South American Decorations and War Medals

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Gillingham, Harrold E. (Harrold Edgar), 1864-1954
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Numismatic Notes and Monographs
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American Numismatic Society
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New York
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Donum
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Worldcat
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Worldcat Works
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SOUTH AMERICAN DECORATIONS AND WAR MEDALS

By Harrold E. Gillingham

Many of the war medals and decorations of the South American Republics are concerned with their struggle for independence from Spain. Some knowledge of the causes of this struggle is fitting—the difficulties of stating these causes briefly will be obvious, but the necessity for such a statement as a starting point must suffice as a reason for attempting it. The success of the revolution of the thirteen colonies in North America seems to have had less direct influence in initiating the struggle for independence than the conditions in Spain. In 1808, upon the abdication of Charles IV, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king in each Spanish-American capital. Shortly thereafter however, and in some places before the proclamation of Ferdinand's accession, emissaries arrived with letters from the Ministers and Council of the Indies, announcing the abdication of Ferdinand, and the confirmation of all the governors and officials by Joseph Napoleon, the new king. This aroused intense opposition. The French successes in the peninsula, however, left the colonies with the suspicion that Spanish power had disintegrated, and the subsequent action of the royalists of Spain and the Spanish Cortes only added to the confusion. A number of leaders who had been working toward independence were quick to seize the opportunity, and in first one capital and then in another, organizations were effected and revolutionary agencies set in motion.

The Spanish rule was centered in important cities in which Viceroys appointed by Spain were in authority, supported by garrisons of soldiery. The body of citizenry aside from the native Indians was composed largely of European emigrés, many of whom had long been settled in the country and some of whom had inter-married with Negro blood. This Creole population exploited the Indian natives wherever possible and in consequence the natives looked to the Spanish authority for what redress it was possible for them to obtain, and remained sympathetic to the Spanish rather than to the revolutionary cause in most districts. Climatic and geographical surroundings played an important part in the ultimate division of the continent into republics—frequently a nationalistic division would have been hard to discover. The struggle in the south was successful earlier than that in the equatorial section where the leadership of Bolivar, after countless reversals, was to be triumphant.

After the achievement of the independence from Spain there were frequent upheavals. Many were of a purely local nature, some being due to individual ambition or assertiveness and some being little more than neighborly quarrels over boundaries or privileges. Occasionally the struggles were bloody ones, but the distances to be overcome sufficiently increased the difficulties of warfare under tropical or semi-tropical conditions to prevent many movements on a large scale. In addition, the problems of financing any prolonged conflict wielded an even greater influence.

The decorations issued under such circumstances are of necessity of a more or less makeshift nature, and the record of them is often difficult to obtain, and is sometimes to be had only from the decoration itself. As more stable conditions were brought about the record becomes clearer. It will be seen, that accuracy of statement with regard to some of these decorations is impossible, and that difference in descriptions of awards is to be expected. In the following accounts of decorations awarded by South American republics, a citation is made of the authority responsible for the statements recorded, and this is supported wherever possible by photographic reproduction of the respective medals.

The object of this monograph is to treat only of the medallic awards—those which were made to be worn on the person—and not the embroidered insignia of honour given by some governments of Latin America.

Many of the Spanish-American countries awarded to their military heroes, in place of a medal, an Escudo or embroidered shield or plaque. These varied in size, design and colour, but all were excellently executed, being usually embroidered in gold thread on a brilliant background of silk, such as light or dark blue, or red; and sometimes on a white or black ground. The contrast of the gold on the coloured silk made quite as distinguishing a decoration as a silver or gold medal such as many of the European countries bestow.

One of the earliest of such escudos was awarded by the government of Buenos Aires for the troops taking part in the battle of Tupiza in Upper Peru November 7, 1810. It was an oval, 2 × 2½ inches, of white silk embroidered with a silver corded edge, within which was the inscription also in silver cord, LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES DE TUPIZA.

Another attractive escudo is that given by the same authority for the battle against the Spanish forces at the estate called "La Florida," on the banks of the river Piray in Upper Peru on November 9, 1814. This too is of white silk, heart-shaped, 2¾ inches, × 2½ embroidered with light blue silk. The outer edge represents a laurel wreath, then the motto A LOS VENCEDORES EN LA FLORYDA, then a corded border. In the centre are two crossed palm branches and three stars, the whole making a most attractive insignia of honour, when sewed on the breast of the uniform coat.

This form of decoration varied in size from an oval 2 × 1½ inches to 3½ × 2¾ inches. As they were attached to the uniform they naturally soiled easily and were not well preserved; hence they are not often to be found by the collector, even though awarded as late as 1872. (Rosa, Leyes , p. 130.)

Some of these shields or escudos were made of metal and worn on the uniform's coat-sleeve. These were generally awarded to the troops. It is the intention to include herein all such metallic awards, where information is obtainable.

During the Spanish Colonial period in America many medals and decorations of honour were awarded to the royalist troops. Some of these were authorized by the home government in Spain, such as the Order of St. Ferdinand, the Order of Isabella the Catholic, the Cross for Carthagena de las Indias and many others for Cuba and Puerto Rico. These will not be included here, having already been described in Spanish Orders of Chivalry and Decorations of Honour.

The intention of the writer is to include herein only those decorations for military services which were issued in South America, first by the local Spanish authorities and later by the several republics, after they had obtained their independence. Before the separation of the several colonies, many medals and escudos were authorized by the various Viceroys and Captains General, who apparently did not need the sanction of the home government to reward the royalist forces. Most of these were designed and executed within the several colonies, and but little information concerning them is obtainable. Possibly the records were destroyed during or after the various wars for independence; it would be natural that the patriots should wish to obliterate all reminders of the Spanish regime, under which they had suffered.

In preparing a record such as this, one succeeds only with the help of one's friends. To the officers of South American countries who have provided information, and to the consular officers of the United States who have aided, grateful acknowledgement is hereby made. To Charles H. Roberts, Esq., of Buenos Aires, I would express deep appreciation for valuable assistance. To Mr. Sydney P. Noe I am deeply indebted—without his help these pages might never have been completed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This list comprises works consulted for data. The citations throughout the text employ in the majority of cases the author's name only, with additional indication when there is more than a single title by one author.

Argentina. Ministerio De Guerra . Historia de los premios militares Republica Argentina. Buenos Aires [1910], 3v.
Bergsöe Sale . Catalogue of auction by J. Schulman, Amsterdam, Sept. 28, 1903.
Brazil . Decretos do governo provisorio, pp. 455–456. Decreto N. 277 F—de 22 de Marco de 1890.
Burke , John Bernard ., The book of orders of knighthood and decorations of honour of all nations. London, 1858.
Cappelletti , Licurgo . Storia degli ordini cavaliereschi. Livorno, 1904.
Cavalcanti , Viscondessa De. Catalogo das medalhas Brazileiras e das estrangeiras referentes ao Brazil da colleccao numismatica pertencente a Viscontessa de Cavalcanti ... ; 2nd ed. Pariz, 1910. 2v.
Cuomo , Raffaele. Ordini cavallereschi antichi e moderni divisi per regioni con documenti ufficiali. Napoli, 1894. Vol. II.
Daguin , Arthur. Ordres de chevalerie autorisés en France. Paris, 1894.
D'Amade, A. Legion d'Honneur. Médailies militaires ou commemoratives, décorations, et ordres étrangers. Nice, 1873.
Elvin , Charles Norton. A Hand-book of the orders of chivalry, war medals and crosses. London, 1893.
Essling Sale . Feuardent catalogue, Paris, 1927.
Eyndhovbn Sale . Cat. by J. Schulman, March 17, 1924.
La Filatelia Argentina, Revista mensuel. Casa Pardo, Buenos Aires.
Fonrobert, Jules. Die Jules Fonrobert'sche Sammlung überseeischer Münzen und Medaillen; bearb. von Adolph Weyl. Berlin, 1878. Vol. III.
Gillingham, Harrold Edgar. Spanish orders of chivalry and decorations of honour. New York, 1926. (Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 31.)
Gritzner, Maximilian . Handbuch der Ritter-und Verdienstorden aller Kulturstaaten der Welt innerhalb des XIX Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1893.
Guadagnini, Domenico. Storia degli ordini vigenti ed estinti. [Venezia, 1925.]
Lawrence-Archer , J. H. The orders of Chivalry. London, 1887.
Medina, José Toribio. Las medallas chilenas. Santiago de Chile, 1901.
Medina, José Toribio. Medallas coloniales Hispano-Americanas. Santiago de Chile, 1900.
Meili, Julius. Numismatische Sammlung von Julius Meili. Die auf das Kaiserreich brasilien bezüglichen Medaillen (1822-1889). Zurich, 1890.
Melo, Olimpio De. Ordens militares Portuguesas e outras condecoracoes. Lisboa, 1923.
Montalbo, Louis. Armoiries et décorations. Supplement 1896 à 1911 . Paris [1912].
Padiglione, Carlo . Motti degli ordini cavalereschi, delle medaglie e croci decorative di tutto il mondo e di tutti i tempi. Napoli [1907].
Premios Militares, see Argentina. Ministerio de Guerra.
Revista Filatelica, December, 1928.
Rosa , Alejandro . Colleccion de leyes, decretos y otros documentos sobre condecorationes militares, medallas commemorativas, etc. Buenos Aires, 1891.
Rosa, Alejandro. Medallas y monedas de la Republica Argentina. Buenos Aires, 1898.
Rosa, Alejandro. Monetario americano. Buenos Aires, 1892.
Rosa, Alejandro. Numismatica; Independencia de America. Buenos Aires, 1904.
Salbach Sale. J. Schulman catalogue, Amsterdam, 1911.
Schulman, J. Catalogue des medailles du Bresil. Auction of June 16, 1924. Amsterdam.
Schulman, J. Catalogue of auction sale of Feb. 9, 1926. Amsterdam.
Sculfort, V. Décorations, médailles, monnaies et cachets du Musée de l'Armée. Paris, 1912.
Trost, L. J. Die Ritter- und Verdienst- Orden, Ehrenzeichen und Medaillen aller Souverane und Staaten seit Beginn des XIX. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1910.

ARGENTINA

The territory of Argentina was discovered by the Spaniards, and settled in the 16th century. In the last quarter of the 18th century the Colonies of the Plata included all of the country now known as Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, and the Pacific provinces later ceded to Chile by Bolivia and Peru. The capital was Buenos Aires. The revolution for freedom from Spanish rule was started May 25, 1810, under a provisional junta, and six years later the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de La Plata was proclaimed. In January, 1825, these became the Argentine Republic or Confederation. From 1835 to 1852, part of the country was under the Dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires separated itself from the Confederation in 1852; seven years later, however, it rejoined the Republic of Argentina. By the treaty of 1881, Patagonia and Terra-del-Fuego were divided between Argentina and Chile.

The Republic of Argentina authorized many awards to officers and soldiers—embroidered shields or plaques, cordons and other evidences of honour; these are omitted from this paper as the intention is to treat only of the medallic awards worn on the person, and conferred for military services.

MEDAL FOR PERDRIEL. This was authorized September 5, 1806, for those who took part in the engagement at the village of Perdriel, 22 km. from the Capital. The English forc.es under General William Beresford attempted to seize Buenos Aires in June and July of that year. It is a cast, oval medal, 32 × 22 mm., surmounted by a ribbon or fillet of the same metal. The obverse displays the arms of the city of Buenos Aires, two sailing ships, with a dove of peace in the upper field and an anchor in the lower. On the ribbon is UaTs RCoQsTds de Bs Aa . (Voluntarios Reconquistadores de Buenos Aires.)

Premios Militares, III, p. 128; Rosa, Monetario, p. 68, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 5; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 23, illus.

MEDAL FOR BUENOS AIRES, 1807. Authorized January 13, 1809, by a decree of the Junta of Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand VII for the Spanish troops who had defended the city of Buenos Aires at the time of the second English invasion of that section in July, 1807, when General Whitelock, with a force of 8000 British troops attempted to seize the city and territory, but failed in his endeavour owing to the strenuous resistence of the Spanish colonial forces. This attempt was brought about through the alliance of Spain and France against England, following the French Revolution, when British commerce with Buenos Aires was interrupted.

