The following four medallions from the remarkable hoard found at Beaurains-lez-Arras in 1922 are additions to the nine published in Arethuse, January, 1924. They include two medallions with associated or double portraits of members of the first tetrarchy of Diocletianus (Pls. i, iv) which are unique and unpublished, 1 and two of Constantius Chlorus. One of the latter (Pl. iii) is a second example 2 of the medallion of Constantius illustrated in Arethuse, Pl. viii, 7, while the other is a unique piece and has already been published by Mr. M. Schulman. 3 Besides these four medallions from the hoard which are now in this country, a fifth piece is known to be in the cabinet of an Ameri- can collector. How many more there were originally in the hoard is not now known, since the workmen who discovered it while digging in a clay deposit made away with a considerable portion of the medallions and aurei, 4 of which a part only was subsequently recovered. Rumor carries the number of medallions found, to as high a figure as fifty. It is even reported that several of them were shown to a dealer in Ghent, who melted them up, believing them to be spurious. Thus the hoard was not examined and studied intact.
According to M. Duquènoy, Curator of the Arras Museum, the treasure was buried in two vases—one of silver, of which fragments have been recovered, and the other of clay. The silver vase was presumably contained within the clay pot. 5 It is suggested by M. Duquènoy that the hoard was perhaps stolen in ancient times and buried in the clay deposit at Beaurains-lez-Arras, as there are no traces of walls or buildings indicating an ancient settlement at the find spot. Most of the gold coins and medallions are discolored with a dull, silverish coating, probably due to chemical reaction of the aluminum constituent of the clay soil in which they long lay buried.
The thirteen medallions thus far known were issued by the following emperors: Diocletianus (2); Maximianus Herculius (1); Constantius Chlorus (7); Constantius and Galerius Maximianus (1); Diocletianus, Herculius, Constantius and Galerius (1); Constantinus I Magnus (1).
The latest medallion is that of Constantinethe Great as Augustus with the Principi iuventutis reverse from the mint of Trèves, Fig. 1. The gold unit which was struck contemporaneously with this medallion is the coin shown in Fig. 2. 6 The reverse type, figure of Constantine in military dress and cloak, standing to r. with spear and globe, the inscription, Principi iuventutis, and the mint-mark PTR Percussa Trevirorum are identical with those of the medallion; while the obverse differs only in bearing the head laureate instead of the bust laureate, draped, with cuirass, as on the medallion, and a briefer inscription. This coin, which was in the hoard, is a solidus, and hence cannot be earlier than 309-310, when a monetary reform was effected by Constantine through the substitution of the solidus of c. 4.55 gr., or seventy-two to the gold pound, for the aureus weighing c. 5.45 gr., or sixty to the pound. According to Maurice, it belongs to the third issue of the Trèves mint, namely to the period between May, 309, date of the recognition of Constantine and Maximinus II Daza as Augusti by Galerius, and June, 313, date of the death of Daza. Another example of this type of solidus wras present in the hoard, of slightly different reverse die. 7 Another solidus of Constantine, Fig. 3, with reverse type, three military standards, and inscription s. p. q. r. optimo principi, and mint-mark ptr 8 and obverse similar to the above piece was also in the hoard. This latter coin is classified by Maurice as belonging likewise to the third issue of Constantine at Trèves, 309-313. The reverse inscription, s. p. q. r. optimo principi, is explained by Maurice (Num. Const. I, 204, bronze coins of the Roman mint struck simultaneously for Constantine, Licinius and Maximinus Daza), as referring to the rapprochement of Constantine and the Roman Senate, after the defeat and death of Maxentius in the battle of the Mulvian bridge and the entry of Constantine into Rome on October 26, 312. On this occasion the Senate decreed to Constantine the titulus primi ordinis, or primi nominis titulus, namely, the right of placing his name at the head of the list of the Augusti, and of legislating, which had previously belonged to Daza, who had refused to yield it to Constantine. This piece, then, if the above interpretation of its reverse inscription be correct, belongs toward the end of the period 309-313, and supplies us with a terminus post quem for the burial of the hoard, since there was no solidi of later date in the hoard. For the later issues of Constantine which are associated