thomas Carlyle Jones (now Captain).

1939—First Lieutenant Don L. * Deane (now Captain).

1940—No award. Medal in abeyance for period of the national emergency, regular courses at the Army Veterinary School suspended.

The Hoskins Medal has been awarded fifteen times.

End Notes

* This is the Colonel McCamant who in 1924 created the McCamant Medal (see page 65).
* Initial only; no middle name.

THE McCAMANT MEDAL

(Medical Field Service School)

The McCamant Medal, awarded at the Medical Field Service School, was the gift of Colonel Thomas Jefferson McCamant of El Paso, Texas. The origin and purpose of the medal are best set forth in the letter from the Commandant of the School to the Surgeon-General, asking authorization for the acceptance of the McCamant Medal, at first designed to be a watch fob or charm.

Under date of 22 September 1924, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ransom Reynolds wrote to the Surgeon-General as follows:

"Colonel Thomas J. McCamant, Med.-O.R.C., of El Paso, Texas, now a student at the Medical Field Service School desires to present a medal to be awarded this year and hereafter to the member of the six weeks' course who attains the highest mark in Military Hygiene and Sanitation, competition to be opened to regular, national guard and reserve officers of every section.

"The medal is to be in the nature of a watch fob, suitably engraved.

"Authority is requested to authorize Colonel McCamant to make this award."

This request was approved by Major-General Meritte Weber Ireland, Surgeon-General of the Army, as indicated by the following indorsement by his Executive Officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Urie Patterson, 25 September, 1924. By a coin- cidence, both Colonel Patterson and Colonel Reynolds became Major-Generals and Surgeon-Generals of the Army in turn.

"1. Granting authority to accept the award of a medal in the nature of a watch fob, to be presented annually by Colonel Thomas J. McCamant, Med-O.R.C., of El Paso, Texas, to the student attaining the highest mark in Military Hygiene and Sanitation at the basic six weeks' course, Carlisle Barracks, Pa."

The first McCamant Medal was from a stock design and was merely a watch fob, but thereafter, a special design having been completed, the medal is comparable to the others of our series.

The following letter of 12 October, 1926, from Dr. McCamant to the Commandant of the Medical Field Service School, gives further information about the terms of the award of the McCamant Medal: "My dear Colonel Reynolds: "Your letter of the 6th was received, and I immediately wired you regarding the medal for best grade in military hygiene. "Last year I had a thorough understanding with Major Stayer regarding this medal and it was definitely understood that the medal was to be presented each year until I had notified the School that I desire to have it stopped. "I also had a special die made for this medal by the Conlyn Jewelry Store and Mr. C. B. Gray of said store understood that this medal was to be cast each year from this die. After the die had been made and paid for the expense for the medal was very little and consisted of paying for the cast as well as the lettering required thereon. "I trust that I made my telegram sufficiently plain and that you presented the certificate for the best grade in military hygiene and had Mr. Gray to cast the medal and letter same. "I wish you would see that this is attended to and that Mr. Gray mails the medal, after completing the same, to the one authorized to receive it, and henceforth if you will notify the Director of the Department of Military Hygiene regarding this medal it can be made and lettered and delivered at the graduating exercises. ...

Yours very truly,
Dr. T. J. McCamant."

Major Stayer, above mentioned, was the Director of the Department of Military Sanitation. He is now Brigadier-General and Health Officer of the Panama Canal.

The McCamant Medal continued to be given as the award for highest class standing in the Department of Military Sanitation, until 1930, when it was discontinued. It was the feeling of the faculty that the course was too short to justify the award of a medal.

Colonel McCamant, Founder of the McCamant Medal

Thomas Jefferson McCamant was born at Glen Rose, Texas, 27 November, 1874. He received the degree of Bachelor of Science at Glen Rose Collegiate Institute, 1896, and the M. D. at Fort Worth (now Baylor) University, cum laude, 1902. He became chief of the staff of the City-County Health Hospital of El Paso, 1929, and of the Masonic Hospital, also of El Paso, 1931. From 1916 to 1933 he was Health Officer of El Paso County, Texas, and under his direction the El Paso City-County Health Unit won first place in the Rural Health Conservation Contest, 1934, 1935, and 1936.

He served as a private in the Hospital Corps, U. S. Army, during the Spanish-American War, being assigned to the Second Division Hospital, Seventh Army Corps, Jacksonville, Florida, and Atlanta, Georgia. At the outset of the World War he organized the 111th Sanitary Train, Thirty-Sixth Division, at El Paso, Texas, and was inducted into the Army in July 1917. Thereafter he was commanding officer, 141st Field Hospital, in training at Camp Bowie, Texas, and overseas for nearly a year. During this period he was in action at the relief of Rheims, 6th to 28th October, 1918.

He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, 1919, and returning to the United States in that year, was discharged from the military service at Camp Dix, New Jersey. He continued active interest in the military service and was promoted Colonel, Medical Reserve, August, 1924. He completed the course for National Guard and Reserve Officers at the Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, 1924, and having attained the highest general average, was awarded the DeVries Medal. (See page 60.)

It was during this course at the Medical Field Service School that he established the McCamant Medal for award to the officer standing highest in Military Sanitation. Colonel McCamant states that he established the medal, "appreciating the efforts of Major M. C. Stayer, [now Brigadier-General], Director of the Department of Military Sanitation."

Colonel McCamant lives at El Paso, Texas, and I am indebted to him for the above biographic information.

Design of the McCamant Medal, First Type

The McCamant Medal awarded in 1924 to Major Richard Emmons Elvins is of gold, and seemingly from a stock pattern manufactured for general use. The design has no particular reference to military hygiene, the subject in which the medal was awarded, and the words, "Military Hygiene" form no part of the design, but are engraved in a blank scroll at the bottom of the medal. The reverse of the medal is plain and bears the inscription in engraved letters, somewhat crudely executed. The medal as first awarded was designed to be worn in civilian clothing as a watch fob or charm.

The medal is circular with wavy edges, and measures 30 millimetres in diameter, from the most distant points of the wavy margin. The design is a burning torch of knowledge in front of an open book, while eight other books, closed, form the background, above which and below the top of the torch are rays extending downward from the flame. Below this design, in an arc which occupies about three-fourths of the circumference of the medal, is an elaborate scroll upon which are engraved the words, military hygiene.

The reverse is plain, bearing only, in small letters, iok gold. The following words are engraved upon the first McCamant Medal, the lines being not horizontal but inclined somewhat to the left: MCCAMANT PRIZE EFFICIENCY IN MILITARY HYGIENE WON BY R. E. ELVINS MEDICAL FIELD SERVICE SCHOOL CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA. 1924

The medal is suspended from a gold ring from which it can be hung from a watch chain or similar fastening. It is of bright finish.

Design of the McCamant Medal, Second Type

The second type of McCamant Medal, or possibly one should say the only one for which there was an individual design, was manufactured by Dieges and Clust of New York City to the order of the Conlyn Jewelry Shop of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. This shop has changed hands and no record can be found of the dies.

The medal is circular in shape, suspended from an unwatered blue ribbon. The obverse bears the caduceus, the emblem of the United States Army Medical Department, from the lower part of which branches of oak leaves extend upward in the form of a wreath. To the left of the caduceus is the word mccamant and to the right the word prize. Below, in an arc, are the words for military hygiene. The whole is enclosed in a Greek key border.

The reverse of the McCamant medal is plain, appropriately engraved by hand. While it is not unlikely that the wording varied in the several copies, the following is probably more or less typical: In an arc at the top, the name of the recipient, with the military rank in a straight line below. In the lower half of the reverse these words: HIGHEST STANDING IN MILITARY HYGIENE

To the right and left of these words there are scrolls.

The second type of McCamant Medal was clearly a medal comparable to the others awarded at the Medical Department's schools, and not intended for wear as a fob or watch charm.

The McCamant Medal measures 32 millimetres in diameter.

Recipients of the McCamant Medal

1924—Major Richard Emmons Elvins, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army (now Lieutenant-Colonel, Medical Corps).

1925—Major Harold Everett Eggers, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1926—Lieutenant-Colonel Martin Henry Deffenbaugh, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army (now Colonel).

1927—Major Edward Fenton Cooke, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1928—Major Roy Welles Smith, Medical Corps, Massachusetts National Guard.

1929—Major Delwin Morton Campbell, Veterinary Reserve, U. S. Army.

1930—Captain Arthur Wesley Knox, Medical Corps, Florida National Guard.

The McCamant Medal was awarded seven times, of which all but the first were of the second type.

THE REA MEDAL

(Army School of Nursing)

The Rea Medal was founded in 1925 by Mrs. Henry Robinson Rea (Edith Oliver Rea) of Pittsburgh for award at the Army School of Nursing, Walter Reed Hospital, Washington. Its creation was one of the many acts of beneficence on the part of Mrs. Rea in connection with the training of nurses for the United States Army.

Mrs. Rea, Founder of the Medal

Edith Oliver, born in Pittsburgh, 17 November, 1865, is the widow of Henry Robinson Rea (1863–1919), director of many important Pittsburgh corporations and a dollar-a-year man during the World War.

Mrs. Rea, on account of poor health, did not take an active part in war work until after the United States entered the World War. Since that time her activities on behalf of service men and women have been of enormous extent and variety. She was a member of the Board of Incorporators of the American Red Cross, and served for twenty years as a very active member of the Central Committee. She did active work in Washington during the war as chairman of the Comfort Section of the District of Columbia Chapter. Mrs. Rea and her mother defrayed the greater part of its incidental expenses. In 1918 the American Red Cross built a convalescent house at the Walter Reed General Hospital, in which Mrs. Rea, who had been made Field Director, furnished the ground floor as a gift to the service men. Mrs. Rea was the first woman Field Director of the American Red Cross and the only one during the World War.

Some of the works and gifts of Mrs. Rea are these: The Memorial Chapel at Walter Reed Hospital, in honor of all service men and women. She under-wrote the entire cost ($32,000) for the American Red Cross and in person turned over the first spadeful of earth for the building, 1929. In 1919 she gave the hospital its large swimming pool. In the same year she gave greenhouses to the hospital. She was largely instrumental in obtaining the gift by the American Red Cross of the fine recreation building at the Army Medical Center, 1927. She gave sound equipment for the hospital's motion picture theatre, and greatly assisted in the provision of athletic equipment for the men.

Particularly interested in the work of U. S. Army nurses, she worked untiringly for the passage of the bill to give them military rank, which they now enjoy. She offered a scholarship of $1500 to a graduate of the Army School of Nursing, for the advanced instruction of a graduate selected for her education, training and personality. This scholarship was awarded, 1924, to Miss Barbara M. Price of Rochester, New York, who received a year's training in the Department of Nursing and Health, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Mrs. Rea lives at Sewickley, Pennsylvania, where she has had her country home for many years.

Eligibility for the Rea Medal

Mrs. Rea established the medal which bears her name in 1925. It is accompanied by an honorarium of five hundred dollars, being the only medal awarded at any school of the Army Medical Department which has this additional prize. The Rea Medal was established to honor "that member of the graduating class of the Army School of Nursing whom the faculty consider has shown the greatest aptitude for her work, not only for the lessons learned from books, but also for human understanding, unfailing cheerfulness, and optimism found everywhere during time of stress, but which are much rarer now without the exaltation and excitement of war."

The medal was struck by Tiffany and Company, New York City, from dies of their manufacture. Possibly sketches by Miss Elizabeth Will, an Occupational Therapy Aide at the Walter Reed Hospital, may have been used in part in the preparation of the design by Tiffany and Company.

The Rea Medal is, of course, not at present awarded, since the Army School of Nursing is not now functioning. But neither the School nor the Rea Medal is abolished. Should the exigencies of the military service make necessary the reopening of the Army School of Nursing, the Rea Medal will again be awarded to the honor student in each class.

Design of the Rea Medal

The Rea Medal is of gold, measuring 38 millimetres in diameter, suspended from a deep red ribbon of unwatered silk. The obverse of the medal bears the kneeling figure of Hygeia, facing right, and holding in her hands the cup of knowledge. In an arc above are the words: army . school . of . nursing . Below, on a tablet, two straight lines with the words: WALTER REED GENERAL HOSPITAL

The reverse bears the words: REA MEDAL FOR BEST ALL ROUND STUDENT NURSE

below which is a tablet for the name of the recipient, and below the tablet the insignia of the Army School of Nursing, namely, the caduceus charged with a lamp, in allusion to the lamp of Florence Nightingale, which caused her to be called "The Lady of the Lamp" by the British soldiers, at the time of her nightly visits to the beds of the wounded and sick in the Crimean War. The whole of the reverse is surrounded by an endless branch of ivy. The ribbon of the medal is suspended from a gold bar bearing a branch of ivy in the center of which is a small circle charged with the letter R.

Recipients of the Rea Medal

1925—Second Lieutenant Gertrude Clarinda Wilson.

1926—Second Lieutenant Barbara Miller.

1927—Second Lieutenant Myrtle Page Hodgkins.

1928—Second Lieutenant Antoinette Price.

1929—Second Lieutenant Malvina Mary Grieves.

1930—Second Lieutenant Mary Duff (now First Lieutenant).

1931—Second Lieutenant Beulah Marie Putman.