The medal, of gold or silver, is oval in shape, 49 × 30 mm.; it bears on the obverse the head of the Spanish king facing to the right, and the inscription FERNANDO VII REY DE ESPANA Y DE LAS INDIAS 1808.

ARGENTINA PL. I

figure

Perdriel Tupiza

figure

Buenos Aires Aruhuma

On the reverse is a laurel wreath within which are crossed palm and laurel branches encircled by VIRTUD Y BALOR PREMIADO EN BUENOS AYRES, and in small letters "EN POTOSI," for the mint in which, according to this inscription, the medals were struck. Potosi at that time, was one of the most celebrated silver mining towns in the world. It lies about 13,000 feet above sea level, at the foot of the rich Cerro de Potosi, in territory now belonging to Bolivia.

Premios Militares, III, p. 138; Rosa, Leyes, p. 9; Medina, Medallas Coloniales, p. 72, illus.; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 30, illus.

MEDAL FOR TUPIZA, 1810. Five months after having declared its independence, Argentine troops under Colonel Antonia González Balcarce, advanced into Upper Peru (now Bolivia) and met a force of Spanish troops under General José de Cordoba y Rosas, at the mining town of Tupiza, near the Argentine border. An engagement took place on November 7, 1810. To reward the troops taking part, the Provincial Junta authorized this oval, uniface, bronze-gilt medal, 42 × 33 mm., November 29,1810. It bears in the center LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORs DE TUPIZA. Above is a radiant sun; the whole is enclosed by the legend ACCION DE GUERRA DEL 7 DE NO VI EMB RE DE 1810, and a laurel wreath. The top of the oval is a scroll of ribbon for a suspension loop. The ribbon is half light blue and half white.

Premios Militares, I, p. 171–174; Rosa, Leyes, p. 12; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 42, illus.

MEDAL FOR ARUHUMA, 1810. This was awarded the troops for the second victory over the royalists on the field of Aruhuma, in the state of Cochabamba, a central province of Bolivia. It is an oval, silver medal, 27 × 24 mm., in the center of which a radiant sun above palm and laurel branches is encircled by P(or) L(a) PATRIA ALOS FIELES L.(ibertadors) D(e) COCHABANBA; outside the inscription is a wreath. The medal is uniface.

Premios Militares, I, p. 189; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 39, illus.

MEDAL FOR RIO DE LAS PIEDRAS, 1812. While assisting the insurgents of Upper Peru (Bolivia), in driving the royalist forces from the country, a minor engagement took place on the Rio de las Piedras, on September 3, 1812. No authority has been found for the issuance of this medal, but a specimen is in the National Historical Museum of Buenos Aires—an oval, bronze-gilt medal, 50x40 mm. At the center of the obverse is the word LIBERTAD; above this there is a radiant sun and below, a lance and laurel branch crossed. The legend is LA PATRIA RECONCIDA A SUS NATURs BENEMERITOS HIJOS *. The reverse is plain.

Premios Militares, I, p. 202.

MEDAL FOR SALTA, 1813. Salta, a city founded in 1582, was an old bishopric in the province of the same name in the northwestern part of Argentina, i. e., south of Jujuy, near the Chilean border. It was on the original trade route from the Peruvian mines to the sea, via the Rio Salado and the Rio de la Plata. At Salta, General Manuel Belgrano (1770–1823) won a victory over the Spanish forces, February 20, 1813, during the revolution for independence.

This medal was authorized March 5, 1813, by the Assembly of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. It is an oval of gold or silver, 51 × 40 mm., and bears the early arms of the republic—clasped hands surmounted by a liberty cap on a curved sabre within olive and palm branches; the inscription is LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES EN SALTA EN 20. DE. FEBRO. DE. 1813* .

In Medallas Coloniales Hispano–Americanos, p. 98, Medina describes an oval, silver medal, 30 × 23 mm., surmounted by a royal crown and edged with palm and laurel branches, having at the center * POR SU LEALTAD Y CONSTANCIA surrounded by EMIGDO. DE LA PROV. DE SALTA EN 26 DE FEB. DE 1814 *. This medal is uniface. The crown and the word "emigrados" of the inscription show that the decoration must have been issued for the royalist participants in the engagement of this date.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 60, illus.; Premios Militares, I, p. 302; Rosa, Medallas Coloniales, p. 98–99, illus.

ARGENTINA PL. II

figure

Rio de la Piedras

Cerrito and Montevideo

Salta

MEDALS FOR CERRITO and MONTEVIDEO, 1812–1814. After the Buenos Aires declaration of independence in 1810, the Spanish forces made their headquarters in Montevideo. This city had been founded in 1726, by the governor of Buenos Aires, to check the advance of the Portuguese on that side of the Rio de La Plata. In 1808, the governor of that section had established an independent junta. During the royalist occupation of the city many attempts were made by the patriots to drive them from the stronghold. The first medal of award for the Argentine troops was an oval of silver, 41 × 31 mm., having on the obverse the engraved legend LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES DEL 31 DE DICIEMBRE DE 1812 Y LIBERTADORES DE MONTEVIDEO EN JUNIO DE 1814, encircled by laurel and palm branches. The medal was uniface; the ribbon half light blue and half white.

The medals for Cerrito are ovals, gold plated or of silver, 32 × 30 mm. The medal proper is surmounted by a knot of ribbon, the loop of which serves as a suspension ring. The medal has as its design the rock from which the engagement takes its name, surmounted by a radiant sun. Encircling this is LA PATRIA RECONCIDA A LOS LIBERTADORES DE MONTEVIDEO . For the second battle of Cerrito, a medal 39 × 31 mm. is inscribed as above with the addition of DIC 31 DE 1813. For the later engagements an oval silver medal, 24 × 22 mm., with laurel branches below and a double bow of ribbon above, is inscribed LA PATRIA RECONCIDA A LOS LIBERT AD8 D. MONTEVo 1814. A variant of the 1814 medal is a uniface oval of silver 40×30 mm., inscribed LA PATRIA A LOS LIBERTADORES DE MONTEVIDEO 1814 above crossed palm and laurel branches. Large silver plaques, 55×45 mm., with eyelets for sewing to the uniform, bore an inscription similar to the above with palm and laurel branches beneath it.

Premios Militares, I, p. 216–220; Rosa, Monetario , p. 71, No. 222 illus.; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 69, illus.

MEDAL FOR CHACABUCO, 1817. By a decree of April 15, 1817, medals were awarded to the Argentine soldiers under Jose de San Martin, who, assisted the Chilean forces led by General Bernardo O'Higgins, and overwhelmed the Spanish forces under General Marco del Pont at Chacabuco, in February, 1817. As a result of this engagement Chile became independent. For these medals see P. 93.

By a decree of December 9, 1817, the Argentine troops were permitted to accept and wear the Legion of Merit of Chile , when awarded for this victory of Chacabuco. A description of this decoration will be found under Chile.

Premios Militares, I, p. 267 and III, p. 8; Rosa, Monetario , p. 72, No. 224 illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 41; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 102 illus.

MEDAL FOR SALTA, 1817. This was authorized November 28, 1817, for the troops taking part in the second defence of the city and province of Salta, during the war for independence.

The first class decoration is a six–pointed gold star bearing in the center of the medallion the words AÑO DE 1817, around which is AL MERITO EN SALTA . That for the second class is a star of gold with a silver center medallion, bearing the same inscription—both seem to have been uniface, as no inscription of a reverse has been found. The ribbon is light blue.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 52.

MEDAL FOR HUMAHUACA, 1817. Authorized April 25, 1817, for the troops attached to the fortress of Humahuaca, in Jujuy, who gained a signal victory over the Spaniards on March 2, 1817. The medal is of gold or silver; a five–pointed star with each ray notched at its extremity. The whole is suspended from a laurel wreath and bears an oval medallion inscribed EL 2 DE MARZO DE 1817 EN HUMAUACA. The reverse is plain and the ribbon is half light blue and half white.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 43; Premios Militares, I, p. 273–275; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 82 illus.

MEDAL FOR SAN LUIS CONSPIRACY, 1819. Authorized August 6, 1819, and awarded to those who took part in suppressing the uprising of the Spanish prisoners in San Luis (1819) during the revolution for Argentine independence.

ARGENTINA PL. III

figure

Humahuaca Ituzaingo

figure

San Luis Conspiracy Rio Colorado

An oval silver medal, 38 × 32 mm., edged with laurel leaves on the obverse and with palm leaves on the reverse, and having on the upper half of the obverse one large hand clasping a sword (right) clashing with three hands holding swords (left), and in the lower part EL 8 DE FEBRERO DE 1819. On the reverse upper field a sunburst, and in the lower field A LOS QUE DEFENDIERON EL ORDEN EN SAN LUIS. The ribbon is light blue.

Rosa, Monetario , p. 73, No. 225; Rosa, Leyes , p. 59; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 90, illus.; Premios Militares, I, p. 296–297.

MEDAL OF ORDER, 1819. Awarded October 9, 1819, to those taking part in suppressing the uprising in the province of Buenos Aires, in September, 1819. It is a uniface oval silver medal, 53 × 42 mm., inscribed in the center LA PATRIA POR MI AMOR AL ORDEN, encircled by laurel branches. Struck at the mint in Santiago de Chile.

Premios Militares, I, p. 299; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 92, illus.

MEDAL FOR PICHINCHA, 1822. A battle took place on the heights of Pichincha, near Quito, Ecuador, on May 24, 1822, resulting in the defeat of the royalist forces and the liberation of Ecuador. The allied troops of Argentina, Colombia and Peru, were awarded medals for their services by the municipality of Quito and the governments of Colombia and Peru. Description of these medals will be found under the respective countries of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. No special medal was awarded by the Argentine authorities for their troops.

Premios Militares, III, p. 79.

MEDAL ESCUDO FOR ITUZAINGO, 1827. From 1814, the province of Buenos Aires was involved in a war with Brazil for the possession of the Banda Oriental (Uruguay). The struggle continued until 1828, when, with the assistance of England, Uruguay was declared a free and independent state. At Ituzaingo in Brazil, on February 20, 1827, the Argentine troops under General Carlos Maria de Alvear, won a signal victory over the German, Portuguese and Brazilian forces led by the Marquis de Barbacena. Gold and silver medals for this conflict (52×40 mm.), bear in the centre a trophy of arms within palm branches encircled by LA REPUBLICA A LOS VENCEDORES EN YTUZAINGO , with 20 DE FEBRERO DO 1827 below. A second form of smaller dimensions (47 × 38) has in centre a trophy of arms on which is superimposed a shield inscribed FEBRERO 20 1827, around which is LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES EN YTUZAINGO . A third model has en YTUZAINGO in the exergue. All are uniface and made to be pinned to the uniform, rather than suspended.

Premios Militares, I, p. 336–340; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 102, illus.

MEDAL FOR SALADO, 1830. During the dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas, there were almost continuous disputes with the neighboring districts, and many medals were authorized. That for Salado, authorized July 23, 1830, is an oval of gold or silver, 36 × 32 mm., surmounted by a knot of ribbon. In the center, within laurel and palm branches, is A LOS VENCEDORES SOBRE EL SALADO EL 10 DE ABRIL DE 1830. On the reverse is CORONEL DON ANGEL PACHECO COMMANDENTE EN GEFE DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL NORTE. The ribbon is bright red. This medal in gold or silver was given to the commanding officers, and to the soldiers was given a brass shield or escudo, with an inscription similar to the obverse of the above medal.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 66; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 106, illus.

MEDAL FOR RIO COLORADO, 1833. This was authorized May 6, 1834; it is an oval of gold or silver, 39 × 32 mm., having on the obverse the arms of Argentina, between palm and laurel branches, encircled by the inscription LA PROVA DE BUEN8 AY8 AL PATRIOTISMO Y AL VALOR. The reverse is plain and the ribbon is bright red.

A variant of this, for those who died for their country, is inscribed similarly on the obverse and has on the reverse A LOS QUE MURIERON POR

LA SEGURIDAD DE SU PATRIA. This is 40 × 30 mm., and suspended by a red ribbon.

Premios Militares, II, p. 171; Rosa, Leyes , p. 68; Rosa, Monetario , p. 74, No. 227.