with the Arras hoard coins in the Ratto Sale Cat. April, 1923 (cf. Note 4), such as Nos. 443, 449, ff. (and, also, we are bound to conclude, No. 446, a dated piece of the fourth consulate, 315 A. D., not illustrated) were not a part of the hoard, according to the testimony of those who examined it. Moreover, these later coins of Constantine in the Ratto Catalogue, chiefly of the periods 313-317, 324-326 and 336-7, are quite common and are in a more worn condition than those issues of Constantine which are known to have been in the hoard and belong to the first part of his reign. Finally, the gap existing between the issues of Constantine's earlier period and these late coins in the Ratto Catalogue makes it impossible to regard the latter group as part of the hoard. Of No. 447 in the Catalogue we have already spoken as another example of the solidus, Fig. 1. No. 448, an aureus of Constantine as Caesar, 306-308, was probably in the hoard. As to Nos. 444-445, we can safely conclude that they did not belong to it. The very rare aureus of Maxentius, 9 Ratto, No. 440, which is in mint condition, belongs to the period 309-312, and would, according to the above reasoning, have been an issue previous to the s. p. q. r. piece of Constantine. If we accept the date assigned to this latter coin by Maurice, the date of the deposit of the hoard should be given as about 312-313. However, we should be inclined to date the hoard, aside from this particular coin and the date assigned to it by Maurice, rather in the middle of the period 309-312—or very soon after the introduction of the solidus in 309-310. The fact that there were only two or three solidi in the hoard, and that these are all specimens of Constantine's earliest issues, points rather toward the middle than the very end of the period. The period during which the coins were hoarded, therefore, extends from 284, date of the accession of Diocletianus, to 309-312, the same range as that of the medallions. The aurei of an earlier period, described below, represent a treasure of gold surviving from over a hundred years, which was in the possession of the owner (or owners) who formed the hoard during the last quarter of the Third Century and early part of the Fourth. Such are the conclusions which can be drawn from a study of this famous hoard under the present conditions. A rigorously scientific account of the hoard in its entirety cannot be given until more of the now scattered material becomes available, and a more complete picture of the hoard can be thus constructed.
As to the general nature of the hoard, incomplete as it is, we are able to draw what seem to be sound inferences. It contained gold medallions and aurei (plus solidi) of the period from Diocletianus to Constantinethe Great; many aurei of an earlier period—from the Antonines to Caracalla, some of which were set in mountings with attachments to be worn as pendants; and, in addition, silver denarii (forty-one were seen by the writer in Arras) chiefly of Constantine (type of Cohen, 706, rev., virtus militum and a fortified gateway, mint-mark ptr). Besides these coins, there were also objects of jewelry, gold necklaces, bracelets, a silver spoon, gems, a ring, a chain, etc. Thus the ensemble may be imagined to have been the property of some high civil functionary or military chief, or of his family, residing in Gaul. In all probability, it was the family treasure of some wealthy individual to whom some of the medallions were pre- sented as marks of distinction, rewards for political or military service. The coins in the hoard fall into two distinct groups: (1) the earlier aurei preserved as bullion, and as jewelry in frames (Hadrianus, Faustina Sr., Faustina Jr., Commodus, Caracalla, Julia Domna are among the mounted pieces seen by the writer) some of which show signs of considerable circulation, covering the period from about 118 to 211; (2) later aurei (and solidi) ranging from Diodetianus to Constantine whose condition varies from slightly worn to fine, brilliant state, extending over the period 284-312.
As in the case of the medallions of the Helleville find, 10 those from Arras are nearly all unique pieces, for these multiple-aurei were struck as imperial largesses and were not issued in very large quantities. They are chiefly five and ten aurei pieces, all remarkably well preserved; some in mint state. There is no large medallion of Galerius Maximianus, alone, which is quite in keeping with the circumstance that the greater number of the medallions were struck at the Gallic mint, and that half at least were struck by Constantius Chlorus. The hoard, therefore, as far as we can judge, was formed within the restricted area of Constantius' domain.