1932—Second Lieutenant Mary Elizabeth Vetter.

With the closing of the Army School of Nursing the Rea Medal fell into abeyance. It was awarded eight times. Of the eight recipients only Lieutenants Duff and Putman are still in the military service. Both are stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

THE McKINNEY MEDAL

(Medical Field Service School)

The McKinney medal was established by the gift of Colonel, then Major, Garfield Lesley McKinney, Medical Corps, U. S. Army. His connection with the Medical Field Service School has been intimate. He has been the commander of the First Medical Regiment there stationed and has directed the Medical Equipment Laboratory, wherein are developed apparatus and appliances for use by the Medical Department in the field.

Colonel McKinney, long interested in the training of the enlisted men of the Medical Department, offered to establish a medal to be awarded annually to the non-commissioned officer standing first in the Non-Commissioned Officers' Course at the Medical Field Service School.

Colonel McKinney's letter to the Surgeon-General, forwarded with the approval of the Commandant of the Medical Field Service School, made the offer on 8 October, 1926. Here is the letter in full:

"Carlisle Barracks
October 8, 1926
"SUBJECT: Medal for award in the Non-Commissioned Officer's Course, Medical Field Service School.
"TO: The Surgeon General, U. S. Army
(through the Commandant, Medical Field Service School).

"1. As the Non-Commissioned Officers' School appears now to have become one of the established annual courses given at the Medical Field Service School, and having personally had the opportunity of closely observing 3 classes of non-commissioned officers go through this school, it is my opinion that it will be appropriate and advisable to award, upon graduation, a suitable medal to that student who in certain respects stands first in his class. Medals are now awarded in some of the other courses given at this school, and I believe that a medal for the Non-commissioned Officers' School will act as an incentive to increased efforts to many in each class, as well as tending to increase the dignity of the course and elevate its standards.

"2. If it meets with approval, I would like to institute a gold medal to be awarded to one student in each Non-commissioned Officers' Class of the Medical Field Service School, beginning with the class now pursuing this course of instruction, I to bear all expenses incident to the designing and casting of the first medal and thereafter the cost of the medal awarded in each subsequent annual class. The medal to be of gold, as artistic and attractive in design and inscription as any now awarded to other classes at this school.

"3. Conditions under which medal is to be awarded:

  • To be awarded only to the regular, annual Non-Commissioned Officers' Course of the Field Medical School open to the enlisted men of the Medical Departments of the Regular Army (from all stations), the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves if that component of the Army of the United States should later be received at this school.
  • Non-Commissioned officers of the Medical Departments of the Regular Army, the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves to be each equally eligible for the medal.
  • The medal to be awarded to the student standing highest on the following basis:

Scholarship, as shown by his class standing—to count one-half.

Conduct at the school, soldierly bearing, and leadership—to count one-half.

  • The winning student to be selected by the faculty of the Non-Commissioned Officers' Course, including the Commandant.
  • The medal to be awarded only for those sessions to which at least a minimum of two months of full time are devoted, and in which there are at least 264 hours of scheduled instruction, exclusive of any time which may be devoted to athletics."

G. L. McKinney,
Major, Medical Corps

Colonel McKinney's desires as to the design of the medal are thus set forth in a letter that he wrote to a number of manufacturers, dated 20 October, 1926.

"3. Data for the medal:—
  • Medical Field Service School
  • United States Army
  • McKinney Medal
  • Figure in relief—of a Medical Department soldier rescuing a wounded infantryman in battle. Both figures to be in regulation field uniform including helmet. Medical Department soldier should be so placed as to show Red Cross brassard on left arm. Possible combinations: The infantryman recumbent and Medical Department soldier kneeling and applying first aid to the wounded man; wounded man semi-erect leaning backward and being supported by the Medical Department soldier; wounded man walking, supported around the body by right arm of the Medical Department soldier, the wounded man's left arm being around the neck and shoulders of the Medical Department soldier. These are offered only as suggestions of what we have in mind.

The figures should be clear-cut, animated, life-like, and the idea of the actual presence of battle should be indicated.

Reverse:
  • a. Non-Commissioned Officers' Course.
  • b. Name (Place for name).
  • c. Awarded for
  • d. Scholarship—Conduct—Soldierly bearing—Leadership
  • e. Year (1926).
"4. It is desired that the medal does not exceed the diameter of a silver dollar; if it is possible to hold it down to that size without prejudicing the clearness and artistic features of the medal."5. Please state price, (a) for the first medal including dies and designing, and (b) cost of each medal subsequent to the first one."6. If you wish to bid on this piece will you kindly inform me at your earliest convenience, as it is desired to make the award of the first medal during the last week of next month."7. Would like to have a sketch of the medal (observe and reverse) showing your ideas of the best arrangement of the data given you above in par. 2, including such scroll, wreath, or other decorative features as you may consider advisable to add.

Very truly yours,
G. L. McKinney,
Major, Medical Corps, U. S. Army

Colonel McKinney's offer was accepted by the Surgeon-General, Major-General Merritte Weber Ireland, on 20 October, 1926. Colonel McKinney gave the contract to produce the medal to Dieges and Clust, New York City. The McKinney Medal has been manufactured by this firm ever since. It has been awarded fifteen times.

Colonel McKinney, Founder of the Medal

A native of Scranton, Pennsylvania, Garfield Lesley McKinney was born on 31 July, 1881. He received his education at the University of Pennsylvania, graduating a Doctor of Medicine in 1906. At that time a candidate for admission to the Medical Corps of the United States Army had to serve as a Contract Surgeon (Acting Assistant Surgeon) while pursuing the course at the Army Medical School. Upon graduation, if accepted for the service, he received his commission. McKinney was appointed a Contract Surgeon on 20 September, 1907 and graduated at the Army Medical School in the following year. On 13 June, 1908 he was commissioned First Lieutenant, Medical Corps, U. S. Army.

In the year of his graduation he was sent to the Philippine Islands for duty, where he was stationed at Camp Stotsenberg, Island of Luzon. He returned to the United States in October 1910 and for the next sixteen months was on duty at Letterman General Hospital in San Francisco. From 1912 to 1914 he was Surgeon (i.e. the senior medical officer) at Fort Caswell, North Carolina. From the middle of 1914 until the end of April 1915 he commanded Ambulance Company No. 8, Galveston, Texas. There began his long connection with field experience and training of Medical Department units. He continued on this duty until after the United States entered the World War, the unit having been transferred to the Canal Zone in 1915.

McKinney, who had been promoted Captain in 1911, became a Major in 1917. During the period of America's participation in the Great War, Major McKinney had three important assignments: Sanitary Inspector, Camp Grant, Illinois; Surgeon of the Port of Embarkation at Charleston, South Carolina; and Surgeon of the large Cantonment Camp, Camp Pike, Arkansas. In September 1919 he was sent overseas for duty with the American Forces in Germany. On the Rhine he was stationed at Andernach, Mayen, Neuwied, and Coblenz. He spent much of his spare time during this period in the study of German, becoming fluent in his reading and speaking knowledge of the language.

Back in the United States in 1922, Lieutenant-Colonel McKinney (he had been given that temporary rank in 1918) was assigned as a student at the Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, being one of the first medical officers to receive this special training. He was, after graduation, assigned as Director of the Department of Training, Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, at the same time being commanding officer of the First Medical Regiment.

At the time of its organization in 1925, he was given the added duties of Director of the Carlisle Barracks Non-Commissioned Officers' School. He continued on this work until 1928, in which year he attained the permanent grade of Lieutenant-Colonel. His interest in the field training of the medical soldier resulted in his establishment of the McKinney Medal at this time.

From July 1928 to July 1929 he was a member of the War Department General Staff, relinquishing this assignment to become the head of the Planning and Training Division, Office of the Surgeon-General, War Department. He remained on this duty until the autumn of 1931 when he entered the Army War College as a student, graduating in the following year and likewise completing the Field Officers' Course at the Chemical Warfare School in the same year.

From September 1932 to January 1933 he was Commandant of the Medical Field Service School. He continued on duty at Carlisle Barracks until 1939 as Director, Medical Department Equipment Laboratory. From that year until 1940 he was once more in the Surgeon-General's Office as Chief of the Planning and Organization Section, Planning and Training Division. On 5 February, 1940 he became Surgeon of Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Arkansas (known as Camp Pike during the World War), and is at present on this duty. He became a Colonel on 13 June, 1934.

Design of the McKinney Medal

The McKinney Medal was designed in accordance with the description submitted by Colonel McKinney at the time he established the medal. It is of gold, 37 millimetres in diameter, suspended from a ribbon of watered silk of three equal stripes, red-white-blue. The ribbon hangs from a concealed pin. The obverse bears in a circle a medical soldier bending over and ministering to a wounded infantryman half reclining on the ground. The infantryman's rifle lies nearby. In an arc above are the words: medical . field . service . school .; and below: u. s. a. On a rectangular tablet at bottom of circle the words: mckinney medal. The reverse bears a wreath of laurel leaves upon which are four tablets. To the left the two tablets bear, respectively, the words: scholarship and military bearing, while the two tablets at the right are, respectively, charged with the words: conduct and leadership, these being the four bases for the award of the medal. Above in two arcs are the words: non-commissioned officers' course. The space in the middle of the reverse is for the name and rank of the winner of the medal. Like the other medals awarded at the schools of the Medical Department of the Army, this one may not be worn on the uniform.

Recipients of the McKinney Medal

1926—Technical Sergeant John N. Bailey.

1927—Staff Sergeant Ethan Wells.

1928—Staff Sergeant Ralph L. Hendrix.

1929—Staff Sergeant Joseph Carmack.

1930—Staff Sergeant Armin E. Berger (Oregon National Guard)

1931—Staff Sergeant Henry D. Field

1932—Sergeant Joe K. Carter.

1933—No class held.

1934—Staff Sergeant Earl P. Hall.

1935—Sergeant Robert G. Henerey.

1936—Sergeant John E. Merriken.

1937—Sergeant Clyde W. Henderson

1938—Sergeant Joseph E. Englehardt.

1939—Sergeant Robert E. Selwyn.

1940—Technical Sergeant Jack Bradley.

1941—Sergeant Harry A. Goldstone.

The McKinney Medal has been awarded fifteen times.

The Bresnahan Sabre

This prize, formerly awarded at the Medical Field Service School, is mentioned here since, though not of numismatic interest, it represented the same sort of academic attainment for which medals are otherwise awarded at this and other schools of the Medical Department of the Army. It was awarded seven times.

Major John Francis Bresnahan, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army, donated the sabre to the Medical Field Service School for award to that student of the Field Officers Course for National Guard and Reserve Officers "attaining the greatest proficiency in leadership, drill and command, and soldierly bearing." The Bresnahan Sabre, now discontinued, was won by the following Reserve and National Guard Officers:

1924—Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Hammond Ogburn, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

1925—Not awarded.

1926—Lieutenant-Colonel John Freemole Orlando Howell, Medical Reserve.

1927—Major George Edward Webb Hardy, Medical Corps, Florida National Guard.

1928—Captain Carrol Dandola Evans, Medical Corps, Nebraska National Guard.

1929—Captain Simon Wayne Alford, Veterinary Corps, Nebraska National Guard.

1930—Major William Davidson Hennen, Medical Corps, New York City National Guard.

1931—Major Harry H.* Hammell, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army.

The First Division Prize

Though not a medal, and therefore not properly within the scope of this monograph, the coveted First Division Prize of the Medical Field Service School is mentioned, since it is awarded in the same manner as one of the medals already described.

The donor is a civilian, who insists that his name be never revealed, but who the Commandant of the Medical Field Service School announced as one who had rendered excellent service to the American Expeditionary Forces in France as a Director of Red Cross activities. In 1928 he established a trust fund of one thousand dollars at the Farmers Trust Company of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the income on which is used to purchase a watch, costing approximately thirty-five dollars. The watch is presented to that student graduating in the Basic Class at the Medical Field Service School "who excells in military art in medical field service, and who, in the opinion of the faculty, is best qualified for service with a medical regiment."

The First Division Prize, a name given it by the donor, has been won by the following officers:

1929—Captain Harry Aloysius Bishop (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1930—First Lieutenant Roger Gaylord Prentiss (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1931—First Lieutenant Matthew Corell Pugsley (now Major).

1932—First Lieutenant Robert Edwin Peyton (now Major).

1933—First Lieutenant Francis Patrick Kintz (now Lieutenant-Colonel).

1934—Captain Robert Barrett Skinner (now Major).

1935—First Lieutenant James Leslie Snyder (now Major).

1936—First Lieutenant Howard Fletcher Currie (now Major).

1937—First Lieutenant Raymond Edward Duke (now Major).

1938—Captain Weldon Kenneth Ruth (now Major).

1939—Captain Paul Alexander Paden (now Major).

1940—(First Class)—First Lieutenant Robert McAllister Davis (now Major).

1940—(Second Class)—First Lieutenant Rolland Bernard Sigafoos (now Major).

1940—(Third Class)—Captain Wendell Playfair Harris.

1941—Prize in abeyance during the existence of the national emergency.