MEDAL FOR INDIAN INSURRECTION, 1836. Authorized October 5, 1839, for the troops taking part in this campaign against the Borogas Indians. The medal is a gold or silver oval, 37 × 30 mm., having on the obverse center the arms of the country within palm and laurel branches and encircled by a laurel wreath, around which is the legend EL GOVno RECONCOCIDO A LA VIRTUD Y AL VALOR MARCIAL. On the reverse center is a trophy of arms, below which is BUENOS AYS OCTre Io. de 1836. This is encircled by the inscription VICTORIA CONTRA UNA FUERTE DIVISION DE INDIOS CHILENOS SUBLEVADOS. The ribbon is red.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 133, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 87; Premios Militares, II, p. 201.

MEDAL FOR SANTA BARBARA, 1837. This medal was authorized August 19, 1837. Gold, silver and bronze ovals 37 × 30 mm., bear on obverse the arms of Argentina on military trophies, encircled by LA PROVENCIA DE B8 AY8 AL MERITO Y AL VALOR and on the reverse, military trophies and the inscription A LA MEMORIA DE AL GLORIOUSA JOURNADA DE

SANTA BARBARA EN HUMACUACA EN 13 DE SEPe DE 1837.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 121, illus.

MEDAL FOR INDIAN UPRISING, 1837. Authorized October 5, 1837, for the troops under Colonel Antonio Ramirez, who suppressed the Indian uprising on that date. It is an oval gold or silver medal, 37 × 30 mm., bearing on the obverse the arms of Argentina within laurel branches, and encircled by the inscription EL GOVNO RECONOCIDO A LA VIRTUD Y AL VALOR MARCIAL. On the reverse are military trophies below which is B8 A Y8 OCTRE 2 DE 1837, encircled by VICTORIA CONTRA UNA FUERTE DIVISION DE INDIOS CHILENOS ENEMIGOS. The ribbon is bright red.

Another medal of silver and bronze for an engagement against Indians, in 1838, is described by Rosa, as being of the same size as that above, having the same obverse but on the reverse BUENOS A Ys. DICIE 22 DE 1838, and the inscription VICTORIA CONTRA UNA FUERTE DIVISION DE INDIOS RANGUELES Y CHILENOS ENEMIGOS.

Premios Militares, II, p. 185; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 124 illus., p. 126 illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 87.

MEDAL FOR PAGO–LARGO. Authorized April 26, 1839, for the troops taking part in the action of March 31st, that year, against the forces of Entre Rios.

ARGENTINA PL. IV

figure

Indians 183 Corrientes 1865

figure

Pago-Largo Curupaity

The silver medal, 36 × 28 mm., has on the obverse VALIENTE DEFENSOR EN LOS CAMPOS DE PAGO-LARGO DE LA LIBERT AD DE LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINA Y DE LA INDEPENDCIA AMERICANO, in seven lines. Below this are crossed flags with a laurel wreath. The whole is encircled by olive branches. On the reverse is MARZO 31 DE 1839 EL GOBIERNO DE LA CONFEDERACION ARGENT AL PATRIOTISMO Y AL VALOR, in 5 lines. Above this are the national arms and a sunburst within laurel branches.

The bronze medal has on the obverse COMBATIO POR LA LIBERT AD Y HONOR AMERICANO EN AL VALIENTE EXER. VENCEDOR EN LOS CAMPOS DEL PAGO-LARGO.

Below this are crossed flags on a laurel wreath. The reverse is as described above.

The Historia de las Premios Miliatares, Volume II, illustrates the silver medal with the obverse and reverse transposed from above.

Rosas in Medallas y Monedas de la Republic Argentina page 128–9, gives the same contradiction of the obverse and reverse of the bronze medal.

Premios Militares, II, p. 191; Rosa, Leyes , p. 81.

MEDAL FOR CAYASTA, 1839. A revolt took place in Santa Fé when General Lavelle returned with a number of "Unitarians," caused trouble in the neighboring provinces, and invaded Buenos Aires the following year. For the Argentine troops engaged, gold, silver and bronze oval medals, 31 × 29 mm., were authorized, April 2, 1840, by Rosas. On the obverse are the arms of the republic on military trophies, around which is MUERAN LOS UNITARIOS. LA PROVINCIA DE B8 A Y8 AL PATRIOTISMO Y AL VALOR. On the reverse within a laurel wreath are military trophies encircled by ¡VIVA LA FEDERACION! EL GOBIERNO DE Bfigure A Yfigure RECONOCIDO A LA VIRTUD MARCIAL.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 89; Premios Militares, II, p. 204; Sculfort, No. 1217; Rosa, Monetario , p. 74, No. 228 illus.; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 134, illus.

MEDAL FOR SAUCE GRANDE, 1840. During the years 1840–1841, there were frequent conflicts with the "Unitarian" forces led by General Juan Lavalle, who unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow the Rosas government. On July 16, 1840, an engagement took place at Sauce Grande, in the province of Entre Rios1 which resulted favourably for the Federal forces, for whom this medal was authorized December 17, 1840. It was of gold, silver and bronze. The medals for officers were inscribed on the obverse VIVA LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINA. VALIENTE DEFENSOR EN LOS CAMPOS DE SA UCE GRANDE DE LA LIBERTAD DE LA CONFEDERACION Argentine Y DE LA INDEPENDENCIA DEL CONTINENTE AMERICANO. On the reverse are the arms of the country and military trophies with the inscription ¡MUERAN LOS SALVAGES UNITARIOS! JULIO 18 DE 1840 EL GOBERNADOR DE LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINA AL PATRIOTISMO Y AL VALOR. The brass medal for the troops was inscribed on the obverse, VIVA LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINA COMBATIO POR LA LIBERT AD Y HONOR AMERICANO EN EL VALIENTE EJERCITO VENCEDOR EN LOS CAMPOS DE SAUCE GRANDE. The reverse is the same and the ribbon is deep scarlet.

Premios Militares, II, p. 209; Rosa, Leyes , p. 91.

MEDAL FOR QUEBRACHITO, 1840. Authorized December 17, 1840, for those taking part in the engagement against the "LUnitarians" in the wilderness of Quebrachito, November 28, 1840. The gold and silver medals for officers had on the obverse, between palm branches, the inscription VIVA LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINE VALIENTE DEFENSOR EN LOS DESIERTOS DEL QUEBRACHITO DE LA LIBERT AD DE LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINE Y DE LA INDEPENDENCIA AMERICANO. On the reverse appear the arms of the country, military trophies, and MUERAN LOS SALVAJES UNITARIOS NOVIEMBRE 28 DE 1840 EL GOBIERNO DE LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINA AL PATRIOTISMO Y AL VALOR. The brass medal for the troops bore on the obverse VIVA LA CONFEDERACION ARGENTINE COMBATIO POR LA LIBERT AD Y HONOR AMERICANO EN EL VALIENTE EJERCITO VENCEDOR EN LOS DESIERTOS DEL QUEBRACHITO. The reverse was similar to the officer's medal, and the ribbon is dark red.

Premios Militares, II, p. 214; Rosa, Leyes , p. 95.

MEDAL FOR SAN CALA, 1841. This medal in gold, silver and brass, was authorized by Rosas, February 28, 1841, for those taking part in the victorious engagement at San Cala, January 8, 1841. The inscriptions on these medals were similar to those for Quebrachito, with the exception of the name of the engagement. The ribbon was scarlet.

Premios Militares, II, p. 219; Rosa, Leyes , p. 99.

MEDAL FOR CORRIENTES, 1843. The General Congress of Corrientes 1 established on September 19, 1843, gold, silver and brass medals for Colonel Joaquin Madariaga and the troops commanded by him who marched through Uruguay and liberated the province of Corrientes in August of that year. On the obverse is inscribed LIBERTO LA PATRIA 30 DE AGOSTO DE 1843. On the reverse is PROVINCIA DE CORRIENTES . The ribbon is half light blue and half white.

Premios Militares, III, p. 173; Rosa, Leyes , p. 104.

MEDAL FOR RIO SALADO. By a decree of December 19, 1856, one gold medal for the leader and 100 silver medals for the officers and troops, were authorized for General Antonino Taboada and those who accompanied him on the exploring trip up the River Salado in 1856. The medals were 64 × 58 mm.—on the obverse is a trophy with the national arms, with CONFEDERACION above and ARGENTINA below. On the reverse is an allegorical figure of the river, and between a laurel and palm branch is RIO SALADO MDCCCLVI. The ribbon is half light blue and half white.

Premios Militares, II, p. 114; Rosa, Leyes , p. 112.

MEDAL FOR PAVON, 1861. During this year hostilities commenced between the rival factions under General Mitre, Governor of Buenos Aires and General Urquiza, Governor of Entre Rios. Mitre was victorious at the battle of Pavon on December 17, 1861; Mitre was elected President of the Argentine Confederation in 1862, and Buenos Aires became the capital. No authorization has been found for the issuance of a silver medal, 33 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse the arms of Argentina within a laurel wreath, and encircled by BATALLA DE PA VON 17 SETIEMBRE DE 1861. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath, and with a radiant sun above, COMBATIO CON GLORIA POR LA LIBERT AD DE LA REPUBLICA ARGENTINA . The ribbon has three equal stripes—a white one at the center with blue on either side.

Premios Militares, III, p. 257.

MEDAL FOR CORRIENTES, 1865. Issued by the Argentine Confederation, August 19, 1865, during the five year war with Paraguay when the president of that country, Francisco Solana Lopez (1826–1870), passed through the province of Corrientes, in invading Brazil. The oval medal, 34 × 26 mm., of gold, silver or bronze, has on the obverse the arms of Argentina 1 encircled by LA REPUBLICA ARGENTINA A LOS VENCEDORES EN CORRIENTES , and on the reverse a radiant sun2 and 25 DE MAYO at the top, with 1865 below. The ribbon has three equal stripes—light blue at sides and white in center.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 119; Premios Militares, II, p. 12; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 141.

METAL ESCUDO FOR CURUPAITY, 1866. On September 22, 1866, an engagement took place at Curupaity, which is near the junction of the Paraguay and Parana Rivers, between the allied forces of Argentina and Brazil, against the Paraguayans. On September 24, gold, silver and copper oval escudos, 40 × 31 mm., were authorized. These were not to be suspended, but fastened by bars through the rings in the coat. On the obverse were the arms of Argentina within laurel branches, encircled by HONOR AL VALOR Y DISCIPLINA* REPUBLICA ARGENTINA *.

Premios Militares, II, p. 66–67; Rosa, Leyes , p. 130.

MEDAL OF CORRIENTES FOR NATIONAL GUARD, 1865–1869. By a law of December 10, 1869, the province of Corrientes authorized a medal in gold, silver and copper, 31 mm. in diameter, for the troops of the National Guard who took part in the war with Paraguay. On the obverse are the arms of Corrientes, surrounded by the inscription GUARDI A NACIONAL DE CORRIENTES *, and on the reverse center, within a laurel wreath, is AL VALOR Y LA CONSTANCIA LA PROVINCIA AGRADECIDA, encircled by CAMPANA DEL PARAGUA Y 1865 A 1869. Between the extremities of the wreath is R. GRANDE —apparently the name of the engraver.

End Notes

1 Entre Rios (meaning "between rivers") is a province of Argentina, north of that of Buenos Aires, beginning at the confluence of the Paraguay and Uruguay Rivers, and extending northward between said rivers to the province of Corrientes.
1 Corrientes is an eastern province of Argentina, north of Entre Rios, between the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Many streams have their source in this region.
1 The arms of Argentina are an oval, having in the upper field of blue a Phrygian cap on a staff which crosses the lower white field bearing two clasped hands signifying unity. Above is a sun, the whole being encircled by laurel branches and resting on crossed flags.
2 Instead of the customary full-faced head, there is on this medal the much smaller head of a girl at the center of the sunburst.

ARGENTINA PL. V

figure

Corrientes National Guard National Guard Buenos Aires

figure

Paraguay Chaco

The ribbon has three equal stripes—light blue, white and light blue.

Premios Militares, II, p. 86; Rosa, Leyes, p. 127.

MEDAL OF Cordoba FOR NATIONAL GUARD. By a provincial law of December 14, 1869, these gold and silver medals were authorized for the National Guard of Cordoba participating in the war with Paraguay. On the obverse, within laurel branches, is A LA GUARDIA NACIONAL, encircled by LA PROVINCIA DE Cordoba . On the reverse center, within laurel branches, is CAMPAÑA DEL PARAGUAY DE 1865–1869, encircled by AL VALOR CONSTANCIA Y DECISION.