1. Obv. dd. nn. constantio et maximiano nobb. caess. D(ominis) N(ostris), Constantio et Maximiano, Nobilissimis Caesaribus, "To our lords, Constantius and Maximianus, most noble Caesars." Half-length figures confronting of Constantius and Galerius Maximianus, heads laureate, wearing the imperial mantle; Constantius, on the left, holds a globe surmounted by a Victory in his right hand, while Galerius, on the right, holds a scepter surmounted by an eagle.
Rev. principvm ivventvtis (Principum iuventutis), "(Of) The First of the Knights". The two Emperors standing in military dress with cloak, bareheaded, resting left arms on long, upright scepters,—each holding a patera, with which they are pouring a libation upon a tripod-altar placed between them; in the central background, two military standards; in the exergue, prom (Percussa Romac), "Struck at Rome".
Gold Medallion. 10 aurei, or denio, 38 mm. 54.27 gr. Unique and unpublished. Plate I.
This unique medallion of Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Maximianus together as Caesars, is one of the earliest medallions in the find, as is evidenced by its more worn condition as compared with that of the others. The occasion of its issue is perfectly clear from the obverse and reverse types and inscriptions. It was struck in 293, to commemorate the elevation of Constantius and Galerius to the rank of Caesars, Principes iuventutis. On the obverse, we have the portrait busts of the two new associates in the empire of Diocletianus, clad in the imperial mantle and holding emblems of sovereignty, while on the reverse the two Emperors are represented as "taking the oath of office" at the tripod, according to the traditional type.
Diocletianus ascended the throne in November, 284, and reigned alone until April, 285, when he associated with him Maximianus Herculius directly as Augustus without first having appointed him Caesar. On March 1, 293, he called to the rank of Caesars, Constantius and Galerius Maximianus, and just as Diocletianus was the first Augustus and Maximianus Herculius the second, so Constantius was the first Caesar in rank, and Galerius the second. 11 Hence there is significance in the order of the names of the Caesars in the obverse inscription. Correspondingly, the portrait on the left is unquestionably to be identified as that of Constantius, the Caesar of senior rank. That this position of the senior in rank corresponding to his prior mention in the inscription running from left to right on medallions with confronting portraits was a regularly observed convention, is borne out by other medallions of this type. On the medallion of Diocletianus and Maximianus Herculius in Florence, 12 the two Augusti are so placed in order of seniority, Diocletianus on the left and Herculius on the right. For, although the portraiture of this period is very conventional, Herculius is here unmistakable on account of his prominent feature—a decidedly retroussé nose. On medallions struck by Constantinethe Great, having as reverse types confronting busts of the Caesars, Crispus and Constantine, Jr., 13 and of Crispus and Constantius II, 14 the figure on the left in each case is that of Crispus. This is made evident, not by the portraiture, which is utterly conventional, but by the device of representing the senior in rank, Crispus, as of larger size than the juniors, who were, indeed so many years younger. 15
Our medallion was struck at Rome and is the second one in the Arras find from this mint. For, the medallion of Diocletianus, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 3, although without mint-mark, is probably a product of the Roman mint, according to its style. The flan, like that of the above mentioned denio of Diocletianus and Herculius in Florence, is smaller and thicker than those of the other deniones of the hoard, 16 namely, the London medallion of Constantius, Arethuse, l. c., Pl. vii, and the medallion bearing the portraits of the four members of the first tetrarchy of Diocletianus (Plate iv). Of these two latter pieces, the London medallion is from the mint of Trèves, while the medallion of the tetrarchy bears no indication of the place of issue, but from its style may be assigned to the Gallic mint.
The gold units, or aurei, corresponding to our multiple-piece of ten aurei are the coins struck by Constantius, Cohen, 233, and by Galerius, C. 178, var. On the former piece, Fig. 4, the reverse type is that of the Emperor in military dress with cloak, bareheaded, standing to left holding a military standard in the right hand and resting on a long scepter with the left; the inscription, Principi iuventutis, and mint-mark prom are identical with those on the medallion. On the latter piece, Fig. 5, the reverse type is similar, but the Emperor is laureate, and the inscription is Principi iuventut. The obverses bear laureate heads, and the inscriptions, D N Constantio Caes and D N Maximiano Caes, thus corresponding perfectly with the inscription on our denio of Constantius and Galerius, which is also in the dative case. Thus we have in these coins the units which were issued contemporaneously with the medallion, a correspondence demonstrated above in the case of the Principi iuventutis denio and solidus of Constantine.