Suspension of Issuance of Medals and Prizes

The following letter, dated 31 October, 1940, was directed to Commandant, Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, by the Surgeon-General of the army:

"In view of the fact that the regular courses of the Medical Field Service School will be suspended with the present class, it is desired that the issuance of all medals and prizes be discontinued during the period of such suspension."

End Notes

* No middle name; initial only.

PART II MEDALS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF THE UNITED STATES

History of The Association of Military Surgeons

The Association of Military Surgeons is the oldest of the several associations maintained by the various branches of the United States Army, such as the Field Artillery Association, the Society of American Military Engineers, the Cavalry Association, the Infantry Association, the Quartermaster Association, etc. It was founded in Chicago on 17 September, 1891. It celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1941 (for its history, see The Military Surgeon, September, 1941, lxxxix, 242–594).

By means of its annual meetings and its journal devoted to military medicine it has been able to render the United States a great and lasting service. Its membership is drawn from the Medical Department of the United States Army, that of the United States Navy, the National Guard, the Organized Reserves, the United States Public Health Service, the Veterans' Administration and the Indian Medical Service (Department of the Interior).

The Association's periodical has been known, in turn as the Transactions of the Association of Military Surgeons of the National Guard, The Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, The Journal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States , and The Military Surgeon. This last title has been used since 1907. The volumes, however, have been numbered serially from the first in 1891. The journal has been a monthly since 1907.

The Association has offered four valuable medals, two accompanied by an honorarium. The Enno Sander Medal was awarded 1900–1908, inclusive, and the Wellcome Medal since 1916, including that year. Another medal, the Gorgas Medal, though announced as a prize and the die made, was never awarded. The Founder's Medal, created in 1941, is awarded from time to time. These medals will be described in turn.

THE ENNO SANDER MEDAL

At the annual meeting of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States in 1899, the Association's founder, Surgeon-General Nicholas Senn of the Illinois National Guard, announced that Major Enno Sander of St. Louis, a charter member of the Association, had signified his intention to donate annually a prize of one hundred dollars and a gold medal to be awarded to the author of the best essay written upon an approved subject by a member of the Association. Major Sander, who had been an officer of United States Volunteers during the War Between the States, stipulated that the subject of the contest be in the field of military medicine.

The Association gratefully accepted Major Sander's gift and decided that there be constituted a Standing Committee on the Enno Sander Prize, charged with the duty of selecting a subject for the contest each year. There was also created a Board of Award to judge the essays and determine the winner. The essays were required to be submitted under a nom de plume and the envelope marked with such nom de plume and containing the name of the author, to be opened at the annual meeting and the winner announced by the President of the Association.

Major Sander further asked that the medal be withheld if, in the opinion of the judges, no essay were of sufficient merit to warrant the prize. The essay adjudged second best was to be given Honorable Mention and the author made a life member in the Association. Both the winning essay and that given Honorable Mention were published in The Military Surgeon, the monthly journal of the Association.

The first Enno Sander medal was awarded in 1900 and the essay published in the following year. Between that year and 1908 the medal was awarded seven times. In 1909 Major Sander withdrew his offer of the medal.

Dr. Sander, Founder of the Medal

Dr. Enno Sander, the celebrated pharmacist, had one of the most unusual careers of any of his profession in the United States. Born on 26 February, 1822 in the village of Trinum, near Koethen, in Anhalt, Germany, he was the son of Karl Frederick Sander and Emilia Palm, his wife. He was educated at the gymnasia of Zerbst, Eisleben and Koethen, the University of Berlin and the University of Halle, at which last he received his doctorate in 1847. Fifty years later the university conferred on him her golden diploma.

In 1848 he was a member of the Constitutional Assembly of his native state, and in 1849 was made Assistant Minister of War in Baden. He was involved in the Baden Revolution and was sentenced to ten years of solitary confinement. In 1850, however, having been pardoned and exiled, he came to the United States.

In 1853, he opened a pharmacy in St. Louis, in 1854 a second, and in 1865 a third. For thirty years, 1865–1894, he conducted an analytical laboratory in St. Louis. He was one of the founders of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. During 1871–1874 he was professor of materia medica and botany, having reorganized the school after it had been closed for two years. In 1902 it conferred upon him the title of Professor Emeritus of Materia Medica and Botany, in recognition of his services to the study of pharmacy and collateral sciences.

Dr. Sander served in the War Between the States as Major and Brigade Quartermaster on the staff of General John B. Gray of St. Louis. He was usually known by his title of Major thereafter.

"American pharmacy owes Dr. Sander a debt of gratitude for having been largely instrumental in introducing into this country the study of systematic pharmacognosy ..." (Journal of American Pharmaceutical Association, March 1912, i, 269.) He was an inventor, patenting a medical chest (1868), a chemical fire extinguisher (1869), and an aerated water still (1904).

In his eightieth year, he erected a mineral water factory with all modern devices, including those of his own invention. It was the best plant of its kind in the West. In 1904 it was incorporated as the Enno Sander Mineral Water Company. He gave it his personal attention until it was sold in 1912, not long before his death.

Major Sander held membership in many scientific societies, in the field of pharmacy and in others as well. He was a President of the American Pharmaceutical Association. He wrote a number of important papers on mineral waters and other subjects, published in the American and European press.

Major Sander died at St. Luke's Hospital, St. Louis, 12 February, 1912. He was unmarried, having pathetically described himself at a dinner held in his honor on his eightieth birthday as "an eighty year old bachelor without a relative in the whole country." He was much beloved and respected by his professional colleagues and others.

Design of the Enno Sander Medal

The Enno Sander Medal was a piece of massive gold, manufactured by Shreve and Company of San Francisco. The diameter is 53 millimetres. The obverse bears the effigy of the donor, Major Enno Sander, facing to the right. Above in large letters are the words: ⋆ DEDICATED · BY · DR · ENNO · Sander ⋆ and below, in an arc, are the words: OF · ST · LOUIS · MO· The reverse bears the Geneva Cross and below these words: FOR BEST PAPER ON MILITARY SURGERY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF THE United States TO

The name of the winner is engraved on a rectangular tablet at the lower part of the reverse, below which there are two five-pointed stars. Behind the tablet and showing above and below it is a branch of laurel leaves. Immediately below the tablet, and in tiny letters, is the maker's name: SHREVE & co., s. F.

It is interesting to note that the name of the Association is incorrectly given as "The National Association of Military Surgeons of the United States." The word "National" does not occur in the Association's title.

Winners of the Enno Sander Medal

1900—Captain William Cline Borden, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Military Surgery" (1901, ix, 190–231).1*

1901—Not Awarded.

1902—Lieutenant-Colonel Valery Havard, Deputy Surgeon-General, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Most Practicable Organization for the Medical Department of the United States Army in Active Service" (1902, xi, 73–93; 170–187).

1903—Major Frederick Smith, D. S. O., Royal Army Medical Corps, (British) for his essay: "The Differential Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in its Earliest Stages" (1903, xvi, 69–94; 166–178).

1904—Lieutenant-Colonel William Hill-Climo, Army Medical Staff, retired, (British) for his essay: "The Relation of the Medical Department to the Health of Armies" (1905 xvi, 255–274; 350–359).

1905—Not Awarded.

1906—Major James Evelyn Pilcher, U. S. Army, retired, for his essay: "The Training of the Medical Officer of the State Forces to Best Qualify him for Local Service and for Mobilization with National Troops" (1907, xxi, 1–31).

1907—Major Charles Lynch, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "What is the most Effective Organization of the American National Red Cross for War, and What Should be its Relation to the Medical Department of the Army and Navy?" (1907, xxi, 397–426).

1908—Passed Assistant Surgeon William Colby Rucker, U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service for his essay: "The Relation of the Military and Naval Forces of the United States to Public Health" (1908, xxiii, 333–360).

1909—The Enno Sander Medal abolished.

End Notes

* The bibliographical references are to The Military Surgeon; viz., the year, volume and pages of the publication of the winning essay.

THE GORGAS MEDAL

The records of the Association of Military Surgeons are incomplete, due to the moves of its offices in the past. The only written information available as to the Gorgas Medal is in the Minutes (manuscript) of the Executive Council of the Association. Under date of 29 March, 1916, we read:

"The Medical Reserve Corps of New York City has established a prize known as the Gorgas Medal. This is open to everybody in the Association of Military Surgeons."

The terms of the prize are not given. Colonel Richard Slee of White Plains, New York City, the donor of the Sternberg and Slee Medals at the Army Medical School (see above) remembers something of the plan to create the Gorgas Medal. After the dies had been made there was a delay, for some reason, in making the first awards. It was planned to present the medal as a prize for the best essay on an approved topic, thus being similar to the earlier Enno Sander Medal and the later Wellcome Medal. However, though at least one essay was submitted in 1916 or 1917, the medal was never awarded.

Design of the Gorgas Medal

In The Military Surgeon for November 1916 (xxxix, no. 5, 491) there is a photograph of the Gorgas Medal. It exists in but one copy, as far as is known. This is the one presented to General Gorgas himself. It is in the United States National Museum in the collection of Gorgasiana deposited there by the General's family. It is of eighteen karat gold, one and five-eighths inches in diameter. The obverse bears the effigy of General Gorgas facing to the left. In the margin are the words ASSOCIATION OF MEDICAL RESERVE CORPS, U. S. ARMY, N. Y. STATE DIV.Below the bust of Gorgas are the words: Gorgas MEDAL.The reverse bears, within a laurel wreath, the inscription: PRESENTED TO FOR ORIGINAL RESEARCH IN PREVENTIVE MEDICINE

The space at the end of the inscription is obviously for the date.

There is a possibility of the revival of the Gorgas Medal, which, though an appropriate award, had such an unfortunate beginning. It is understood that a group of interested persons may offer to endow the medal and to have it awarded by the Association of Military Surgeons in recognition of outstanding contributions to scientific advances in preventive medicine.

THE WELLCOME MEDAL

The Wellcome Medal was established by the late Sir Henry Wellcome of London, an American by birth, a distinguished pharmacist and manufacturer of pharmaceutical products. The medal was established before Sir Henry received his knighthood and therefore bears the legend THE HENRY S. WELLCOME MEDAL.

Sir Henry thus wrote to the President of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States in 1916:

"Desiring, as I do, to further medico-military research, I hope I may in some way aid your Association in the development of the proposed military and naval sanitary measures which are necessary to meet the needs of the new American Army and Navy. I venture to submit to the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States the following offer:

"Personally I shall be very pleased to contribute each year a gold medal and $300 as first prize, and a silver medal and $200 as a second prize, to be awarded annually by the Association for the best and second best researches, discoveries, inventions, designs, improvements, essays or any other acts or deeds which the Executive Council of the Association may consider desirable and helpful to the objects of the Association and relating to any phase of medico-military affairs and disease control associated with the Army, Navy, Militia and Public Health and Marine Hospital Service in times of peace and war, at home and abroad. These two awards to be made according to merit, and the competition to be open to any member of, or person eligible for membership in, the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States."

The Association thankfully accepted Mr. Wellcome's offer and the Wellcome Prize and Medal were duly established. It will be observed that the terms of the prize contest are similar to those above described for the Enno Sander Prize and Medal, except that the honorarium is considerably larger for the Wellcome Prize.

The Wellcome Silver Medal and accompanying Prize were not for the second best essays in the contest for which the Wellcome Gold Medal and Prize were offered. In only one year has the same subject been announced for the two contests. The second best essay in each contest won the author Honorable Mention and a life membership in the Association. Thus the two Wellcome Medals must be considered as distinct prizes.

For the years 1916 to 1926 inclusive both the Gold Wellcome Medal and the Silver Wellcome Medal were awarded under the above provisions. In 1927, with the approval of Sir Henry, the Association announced the abolition of the Wellcome Silver Medal. Thenceforth the Gold medal only was awarded and the honorarium of $200 formerly accompanying the Wellcome Silver Medal was added to that attached to the Wellcome Gold Medal, making the combined honorarium $500.

The Wellcome Silver Medal was awarded but six times. In five of the years between 1916 and 1926, when the Wellcome Silver Medal was in existence, no award was made. The Association found that contestants had to devote as much time and effort to the essays for the Wellcome Silver Medal as for the Wellcome Gold Medal, so that in some years all essays were entered for the higher award. From a numismatic standpoint it is not impossible that the silver medal may become of greater value than the gold, because the gold medal, having already been awarded twenty-four times (including 1941), continues to be presented annually, while the silver medal is already obsolete.

It should be mentioned that the endowment of the Wellcome Medal and Prize was but one of Sir Henry's generous gifts to military medicine. Shortly before he established this medal he offered a prize of ten thousand dollars for the best design for a military ambulance.

The Wellcome Prize contest is conducted under the same regulations as those for the Enno Sander Medal, which went out of existence seven years befor the Wellcome Medal was created. The essays are submitted under a nom de plume and the winner is not known until the envelope marked with such nom de plume is opened and the name found within. At first, five judges were appointed by the Executive Council to pass on the essays submitted. Later it was arranged that the judges should be the five vicepresidents of the Association. The essays must, therefore, be submitted in quintuplicate. All essays submitted become the property of the Association and the winning essay and the second best (honorable mention) are published in The Military Surgeon.