Premios Militares, II, p. 89; Rosa, Leyes, p. 125.

MEDAL FOR PARAGUAYAN WAR, .1865–1870. By decrees of September 28, 1866, and November 17, 1871, gold, silver and bronze medals, 31 mm. in diameter, were awarded to the men who served during this campaign. On the obverse are the arms of the republic on an oval medallion supported by flags and trophies of war, with the legend, EJERCITO ARGENTINA, above, and DE OPERACIONES CONTRA EL PARAGUAY below. On the reverse is a radiant sun encircled by AL VALOR Y LA CONSTANCIA, and below, * LA NACION AGRADECIDA * . The ribbon is light blue with a white stripe in the center.

Premios Militares, II, p. 73; Rosa, Leyes , p. 121; Rosa, Monetario , p. 76, Nos. 235, 236.

CROSS FOR NATIONAL GUARD OF BUENOS AIRES, 1865. This was awarded (decree of December 16, 1869) by the province of Buenos Aires, to the troops of the National Guard from that district participating in the war with Paraguay. It is a ten-pointed gold or silver star, (43 mm. in diameter), with an oval center bearing the arms of the Republic within oak and laurel branches and encircled by GUARDIA NACIONAL DE BUENOS AYRES. On the reverse is the inscription AL VALOR Y A LA CONSTANCIA. LA PROVINCIA AGRADECIDA, encircled by CAMPANA DEL PARAGUAY 1865 A 1869* . The ribbon is white with two lateral blue stripes, and two widths are displayed. It is arranged over a trapezoidal frame, the shorter width being at the top.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 123; Rosa, Monetario , p. 77, No. 238 illus.; Premios Militares, II, p. 94; Meili , p. 15.

MEDAL FOR ALLIES IN PARAGUAYAN WAR, 1865–1870. By a law of August 20, 1889, this medal was authorized by Argentina, for the troops of the allied governments of Brazil and Uruguay, taking part in the five years war against the Paraguayan dictator Lopez. The medals were of gold, silver and copper, 30 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse the arms of Argentina within laurel branches, encircled by REPUBLICA ARGENTINA AL EJERCITO ALIADO EN OPERACIONES CONTRA EL GOBIERNO DEL PARAGUAY * . On the reverse center is a radiant sun encircled by AL VALOR Y A LA CONSTANCIA, above, and LA NACION AGRADECIDA, below. The ribbon has three equal stripes of light blue, white and light blue.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 139; Premios Militares, II, p. 99; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 154.

MEDAL FOR CHACO, 1870–1884. For many years the uncivilized Indian tribes of northeastern Argentina were a source of trouble to the residents of Santa Fé and Corrientes. Several expeditions were necessary to suppress uprisings. To reward the troops taking part in these various campaigns, the National Congress authorized (law of August 7, 1888) the award of gold, silver and copper medals. These were 30 mm. in diameter, and bear on the obverse the arms of the country, encircled by CAMPAÑA DEL CHACO. On the reverse within laurel branches is, LA NACION ARGENTINA . The ribbon is light blue with narrow white, lateral stripes. Bars were worn on the ribbon, indicative of the respective campaigns—Expedicion 1870; Ex-pedicion 1876 &c. The other years are 1880, 1881, 1883 and 1884.

Premios Militares, II, pp. 139–157; Rosa, Leyes , p. 136.

MEDAL FOR REVOLUTION OF 1880, IN BUENOS AIRES. This is a round, silver or plated medal, 27 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse a sword and a palm branch crossed, with the arms of Argentina below, and HONOR A LOS DEFENSORES DE LAS LIBERTADES DE BUENOS AYRES. On the reverse center is 15 FEBRERO 1880, encircled by EL PUEBLO AGRADECIDO* .

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 334, illus.

MEDAL FOR RIO NEGRO AND PATAGONIA. Awarded by decree of October 27, 1881, to the troops under General Roca, who participated in the campaign against the Patagonian Indians of the southwest, in what is now the province of Rio Negro, and which resulted in the final occupation of the territory in May, 1881. It is an oval of gold, silver or bronze, 33 × 25 mm., having on the obverse the arms of the republic, encircled by CAMPANA DEL RIO NEGRO Y PATAGONIA * 1878* , and on the reverse a radiant sun and LA NACION AL EJERCITO DEL SUD* 1881* . The ribbon is blue with a white stripe one-third of its width at the center.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 133; Premios Militares, II, p. 116; Rosa, Monetario , p. 78, illus.

MEDAL FOR CAMPAIGN OF THE ANDES. By a law of July 20, 1885, this was awarded the troops taking part in the troubles with the Indians of the southwest, during the presidency of Julio Roca. It is of gold, silver or bronze, 31 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse upper field eight mountain peaks and in the lower field, 1882–1883, within palm and laurel branches, and CAMPAÑA DE LOS ANDES, below. On the reverse, the arms of the republic are encircled by 2a DIVISION DEL EJERCITO. The ribbon is blue and white.

Premios Militares, II, p. 126; Rosa, Leyes , p. 135; Rosa, Monetario , p. 78 illus.

MEDAL FOR REVOLUTION OF JULY, 1890. In 1889, the "Union Civica" was founded—a body composed of many of the better class citizens of Buenos Aires. In 1890, aided by some regiments of the regular army and by the fleet, they fought for several days in Buenos Aires against the forces of President Juares Celman. They finally succeeded in forcing him to resign, and Carlos Pellegrin became President. This oval medal, 33 × 25 mm., surmounted by a radiant sun and edged with laurel branches, bears on the obverse a figure of Liberty, with a sun and mountains in the field, and trophies of war below. In the exergue is 26 JULIO 1890. On the reverse is EL PUEBLA ARGENTINO A LOS DEFENSORES DE LA LIBERTAD NACIONAL.

Rosa, Monetario , p. 80, illus.; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 351, illus.

ARGENTINA PL. VI

figure

Rio Negro Catamarca

figure

Andes Ringuelet

MEDAL FOR CATAMARCA, 1891. During the troubles of 1890–1892, a revolution broke out in the Andean Province of Catamarca, and this medal was authorized for the troops taking part in its suppression. It is a bronze, shield-shaped medal, edged with laurel branches and with a sun above. On the obverse oval appear the arms of the country, and on the reverse, REVOLUCION DE CATAMARCA ** JUNIO 23 DE 1891.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 354, illus.

MEDAL FOR RINGUELET, 1893. Another revolution, by forces led by Dr. Alem, took place in 1893 in Buenos Aires and Santa Fé. This was finally suppressed in August of that year, and a bronze medal (see illustration for shape), 32 × 29 mm., was issued. On the obverse are the arms of Argentina encircled by EL GENERAL CAMPOS A LOS VALIENTES EN RINGUELET. On the reverse is RECUERDO AL 8 DE AGOSTO DE 1893.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 358, illus.

MEDAL OF SANTA FE, 1893. On the occasion described above, the Province of Santa Fé instituted a bronze medal, 32 mm. in diameter. It bears in the obverse center, an oval on which are the arms of the province—(two inverted arrows and an upright spear tied with a ribbon, and nine stars), and the legend REVOLUCION DEL 30 DE JULIO DE 1893. The reverse inscription is VALOR CONSTANCIA PATRIOTISMO, encircled by EL PUEBLO DE LA PROVINCIA A SU DEFENSOR. No description of the ribbon has been obtained.

Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 358, illus.


BOLIVIA

The earlier history of Bolivia is inseparable from that of Peru. In the Spanish Colonial period it was called Upper Peru, and was part of the vice-royalty of Peru. Bolivia became independent in 1829, and was united with Peru from 1836 to 1839; a separation was forced by Chile who feared the federation. Bolivia was attacked by Chile in 1879, and for four years carried on a war in which she was assisted by Peru.

Because of Bolivia's connection with Peru, some writers have classed as Bolivian certain medals which we believe to belong to Peru, and the reader is referred to those recorded under the latter country for an inclusive list.

The geographical position of Bolivia imposed on that country all of the disadvantages of isolation, even in times of peace. In consequence, we find that decorations of the country bear evidences that they are of native manufacture and not highly finished. Most of them seem to have been made at the national mint at Potosi. They partake of the nature of the coins issued there, in the making of which the Potosi mint had long been engaged.

In the Cabinet of the American Numismatic Society there is a collection of seal impressions from medal-dies still in possession of the Bolivian mint and from these it is possible to deduce something about the making of these medals. The illustration of the Medal for Socabaya will disclose a radiant star, silver gilt, and a planchet of silver bearing the same star from the same dies. This star must have been struck first in the circular form and the plain segments then cut away, leaving the star as it is now seen. Another medal in which the same procedure seems to have maintained is the decoration for Ingavi. It is not certain whether the medals were issued in the round form and later cut out by the individuals to whom they were awarded or whether there may have been no intention of having them altered from the original rounded form. It is hoped that further details regarding this procedure may be brought to light.

MEDAL FOR AYOHUMA, 1815. The battle of Ayohuma, near Potosi, was one of the engagements lost by the revolutionists during the struggle for independence. General Manuel Belgrano (1770–1820), led the Bolivian-Argentine forces against those of Spain. The Spanish medal for this engagement, awarded by General Joaquin de la Pezuela, is a silver rhomboid, 54 × 39 mm., having around the sides RECUPERO LAS PROV D POTOSI Y CHARCAS1 EN LA BATALLA, and in the center is A YOHUMA 14 DE NOVRE DE 1815.

Medina, Medallas Coloniales, p. 98, No. 73.

BOLIVIAN MEDAL FOR AYACUCHO, 1824. This was authorized by a decree of the independent government issued from the capital at Chuquisaca, August 11, 1825. It was awarded to the patriot troops under Bolivar and General Sucre for their victory over the Spanish forces led by the Viceroy La Serna, at Ayacucho on December 9, 1824.

It is an oval, gold or silver medal, 42 × 36 mm., bearing on the obverse the mountain of Potosi, with a trophy of arms and flags in pyramidal form, on which is a figure (of Bolivar) holding a staff bearing a liberty cap. In the exergue is POTOSI , and in the upper field a radiant sun. On the reverse, within laurel branches, is LA REPUBLICA BOLIVAR AGRADECIDA AL HEROE CUYO NOMBRE LLEVA. See also Peru.

Rosa, in his Coleccion de Leyes, Decretos, etc., 1891, and in Monetario Americano, 1892, classes this as for Ayacucho; while his Numismatica, 1904, places it under Potosi.

Rosa, Leyes, p. 292–293.

MEDAL FOR COBIJA, 1825. Cobija, or Puerto la Mar, a seaport town and formerly Bolivia's port, is now part of the Chilean province of Antofagasta. This is an oval silver medal, 34 × 30 mm., awarded to the Bolivian troops taking part in the war for independence.

BOLIVIA PL. I

figure

Ayacucho

Callao

Cobija 1825

The obverse bears the early form of the arms of Bolivia with BOLIVIA A S US DEFENSORES above, and six stars below. The reverse edge is beaded and in the lower field is an oval of rope, within which is a sailing ship; above this is EN COBIJA. A variant has on the reverse the seated figure of Justice, holding a sword in the right, and scales in her left hand.

Fonrobert, No. 9745.

CROSS FOR CALLAO, 1826. Awarded by President Antonio José Sucre (1793–1830), to the Bolivian troops aiding in the defence of Callao, Peru, against the Spanish. The decoration is a green-enamelled cross of six arms, bearing on the obverse medallion the head of the president encircled by a band inscribed BOL A LOS VENC DEL CALLAO . On the reverse are the arms of Bolivia. The ribbon is red, blue and white.

MEDAL FOR CALLAO, 1826. This is an oval silver medal, 32 × 30 mm., with beaded border, bearing on the obverse center a tower with a soldier on a ladder; on its base RENDIDO EL CALLAO AL VALOR SIN EJEMPLO. On the reverse, within palm and laurel branches, is a tower from which a flag is flying; above is TOMA DEL CALLAO , and below ANO DE 1826.

CROSS OF BOLIVAR. No authority mentions the creation of this decoration, of which in Schul- man's catalogue of February 9, 1926 (No. 64), a pattern piece was described. A silver medal, 33 mm., in the form of a double-pointed, five-armed cross, with rays in the angles bears in the obverse center the bust of Bolivar facing to the right, and LIBERTADOR SIMON BOLIVAR . On the reverse are the arms of Bolivia and REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA.