Other examples may be cited of medallions of which there exist different denominations in gold, as follows: the medallion of Diocletianus and Herculius above mentioned in Florence, 17 a denio to which there is a corresponding quinio 18 in Berlin; the medallion of Herculius in Budapest, 19 a quinio, with the reverse type of the two Emperors seated, facing, on curule chairs, each carrying a globe, crowned by Jupiter (?) on 1. and Hercules on r., with the inscription Perpetua concordia Augg. and mint-mark pr, for which there exist corresponding aurei struck by Diocletianus and Herculius 20 with a slight modification in the type, the two Emperors seated to 1. on curule chairs, each carrying a globe and crowned by Victory, above and between them, with the inscription, Concordiae Augg. nn. These aurei are without mint-mark and are doubtless of the Roman mint as is the medallion. 21 From the existence of these aurei of each Emperor, we should infer that a quinio of similar type to that of Herculius, though not now known, was also issued for Diocletianus.
The quinio of Herculius just mentioned was issued in 293, therefore, in the same year, 22 as our medallion from Arras with the double portraits of Constantius and Galerius, the Caesars whose appointment it commemorates. The occasion for its issue was probably the celebration of the Decennalia of the two Augusti as may be inferred from the reverse type and inscription. Thus, in the year 293 there were struck (1) our denio of the Caesars, commemorating the naming of the two new colleagues in the empire, and (2) presumably, two quiniones, one each of Diocletianus and Herculius, the two Augusti, to recall the long-standing harmony, perpetua concordia, existing between them, and to express hopes for its continuance.
Rev. Marti victori "To Mars Victor". Mars Victor advancing to r., wearing helmet and floating mantle, carrying a trophy over l. shoulder and a spear transversely in r. hand; in the exergue, tr.
Gold medallion. 5 aurei, or quinio. 23 mm. 26.15 gr. Unique. Plate II.
This medallion was issued, as its obverse inscription tells us, while Constantius was still Caesar, hence, within the period 293-305. The reverse type quite plainly alludes to a military victory. M. Schulman (op. cit. note 3) refers the type to events of the year, 298, in which Constantius won a victory over the Alemanni who had invaded Gaul in the district of the Lingones (Langres). However, the obverse type of this medallion connects it with another medallion of Constantius from the Arras hoard bearing an identical head of Constantius in the lion's scalp with a reverse depicting the Emperor standing to r. in military dress, with spear, holding out his right hand to greet a kneeling female figure who holds spear and shield, while Victory at the left crowns the Emperor, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 6. This medallion is connected in turn by identical reverse type, Emperor and kneeling figure and Victory, with a third issue of Constantius, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 5, having as obverse type a bust of the Emperor in imperial mantle, holding a scepter surmounted by an eagle. These three medallions are all of Constantius as Caesar, and are bound together, all three, as strictly contemporaneous issues by their interlinking obverse and reverse types, and their mint-marks.
Hence the question arises whether it can be the victory over the Alemanni which occasioned the issue of this series of three medallions or some other and more conspicuous military success. Is it not more probable that these three medallions refer to the victory won by Constantius over Allectus in 296, and which was celebrated by the striking of the famous London medallion? This is the opinion of the authors of the article in Arethuse, who interpret the kneeling figure as that of Britannia. 23
The head of Constantius covered with the lion's scalp of Hercules, is an entirely unique representation for this Emperor. It is not merely a servile imitation of the head-dress worn by the Emperor, Maximianus Herculius. The explanation is far more interesting. When Diocletianus and Maximianus, the Augusti, associated with themselves, the two new Caesars, Constantius and Galerius, the two elder Emperors each proceeded to found a divine imperial dynasty, and each adopted an heir into this new mythical family. Diocletianus took for himself the surname of Jovius, and thereby established the Jovian dynasty, making Galerius his heir and successor, while Maximianus assumed the name of Herculius , and founded the Herculian dynasty, adopting Constantius as his heir. 24 Hence the lion's scalp of the hero, Hercules, which sits so oddly on the aristocratic Roman head of Constantius Chlorus.