In December 1941 the American representative of the Wellcome Foundation, which since Sir Henry Wellcome's death has carried out his wishes concerning the presentation of the Wellcome Medal, notified the Association of the destruction of the dies for the Wellcome Medal. This unfortunate loss occurred during one of the German air attacks on London. The Foundation therefore announced that no more Wellcome Medals could be presented during the present war. They added, however, that as soon as peace is restored, new dies will be prepared and medals presented not only to all future winners, but likewise to those, beginning with Lieutenant-Commander Behnke in 1941, who have already won but not received the Wellcome Medal. The only remaining copy of the medal from the original dies is being kept as a model. When the new dies are made the matter of a possible alteration of the design may come up. The original die bore the legend "The Henry S. Wellcome Medal." Possibly a new one will bear the words "The Sir Henry Wellcome Medal." The decision must wait.

A certificate attesting the award of the Wellcome Medal is now being prepared by Sir Henry's representative in the United States. It will be presented to all past and future winners of this prize.

Sir Henry Wellcome, Founder of the Medal

Henry Solomon Wellcome was born in 1853 in a log cabin near Almond, Wisconsin, the son of an itinerant missionary. Of this he always spoke with pride.

At an early age he began his career as a pharmacist in Rochester, Minnesota, where he worked from 1868 to 1871. It was there he came under the notice of Dr. William Worrall Mayo, father of the famous brothers Mayo, founders of the Mayo Clinic. At a gathering in Rochester in 1935, Sir Henry paid public tribute to the man who gave him his start. He said: "I owe whatever success I have attained in the world to Dr. William Worrall Mayo."

The senior Dr. Mayo encouraged young Wellcome to study pharmacy, and later arranged for his matriculation at the Chicago College of Pharmacy. At the age of twenty-one he was graduated as a member of the class of 1874—in the days of Proctor, Maisch, Bridges and Remington.

The subject of Sir Henry's graduation thesis at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was Suppositories, in which he announced a new and improved shape. The new design received recognition in various textbooks of pharmacy. Since the shape of suppositories had come down through the centuries without change, the designing of a new and improved shape was an early indication of his creative instinct.

It may be said that his bent of mind towards originality played a very important part during later years in the development of his career.

Following his graduation from Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Sir Henry spent a few years in the retail drug business in New York City. Later he took a position in the firm of McKesson and Robbins.

He left New York City for London, and in 1880 with the late Silas M. Burroughs, established the firm of Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., manufacturers of fine chemicals and galenicals. In addition to the London organization, the firm has establishments in the United States, Italy, Canada, Australia, India, China and other countries.

Sir Henry's American interests were wide and varied. A life member of the American Pharmaceutical Association since 1875, he took an active interest in its scientific work. In 1934, when the Washington headquarters building was dedicated as the American Institute of Pharmacy, he was the Honorary President of the American Pharmaceutical Association and was awarded the Remington Honor Medal for his scientific and other valuable contribu- tions to pharmacy. He was an Honorary Member of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States and was also a member of the Archaeological Society of Washington and the American Society of Tropical Medicine.

As a result of the Sir Henry's experience and interest in tropical research, the Secretary of War, Hon. J. M. Dickinson, appointed him to visit Panama and make a survey of sanitary conditions and methods. His unbiased report of this survey helped to secure a free hand for General Gorgas in continuing his monumental sanitary work in the Isthmus. Many years later Sir Henry became a director of the Gorgas Memorial Institute of Tropical and Preventive Medicine.

On one of his expeditions to the Sudan, Sir Henry discovered several prehistoric Ethiopian Archaeological sites in the Upper Nile region. Excavation was conducted under his personal supervision, with a technical and administrative staff of twenty-five Europeans and three thousand native workmen.

Sir Henry Wellcome's scientific achievements ranged from pioneering in the use of aerial photography in archaeological surveys to the establishing of a number of research institutions. He received wide recognition for his work.

During the first World War, Sir Henry placed his scientific institutions at the service of the British Government. He instituted a commission to improve design and construction of army ambulances. For use in Egypt and Palestine during the war, he constructed, equipped and supplied a chemical and bacteriological motor field laboratory for the British Army Medical Service. It was at this period that he became a British subject by naturalization.

In recognition of his Life's work and generous support of medical research he was knighted by King George V in 1932. He received the LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh, 1928; Sc.D. of Marquette University, 1936; the cross of Officier de la Legion d'Honneur , 1936 and Commander of the Order of the Spanish Republic in the same year. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Officer of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England and Doctor honoris causa of the University of Madrid.

Apart from the experimental research laboratories of Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., which have to their credit an immense number of important original researches, Sir Henry established the following scientific Institutions:

The Wellcome Psychological Research Laboratories, London (1894)

The Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories, London (1896)

The Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Upper Nile, Africa (1901) and fully equipped Auxiliary Floating Tropical Research Laboratory on the Upper Nile and tributaries (1906)

The Wellcome Bureau of Scientific Research, London (1913) and the Museum of Medical Science, including Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1914) and Auxiliary Entomological Research Laboratory, Claremont, Surrey (1915)

His endowment of the Wellcome Medals and Prizes, through the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, of which he was an Honorary Member, may justly be said to have brought out an enormous amount of information of value to the medical department of the several federal military services.

Sir Henry died in London, 25 July, 1936.

Design of the Wellcome Medal

The Wellcome Gold Medal and the Wellcome Silver Medal are of identical design, being struck from the same dies. The medals were struck by Elkington and Company, Ltd., of London.

The Wellcome Medal measures forty-six millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the profiles of Machaon and Podaleirios, the Greek military surgeons, whose achievements in the Trojan War are described by Homer. These two sons of Asklepios were reared, says the Iliad, by the sage Cheiron, the wise centaur who is regarded as the father of pharmacy. Their father also imparted his skill to them, so that they in their turn became "divine professors of the healing art." Homer and the cyclic poets recounted how Machaon and Podaleirios healed the wounded Greek heroes, and their striking description inspired artists of the classical period to engrave the scenes upon gems, or carve them on stone. Machaon was more strictly a surgeon and wears a helmet with long appendages, as depicted on the Wellcome Medal. Podaleirios, the physician, wears the theristrion, a form of headgear often associated with physicians in ancient Greek art, and depicted in some of the representations of the head of Asklepios. Machaon, the elder brother, is assigned chief place on the medal. Both, however, were true military medical officers, being recorded as valiant warriors as well as skilled surgeons. Together they cared for the wounded, and in battle they fought side by side. No more appropriate figures could adorn a medal given for contribution to military medicine. The name of each, in Greek, MAXAΩN and ΠΔAΛAEIPIOΣ, is found beside the heads, respectively. The legend around the edge is: THE Henry S. Wellcome MEDAL.Below a plain exergual line the words: AWARDED TO with space for the name of the recipient.

The reverse of the Wellcome Medal bears the insignia of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States; viz., a cross on which is superimposed a shield enclosing a shield of the United States surrounded by the motto: OMNIA PRO PATRI� CARITATE.Around the border are the words: ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF THE United States.

The Wellcome Medal comes in an attractive leather case of special design. The top is double and within is a booklet with the history of the medal and a detailed description of the design.

Winners of the Wellcome Gold Medal

1916—Major Mahlon Ashford, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Most Practicable Plan for the Organization, Training and Utilization of the Medical Officers of the Medical Reserve Corps of the Army and Navy, and of the Medical Officers Reserve Corps of the United States Army, in peace and war." (1917, xl, 123–155).2*

1917—Not Awarded.

1918—Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Bright Vedder, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Epidemiology of Sputum-Borne Diseases, and its Relation to the Health of the National Forces" (1919, xliv, 123–153).

1919—Lieutenant-Colonel James Lung Bevans, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Function of Medical and Surgical Consulting Staffs Determined by the Experiences of the Late War" (1920, xlvi, 465–506).

1920—Lieutenant-Colonel Louis Casper Duncan, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Part of the Medical Department in Maintaining Military Morale" (1921, xlviii, 613–647).

1921—Major Mahlon Ashford, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Measures for the Development of Organization and Extension of Usefulness of the Medical Reserve Corps Systems of the Government" (1922, 1, 363–393).

1922—Major Mahlon Ashford, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "A Plan for the Correlation of The Three Federal Medical Services in Preparation for War, During the Continuance of Hostilities, and through the Subsequent Period of Reconstruction (1922, li, 473–507).

1923—Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Bright Vedder, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Benefits Derived by Military Students from Animal Experimentation" (1923, liii, 411–441.)

1924—Captain William Scott Dow, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Possibility of Medical Research in the Military Service Because of its Complete Control over Personnel" (1925, lvi, 129–144).

1925—Lieutenant-Colonel Albert Cohen Carlton, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Means and Policies which will Best Enable this Association to Increase its Membership and Accomplish its Patriotic Objects as Stated in its Constitution" (1925, lvii, 477–488).

1926—Major Milton Weston Hall, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Respiratory Group of Diseases as they Affect Soldiers and Sailors" (1927, lx, 1–30).

1927—Major Edward Godfrey Huber, Medical Corps, U. S. Army for his essay: "In Consideration of the Physical Disabilities found in Drafted Men and Volunteers of the World War, What Practical Hygienic Measures are Advisable for School Children in the United States?" (1927, lxi, 734–757). This was the first award of the Gold Wellcome Medal with the honorarium of $500, instead of the previous $300.

1928—Major Roy Cleveland Heflebower, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Prisoners of War: What have been the Chief Causes of their Sufferings in the Past, and How Can these Best be Prevented in the Future?" (1928, lxiii, 625–642).

1929—Major John Pierrepont Fletcher, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his research report: "Research Development of Medical Field Equipment" (1929, lvx, 814–841).

1930—Not Awarded.

1931—Colonel George Alfred Skinner, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Influence of Epidemic Diseases upon Military Operations in the History of the Western Hemisphere" (1931, lxix, 579–594).

1932—Colonel Edward Bright Vedder, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his research report: "A study of the Antiscorbutic Vitamine" (1932, lxxi, 505–515).

1933—Major Edgar Erskine Hume, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Value of Studies in Health and Sanitation in War Planning" (1933, lxxiii, 285–305).

1934—Acting Assistant-Surgeon George Albert McBride, U. S. Public Health Service, for his essay: "The Civilian Doctor's Part in a National Emergency" (1935, lxxvi, 191–199).

1935—Major Leon Alexander Fox, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his research report: "Field Chlorination of Water" (1936, lxxviii, 329–350).

1936—Captain Harry George Armstrong, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Importance of Co�rdinating the Military and Naval Medical Services with the Civilian Medical Profession" (1937, lxxx, 171–181).

1937—Major Isaac Jacob Frisch, Medical Corps, Illinois National Guard, for his essay: "The Contributions of the World War to the Advancement of Medicine" (1938, lxxxiii, 19–47).

1938—Major Frank Boles Wakeman, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his research report: "A Specific Somatic Polysaccharide as the Essential Immunizing Antigen of the Typhoid Bacillus" (1939, lxxxiv, 452–470).

1939—Colonel Albert Gallatin Love, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Importance of Adequate Records of the Sick and Wounded in the Military Service in Time of War, and the Best Methods for Obtaining Them" (1939, lxxxv, 461-480).

1940—Captain Lucius Warren Johnson, Medical Corps, U. S. Navy, for his essay: "The Medical and Sanitary Care of the Civilian Population Necessitated by Attacks from Hostile Aircraft" (1941, lxxxviii, 1–23).

1941—Lieutenant-Commander Albert Richard Behnke, Jr., Medical Corps, U. S. Navy, for his research report: "Investigations Concerned with Problems of High Altitude Flying and Deep Diving, Application of Certain findings pertaining to physical fitness to the General Military Service" (1942, xc, 9–29).

1942—The contest, closing on 31 August, 1942, is for the best essay on the following topic: "Measures of Preventative Medicine Recommended by the Federal Medical Services to Insure the Maximum Improvement of the Selectee of 1961 over him of 1941."

The Wellcome Gold Medal has been, including 1941, awarded twenty-four times.

Winners of the Wellcome Silver Medal

1916—Surgeon William Colby Rucker, U. S. Public Health Service, for his essay: "The Influence of the European War on the Transmission of Infectious Disease, with Special Reference to Disease Conditions in the United States" (1917, xl, 123–155).

1917—Not Awarded.

1918—Not Awarded.

1919—Dr. Karl Murdock Bowman for his essay: "The Relation of Defective Mental and Nervous States to Military Efficiency" (1920, xlvi, 651–669).

1920—Not Awarded.

1921—Colonel James Robb Church, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Plan for the Conservation of Health of Males within the Second Decade of Life in Relation to Military Defense" (1922, 1, 487–532).

1922—Not Awarded.

1923—Colonel Henry Halcolm Rutherford, Medical Corps, U. S. Army, for his essay: "The Training of the Medical Student for Service in Time of War" (1923, liii, 442–456).

1924—First Lieutenant Paul Reed Rockwood, Medical Reserve, U. S. Army, for his essay: "Lessons of Nutrition Derived from the Great War" (1925, lvi, 385–410).

1925—Captain Everard Blackshear, Medical Corps, U. S.Army, for his essay: "The Means and Policies which will Best Enable this Association to Increase its Membership and Accomplish its Patriotic Objects as Stated in its Constitution" (1925, lvii, 566–576).