MEDAL OF BOLIVAR. A pattern for an oval, silver medal is known. It is 33 × 28 mm., and bears on the obverse the bust of Bolivar in uniform, facing to right; above is the inscription, A SU LIBERTADOR SIMON BOLIVAR . On the reverse are the arms with six stars below, and REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA above. A variant has for the obverse inscription, * SIMON BOLIVAR LIBERTADOR DE COLOMBIA Y Peru PADRE DE BOLIVIA. Still another variant, 35 × 30 mm., has on the reverse the arms of Bolivia, with six stars below, encircled by the inscription, EL SENADO RECONOCE LOS GRANDES SERVICIOS DE SU GRAN CUIDADANO* .

Fonrobert, No. 9458; Salbach, No. 1554.

MEDAL OF MERIT. This is a gold or silver medal, 46 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse the uniformed bust of Bolivar facing right, and in the field PREM10 DEL VALOR.

Salbach, No. 1555.

MEDAL FOR YANACOCHA, 1835. During this year two political factions were struggling for control of Peru, and Santa Cruz went to the aid of the Peruvians, defeating Gamarra at Yanacocha, August 13, 1835. One silver medal, 35 mm. in diameter, bears on the obverse a sunburst in the center of which are the early arms of Bolivia, with REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA above and six stars below; and on the reverse center within a circle is AUClLIANDO AL Peru *, with the field inscribed, EN 13 DE AGOSTO D 1835. See also medals described under Peru.

A variation of this medal is a silver oval, 32 × 27 mm., having on the obverse VENCEDOR EN YANACOCHA within a palm and laurel wreath, and on the reverse the combined arms of Bolivia and Peru.

In Schulman's catalogue of the Salbach Sale a round silver medal, 29 mm. in diameter is listed. It bears on the obverse the arms of Argentina on a seven-pointed star which in turn is enclosed by another seven-pointed star ball-tipped with curved arms; and on the reverse, within a circle, VENCI EN YANACOCHA , superimposed on a twelvearmed double-pointed cross. It is said to have been awarded to Argentine troops.

Fonrobert, No. 9263; Rosa, Monetario , p. 211, Nos. 716, 717, illus.; Salbach, No. 2372.

CROSS FOR SOCABAYA, 1836. In 1835, a factional war took place in Peru, and Bolivian troops were sent into that country by President Santa Cruz.1

BOLIVIA PL. II

figure

Medal of Merit Yanacocha 1835

They were victorious over the forces of Gamarra, at Socabaya, Peru, February 7, 1836. About this time Chile sent troops to the assistance of Peru, and after three years of warfare, the Bolivian forces were defeated at Jungay, in June, 1839, and Santa Cruz exiled. The Bolivian decoration for the battle of Socabaya, is a white-enamelled star of five points, superimposed on a green oak wreath, having in the white medallion, 7 DE FEBR DE 1836, encircled by a red band inscribed VENCEDOR EN SOCABAYA . On the reverse medallion are the arms of Bolivia.2 The ribbon is green, red and green.

Salbach, No. 1555a.

MEDAL FOR SOCABAYA 1836. This is an oval silver or bronze medal, 30 × 26 mm., having on the obverse an oval of rays and dots, within which is a dove holding a laurel branch in its beak, and below DI LA PAZ AL Peru . On the reverse, within palm and laurel branches is an oval inscribed EN SOCABAYA A 7. DE FEBRER DE 1836.

End Notes

1 Andres Santa Cruz was an Indian statesman. His mother was a lady of high rank, of the family of the Incas. Of this he was very proud. While not a successful military leader, he possessed great administrative ability, and for nearly three years (1836–1839) he realized his dream of a confederation between Peru and Bolivia.
2 The arms of Bolivia at this time were a banded oval at the top of which is BOLIVIA, and below, nine stars, surmounted by a condor on a wreath; the whole superimposed on draped flags. In the center of the oval are three mountain peaks, before which are a llama, a tree and a sheaf of wheat; in the upper field a sun.

BOLIVIA PL. III

figure

Socabaya 1836 Ingavi 1841

A variant of this medal has on the obverse the arms of Bolivia, above which is LA PATRIA PREMIA UN BUEN SERVICIO, while still another variety has on the obverse the combined arms of Bolivia and Peru, with a reverse similar to the first described obverse above.

A larger silver medal, 42 mm. in diameter, was struck, having on the obverse a five-armed, double-pointed cross superimposed upon a laurel wreath, bearing in the circular centre a dove holding a laurel wreath, encircled by band inscribed DI LA PAZ AL Peru . On the reverse is a small circular medallion inscribed EN SOCABAYA A 7 DE FEBRERO with DE 1836 in the centre.

The dies for the above described medals are now at the Bolivian mint at Potosi.

CROSS OF Peru, 1836. This decoration, awarded after the Peru-Bolivian Alliance of 1836–1839, is classed by some writers with the Peruvian war decorations. It is a silver cross of five arms, 55 mm., enamelled white, having in the center medallion a figure of Peace in gold on a blue field, encircled by a white band inscribed in gold DI LA PAZ AL Peru . On the reverse, in gold on a blue field, is A NO 1836, encircled by a band inscribed GRATITUD AL EJERCITO BOLIVIANO. The ribbon is red, white and green of equal stripes.

Salbach, No. 1014.

MEDAL FOR SOUTHERN ARMY, 1838. This was awarded for the campaign in southern Peru, during 1838, when General Sucre had obtained control over part of that country. It is an oval, silver medal, 30 × 25 mm., having on the plain obverse VALOR LEALTAD Y CONSTANCIA, and on the reverse, within a beaded border, HONOR AL EJERCITO DEL SUD 1838.

Fonrobert Cat. No. 9516.

CROSS FOR INGAVI (Yngavi), 1841. In August, 1841, President Augustin Gamarra (1785–1841) of Peru, attempted to invade Bolivia and annex the rich province of La Paz. He besieged the capital, but in a battle with the Bolivians, led by General (later President) José Ballivian (1804–1852), at Ingavi, on the 18th of November, 1841, Gamarra himself was killed and his troops routed. Ballivian then attempted to invade Peru, but was prevented by Chilean interference.

The Bolivians taking part in this engagement seem to have been awarded a variety of decorations.

In the National Historical Museum of Buenos Aires is a decoration which is said to have belonged to Colonel Juan Andres del Campo. It is gold, in the form of a six-armed cross, double-pointed, and enamelled in the Bolivian national colours, superimposed on a green-enamelled laurel wreath. On the obverse center medallion is the column, or monument of Ingavi, surmounted by a radiant sun; around the whole on a red-enamelled band is inscribed SALVE LA PATRIA Y SU GLORIA EN INGA VI. On the reverse medallion are three mountain peaks with 18 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1841. The suspension ring is an oval laurel wreath.

The Marco del Pont collection has a similar decoration in silver and Casa Pardo have one of gold without enamel, while the American Numismatic Society possesses a specimen of brass, 34 mm. in size.

Another variety is a double-pointed, four-armed cross, of black enamel, with rays in the angles and similar designs and inscriptions on medallions; while a third cross is in the collection of Mr. C. H. Roberts of Buenos Aires. This is a silver fourarmed cross, enamelled white, superimposed on a green wreath of laurel surmounted by a flat laurel wreath, but with an obverse bearing the column of Ingavi encircled by a red-enamelled band inscribed VENCI EN INGA VI.

Still another variant exists in the Municipal Museum of Buenos Aires, which is a five-armed cross as first described, with the obverse inscription reading VENCI EN YANACOCHA AUXILIAN DO AL Peru , and the reverse legend INGA VI 18 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1841. Other variations seem to have been made, but the differences are not sufficiently distinctive to warrant their description.

Filatel. Argen ., May 1927, p. 602; Revista Filatelica, December 1928, p. 8; Sculfort, No. 1231.

MEDAL FOR INGAVI, 1841. While no decree authorizing these medals has been found, several have been described in auction catalogues, and some are displayed in the National Museum at Buenos Aires. One is an oval, silver medal, 45 × 40 mm., bearing on the obverse shield crossed cannon and the arms of the republic, encircled by REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA, and on the reverse within laurel branches, YNGA VI 18 DE NOVIEMBRE 1841. Another round medal, 43 mm. in diameter, has on the obverse SALVE LA PATRIA Y SU GLORIA EN ENGAVI, and on the reverse, within laurel branches, 18 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1841.

Another similar medal bearing a four-armed cross of the same size with three club-rays in each of the angles, and a smaller six-armed cross with the tips of the arms joined by a wreath, both with the inscriptions given above, may be pattern pieces.

Schulman, in the Eyndhoven catalogue of March 17, 1924, illustrates, under No. 2453, a silver medal of same size, having on the obverse, within an eight-pointed star, the monument and ten mountain peaks, encircled by the inscription PREMIO DE HONOR, while the reverse has, within a laurel wreath, YNGA VI 18 DE NOVIEMBRE 1841.

Rosa, in Monetario Americano, No. 718, describes still another variety—a silver medal, 45 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse a five-armed cross with curvilinear arms, ball-tipped, and with rays in the angles. On the center medallion are the combined arms of Bolivia and Peru, encircled with the inscription VENCI EN YANACOCHA *AUCILIANDO AL Peru * , and on the reverse, within a laurel wreath, YNGA VI 18 DE NOVIEMBRE 1841.

Fonrobert, Nos. 9790, 9791, 9792, 9794; Rosa, Monetario , p. 212, No. 718 illus.

POTOSI MEDAL, 1857. In September, 1857, Dr. José Maria Linares started a revolution to overthrow General Jorge Cordova as President. In this he was successful; Cordova was compelled to leave the country and Linares became Dictator, but fresh disturbances took place and he too was deposed in 1861. To reward the troops taking part in the revolutionary movement, these oval, silver and gilt medals, 36 × 30 mm., were issued by the City of Potosi.

There seem to be three varieties of these medals, the first (a gilt medal in the collection of the American Numismatic Society) has on the obverse center three mountain peaks encircled by a garland of flowers, above which is a radiant all-seeing eye. Below are military trophies and a liberty cap. On the upper border is DIOS PROTEJE LA CAUSA D LOS PUEBLOS. In the lower border are nine stars. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath, is LOS HIJOS DE POTOSI A SUS HERMANOS LOS DEFENSORES DE LA CAUSA NACIONAL EN 20 DE OCTUBRE 1857.

BOLIVIA PL. IV

figure

Medal for 1865

Potosi 1857

Callao Cross 1866

A silver variety illustrated by Schulman in the Eyndhoven catalogue of March 17, 1924 (No. 2450), has the same obverse as above, but on the reverse is a radiant sun in the upper field, below which is LOS HIJOS DE POTOSI A SUS HERMANOS LOS DEFENSORES DE LA CA USA NACIONAL EN.

There is a variant of this medal with the same reverse as the Eyndhoven medal, but with a different obverse. Above the center design are nine stars, and below the inscription EN 20 OCTUBRE DE l857.

Fonrobert (No. 9620) describes a medal with a reverse inscribed CONSEJO DE ESTADO within two laurel branches tied below. The obverse for this piece is like that of the variant immediately preceding.

Fonrobert, Nos. 9620, 9621; Sculfort, No. 1230.

MEDAL FOR 1865. The revolution which took place under the leadership of General Maria Melgarejo, resulted in February of 1865, in the final defeat of the troops of President Dr. Maria de Acha, near Potosi; Melgarejo became President, only to have two other revolutions to suppress in 1865 and 1866. This oval silver or gilt medal, 43 × 36 mm., has on the obverse a uniformed bust of General Melgarejo facing left, and the inscription EL JENERAL Melgarejo AL VALOR Y LEALTAD *DE LOS DEFENSORES DE* LA CAUSA DE DICIEMBRE 1865. On the reverse, within oak and laurel branches, is DIBRE 28, ENERO 31, MARZO 27, SETBRE 5, with a radiant all-seeing eye in upper field. Rosa in Monetario Americano, No. 747, shows this medal with a condor holding laurel branches in its talons as the suspension device.

A smaller medal, 26 × 21 mm., of white metal, was issued with an abbreviated inscription (Fonrobert, 9674).