3. Obv. imp. constantivs pivs f. avg. Imp(erator) Constantius Pius F(elix) Aug(ustus). Bust of Constantius, bearded and laureate to l., wearing the imperial mantle, and holding in his right hand the scepter surmounted by an eagle.
Rev. temporvm felicitas. "The Luck of the times", or "The auspicious era". Two figures standing, clad in the toga, each holding a volumen in the l. hand and a patera in the r., with which they are pouring a libation upon a tripod- altar placed between them, in front of a tetrastyle temple; on each side, a camillus, or noble youth, holding a palm; above the altar, a flute-player; in the background between the columns, heads of spectators; in the exergue, ptr.
Gold medallion. 5 aurei, or quinio. 32 mm. 21.35 gr. Second example known. Plate III.
The similar medallion now in Arras, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 7, is from different obverse and reverse dies.
This medallion was issued during the period, 305-306, for Constantius was not elevated to the rank of Augustus until May 1, 305, and he died on July 25, 306. The reverse type recalls the "Luck of the times" and has its prototype on bronze medallions of the reigns of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, Philippus, Jr., Philippus, Sr. 25
On certain of these pieces of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, the inscriptions Vota suscepta, Vota publica, Vota soluta show that this type depicts the ceremony of the celebration of the Vota festivals, the Quinquennalia or Decennalia, the five-year and ten-year anniversaries of the reign. 26 On the gold medallion of Diocletianus from our hoard, Arethuse, l. c. Pl. viii, 2, a similar type (without the temple and assistants) occurs with the inscription Felicitas temporum. The piece was struck at Trèves in the eighth consulship of the Emperor, namely, in 303. As this was the year of the Vicennial festival of Diocletianus, 27 it would seem reasonable in view of the reverse type 28 to attribute the occasion of the issue of this dated medallion to the Vicennalia, or twentieth anniversary of his reign. Constantius' medallion, on the other hand, could not have been issued simultaneously with that of Diocletianus just cited since, of course, he was not yet an Augustus in the year, 303. But as the reverses of both of these quiniones are similar, bearing as they do the same inscription and the traditional type which commemorates the Vota festivals, our medallion of Constantius probably refers to a similar event. As it was certainly issued after May 1, 305, when Constantius and Galerius were raised to the rank of Augusti, through the abdication of Diocletianus and Herculius who retired to the rank of seniores Augusti, the two Emperors on the reverse are most naturally to be interpreted as Constantius and Galerius. The medallion may then have been struck to commemorate their appointment as Augusti in 305 while at the same time recalling their recent Decennial anniversary in 303. If this be correct, we should assume that a corresponding medallion was also issued by Galerius. 29 To conclude, our medallion probably commemorates the appointment of Constantius as Augustus, and the two-Emperor type on the reverse suggests that a similar quinio may have been issued for Galerius in his domain. The medallion of Diocletianus, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 2, would already have been issued in 303, and our reverse type was probably inspired by it.
The obverse is by far the best portrait of this Emperor known on coins or medallions. Constantius was the only member of the tetrarchy who was a lineal descendant of an ancient Roman family. His forebears were descended from Claudius II Gothicus in the female line, and his origin is vouched for by his delicate aristocratic profile with its strongly characterized Roman nose. Compare his portrait on our medallions, 30 Nos. 2 and 3, with that of his son, Constantinethe Great, on the Arras medallion, 31 Fig. 1, and note the long, aquiline noses, and then observe the decidedly plebeian features of Maximianus Herculius and Diocletianus on this same group of medallions. 32 One gains from these new portraits on the medallions from Arras of the Trèves mint, a much more vivid and doubtless more correct idea of the personal appearance of both Constantius, who was so genuinely a Roman, and of his son, Constantinethe Great, than from any of their medallion portraits hitherto known. Compare, for example, the gold medallion of Constantius struck at Siscia, Gnecchi, Pl. 5, 9, and the Arras medallion struck at Tarraco, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 8, neither of which can now be regarded as a faithful likeness. Constantius Chlorus, thus surnamed from his pale coloring, was of milder disposition than Maximianus Herculius, and this characteristic is especially reflected in the portrait on our medallion. He was between sixty and seventy years old, when the medallion was issued.