1926—Not Awarded.

1927—The Wellcome Silver Medal abolished and the honorarium therefore attached, transferred to the Wellcome Gold Medal, thereby making the combined honorarium $500.

Only six Wellcome Silver Medals have been awarded.

End Notes

* The bibliographical references are to The Military Surgeon; viz., the year, volume and pages of the publication of the winning essay.

THE FOUNDER'S MEDAL

The institution of the Founder's Medal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States is thus described by the Association's Secretary, Colonel James Matthew Phalen, in an editorial in The Military Surgeon for September, 1941, the Fiftieth Anniversary Number, lxxxix, 596:

"The advent of the fiftieth year of the life of the society caused our President, Colonel Harold Dunbar Corbusier, to favor the creation of a medal for award by the Association for conspicuous work in the field of Military Medicine. After much consideration the Executive Council voted its approval of a Founder's Medal which should memoralize General Senn, and which should be awarded by vote of the Council to any member, past or present, who has rendered conspicuous service to the cause of Military Medicine. A design was worked up in the office of the Secretary, and the execution of the medal entrusted to Bailey, Banks and Biddle of Philadelphia. Briefly, the medal, to be cast in bronze, will present the profile of General Senn on one side and the seal of the Association on the other. The Medal will be completed and available for award at the Louisville meeting in October [1941]. An engrossed scroll will be awarded with the medal."

There are two slight mistakes in this statement. The medal is struck and not cast. The design on the reverse is not the seal of the Association but its coat of arms. The legend on the obverse is: THE FOUNDER'S MEDAL,while in the exergue there is a space for the name of the recipient. The inscription on the reverse, in a circle about the arms, is: ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF United States.The arms depicted on the reverse are those adopted by the Association in 1909. In the four quarters there are the caduceus, badge of the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army; the oak leaf with acorn superimposed, badge of the Medical Corps of U. S. Navy; the crossed caduceus and anchor, badge of U. S. Public Health Service; and a field of blue bearing the stars as in the canton of the United States flag; in the center of the shield, superimposed, is the badge of the Association. For a crest there is an eagle displayed, the cross of Geneva superimposed on its breast. The medal measures 50 millimetres in diameter.

Recipient of the Founder's Medal

At the meeting of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States at Louisville, Kentucky, 29 October, 1941, marking the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the Association, the first award of the Founder's Medal was made. It was presented to Colonel Edgar Erskine Hume, Medical Corps, United States Army, "in recognition of his Monumental History of the Association [1941], involving arduous research and careful thought."

Certificate for the Founder's Medal

A unique feature of the Founder's Medal is the presentation with it of a certificate or diploma setting forth the name of the recipient, the date of the award and the reason for the award. The certificate is printed in black and red on antique paper, using eighteenth century type. The printing is done by the Dietz Press, Richmond, Virginia. The text of the certificate is:

THE ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF THE United States

1891

¶ Be it known, That in the Fiftieth year of this Association, founded on the seventeenth day of September A. D. 1891, there was created:

THE FOUNDER'S MEDAL

¶ To commemorate the half-century of the work of this Association chartered by Act of Congress;¶ To honor its Founder, Surgeon-General Nicholas Senn of the Wisconsin and Illinois National Guard;¶ And to reward exceptionally meritorious acts or distinguished service in the field of Military Medicine.¶ The Executive Council of the said Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, at its meeting held on the day ofawarded the Founder's Medal toin recognition of¶ This Medal is an evidence of the appreciation of the Military Surgeons of the United States of these Signal merits.(Seal)PresidentSecretary

PART III OTHER MEDALS HONORING ARMY MEDICAL OFFICERS

THE Gorgas MEDAL (The American Medical Association)

The President of the American Medical Association, Dr. John A. Witherspoon (1864–1929) reported at the annual meeting of 1913 that he had appointed a committee to consider the award of a special gold medal on behalf of the Association to Surgeon General Gorgas. At the annual meeting of 1914 Dr. Witherspoon asked the chairman of this committee for his report.

The Chairman, Dr. Charles Alfred Lee Reed (1856–1928) of Cincinnati, made the following report:

"Mr. President: It is my privilege and happiness to present to you an illustrious member of the medical profession to be the recipient of a gold medal of appreciation now to be conferred by the American Medical Association. Citizen of the republic, graduate in arts and medicine, doctor of science from renowned institutions at home and over seas, army surgeon designated and promoted by special Act of Congress for eradicating yellow fever from Havana, member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, chief sanitary officer of the Isthmian Canal Zone, international consultant on great sanitary problems, Fellow and former President of the American Medical Association, honorary and associate fellow of numerous foreign scientific associations, now Surgeon-General of the United States Army, illustrious scientist, executive, writer and scholar, William Crawford Gorgas, sanitarian, whose genius made possible the construction of the Isthmian Canal."

President Witherspoon thereupon addressed General Gorgas in these words:

"General Gorgas: One of the acts of my administration of which I am very proud, was the appointment of this special committee for the purpose of showing to the world our appreciation of ability, our appreciation of greatness, our appreciation of that wonderful genius which has made it possible, sir, for you not only to demonstrate to the world that it was possible to build the Panama Canal, but also to go further and show, as you have done, that 500,000 lives which have been lost in our country by preventable diseases [which] can be and will be prevented finally with you at the head of the Army of our country. We hope you will always be at the head of the sanitary protection of our people.

"As retiring president of the American Medical Association, it gives me great pleasure to turn over and to present to you, General Gorgas, a gold medal in commemoration of your wonderful ability and your wonderful work that has connected nations and has taught the world that the American Medical Association contains a man who dared to do what was right for the salvation of mankind."

Amid what the minutes record as "loud applause," General Gorgas accepted the medal, saying:

"I thank you, Mr. President, and Fellows of the American Medical Association. I appreciate, of course, the great honor of this occasion, but I would like to have you think that this honor is to be shared by three or four hundred young Americans who have labored in this sanitary work on the Canal Zone, and I receive this medal in part as their chief and as their representative. Again, I thank you." (Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 July, 1914, lxiii, No. 1, p. 114)

It was a happy thought of the American Medical Association to have the presentation made by the distinguished Dr. Reed, whose loyal support of General Gorgas at a time when he had not yet been given full authority, was most effective. President Taft had had Dr. Reed make a special report to him on the subject of Gorgas's work in Panama.

Design of the Gorgas Medal

The gold medal thus presented to General Gorgas was manufactured by Tiffany and Company of New York City. It is an octagon, four sides of which measure seven-eighths inch, alternating with four sides measuring one and one-eighth inches. Thus, the medal is two and one-half inches long and two and three-eighths inches wide. The obverse bears General Gorgas's profile, facing right. He is in civilian dress and without hat. In the four shorter sides are the words: SALUS POPULI SUPREMA LEX

The reverse consists of a cross of four equal arms, extending to the margins of the medal. In the angles there are clusters of olive leaves. The cross itself is charged with the cup of knowledge at the top and the serpent staff of �sculapius at the bottom, between which is the following legend: PRESENTED BY THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION TO BRIG. GEN. W. C. Gorgas SANITARIAN WHOSE GENIUS MADE POSSIBLE THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL

The makers' name "Tiffany & Company," in small letters appears near the bottom of the cross, below the �sculapian staff.

The medal, in gold, is not among the collection of General Gorgas's decorations, academic hoods and the like which are displayed at the National Museum, Washington. The Museum has never received this medal, though they have the presentation copy of the Gorgas Medal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. The dies are still in the possession of Tiffany and Company and in April, 1942, a strike was made for the Army Medical Museum, by permission of the American Medical Association.

Major-General Gorgas

William Crawford Gorgas was born at Toulminville, Alabama, on 3 October, 1854. His father, Josiah Gorgas (1818–1883), a native of Pennsylvania, was an officer of Ordnance, U. S. Army, who, despite his Northern birth, cast his lot with the South in the War Between the States and became Chief of Ordnance. Thereafter he became President of the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee, where the future Surgeon General spent much of his boyhood. Unable to obtain an appointment to West Point, he decided on entering the military service as a medical officer. He obtained his medical degree at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York City, in 1879, and after a year's internship was commissioned Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, in 1880.

The usual life of a young Army officer followed. He was stationed on the plains and at posts in Texas, Florida, and elsewhere. Following the occupation of Havana by American troops in 1898 he was placed in charge of a yellow fever camp at Siboney. Later in the same year he was appointed Chief Sanitary Officer of Havana. In Cuba, Walter Reed and his associates had finally proved the mosquito transmission of yellow fever. Gorgas put this to practical use, and not only freed Havana of mosquitoes but of yellow fever as well. His success brought him an international reputation.

In 1900 Major Gorgas was sent to Panama as a sanitary expert in the planning and construction of the canal. The same French engineers who had built the Suez Canal failed in Panama, not because of any defect in their engineering skill, but because their workmen died like flies from yellow fever and malaria. Gorgas was there to prevent a recurrence of this. His magnificent success is too well known to require detailed statement. That the canal was finally built was as much due to Gorgas's supervision of the sanitation as to the work of the Corps of Engineers, and is so recognized. From 1906 on Gorgas was, by President Theodore Roosevelt's appointment, a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission.

In 1913 while in South Africa to give public health advice to the Transvaal Chamber of Mines, at their request, he was appointed Surgeon-General of the Army, effective 1914. The office then carried the rank of Brigadier-General. Gorgas was elevated to rank of Major-General, a grade held by all of his successors in that office. He was Surgeon-General through the trying period of the first World War, retiring for age in 1918. The remainder of his life was spent in studying world problems in public health and sanitation. In 1920 he was in London en route to Africa for the study of yellow fever on the west coast, when he experienced a stroke of apoplexy and died in the Queen Alexandra Military Hospital at Millbank on 3 July, 1920. He was visited on his deathbed by King George V, who created him a Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George. He also held the Army's Distinguished Service Medal. He is buried in the National Cemetary at Arlington, Virginia.

THE WALTER REED MEDAL (Awarded by Congress)

The proof that the mosquito transmits yellow fever is the basis on which one of the most important chapters of tropical sanitation rests. Yellow Fever has been one of the great scourges of the tropics, affecting white races in particular. The French failed in their efforts to construct the Panama Canal, as stated above, and Panama came to be known as "the white man's grave." It was said that for every tie on the Panama Railway a human life had been sacrificed. Chinese coolies too had perished in great numbers in Panama.

The Scottish-Cuban physician, Carlos Finlay, had long thought that the disease was transmitted by a mosquito, but had never been able to prove it. Walter Reed and his colleagues did just that, and having done so, the authorities knew how to attack the disease. By destroying the mosquito A�dessgypti, then known as Culex fasciata, the dreaded "yellow jack" was subdued.

Congress was long in giving official recognition to the men of the Walter Reed Commission, for more than thirty years elapsed before the special medal was authorized and struck. Walter Reed himself had died long before, but his copy was sent to his widow.

Major Walter Reed

Walter Reed, son of Lemuel Sutton Reed of North Carolina, was born at Belroi, Gloucester County, Virginia, 13 September, 1851. He graduated at the University of Virginia when but sixteen years of age and won his medical degree at the same institution before he was eighteen. In 1870 he received the M.D. ad eundem at Bellevue Hospital Medical College. He passed the prescribed examination and entered the Medical Department of the U. S. Army as an Assistant Surgeon, in June 1875. Thereafter, as with most young medical officers, he spent long service in the West. In 1890, at his request, he was permitted to serve in Baltimore where he devoted all of his spare time to work at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. There, under Professor William Henry Welch, he specialized in the new science of bacteriology. In 1893 he was promoted to the grade of Surgeon (Major) and ordered to the newly created Army Medical School as Professor of Bacteriology and Secretary of the Faculty. About the same time, Dr. James Carroll, then a Hospital Steward (a grade now known as Sergeant, Medical Department), was made his assistant.

In 1898 Reed was appointed chairman of a board to determine the cause of the outbreaks of typhoid fever in the camps in the United States. His associates were Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughan of the University of Michigan and Dr. Edward Oram Shakespeare of Philadelphia. They showed that the disease was spread largely by contact and not by water alone, as had been thought.

Reed's practical interest in yellow fever began in 1897. When the disease appeared in Havana in 1900, Surgeon-General Sternberg made him the head of a board of officers to study the cause. The other members were Carroll, above mentioned, Lazear and Agramonte. Their carefully planned work resulted in proving that the disease is transmitted by the mosquito, as suggested by Finlay, who however, had never been able to prove it.

Reed returned to Washington in 1901 and resumed his work at the Army Medical School. In 1902 he was appointed Librarian of the Army Medical Library, the largest collection of medical books in the world. He said that at last he had been given the duties that he had most desired ever since entering the Army. He was Librarian but one week, for he perished on 22 November, 1902 from appendicitis, operation being too late to save him. Thus, in his fifty-first year, was lost one of America's greatest men of science.

He died before his country could suitably reward him. Medical science of our own and other lands credit him with one of the great pieces of epidemiological work of all time. The Army named its largest and most important hospital for him, the Walter Reed General Hospital of Washington.