Fonrobert, No. 9673, 9674.

MEDAL OF POTOSI, 1865. Given by the City of Potosi, to the troops taking part in suppressing the revolutionary movement of that year. An oval silver medal, 37 × 26 mm., having on the obverse, SALVADOR DE LA PATRIA Y SU PACIFICADOR EN 1865 *, with the head of Gen. Melgarejo to 1. On the reverse is POTOSI A S E EL JENERAL MARIANO MELGAREJO . On the suspension bar is a condor holding branches and a cornucopia in its talons.

Fonrobert, No. 9675.

CROSS FOR PAPUDO, 1865. Awarded by Bolivia to the crew of the Chilean ship Esmeralda, which overcame the Spanish vessel, Covadonga at Papudo, November 26, 1865. For description and illustration see p. 112.

Medina, Medallas chilenas, p. 146, No. 55.

MEDAL FOR ABTAO, 1865. During this year Peru became involved in a war with Spain—Bolivia and Chile went to the assistance of Peru. Fonrobert (9976) describes this silver medal, which is 38 mm. in diameter. On the obverse is the bust of the President, Mariano Melgarejo, facing to the left, and the inscription, BOLIVIA A LOS VENCED8 DE ABTAO . On the reverse are the arms of the country with military trophies, encircled by EN LA JORNADA DE 7 DE FEBRERO 1866. A silver cross (pattern) has been seen with the above obverse and a plain reverse. It is a double-pointed, six-armed cross, superimposed on a laurel wreath.

Sculfort, No. 1333; Fonrobert, No. 9976; Padiglione, II, p. 16.

CROSS FOR CALLAO, 1866. This is a red-enamelled gold cross of six double-pointed arms, ball-tipped, superimposed on a laurel wreath, bearing on the obverse the bust of President Melgarejo, facing to the left, encircled by BOLIVIA A LOS VENCED8. DEL *CALLAO* . On the reverse are the arms of Bolivia, encircled by EN LA JORNADA DEL 2 DE MAYO DE 1866. On the suspension laurel wreath is VIVE EL Peru .

Salbach, No. 1015; Fonrobert, No. 9198.

STAR OF MELGAREJO, 1868. This is a five-pointed, ball-tipped star, having in the center obverse medallion, the bust of the President, encircled by eleven stars, and in the reverse center is POTOSI DIEBRE 24 DE 1868, below which are laurel and palm branches.

BOLIVIA PL. V

figure

Cross of 1872

figure

Order of Condor

LEGION OF HONOUR. Founded by President Melgarejo in 1866. The decoration is an eight-pointed, faceted star with a white medallion bearing a gold bust of Bolivar facing right within a red-enamelled circle, and a blue band inscribed SIMON BOLIVAR LIBERATOR; outside of this band is another circle, faceted. The ribbon is composed of equal stripes of green, yellow and red.

Lawrence-Archer, p. 307.

CROSS OF 1872. This is a nine-pointed star of white enamel, having an eagle with raised wings for the suspension device. Between each of the points of the star are gold rays bearing a small five-pointed, white-enamelled star. On the obverse medallion is a figure of Liberty holding in her right hand the Bolivian flag, while the left hand rests a book upon a pedestal. A dark blue-enamelled encircling band is inscribed, LA ASAMBLEA NACIONAL DE 1872. HILARION DAZA. On the reverse medallion of white are branches of laurel and coffee plant, enclosing an upright sword and an open book. This is encircled by a band inscribed, AFIANZO LAS INSTITUCIONES DE BOLIVIA * . The ribbon shows the national colours, equal stripes of green, yellow and red.

NATIONAL ORDER OF THE CONDOR OF THE ANDES. This was authorized April 18, 1925, for civil and military merit, and is composed of five classes. The decoration is a blue-enamelled1 Maltese cross, with ball tips and with pink-enamelled kantuta2 (or trumpet) flowers between the cross arms. The cross has a flying condor for the suspension device. On the circular obverse medallion is the mountain of Potosi, with a gold sun in a blue field—encircled by a white band inscribed in gold, LA UNION ES LA FUERZA, MCMXXV. On the reverse medallion of red are letters of gold, R. B. (Republica Boliviano). The ribbon is light green.

ORDER OF MILITARY MERIT. This was authorized by a decree of January 19, 1927, and appears to have had seven grades:—star of iron; medal of bronze; cross of bronze; cross of silver, enamelled red, and a similar decoration enamelled blue; a placque of gold; and a collar of honour. No detailed description of the decoration has been obtainable, save that the inscription on the obverse is AL MERITO in the centre, encircled by RE- PUBLICA DE BOLIVIA EXERCITO NACIONAL. The reverse is not described in the decree nor is any account of the ribbon included. It is believed the order was never actually established.

End Notes

1 The decree prescribes a cross of white anamel, but the specimen in the collection of the American Numismatic Society is of blue.
2 Kantuta is probably the Quechua Indian name for the Coantutai plant, known among botanists as "Cantua buxifolia," a shrub with a trumpet-like red flower, common through the Andean region of Bolivia and Peru. Some authorities call it the "Flora del Inca."

End Notes

1 The province of Charcas, the Indian name of which is Chuquisaca, was a bishopric founded in 1552, as part of the Spanish vice-royalty of Peru. The name was changed in 1840, to Sucre, in honour of the patriot who aided in gaining the independence of the country. The city of Charcas was the first Spanish South American city to revolt from the Spanish rule (May 25, 1809).

Brazil

Brazil was discovered January 26, 1500, by Vincent Yanez Pinzon (1460–1524) a Spanish navigator, who commanded the "Niña" in the first voyage of Columbus in 1492. The same year —April 22, 1500—the Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvarez Cabral, took possession of the land under a dictum of the Pope, who had assigned the territory to Portugal. It was a colony of Portugal until 1807, when Joan VI and Queen Maria I (having established a regency in Lisbon) fled from Portugal with their governmental staff and here established their kingdom during the Napoleonic wars in the Peninsula.

Independence from Portugal was declared September 7, 1822, and an Empire formed by Dom Pedro I. (Antonio-Pedro de Alcantara of Bourbon, 1798–1834). He was compelled to resign in 1831 in favour of his son Pedro II. (1825–1891).1

The empire was overthrown by the revolution of November, 1889, and a provisional government formed by Manoel Deodora da Fonseca (1827–1892).

In 1891 the United States of Brazil was formed. Fonseca was elected the first President, but he resigned soon after in favour of Fiorina Peixoto (1842–1895).

Several of the orders of chivalry which had been established in Portugal for several centuries, were transferred to Brazil, and established there by laws of October 20, 1823 and revised or reorganized by the decree of September 9th, 1843. All Portuguese orders of chivalry were discontinued at the time of the overthrowing of the empire and the establishing of the republic.

D'Amade, pp. 427–429.

THE ORDER OF CHRIST consisted of three classes: Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers. The decoration was a red-enamelled cross with expanded and flattened ends, on which is superimposed a cross of white enamel; the whole being suspended from a radiant star bearing a flaming heart. The ribbon is bright red, edged with light blue.

THE ORDER OF AVIS, consisted of a green-enamelled cross with elongated fleur-de-lys ends, suspended from a radiant star bearing a flaming heart, save the lowest grade which was a plain cross. The ribbon is dark watered-green edged with red.

Brazil. Decretos do Governo Provisorio, p. 455–456, illus.; Burke, p. 73; Lawrence-Archer, p. 305–306.

ORDER OF SAINT JAMES OF THE SWORD. This decoration, of three classes, was a red-enamelled cross (similar to the Cross of Avis), save that the lower arm was shaped like a two-edged sword. The first class plaque bore a replica of the cross on a radiant star of silver. The second class decoration was surmounted by a star bearing the flaming heart and that for the third class was a plain cross as above described. The ribbon was dark purple edged with light blue.

ORDER OF THE TOWER AND SWORD. This fifteenth century Portuguese decoration was likewise taken to Brazil by the royal family when they fled to South America, and it was officially revived in that country on May 13th, 1808. It was discontinued on the establishment of the Republic in 1891. The decoration is a five-pointed white-enamelled star, ball-tipped, superimposed on a green-enamelled wreath, with a gilt tower above. On the white-enamelled centre medallion is a green wreath with a sword, encircled by a blue-enamelled band inscribed VALOR E LEALDADE. On the reverse is an open book inscribed CARTA CONSTITUCIONAL DA MONARQUIA *, encircled by a blue band inscribed PELO REI E PELA LEI (for the King and the law). The ribbon was dark blue.

de Melo, p. 8.

ORDER OF THE SOUTHERN CROSS. This decoration was first instituted on December I, 1822, by Dom Pedro I. (1778–1834) and given the name of the Constellation of the South, or Southern Cross. Brazil was first called the Land of the Holy Cross because of this constellation. It was discontinued at the time of the revolution of 1889, when the empire was overthrown, but revived on May 22,1890, by the republican government as a reward of merit. There are four classes, Grand Cross, Commanders, Officers and Chevaliers. The first decoration was a ball-tipped, double-pointed, five-armed cross of white enamel surmounted by an imperial crown and superimposed upon a wreath of tobacco and coffee plant leaves. On the light blue centre medallion is a cross of stars encircled by a dark blue band inscribed BENE MERENTIUM PRAEMIUM. The reverse medallion of gilt bears the head of the emperor facing to the left encircled by a dark blue band inscribed PETRUS I BRASILIAE IMPERATOR.D . When the order was revised in 1890, the style of the cross in the centre was changed to five stars, arranged as they appear in the Southern Cross constellation, and the crown was replaced by a five-pointed star on a wreath. On the reverse the centre medallion bears a female head of Liberty encircled by the inscription ESTADOS UNIDOS DO Brazil * . The ribbon is light blue.

Rosa, Leyes, p. 255; Cappelletti, p. 317; Daguin, p. 80.

BRAZI PL. I

figure

Order of the Southern Cross

ORDER OF PEDRO I. This was considered the first Order of Brazil during the reign of Dom Pedro I, by whom it was instituted. Authorities differ on the exact date of its inauguration; some say April 16, 1826, while others give 1827 as the year of its foundation. Pedro II gave it new regulations on October 19, 1842, and divided it into three classes; Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers. The decoration is a five-pointed, ball-tipped, white-enamelled star surmounted by an imperial crown, with gold rays in the angles. On the centre medallion of white enamel is a gold phoenix, rising from a crown, and holding (in its claw) an ancient crown. On the breast is a shield bearing the initials P. I. (Pedro I.) and the whole is encircled by a blue band inscribed FUNDADOR DEL IMPERO DAL Brazil . Gritzner gives the inscription as "Fundador do Imperio de Bresil," and described the chevalier's decoration as a phoenix rising from a twelve-pointed crown, holding in its beak a scroll and surmounted by the imperial crown.

The ribbon is dark green edged with white stripes.

Gritzner, p. 43–44, illus.; Elvin, p. (41); Cappelletti, p. 317–318, illus.; Burke, p. 70, pi. XX, nos. 1, 2.

IMPERIAL ORDER OF THE ROSE. Founded by Emperor Dom Pedro I. on October 17, 1829 in commemoration of his second marriage—with the Princess Amalie-Augusta-Eugenie-Napoleon of Leuchtenberg and Eichstadt, daughter of Eugene de Beauharnais.

BRAZI PL. II

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Order of Pedro I

The order was conferred for civil and military merit and consisted of six classes. The decoration is a six-pointed ball-tipped white-enamelled star, superimposed on a wreath of pink roses with green leaves, and surmounted by an imperial crown. In the obverse gold medallion are the intertwined initials P. A. (Pedro and Amelia) encircled by a blue band inscribed AMOR E FIDELIDADE. On the reverse medallion is 18 2/8 29, (the date of their marriage, second of August, 1829) encircled by a blue band inscribed PEDRO E AMELIA and a love knot of gold ribbon. The suspension ribbon is light pink, with a narrow white stripe each side. The decorations of the two lowest grades (smaller in size) do not have the crown above.

By a decree of March 22, 1890, of General Manuel Deodora de Fonseca, Chief of the Provisional Government of the United States of Brazil, all honorary Orders of Chivalry were abolished, except the Order of Avis and the Order of the Southern Cross.