4. Obv. diocletianvs avg. et maximianvs c. Diocletianus Aug(ustus) et Maximianus C(aesar). Busts of Diocletianus (on the left) and Galerius Maximianus (on the right), confronting, bearded and laureate, and wearing the imperial mantle.
Gold medallion. 10 aurei, or dcnio. 42 mm. 54.40 gr. Unique and unpublished. Plate IV.
This truly remarkable medallion presents the four co-rulers of the first tetrarchy of Diocletianus, grouped not as pairs of Augusti and Caesares, but, as pairs, consisting each of an Augustus and a Caesar. Diocletianus and his adopted son and heir to the empire, Galerius Maximianus, occupy the obverse, while Maximianus Herculius and his adopted son and heir, Constantius Chlorus, appear on the reverse.
There is no mint-name, but, as stated above, this medallion also was probably struck at Trèves as were the majority of those in the hoard. The medallion is struck on a much larger flan than the medallion of Constantius and Galerius, No. 1, which is of the same denomination. To this circumstance, the broader flan enabling the artist to engrave upon it heads on a much larger scale, is due the more medallic character of the piece. Furthermore, as both the obverse and reverse are occupied by portrait busts and there is no exergual line, the medallic quality is still further heightened.
The occasion for the issue of this piece, one feels convinced, must have been an extraordinary one. Does it then commemorate the formation of the tetrarchy in 293? This would be perfectly in keeping with the subject matter of the medallion, which represents on each face, an Augustus paired writh a Caesar. It must surely have been issued within the period Mar. 1, 293-May 1, 305, after the accession of Constantius and Galerius as Caesars, and before their elevation to the rank of Augusti upon the retirement of Diocletianus and Herculius to the position of seniores or honorary Augusti.
But is it not just as probable that the medallion was struck in 303, to commemorate an event of even greater importance, the Vicennial anniversary or jubilee of the reign of the two Augusti, and the Decennial anniversary of the Caesars? This would certainly have been an occasion of signal importance which would call for the issue of a commemorative piece such as this. As far as the hoard in general is concerned, this date is perfectly in keeping, for the burial must have been as late as 309-312, the broad date of the issue of Constantinethe Great's medallion, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 9, and it may possibly have been just following the end of this period, to judge from the presence in the hoard of the solidus of Constantine, Fig. 3, which, according to Maurice, was not struck before 312-313. (See, however, above page 6.) Moreover, this medallion is in fresh, practically mint condition. Hence the date, 303, appears the more probable when we compare its condition with that of the medallion of Constantius and Galerius, No. 1, which was certainly struck in 293, and is by far the most worn of all the medallions here described. Of those still in Arras, only the medallion of Diocletianus, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 3, shows a similar degree of wear. Of course too much stress cannot be laid on the argument as to condition in relation to medallions, for these commemorative pieces probably were very seldom circulated. Nevertheless, this difference of condition would incline us to place the medallion of the tetrarchy in the year of the dual anniversary of the Augusti and the Caesars, rather than in that of the formation of the tetrarchy.
Medallion, No. 1, may possibly not belong to the hoard. It is somewhat more worn than the other medallions, and has not the discoloration of the gold peculiar to the medallions and aurei of this find. It is from the mint of Rome, while most of the other medallions bearing a mint-mark are from the Trèves mint. There is, however, one other medallion in the hoard, which, though without a mint-mark is, according to its style, probably also from the Roman mint, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 3. Hence, the mint-mark alone does not constitute an objection to the inclusion of No. 1 in the hoard. Also, it was brought to this country with other medallions from Arras.
Cf. Navilie Cat. XI, Pl. 38, 977.
Jaarboek voor Munt en Penningkunde, 1923, illus., p. 80.
The number of aurei is conjectured to have been upwards of three hundred. About eighty of them belonging to the period, Diocletianus to Constantinethe Great, appeared in the Ratto Sale Cat., April, 1923 (Nos. 375 ff). About 130 aurei were seen at Arras by the writer, of which 87 were of the period of the Antonines.
It is equally reasonable to suppose that the hoard was contained in the two vases separately, for it was made up of two distinct lots, an earlier lot of aurei ranging from Hadrianus to Caracalla, and a later lot ranging from Diocletianus to Constantinethe Great.