The Secretary of the Treasury Presents the Walter Reed Medal

Nearly thirty years after Reed's death, his widow received the following letter:1*

TREASURY DEPARTMENT
Washington
September 25, 1931
Mrs. Emily Lawrence Reed,
Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania
Dear Mrs. Reed:

The Act of Congress of February 28, 1929, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to cause to be struck a gold medal in recognition of the high public service of Major Walter Reed and those associated with him in the discovery of the cause and means of transmission of yellow fever. The Act further directed that the Secretary of the Treasury present such medals to each of such persons as shall be living and posthumously to representatives of each such persons as shall have died.

In accordance with the authority granted, I have the honor to present this medal to you and transmit it herewith as a token of the grateful appreciation of your country for the services rendered by your distinguished husband.

Sincerely yours,
A. W. Mellon
Secretary of the Treasury

Design of the Walter Reed Medal

The Walter Reed Medal is a large gold piece, designed by Thomas H. Jones, measuring 63 millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the allegorical figures of Hygeia and a soldier. In her right hand Hygeia carries the caduceus while her left rests on the shoulder of the soldier. The soldier has a staff in his right hand, the left bearing a shield. In an arc surrounding the two figures is the legend: CONQUEST · OF · YELLOW · FEVER. The reverse bears the inscription: AWARDED TO IN · RECOGNITION · OF · THE HIGH · PUBLIC · SERVICE · OF MAJOR · WALTER · Reed · U·S·A· AND · ASSOCIATES · WHO · GAVE TO · MAN · CONTROL · OF YELLOW · FEVER

About the border of the reverse are the words: THE · CONGRESS · OF · THE · UNITED · STATES and ACT· OF· FEBRUARY· 28 · 1929. The name of the recipient is engraved on a tablet. The illustration is that of the medal awarded posthumously to Walter Reed himself.

The Roll of Honor

Participants in Yellow Fever Investigations in Cuba .

The Official Army Register is an annual list of officers, active and retired, of the United States Army. It contains no reference to deceased persons, with one notable exception. Since 1929, by law, the Roll of Honor of participants in Yellow Fever investigations in Cuba appears in this volume each year. This roll is introduced with the following: "The Secretary of War, Hon. Elihu Root, in his annual report, 1902, said with reference to the conquest of yellow fever in Cuba, in 1900–1901: �The brilliant character of this scientific achievement, its inestimable value to mankind, the saving of thousands of lives, and the deliverance of the Atlantic seacoast from constant apprehension, demand special recognition from the Government of the United States.'

"The Congress has, in concurrence with his opinion, by an act approved February 28, 1929, authorized and directed the Secretary of War to publish annually in the Army Register a Roll of Honor on which shall be carried the following names, and to define in appropriate language the part taken by each of these persons in the yellow fever investigation in Cuba. The same act provided that a gold medal be presented to each person named in the roll, or to the representatives of those who have died."

The citations of Major Walter Reed, the three officers and eighteen enlisted men of the Medical Department of the Army are given in the Roll of Honor: Walter Reed, (born in Virginia, 13 September, 1851) Major Surgeon—"When sent to Cuba in June, 1900, at the head of the Yellow Fever Board of medical officers, Major Walter Reed was already a distinguished man. In the Spanish-American War he had been at the head of another famous medical board which studied the camp epidemics of typhoid fever in the Army during that war, and made a great advance in our knowledge of the spread of that formidable disease in armies. He was professor of pathology and bacteriology at the Army Medical School and also at the Columbian (now George Washington) University in Washington, and stood high in his profession. In the work of the Yellow Fever Board he shared their labors and dangers, but his was always the originating, directing, and controlling mind. He died in Washington, D. C., November 23, 1902, following an operation for appendicitis." James Carroll, (born in England, 5 June, 1854) Contract Surgeon (later Major Surgeon)—"Following his appointment as an acting assistant surgeon in 1898, Major Carroll was assigned to duty as assistant to Major Walter Reed. Early in the study of the agency of the mosquito as the transmitter of yellow fever, Major Carroll volunteered to be bitten by an infected mosquito. On August 31, 1900, he became ill and suffered a very severe attack of that disease. His was the first experimental case. He returned to Cuba a year later to make special studies of the blood of yellow fever patients. He died in Washington, D. C., September 16, 1907, having been promoted to the grade of Major, Medical Corps, by special authority of Congress in recognition of his services as a member of the Yellow Fever Board." Aristides Agramonte, Contract Surgeon (later an officer of the Cuban Army Medical Corps)—"Dr. Agramonte was born in Cuba [3 June, 1868], the son of a Cuban officer who fell in battle against the Spaniards. He was raised and educated in New York City City, where his mother had taken refuge. He was serving with the Army in Cuba, in charge of the Medical Laboratory in Habana, when he was appointed a member of the Yellow Fever Board. His special qualifications as a pathologist, and his energy and ability contributed greatly to the success of the board. Of special value were his contributions to the demonstrations by the board disproving the then generally accepted theory that the bacillus icteroides was the causative agent of yellow fever. He died August 18, 1931, in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was professor of tropical medicine in the Louisiana State University." Jesse William Lazear (born in Maryland, 20 May, 1866), Contract Surgeon—"Following graduation from the University of Maryland in 1892, Dr. Lazear did post-graduate work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and at Johns Hopkins University, specializing in mosquitoes and their relation to malarial infections. When the Yellow Fever Board was organized he was already in Cuba on duty with troops, and was studying yellow fever. He had charge of the mosquito work of the board when he contracted yellow fever while visiting yellow fever patients in order to infect mosquitoes for experimental purposes. He died, September 25, 1900, of this disease, a martyr to science. By his special knowledge and brilliant scientific attainments, as well as by the invaluable notes of his observations made in the last weeks of his life which he left, he contributed in the highest degree to the successful outcome of the investigation" (A tablet to Lazear has been erected in the Johns Hopkins Medical School and the chemistry building at Washington and Jefferson College, his alma mater, given his name). John H. Andrus (born in Pennsylvania, 7 October, 1879), Private, Hospital Corps—"Although not immune, he voluntarily nursed cases of yellow fever during an epidemic at Guanajay Barracks. Later at Columbia Barracks, he was detailed for duty in Major Walter Reed's laboratory. He became interested in the work of the Board, volunteered for experiment and was infected with yellow fever by an injection of blood from an experimental case. He became ill January 28, 1901, being the twelfth case in the series of cases at Camp Lazear. He left the Army April 24, 1902 with character excellent." He died in the Philadelphia Naval Hospital, 1 May, 1942. John R. Bullard (born in Massachusetts 5 July, 1872), "A graduate of Harvard University, at which institution he was a distinguished athlete, came to Cuba and was treated by Dr. James Carroll at Columbia Barracks for malarial fever. Becoming interested in the yellow fever work, he volunteered, and received on October 15, 1901, an injection of the filtered blood of a Spaniard, an experimental case. The blood serum injected was the same as that employed in the cases of Privates Covington and Hamann at the same time. Slight fever and discomfort were caused, but no illness. A week later he received a blood injection from the veins of Private Hamann, who had been infected by the injection of filtered blood, and became ill with yellow fever, October 23, 1901. Having thus become immune, he continued to reside in Cuba after his recovery." Robert P. Cooke (born in Virginia, 12 October, 1874) "Entered the Medical Service of the Army, June 9, 1900, and was on duty at Pinar del Rio during the yellow fever epidemic in the garrison there. He volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear and with two privates, Folk and Jernegan, were the first to undergo the trying ordeal of sleeping 21 successive nights in the soiled bedding used by yellow fever patients. This was to determine whether the disease was transmitted by infected bedding, clothing and other objects. This experiment was of vast importance not only in making clear the method of transmission of the disease, but to the commerce of the world." Cooke had formerly been a Midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy. He was a Doctor of Medicine of the University of Virginia. He served in the World War as a Captain, Medical Corps, U. S. Army. Albert W. Covington (born in North Carolina, 1 July, 1877), Private, Battery N, Second Artillery—"Volunteered for experiment in the third series of cases when it was well understood that yellow fever would be the result. On October 15, 1901, he was given a subcutaneous injection of 3 cubic centimetres of the diluted and filtered blood serum from an experimental case of yellow fever. He became ill October 19 with a typical attack of yellow fever, from which he made a good recovery, and was returned to duty with his battery. He remained in service twenty-five years thereafter, being retired on August 23, 1926, as Staff Sergeant, Quartermaster Corps. He died April 20, 1934, in Gorgas General Hospital, Ancon, Canal Zone." William H. Dean (born in Ohio, 6 January, 1877), Sergeant, Troop B, Seventh Cavalry—��The case of Dean was the second case of experimental yellow fever, being that which convinced the board that the theory of its conveyance by mosquitoes was well grounded, and being mentioned in their preliminary report as the Case X. Y. He volunteered and was bitten August 31, 1900, by the same mosquito which had infected Major Carroll four days before. He was also bitten by two other mosquitoes which had bitten a fatal case of yellow fever 12 days before, and a fourth mosquito which had been fed on three severe cases of yellow fever. He left the military service August 17, 1902, with an excellent character, and died May 3, 1928." Thomas M. England (born in Ohio, 14 October, 1876), Acting Hospital Steward—"Enlisted for the Spanish War and came to Cuba with the VII Army Corps. He volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear, and underwent the trying ordeal of sleeping 20 nights in the bed formerly occupied by a yellow fever patient, and in the garment worn by him. His head lay on a towel stained with the blood of a case of yellow fever. He remained in the Army, serving in all the noncommissioned grades of the Medical Department, and won his commission in that department during the World War." He was a Captain, Sanitary Corps, during the World War and in 1920 commissioned Captain, Medical Administrative Corps. He retired for age on 14 October, 1940. Levi E. Folk (born in South Carolina, 7 February, 1870), Private Hospital Corps—"Volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear, and with two others, first underwent the long and trying ordeal of sleeping 21 consecutive nights in the soiled bedding and clothing of yellow fever patients. This experiment was of vast importance commercially as well as scientifically, as it upset the accepted belief as to how the disease was transmitted, and resulted in the abolition of expensive and useless disinfections. He later was bitten by infected mosquitoes, and on January 23, 1901, suffered an attack of yellow fever of moderate severity, thus showing that he was nonimmune at the time of the former experiment. He was retired in 1923 after 25 years of honorable service. He died February 9, 1936, in Columbus, Ohio." He served during the World War as a First Lieutenant, Sanitary Corps. Wallace W. Forbes (born in Illinois, 25 September, 1878). Private First Class, Hospital Corps—"Volunteered for experiment and received an injection of half a cubic centimetre of blood from a case of experimental yellow fever. Two days later, he became ill and suffered a severe attack of yellow fever. He was honorably discharged from the Army four years later." He reenlisted 1916 and served to 1926, becoming a Sergeant, 30th Infantry. Paul Hamann (born in Germany, 14 February, 1876), Private, Battery N, Second Artillery—"Volunteered for experiment, being one of the third group of volunteers, and was infected by Major Carroll with filtered blood serum at the same time with Private Covington. He became sick on October 19, 1901, and suffered a moderately severe attack of yellow fever. He was discharged from service, July 19, 1902, with character excellent." James L. Hanberry (born in South Carolina, 12 December, 1875), Private, Hospital Corps—"Volunteered for experiment, and was one of the group who slept 21 consecutive nights on bedding which had been used by yellow fever patients, and was soiled with their bloody discharges. He also wore at night the soiled garments of the sick. Some weeks after this disagreeable, and it was then thought dangerous, experience, he was bitten by the same two mosquitoes which had a few days before infected a companion, and on February 9, 1901, came down with a severe attack of this painful disease. He left the service in 1902." James Hildebrand (born in Georgia, 2 April, 1862), Private First Class, Hospital Corps—"Served in the Spanish War and came to Cuba with the VII Army Corps. He volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear, and with Hospital Steward England underwent the trying ordeal of sleeping 20 nights, January 11 to 31, 1901, in the bed and garment used by a yellow fever patient, and with the pillow covered by a towel stained with yellow fever blood. Hildebrand then offered to be bitten by infected mosquitoes, but Major Reed refused to permit this as he was much older than the other volunteers, and the mortality in yellow fever is much increased with age. He was discharged August 17, 1914, with character excellent." Warren G. Jernegan (born in Florida, 8 July, 1872), Private Hospital Corps—"Volunteered for the experiment at Camp Lazear, and with two others, first underwent the long and trying ordeal of sleeping 21 consecutive nights in the soiled bedding and clothing of yellow fever patients. This was to determine whether the disease could be transmitted by infected bedding, clothing, and other objects. This experiment was of vast importance and not only in making clear the method of transmission of the disease, but to the commerce of the world. He then, on December 28 and 29, 1900, submitted to the bites of infected mosquitoes, but escaped infection, On January 4, 1901, he received an infection of blood from a case of experimental yellow fever (Martinez) and suffered a sharp attack of that disease, being the first case infected in this manner. He left the military service at the expiration of his enlistment with character excellent, and went to Panama, where he was employed in the Canal Service for a number of years. He died February 5, 1919, in Charleston, South Carolina." John R. Kissinger (born in Ohio, 25 July, 1877), Acting Hospital Steward—"John R. Kissinger and John J. Moran were the first to volunteer of those who underwent the conclusive experiments at Camp Lazear where they occupied the same tent. On November 20, 1900, he was bitten by three infected mosquitoes. On November 23 he was bitten by one of the same three and on December 5 he was again bitten by five mosquitoes, two of which had been infected by fatal cases. On December 9, he became ill and suffered a typical attack of yellow fever. His was the first case of experimental yellow fever in the series at Camp Lazear. Of him, Major Walter Reed said: �In my opinion, this exhibition of moral courage has never been surpassed in the annals of the Army of the United States.' He was discharged from the service, November 14, 1901, with character excellent." John J. Moran (born in Ireland, 15 March, 1876), Acting Hospital Steward—"Employed as a clerk in the department headquarters at Marianao, Cuba. He there did clerical work for Major Walter Reed and became interested in the work of the Yellow Fever Board. He and Kissinger were the first to volunteer for the conclusive series of experiments at Camp Lazear. He was bitten on November 26 and 29 by infected mosquitoes, but without result. On December 21, 1900, he twice visited the infected mosquito room, and again next day, and was repeatedly bitten. On Christmas Day he became ill, and suffered a well marked and severe attack of yellow fever. Moran refused to accept the bonus which was given by the Governor of Cuba to each volunteer, stating that he was glad to be able to do this service to humanity. He was discharged from the service, July 2, 1900, with character excellent. He served for some years at Panama during the construction of the Canal, and was commissioned a Captain in the Quartermaster Corps of the United States Army (Emergency Forces) during the World War." William Olsen (born in Wisconsin, 27 August, 1874), Private, Hospital Corps—"Enlisted for the Spanish War and came to Cuba where he volunteered for the experimental work of the Yellow Fever Board at Camp Lazear. He was one of a group of four who were given injections of blood from a case of experimental yellow fever at the camp (the Spaniard Martinez) in order to decide certain questions of scientific importance. He was taken ill with yellow fever January 11, 1901. He was discharged on expiration of his enlistment, November 15, 1901, with character excellent. He died September 10, 1932, in Los Angeles, California." Charles G. Sonntag (born in South Carolina, 20 November, 1872), Private, Hospital Corps—"Volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear, and was bitten by two infected mosquitoes and came down with yellow fever February 10, 1901, being the last case in the series at Camp Lazear. He took his discharge December 12, 1901, with character very good. He died February 19, 1937, at Sandy Run, South Carolina." Edward Weatherwalks (born in New Jersey, 16 July, 1874), Private, Hospital Corps—"Enlisted for the Spanish War and came to Cuba with the VII Army Corps. He volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear and underwent the trying ordeal of sleeping 21 nights, December 21, 1900 to January 10, 1901, inclusive, on bedding which had been used by yellow fever patients and was soiled with their bloody discharges. He wore at night the soiled garments of the sick. As this experiment, like the other exposures to infected clothing, had no result, Weatherwalks was bitten on January 25, 1901, by 12 infected mosquitoes, but for some reason not known, escaped infection. He was discharged December 21, 1901, with character good, and died October 21, 1916." Clyde L. West (born in Indiana, 5 April, 1877), Private, Hospital Corps—"Enlisted at Toledo, Ohio, for the Spanish War, and came to Cuba, where, while serving at Columbia Barracks, he volunteered for the experiments at Camp Lazear. He was infected in the mosquito room by the bites of two mosquitoes which had bitten a case of yellow fever 51 days before. This caused a mild attack of yellow fever three days later on February 9, 1901. Six days later these same mosquitoes caused the very severe case of Hanberry in which his life for several days hung in the balance. He was discharged July 10, 1902, with character very good."