ORDER OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. This decoration for civil and military merit, was founded June 6, 1890, by Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca, head of the provisional government; but it was abolished by Congress on February 25, 1891. There were five classes and the decoration is a double-pointed, ball-tipped, white-enamelled cross (or star) of five arms, with gold rays in the angles and surmounted by a five-pointed star.

BRAZI PL. III

figure

Imperial Order of the Rose

On the blue medallion are two C's, entwined, encircled by a red band. The ribbon is light blue with narrow red edges and a narrow green stripe in the centre.

Daguin, p. 81; Rosa, Leyes , p. 371; Montalbo, Suppl. pp. 11, 69.

MEDAL OF MERIT. This was established December 15, 1889, for all classes of civil merit, and was made of gold or silver. The obverse bears the arms of the republic and the word BRAZIL . The reverse in each case of award was engraved with the year and circumstances of its bestowal, encircled by a legend, which translated means "Brotherliness and Love." The ribbon, of three equal stripes, is green in the centre and red each side.

Gritzner, p. 50; Montalbo, Suppl. p. 69.

MEDAL FOR MONTEVIDEO 1813. By a decree of January 20, 1813, this medal was created by the Prince Regent, Joan VI, for the troops taking part in the pacification of Montevideo. It was to be worn on the coat sleeve, was elliptical in shape, of gilt bronze, uniface, bearing an olive tree for Uruguay and a royal crown, united with a dragon, the insignia of the house of Braganza.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 196.

BRAZI PL. IV

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Uruguay Cisplatina

figure

Volunteers Pernambuco

MEDAL FOR CAYENNE. This was founded in 1809 for those taking part in the combat at Cayenne, on January 11th of that year, when, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal by the French troops, an expedition led by Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Marques de Elvas Portugal, was sent from Para, Brazil, to French Guiana. The colony was restored to France by the treaty of Vienna in 1815. On the obverse is a bust of the Prince Regent, Don Joan VI, facing to the left, and his title, D. JOAN P. G. D. PRINCE REGENT DE PORTUGAL &C. 1809. On the reverse is CAYENNE TOMADO A: OS FRANCEZES encircling a wreath, within which is 14 JAN 1809.

Schulman, Cat. June 16, 1924, No. 16; Trost, p. 107.

CROSS FOR URUGUAY 1817–1822. Meili gives this as a silver Maltese cross, ball-tipped, 26 mm. in size, surmounted by an imperial crown and ribbon bar. On the obverse medallion is a laurel wreath crowned, with URUGUAY at the base, and a dove of peace. No reverse is described. The ribbon is yellow.

Meili, Nos. 8, 9; Trost, p. 107.

MEDAL FOR VOLUNTEERS OF 1822–1823. This was founded by decree of July 25, 1824, for the troops who remained loyal to Pedro I. and supported his cause in Montevideo during those years. After the Portuguese withdrew from the country, the Banda Oriental became part of Brazil with the name of the Province Cisplatina. The decoration is a silver [or bronze] Maltese cross, 27 mm., resting on a laurel wreath and with gold globules in the angles. On the obverse medallion is a bust of Pedro I., facing to the right, encircled by UOLUNTARIOS REAIS DE EL REY. On the reverse in MONTEVIDEO 1822-1823. The ribbon is green, edged with yellow.

Schulman, Cat. June 16, 1924, No. 23; Rosa, Leyes , p. 268; Cavalcanti, p. 21, No. 20.

CROSS FOR CISPLATINA. Established February 13, 1823, by Dom Pedro I (1798-1834) for the army and navy taking part in the first struggle for independence and the establishment of his empire. This caused the incorporation of the Banda Oriental with Brazil as the province of Cisplatina and the occupation of Montevideo. Cisplatina was the official name of Uruguay during the last five years of its union with Brazil, 1823–1828. The decoration is a gold and white-metal enamelled cross, 45 mm. or 30 mm. in size, formed of four diamond-shaped arms with the outer points cut off, each arm edged with laurel branches and the whole surmounted by the forepart of a griffon, the badge of the House of Braganza. On the obverse medallion is a palm tree and mountain, over which is MONTEVIDEO ; on the left arm of the cross is 1821 and on the right arm is 1822: a rosette is on each of the upper and lower arms of the cross. The reverse medallion bears the letters PETRUS I. B. I. D. for Petrus Primus Brasiliae Imperator Dedet. The upper arm bears 1817, the left 1818, the right 1819 and the lower 1820. The ribbon is dark green with a yellow stripe 5 mm. wide on each side and on the ribbon is a bar inscribed MDCCCXXII.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 268; Meili, No. 10; Cavalcanti, p. 22, No. 21; Padiglione, Part III, p. 10; Trost, p. 107.

CROSS FOR PERNAMBUCO. Founded October 20, 1824, for the soldiers who aided in suppressing the revolutionary outbreak in Pernambuco. It is a gold, silver or bronze Maltese cross, ball-tipped, 36 mm. surmounted by an imperial crown, above which is the ribbon bar. On the obverse medallion is the bust of the emperor and his title PETRUS I BRAS IMPERATOR with 18–24 on the horizontal arms and 17–9 on the vertical arms (17th September, 1824), the date of pacification. On the reverse is CONSTANCIA. The ribbon is yellow with a green band, 5 mm. wide, each side. A variation of this cross has on the reverse CONSTANCIA E BRAVURA, and is said to have been awarded for over six months service.

Meili, No. 12; Trost, p. 107; Padiglione, Part II, p. 16.

MEDAL FOR INDEPENDENCE. In Schulman's catalogue of April 10, 1911, is shown (under No. 2391) a bronze medal, 20 mm. in diameter, bearing an eight-armed, double-pointed cross, resting on a laurel wreath. In the centre medallion is the bust of the emperor facing to the left with the encircling legend INDEPENDENCIA * DO Brazil.*

MEDAL FOR BAHIA 1823. This was authorized July 2, 1825, by Pedro I for the troops taking part in the first attempt at independence and driving the Portuguese forces from the city and province of Bahia. It is an oval gold, silver or copper medal, 26 × 21 mm., with a radiant edge and surmounted by an imperial crown. On the blue-enamelled centre is a sword and oak branch and the letters P.I. surmounted by an imperial crown. Encircling this device is inscription REST A VRACAO DA BAHIA 1823. The reverse is plain and the ribbon has five equal stripes, two of yellow and three of green.

Meili, No. 11; Rosa, Leyes , p. 290; Cavalcanti, p. 23, No. 23; Sculfort, No. 1239.

MEDAL FOR PARA REVOLUTION 1837. On the abdication of Dom Pedro I in 1831, when his son Pedro II—then but five years of age—was made emperor, a regency was established, and political discord was rife throughout the empire. In 1837 Para and Rio Grande provinces were in open revolution. The medal for Para is of bronze and silver, 34 mm. with a rim of laurel leaves sur mounted by a knot of ribbon. On the obverse is the youthful head of Pedro II facing to the right, and his title PETRUS II D. G. C. IMP ET PERP BRAS DEF. 1837. On the reverse is a crowned shield bearing the arms of Brazil between coffee and tobacco branches, above which is IN HOC SIGNO VINCES.

MEDAL FOR RIO DA PRATA AND TONELERO 1851. In 1851 the Argentine dictator Rosas attempted to annex Paraguay and Uruguay to Buenos Aires, a course to which Brazil strongly objected. The troops of Uruguay and Corrientes, with those of Brazil, together with a Brazilian naval squadron completely routed the forces of the Argentine dictator. The naval medal for this event, authorized March 14, 1852, is of gold or silver, 31 mm. in diameter. It is surmounted by an imperial crown and bears on the obverse the head of the emperor facing left with D. PEDRO II IMPERADOR DO Brazil . On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is 17–12–1851 (17 December 1851) surrounded by the inscription CAMPANHA NA VAL DO RIO PRATO EC DO TONELERO *. The ribbon is light blue.

Meili, No. 115; Rosa, Monetario , No. 1051, illus.; Cavalcanti, p. 51, No. 90; Sculfort, No. 1241; Trost, p. 108; Rosa, Leyes , p. 337.

MEDAL FOR RIO DA PRATA. This was issued for similar purposes as the above; is a gold or silver medal, 31 mm., surmounted by an imperial crown with the obverse as above.

BRAZI PL. V

figure

Bahia Coimbra

figure

Tonelero Matto Grosso

On the reverse within a laurel wreath is 1851–1852 surrounded by the legend CAMPANHA NAVAL DO RIO DA PRATA. The ribbon is green with a narrow red edge.

Meili, No. 116; Rosa, Monetario, No. 1052, illus.; Cavalcanti, p. 51, No. 89; Sculfort, No. 1242.

MEDAL FOR URUGUAY 1852. Founded by decree of March 14, 1852, for the troops under General Urquiza taking part in the war with Juan Manuel Rosas (1793–1877) the dictator of Buenos Aires during 1851–1852. It is of gold, silver or bronze, 30 mm. in diameter, and surmounted by an imperial crown. On the obverse is the bust of the emperor facing to the left and his title D. PEDRO II. IMPERADOR DO Brazil . On the reverse, within a wreath is 1852 encircled by CAMPANHA DO URUGUAY . The ribbon is green edged with red. Uruguay and Argentina also awarded decorations to General Urquiza.

Meili, No. 118; Cavalcanti, No. 91; Rosa, Monetario, No. 1055.

MEDAL FOR URUGUAY & BUENOS AIRES 1852. This was awarded at the same time as the preceding medal for those taking part in the same war. The medal is of same metals as the above, similar in size and obverse, but the reverse has, within a wreath 18 3/2 52 (3rd of February, 1852) encircled by CAMPANHA DO URUGUAY E DE BUENOS AIRES.

Meili, No. 117.

MEDAL FOR COIMBRA 1864. In 1864 the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopez (1826–1870) without previous declaration of war, invaded the provinces of Brazil and Argentina and captured a vessel of the former country in the Paraguay river. Uruguay joined the invaded states under an alliance and a five year war ensued known as the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. By a decree of July 8, 1865, this medal was awarded to 120 soldiers under Colonel Porto Carriera who defended for three days the forts of Coimbra (on the Paraguay river, province of Matto Grosso) against 3,000 Paraguayans, and only surrendered when their ammunition was exhausted. The medals were oval, of silver and bronze, 35 × 23 mm., inscribed on the obverse within laurel branches VALOR E LEALDADE. On the reverse the inscription is 26, 27, 28 DE DEZEMBRO FORTE DE COIMBRA 1864. The ribbon has three equal stripes, two of red at the sides and one of black in the centre. A variant of this medal is 25 × 20 mm.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 341; Rosa, Monetario, No. 1058, illus.; Meili, No. 121; Cavalcanti, p. 52, No. 92; Sculfort, No. 1244.

MEDAL FOR URUGUAY 1865. Issued by a decree dated June 28, 1865, for the troops taking part in the war with Paraguay, and for the engagements in Uruguay. It is an oval of gold, silver or bronze, 25 × 20 mm., having on the obverse the bust of the emperor Pedro II facing to the left, and on the reverse within a laurel wreath CAMPANHA DO URUGUAY 1865. The ribbon is half red and half blue, two inches wide for officers and one inch for troops. A variant in the writer's collection which according to Meili was a trial piece, is a bronze oval 35 × 30 mm. having on the obverse the bust of Pedro II facing to the left, encircled by 2 DE JANEIRO E 20 DE FEVEREIRO* 1865* . On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is CAMPANHA DO URUGUAY .

Rosa, Monetario, No. 1061, illus.; Meili, No. 120; Cavalcanti, p. 53, No. 93.

MEDAL FOR URUGUAYANA 1865. Awarded by a decree of September 20, 1865, to the troops taking part in the battle at this village in the province of Rio Grande do Sul, on the Uruguay river on September 18, 1865, during the Paraguayan war. The medal of gold, silver or bronze, 20 mm. in diameter, has on the obverse, within a wreath of coffee and laurel branches, the word URUGUAYANA and on the reverse 18 DE SETEMBRO DE 1865. The ribbon has three equal stripes—the center, green, and those on either side, light blue.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 343; Rosa, Monetario, No. 1070, illus.; Sculfort, No. 1246; Cavalcanti, p. 53, No. 95.