Cohen, 412; Maurice, Num. Constant. I, p. 399, x.
Ratto Sale Cat., April, 1923. No. 447.
Cohen, 556—Maurice, I, p. 401, xiv.
Now Jameson Coll., Cat. Ill, No. 476.
Rev. Num. 1906.
J. Maurice, Rev. Num. 1904, p. 74.
Gnecchi, Med. Rom. Pl. 5, 1; Cohen, 43.
Cohen, p. 320, No. 2.
Cohen, p. 321, No. 1.
Crispus was born in 300, and Constantius II in 317. According to Maurice, Constantine, Jr. was born in 314. (Num. Const. iii, p. 190.)
The medallion of Constantine, Arethuse, Pl. viii, 9, is probably also to be reckoned as a denio of the solidus standard, as its weight, 40.72 gr., though somewhat light, seems to class it as a ten-solidi piece.
Gnecchi, Med. Rom. Pl. 5, 1—Cohen, 43, Florence.
Gnecchi, Pl. 5, 2, Berlin.
Gnecchi, Pl. 5, 7; not in Cohen, Budapest.
Cohen, p. 419, 38 and p. 498, 47.
Cf. Jameson Cat. II, Pl. xiv, Nos. 309, 313 for these types of aurei.
Its obverse, head of Maximianus Herculius in the lion's scalp is of the same die as that of another medallion of this Emperor, also from the O-Szöny find, with different reverse type (Num. Zeit. 1891, Pl. IV, 3, 4) and this latter reverse appears on a third medallion of Herculius from the same find, with the inscription Virtuti Augg. V. et IIII cos. (ibid. Pl. viii, 1) which proves that all three were struck in 293, year of the fifth consulship of Diocletianus and the fourth of Maximianus.
Cf. also W. Kubitschek, Der Schatzfund von Arras, Num. Zeit. 1924, p. 86 ff.
J. Maurice, Rev. Num. 1904, p. 72.
Cf. further, the article by Col. Voetter, Herculi and Iovi, Num. Zeit. 1901, for coins of the members of the tetrarchy on which the Jovian and Herculian titles and symbols occur. A series from the Roman mint bears in the exergue the following: Diocletianus, P-thunderbolt; Maximianus, S-club; Chlorus, T-club; Galerius, Q-thunderbolt. A gold medallion formerly in the Paris cabinet had as reverse, Iovio et Herculio, with the two Emperors, Diocletianus and Maximianus, sacrificing at a tripod, and, above, Jupiter and Hercules on an altar, holding, respectively, a thunderbolt and a club. A bronze medallion (Cohen, p. 481, No. 41) bears the confronting busts of Diocletianus and Maximianus, and on the reverse, Moneta Iovi et Herculi Augustorum duorum, with a figure of Moneta between Jupiter and Hercules. Constantius and Galerius, as Caesars, each issued an identical reverse type, the Emperor on horseback (Cohen, 306 and 215) with respective inscriptions, Virtus Herculi Caesaris and Virtus Iovi Caesaris.
Gnecchi, Med. Rom., Pls. 50, 2, 3; 61, 3; 63, 2, 9; 89, 2-5; 108, 9; 109, 6.
Later bronze medallions repeat this type with a different inscription, such as Saeculum Novum—Ludi Saeculares, Philip, Jr., Gnecchi, Pl. 108, 9; Philip, Sr., Gnecchi, Pl. 109, 6.
Commemorated on an aureus from the hoard, Ratto, No. 391.
Cf. the type of the two Emperors, Diocletianus and Maximianus Herculius, sacrificing at an altar, with Votis X and Votis Decennalibus on small bronze issues of these Emperors, C. p. 475, 532, and p. 562, 668.
A small bronze of Galerius, as Caesar, C. 235, with the inscription Votis X has, as reverse, the traditional type, Galerius, laureate, clad in the toga, sacrificing at a lighted altar, but there is no corresponding aureus recorded in Cohen.
Also, similar types in Arethuse, Pl. viii, 6, 7.
Op. cit. Pl. viii, 9.
Op. cit. Pl. viii, 4, 3.