End Notes

* I am indebted for the copy of this historic letter to Major Walter Reed's son, Major-General Walter Lawrence Reed, U. S. Army, retired, sometime Inspector General of the Army.

THE Walter Reed MEDAL (The American Society of Tropical Medicine)

The American Society of Tropical Medicine created the Walter Reed Medal in 1934, with the provision that the medal should be first awarded in 1936. The Society published the following statement about it in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine:

"The American Society of Tropical Medicine has established a bronze medal, to be called �The Walter Reed Medal,' which will be awarded to individuals or institutions in recognition of meritorious achievement in tropical medicine. There are to be no limitations of age, race or nationality in the selection of the recipient, except that preference is to be given to persons under forty years of age. The medal is to be awarded for work done within the past ten years and the award may be either for general accomplishment or for specific accomplishment. Awards are to be made at intervals of two years unless otherwise recommended by the Committee of Award.

"The Committee of Award will consist of three ex-presidents of the Society, each to serve for a period of three years and one to be elected each year. The Council has appointed Doctor Richard Pearson Strong (Chairman); Colonel Joseph Franklin Siler, Medical Corps, U. S. Army; and Admiral Edward Rhodes Stitt, Medical Corps, U. S. Navy, Retired, to act as the first Committee of Award. The Committee of Award will present its nomination to the Council of the Society for final approval. It is expected that the first award will be made at the meeting of the Society in Baltimore, November 18–20, 1936. Mrs. Walter Reed will also be presented with one of the medals at this meeting. April 29, 1936" (American Journal of Tropical Medicine, July, 1936, xvi, 497).

Design of the Walter Reed Medal

The Walter Reed Medal of the American Society of Tropical Medicine is of bronze measuring fifty millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the profile of Major Walter Reed facing left. It is taken from the marble portrait bust, now at the Walter Reed General Hospital, by Hans Schuler, sculptor, of Baltimore. Above the profile of Major Reed are the words: THE WALTER REED MEDAL.Below is the date: MCMXXXIV.The name of the artist, Tschudin, is at the right of the bust. The reverse bears the legend: AWARDED BY THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE TO IN RECOGNITION OF MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT IN TROPICAL MEDICINE

The whole is surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves.

The medal was designed and executed, after descriptions by the Society, by A. Bacqueville, 5 Galerie Montpensier (Palais Royal), Paris. The writer had something to do with the preparation of the medal as he suggested the firm of Bacqueville after visiting a number of medalists in Paris at the request of the Society. Later he inspected the casts at Bacqueville's shop in Paris and reported thereon to the Society. These casts are now in the possession of Dr. Henry Edmund Meleney of the Department of Preventive Medicine of New York City University College of Medicine, representative of the American Society of Tropical Medicine.

Awards of the Walter Reed Medal

The Walter Reed Medal of the American Society of Tropical Medicine has been awarded four times. The first copy was presented to Mrs. Reed in memory of her husband, as directed by the Society at the time the medal was instituted. The other three copies have been presented for accomplishments in tropical medicine.

The following is the record of awards, with dates of each:

  • 19 November, 1936—Mrs. Walter Reed, in recognition of the discovery of the mode of transmission of Yellow Fever, by her husband.
  • 19 November, 1936—The Rockefeller Foundation for meritorious achievement in the study and control of Yellow Fever.
  • 21 November, 1939—Dr. William Bosworth Castle, for outstanding work on the tropical an�mias associated with sprue and with hookworm infection.
  • 12 November, 1940—Dr. Herbert Charles Clark for outstanding contributions on human and monkey malaria, human and equine trypanosomiasis and other diseases of Central America.

THE KOBER MEDAL (Association of American Physicians)

In 1923, eight years before his death, Dr. George Martin Kober, sometime Acting Assistant Surgeon and later officer of the Medical Reserve Corps of the Regular Army, established the Kober Lectureship and the Kober Medals.

In a letter of 22 June, 1923, addressed by Dr. Kober, long Dean of the School of Medicine of Georgetown University, to the President, Reverend John B. Creeden, S. J., he said in part:

"In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of my graduation in medicine, I have created an endowment fund of sixteen thousand dollars to be held in trust by my Alma Mater, the Georgetown University of Washington, D. C.

"This fund is to be invested by said university, and the income therefrom to be used annually for the following purposes:

"The income of four thousand dollars to be used for a scholarship in the medical school, preference in the award to be given to residents of the District of Columbia, and of Modoc County, California.

"The income of one thousand dollars to be devoted to the endowment of a gold medal to be awarded annually to a member of the Association of American Physicians who has contributed to the progress and achievement of the medical sciences or preventive medicine. This medal is to be awarded by the Association of American Physicians upon the recommendation of its Council..."

The gift also provided for a fund of ten thousand dollars, the income from which would be devoted to awards for lectures delivered at Georgetown University.

The medal thus established by Dr. Kober is struck in the United States Mint.

Dr. George Kober, Founder of the Medals

The following sketch was written by Brigadier-General Jefferson Randolph Kean, Editor of The Military Surgeon. It appeared in that journal for June 1931:

"Dr. Kober was born at Alsfeld, Germany, March 28, 1850. His father, Johann J. Kober, was interested in the liberal movement of 1848, and would have liked to join the exodus of fine men who came to America to seek freedom and to escape the harsh measures of repression which followed that abortive effort. Johann Kober was, however, retained at home by the necessity of caring for his large family, which included ten children. He vowed, however, that none of his sons should serve in the army of any German potentate, and so in due time his third son George, age 16, renounced his allegiance to the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and set out for the American Land of Promise. He entered the Army in 1867 at Carlisle Barracks, became a Hospital Steward in 1870, and in 1871 was assigned to duty in a clerical position in the Surgeon-General's Office. He at once made use of his opportunities to study medicine, and was given the degree of M.D. by Georgetown Medical College in 1873. In 1874 he was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon in the Army and sent to the west coast.

"Dr. Kober's army service lasted (with one intermission of 13 months) until 1888, during which time he took part in the Nez Perc�s campaign. Establishing himself in Washington he soon became connected with Georgetown University Hospital, and has done perhaps more than any other man to build up the Medical School of that University, of which he was for many years the Dean. When Dr. William H. Welch was, in 1927, awarded the Medal of the Kober Foundation for research in scientific medicine, he said in the course of his remarks in accepting it: �I wish time and occasion were suitable for me to say something of Dr. Kober's own important contributions and services to medicine, surgery, hygiene and public health and charities, and indeed I cannot refrain from at least expressing here publicly what others as well as I have urged upon him in private conversation—the earnest wish that he should give the profession as well as the public the benefit of an autobiographical narrative of a long and unusually varied, interesting, and useful life.'

"Into these noble activities of Dr. Kober's we cannot go even to the extent of their enumeration. Happily, however, he took to heart Dr. Welch's suggestion and when death overtook him in his eighty-second year he had nearly completed an autobiography of which the first volume appeared last year, and the second will doubtless soon be completed by the Kober Foundation of Georgetown University, which has been charged with its publication.

"Dr. Kober never married, and found his happiness in the study of his profession, and in the practical application in many ways of preventive medicine for the health and happiness of this city. He was one of the oldest members of our Association of Military Surgeons, having been elected a Life Member thirty-four years ago. He died April 24 [1931] at Washington, D. C."

Design of the Kober Medal

The Kober Medal, struck in the United States Mint, Philadelphia, is of gold, fifty-five millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the profile of Dr. Kober facing right and in the margin the words: KOBER MEDAL · ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN PHYSICIANS

The reverse bears the following legend, within a wreath of oak leaves: AWARDED FOR RESEARCH IN · SCIENTIFIC · MEDICINE TO

Winners of the Kober Medal

1925—Hideyo Noguchi, New York City.

1926—Theobald Smith, Princeton, N. J.

1927—William Henry Welch, Baltimore.

1928—Victor Clarence Vaughan, Detroit.

1929—George Richards Minot, Boston.

1930—James Bryan Herrick, Chicago.

1931—Henry Sewall, Denver.

1932—Elliott Proctor Joslin, Boston.

1933—Alfred Newton Richards, Philadelphia.

1934—John Jacob Abel, Baltimore.

1935—Frank Burr Mallory, Boston.

1936—Edward Robinson Baldwin, Saranac Lake, N. Y.

1937—William Hallock Park, New York City.

1938—Rufus Cole, New York City.

1939—George Hoyt Whipple, Rochester, N. Y.

1940—Frederick Fuller Russell, Boston.

1941—William de Berniere MacNider, Chapel Hill, N. C.

1942—Donald Dexter Van Slyke, New York City.

The Kober Medal has been awarded eighteen times.

THE Kober MEDAL IN HYGIENE (Georgetown University)

By the terms of his gift in 1923, Dr. George Martin Kober, sometime Acting Assistant Surgeon, United States Army, established the Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians (see p. 133), and the Kober Lectureship. He also provided that there be set aside a fund of a thousand dollars, the income from which should be devoted to the purchase of a gold medal to be awarded annually to that member of the Fourth Year Class of the School of Medicine of Georgetown University "who has attained the highest average in the course in Hygiene and whose record in his other studies is creditable."

Design of the Kober Medal in Hygiene

The medal is struck in the United States Mint, Philadelphia, and measures fifty millimetres in diameter. It is of gold. The obverse bears the profile of Dr. Kober, facing right, with the legend in margin: · KOBER AWARD IN HYGIENE · GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY · SCHOOL OF MEDICINE.

The reverse shows a wreath of oak leaves surrounding the words: DISCITE QUAM PARVO LICEAT PRODUCERE VITAM

Winners of the Kober Medal in Hygiene

1926—John William Mahoney.

1927—James Augustine Murphy.

1928—Bernard Joseph Gioffre.

1929—Not Awarded.

1930—Raymond Charles Kirchner.

1931—Norbert Stanley Greene.

1932—Robert Emmet Maher.

1933—Richard Joseph Kennedy.

1934—Hugh Hudson Hussey, Jr.

1935—Hyman Jaffe.

1936—Vito Congemi.

1937—Joseph Edward Koplowitz.

1938—Donat Paul Cyr.

1939—Joseph Michael Barker.

1940—Richard James Walsh.

1941—Robert William O'Connor.

1942—George Illarion Mishtowt.

The Kober Medal in Hygiene has been awarded sixteen times.

THE BAILEY K. ASHFORD MEDAL (The American Society of Tropical Medicine)

The Bailey K. Ashford Award was established in 1940 by Eli Lilly and Company, manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, and accepted by the American Society of Tropical Medicine, which was given the right to select the winners. The terms of the offer and the basis for the award were set forth in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine for May 1940, xx, 453–454.

The award consists of an honorarium of one thousand dollars. Eli Lilly and Company has also caused a medal to be struck to accompany this award. The award was approved at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine, 1940. It was provided that the award would be made three times only, given in alternate years, beginning in 1941. An additional sum of $150, or as much thereof as might be necessary, was made available to defray traveling expenses of the recipient of the award, to enable him to attend the annual meeting and receive it in person.

The following announcement was made at the time of the establishment of the award:

  • The Bailey K. Ashford Award will be given biennially in recognition of demonstrated research in the field of tropical medicine, taking into consideration independence of thought and originality.
  • The investigator must be a citizen of the United States of America and less than 35 years of age on January 1 of the year in which the award is made. The recipient must not be associated with a commercial laboratory and need not be a member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine.
  • Members of the American Society of Tropical Medicine are to submit to the Secretary of the Society (in triplicate) the name of a proposed recipient with full information concerning his personality, training, and a statement of the research work for which the award is to be made.
  • All nominations must be in the hands of the Secretary at least 60 days before the dates of the annual meeting, at which time the award is to be made.
  • The recipient will be given opportunity to present a short review of his work at the meeting at which the award is made.
  • The committee of Award shall consist of the President of the Society ex-officio and three members of the Society, each to serve for a period of six years and one to be elected every other year at the annual meeting by the Council; except that the original committee be elected at once by the Council on nomination of the President, one member to be elected for six years, one for four years and one for two years.
  • The name of the recipient and suitable recognition to the donors are to appear on the program of the scientific meetings of the Society.

It is understood that the American Society of Tropical Medicine contemplate changes in the method of selecting the recipient of this prize. This would involve changes in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the above conditions.

Colonel Ashford, Whom the Medal Honors

Bailey Kelly Ashford, son of Dr. Francis Asbury Ashford, a Confederate soldier, was born in Washington, D. C. on 18 September, 1873. He received his medical education at the Georgetown University, graduating in 1896. After a year's practical experience at the Children's Hospital of Washington, he entered the Medical Corps of the Regular Army as a First Lieutenant Assistant Surgeon in 1897. He graduated at the Army Medical School in 1898. He had entered the military service just in time to participate in the Spanish-American War, in Puerto Rico, where he was present at the battle of Hormiguerros. It was his first visit to the tropics and his autobiography reflects the delight that he experienced at the country and the opportunity to do research. Puerto Rico was to be his home for the rest of his life, excepting only when exigencies of the service called him elsewhere.

He was promoted through the grades to the rank of Colonel, 1917, and was sent to France as Division Surgeon of the First Division. He was present at the Aisne-Marne and Meuse-Argonne Offensives. Later in the war he was put in charge of the training of medical officers in the American Expeditionary Forces, establishing a special school at Langres.

His fame rests chiefly on his discovery of hookworm disease in Puerto Rico in the days of the Spanish-American War. The Puerto Rican Anemia Commission, created in 1904 by the Government, was a result of his recommendations. His campaign against this fatal malady was the first ever waged in the Western Hemisphere. He treated more than 300,000 patients. His other important contribution to tropical medicine was his work on the cause of sprue, a serious tropical digestive disease.

Ashford was frequently the representative of his country and of Puerto Rico at international congresses. In 1916 the Rockefeller Foundation sent him to Brazil to study and treat tropical diseases. He founded the Puerto Rican School of Tropical Medicine and was able to have it recognized by and affiliated with Columbia University. Thereafter he held the chair of Tropical Medicine at Columbia.

He married Maria Asuncion Lopez, 1899, member of a noble family of San Juan, Puerto Rico, who bore him a son and two daughters. He died in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1 November, 1934. Though he was in poor health, he was able to be present at the unveiling of a bronze bust erected in his honor in his beloved School of Tropical Medicine. In the last year of his life he published the interesting autobiography, A Soldier of Science, in which he modestly told of his life's work. His brother, Colonel Mahlon Ashford, was also an officer of the Medical Corps of the Regular Army.

He received many honors. From the United States the Distinguished Service Medal for his success in training medical officers in France during the World War. Britain created him a Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, while the King of Egypt decorated him with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile when he was in Cairo in 1928 as the representative of the United States at the International Congress of Tropical Medicine.

At that time the University of Egypt granted him the honorary doctorate. He was likewise a Doctor of Science, honoris causa, of Georgetown University. He was sometime President of the American Society of Tropical Medicine, and held membership in the Association of American Physicians, the Association of Military Surgeons, and was a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons and of the American College of Physicians. His scientific publications, chiefly in tropical medicine and related sciences, are numerous.

Design of the Ashford Medal

The Bailey K. Ashford Medal is of bronze measuring 71 millimetres in diameter. The obverse depicts a man clad in a laboratory gown looking into a microscope near which are an assortment of test tubes, beakers, flasks, books and other laboratory accessories. Near the margin are the words: CHRISTIAN PETERSON COMPANY.

The reverse bears a seated nude male figure with right hand outstretched. In the margin there is the legend: THE BAILEY K. ASHFORD RESEARCH AWARD IN TROPICAL MEDICINE.

In the center of the medal there is this incription: ADMINISTERED BY THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE SPONSORED BY ELI LILLY AND COMPANY.

Award of the Bailey K. Ashford Medal

The Bailey K. Ashford award, including the medal, has been made only once. It was presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Tropical Medicine at St. Louis, 11 November, 1941 to Lloyd Eugene Rozeboom, Sc.D., of the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University. It was given "in recognition of his work in the study of races of anopheles mosquitoes in the neotropical region and for his incrimination of Anopheles bellator as a vector of malaria."

According to the terms of the gift by Eli Lilly and Company there are to be but two other awards of this valuable prize and medal, in 1943 and 1945, respectively.

OTHER MEDALS OF MEDICAL INTEREST

It has been found difficult to know where to draw the line as to medals to be included in this monograph. Some of the most important medals offered in this or other countries for medical research and other work have been won from time to time by officers of the United States Army Medical Corps. For instance, Brigadier-General Frederick Fuller Russell, the Army medical officer who is responsible for the use of typhoid fever prophylaxis in the army, has been awarded the Sedgwick Medal and the Marcellus Hartley Medal. Surgeon-General Sternberg won several medals, including one from the American Medical Association. Deputy Surgeon-General John Shaw Billings, the father of the Army Medical Library, largest collection of medical books in the world, received several such awards. The French Association for the Advancement of Science awarded its medal to a U. S. Army medical officer for direction of the campaign in Serbia against typhus fever. And there have been not a few others. As recently as 21 May, 1942, the Walter Burns Saunders Memorial Medal was presented to the Army Nurse Corps. This medal, awarded biennially to an American nurse for outstanding attainments, was won in 1932 by Annie Warburton Goodrich, founder of the Army School of Nursing.

It is a matter of regret that limitations of space do not permit the inclusion of some of these medals, but the author has had to confine himself to medals honoring medical officers, rather than those won by individual medical officers. There is no way of assuring completeness were an attempt made to include this last group.

CONCLUSION

The award of medals is a time-honored mode of recognizing merit. The series above described gives a fairly comprehensive picture of the medico-military educational system at present in effect in the Medical Department of the United States Army. That these medals are comparatively unknown to collectors is remarkable considering the high value placed on them by the military service. Similarly the medals awarded in honor of Army medical officers are of great importance. In all we have here a series of twenty-four medals, struck in gold, silver and bronze, many being of the highest artistic worth. Perhaps these pages will serve to bring home to collectors the scientific accomplishments of Army medical officers, and to such officers the historical background of the medals already known to them. The writer of these lines, in their preparation, has been struck by how few of the recipients of these medals are familiar with their history or with the lives of the men that they honor.


BACK

PLATES

PLATE I

UNITED STATES ARMY

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HOFF MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually at the Army Medical School to the officer attaining highest class standing. This copy was the second one awarded.

PLATE II

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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STERNBERG MEDAL First Type (gold)

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Awarded annually, 1913–1920, except in 1918 and 1919, at the Army Medical School for excellence in Bacteriology and Serum Therapy. The same medal, but known as the Slee Medal, was awarded in 1921–1923. This copy was the first one awarded.

PLATE III

UNITED STATES ARMY

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STERNBERG MEDAL Second Type (gold)

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Awarded annually at the Army Medical School to the officer attaining highest standing in Preventive Medicine. This copy was the first one awarded.

PLATE IV

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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SKINNER MEDAL First Type (bronze)

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Awarded annually at the Army Medical School from 1917 to 1920, for the officer attaining highest standing in military hospital efficiency and administration. This copy was the first one awarded.

PLATE V

UNITED STATES ARMY

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SKINNER MEDAL Second Type (bronze)

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Awarded annually at the Medical Field Service School, 1921—1931, for highest standing in the Basic Course. This copy was the first one awarded. Actual size 59 mm.

PLATE VI

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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SKINNER MEDAL Third Type (gold and bronze)

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Awarded at the Medical Field Service School since 1932 to the officer attaining highest class standing. From 1932 to 1936 the medal was of gold; since 1937 of bronze. This copy was the last one awarded.

PLATE VII

UNITED STATES ARMY

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DENTAL CORPS MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually from 1924 to 1939, at the Army Dental School, to the officer attaining highest class standing. This copy was the first one awarded.

PLATE VIII

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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DeVRIES MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually, 1923 to 1930, at the Medical Field Service School to the officer of National Guard and Reserve Officers Class with highest rating in Leadership and Proficiency in Drill.

PLATE IX

UNITED STATES ARMY

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HOSKINS MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually, 1924 to 1939, at the Army Veterinary School to the officer attaining highest class standing. This copy was the last one awarded. Actual size 63 mm.

PLATE X

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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McCAMANT MEDAL First Type (gold)

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Awarded in 1924 at the Medical Field Service School to the officer standing highest in Military Hygiene.

PLATE XI

UNITED STATES ARMY

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McCAMANT MEDAL Second Type (gold)

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Awarded annually from 1925 to 1930, at Medical Field Service School to officer standing highest in Military Hygiene.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

PLATE XII

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REA MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually at the Army School of Nursing for highest class standing.

PLATE XIII

UNITED STATES ARMY

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McKINNEY MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually at the Medical Field Service School to the non-commissioned officer standing highest in the class.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

PLATE XIV

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ENNO SANDER MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually by the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, 1900 to 1908, except in 1905, for the best essay on Military Medicine. This copy was the last one awarded.

PLATE XV

UNITED STATES ARMY

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GORGAS MEDAL (gold)

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Offered by the New York City State Association of the Medical Reserve Corps, U. S. Army, for best essay showing original research. Never awarded. This copy was presented to General Gorgas.

PLATE XVI

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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WELLCOME MEDAL (gold)

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Established 1916 by Sir Henry Wellcome and awarded annually by the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States for best essay upon an approved topic. From 1916 to 1927, inclusive, there was also a silver medal from the same dies.

PLATE XVII

UNITED STATES ARMY

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FOUNDER'S MEDAL (bronze)

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Established 1941 by the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States to mark its semicentennial. Awarded for exceptionally meritorious services in the field of Military Medicine. This is the only copy thus far presented.

PLATE XVIII

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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GORGAS MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded by the American Medical Association to Brigadier-General W. C. Gorgas in recognition of his work as chief sanitary officer during construction of Panama Canal. Actual size 2 1/2 × 2 3/8 in.

PLATE XIX

UNITED STATES ARMY

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WALTER REED MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded by Act of Congress to Major Walter Reed and his associates for demonstrations of the transmission of yellow fever by the mosquito. This is the first copy struck. Actual size 63 mm.

PLATE XX

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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WALTER REED MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually by the American Society of Tropical Medicine in recognition of meritorious achievements in tropical medicine.

PLATE XXI

UNITED STATES ARMY

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KOBER MEDAL (gold)

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Awarded annually by the Association of American Physicians for research in scientific medicine. Actual size 50 mm.

PLATE XXII

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT MEDALS

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KOBER MEDAL IN HYGIENE (gold)

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Awarded by the Medical School of Georgetown University for excellence in the study of Hygiene. Actual size 50 mm.

PLATE XXIII

UNITED STATES ARMY

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BAILEY K. ASHFORD MEDAL (silver)

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Awarded by Eli Lilly and Company to recipient selected by the American Society of Tropical Medicine. Actual size 71 mm. This copy is the only one thus far awarded.