BRAZI PL. VI

figure

Uruguayana Bravery (Paraguay)

figure

Riachuelo Bravery

NAVAL MEDAL FOR RIACHUELO 1865. Founded by decree of November 18, 1865, for those taking part in the naval engagement June n, 1865, at Riachuelo, on the Parana river, when the Paraguayan fleet was almost annihilated. It is of gold, silver or bronze, 26 mm. in diameter, surmounted by an imperial crown, having on the obverse, between tobacco and coffee branches the bust of the emperor facing to the left and PETRUS II. D. G. CONST IMP ET PERP BRAS DEF 1865. On the reverse between palm and laurel branches are a crossed cannon and anchor, supporting a shield inscribed II DE JUNHO DE 1865 and surrounded by the legend COMBATE NAVAL DO RIACHUELO. The ribbon is white with a green stripe one quarter inch wide on each side.

Premios Militares, II, p. 18; Rosa, Leyes , p. 346; Rosa, Monetario, No. 1064, illus.; Meili, No. 125; Cavalcanti, p. 54, No. 97; Trost, p. 108.

MEDAL FOR MATTO GROSSO. Founded by decrees of August 7, 1867, and June 6, 1868, for the troops taking part in the Paraguayan war in the province of Matto Grosso. It is an oval, 25 × 20 mm., of gold, silver or bronze, having on the obverse the head of Dom Pedro II facing left and on the reverse a laurel wreath, the words CONSTANCIA E VALOR above in small type and below MATTO-GROSSO 1867. The ribbon is of four equal stripes light blue, green, yellow, and light blue.

Meili, No. 124; Cavalcanti, p. 57, No. 100; Sculfort, No. 1253.

MEDAL OF BRAVERY, PARAGUAY 1867. Awarded by a decree of May 1, 1867, to the Brazilian troops, allied with those of Argentina and Uruguay in the war with Paraguay. It is a silver or bronze oval, 25 × 20 mm., having on the obverse the head of Dom Pedro II to left between two laurel branches and on the reverse, within a laurel wreath AOS MAIS BRAVOS surrounded by the legend CAMPANHA DO PARAGUAY 1867. The ribbon is red, edged with green stripes one quarter inch wide.

Rosa, Monetario , No. 1079, illus.; Meili, No. 126; Cavalcanti, p. 56, No. 99; Sculfort, No. 1255; Premios Militares, II, p. 82.

MEDAL OF BRAVERY 1868. By a decree of March 28 and April 5, 1868 this was awarded to the men of the allied army and navy who had distinguished themselves in the Paraguayan war of 1865-1870. It is an oval silver or bronze medal, 32 × 25 mm., having on the obverse centre a trophy of arms and flags encircled by EXERCITO EM OPERACOES CONTRA O GOVERNO DO PARAGUAY * . On the reverse centre is RECOMPENSA A BRAVURA MILITAR encircled by DECRETO DE 28 DE MARCO DE 1868. The ribbon has three equal stripes, the center of red and the side stripes of dark green. Bars bear the dates of the several engagements.

Premios Militares, II, p. 75; Rosa, Leyes , p. 349; Sculfort, No. 1256; Meili, No. 128; Cavalcanti, p. 62, No. 105.

NAVAL MEDAL FOR HUMAITA. Authorized by decree of March 14, 1868, and awarded to the marines of the fleet, who on February 19, 1868, forced the passage of Humaita in southern Paraguay, at the junction of the Uruguay and Paraguay rivers, after a thirteen months siege of the fortress. It is a round silver or bronze medal, 35 mm., surmounted by a bar bearing an imperial crown. The obverse depicts vessels bombarding a fort, above is the legend A ESQUADRA BRAZILIERA FORCA O PASSO DE HUMAITA , and in the exergue is XIX DE FEVEREIRO DE MDCCCLXVIII. On the reverse within a laurel wreath is AOS DA PASSAGEM DE HUMAITA . The ribbon is red with a light blue stripe one third of its width at the centre.

Rosa, Monetario , No. 1081, illus.; Meili, No. 127; Cavalcanti, p. 60, No. 104; Sculfort, No. 1257.

CROSS FOR PARAGUAY 1868–1870. Authorized by a decree of August 20, 1870, for the troops and marines serving throughout this campaign. It is a double-pointed, gold, silver or bronze cross, 25 mm., with a laurel-wreath medallion in the centre inscribed CAMPANHO DO PARAGUAY; on the reverse is 18 6/8 70. The ribbon has five equal stripes, green, white, light blue (centre) white and yellow. Bars were worn on the ribbon, with a medallion centre bearing one of the figures, I, 2, 3, 4 or 5 to denote the number of years of service.

BRAZI PL. VII

figure

Humaita State of Para, Service

figure

Cross for Paraguay War Cross 1917–18

Premios Militares, II, p. 97; Rosa, Monetario , No. 1086, illus.; Meili, No. 129; Cavalcanti, p. 63, No. 106; Sculfort, No. 1258.

STATE OF PARA SERVICE MEDALS. No authority has been found for three medals in the collection of The American Numismatic Society; gilt, silver and bronze, 25 mm. in diameter. On the obverse are the arms of the state on a shield within laurel branches, with a condor and sunburst above, and with a ribbon scroll on the right hand side inscribed SUS / LEGE / PROGREDIA / DO / ESTADO / DO / PARA. On the reverse is BRIGADA MILITAR * DO ESTADO DO PARA. The ribbon has three equal stripes, red, white, red, with narrow white edges. On the ribbon are bars inscribed 10 ANNOS, 20 ANNOS, 30 ANNOS, denoting the length of service.

WAR CROSS 1917-1918. At the close of the World War, Brazil authorized a decoration for those in the service of the country during the war. It is a bronze cross with four curvilinear arms, having on the upper arm of the cross VIII and on the round centre medallion the constellation of the Southern Cross of five stars, encircled by a band inscribed PELA JUSTICA E PELA CIVILISACAD. and on the reverse medallion 1917–1918 encircled by a band inscribed GRANDEGUERRA BRASIL . The ribbon is orange, with a narrow black stripe in the centre and a similar black stripe on each side.

MEDAL for LONG SERVICE. This was created by decree of November 15, 1901, for officers and soldiers who have served with merit and loyalty. For thirty years service it is of gold, for twenty years of silver, and bronze for ten years. The medal, in the form of a star, has on the obverse the arms of Brazil between branches of coffee and tobacco plants and on the reverse centre the date of its creation—15 DE NOVEMBRO DE 1901. The ribbon has three equal stripes, green, yellow and green, and is edged with yellow.

End Notes

1 Pedro II married September 4, 1845, Princess Theresa-Christina-Marie de Bourbon, daughter of Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies. Their daughter, Isabella-Christina-Gonzaga, was married at Rio de Janeiro, October 15, 1864, to Louis-Gaston d'Orleans, Count d'Eu, son of the Ducde Nemours, a Marshal in the Brazilian army. Francois d'Orleans, Prince of Joinville, and uncle of the Count d'Eu, married at Rio Janeiro, May 1, 1843, Francoise-Caroline-Gonzaga, daughter of Pedro I, and sister of Pedro II.

Chile

This section of South America was invaded in 1535 by Diego de Almagro (1475–1538), one of the Spanish conquerors of Peru, and was first settled in 1541 by Pedro de Valdivia (1498–1554). The Spanish were in continuous control for almost three hundred years. Early in 1817, General José de San Martin 1 of La Plata, left Argentina to aid the Chileans in their war for independence. After the battle of Chacabuco, on February 12th of that year, San Martin was pressed into the service of Chile to take supreme command of their army. In 1820 he went to the assistance of Peru, and aided by Lord Cochrane, captured Lima and drove the Spanish from the coast. The independence of Chile was declared February 12,1818. Chile acquired Atacama from Peru, while Tacna and Arica are still the subject of negotiations with Peru as to ownership under the conditions of the treaty which closed the war of 1879–1883. The word Chile is probably derived from the Quichua Indian word tchili, meaning snow.

SPANISH MEDAL FOR FIDELITY. This is classed under Chile by some writers, although it might apply to any of the Spanish-American colonies, as it appears to have been awarded to the troops who upheld the cause of Spain during the period in which several of the South American countries were struggling for their independence. It was issued in gold or silver, 39 mm. in diameter, bearing on the obverse the laureated bust of the king and his title FERNANDO VII REY DE ESPANA Y DE LAS YNDIAS, and on the reverse, within palm and laurel branches EN PREMIO DE LA FIDELIDAD. An oval bronze medal, 47 × 41 mm. was also issued, with a uniformed bust of the king facing to the right and with the same inscriptions. This was made in Mexico and designed by F. Gordillo.

Salbach, Nos. 173, 174; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 78, Pl. Ill, No. 5; Essling, No. 2411.

MEDAL FOR CHACABUCO 1817. On February 12, 1817, a patriot force led by an Argentine officer, José de San Martin, and General Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile, having left Mendoza and crossed the Andes Mountains into Chile, met and overwhelmed the royalist forces in a pass of the Andes at Chacabuco. The Spanish forces were led by Marco del Pont and Maroto. The battle was won by a bayonet charge led by O'Higgins himself. This engagement drove the Spanish out of Santiago and resulted in the independence of Chile. O'-Higgins became Director General, an office which he held until 1823.

By a decree of April 15, 1817, this medal was authorized for all the troops under San Martin and O'Higgins: hence it is also classed with those of Argentina. There were three varieties of the medal: two were pentagonal and made in London; an oval medal was made in Chile. One pentagonal medal of gold or silver, surmounted by a radiant sun with a wide ribbon bar-loop, has on the obverse center the arms of Argentina within laurel branches, below which is the date, 12 DE FEBo. DE 1817. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is: LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES DE LOS ANDES, and around the edge is: Chile REST A URADO POR EL V ALOR EN CHACABUCO . The other pentagonal medal with a ring for the ribbon, has the same obverse without the date, with the encircling motto of the reverse reading: Chile REST A URo P. EL V ALOR EN CHACAB co .

The oval medal, 41 × 34 mm., of gold or silver, made in Chile, has on the obverse, within a small oval, the arms of Argentina, superimposed on mountain peaks and a radiant sun, encircled by two laurel branches. On the reverse center, within laurel branches is: LA PATRIA A LOS VENCED. DE LOS ANDES, encircled by: Chile REST A URADO POR EL VALOR EN CHACABUCO .

Chile PL. I

figure

Chacabuco

In all cases the ribbon is three equal stripes of white, light blue and gold.

Premios Militares, I, p. 268; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 74; Medina , Medallas Chilenas, p. 88, Pl. IV, No. 2; Rosa, Monetario , p. 72 illus.; Fonrobert, No. 9978.

CROSS OF THE LEGION OF MERIT. This was instituted by Bernard O'Higgins, June I, 1817. It is of three grades, Grand Officials, Officials and Legionnaires, and was awarded to the conquerors of Chacabuco. It was awarded to the Argentine officers also, and by an Argentine decree of December 9, 1817, its acceptance was permitted.

The decoration is a silver star composed of eight groups of rays, with a laurel wreath superimposed. The whole is suspended by a ring from a knot of ribbon (metal). On the obverse medallion is a column monument encircled by a band inscribed LEGION DE MERITO DE Chile , and on the upper segment of the wreath, a ribbon inscribed VENC. EN. CHA. (Conquerors of Chacabuco).

On the reverse medallion are eight mountain peaks, the central one being a volcano in eruption. The whole is encircled by a band inscribed: HONOR Y PREMIO AL PATRIOTISMO. On the ribbon segment above is inscribed: O'HIG'S. INST. The ribbon is half white and half red.

Medina states these were made in Santiago and that another medal of gold and silver was made in Paris and awarded to those not at Chacabuco. This was a red-enamelled five-pointed star, with white-enamelled ball tips and gilt rays in the angles; the whole superimposed on a green laurel wreath.

Chile PL. II

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Legion of Merit

The medallions were the same on both sides, but the inscription on the reverse upper ribbon band reads OHIG. S. YNST, and under the obverse band there is an oval bearing in gold letters H OY. The ribbon is half white and half red. These were made in two sizes, 44 mm. and 36 mm. For further details, see Medina's account.

Premios Militares, III, p. 8; Rosa, Leyes , pp. 48, 205–10; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 92, Pl. IV, No. 10–12.

ORDER OF MERIT. The present Order of Merit was established in 1910. It is a white-enamelled five-pointed gold star, ball-tipped, superimposed on a gold laurel wreath and with a condor with spread wings above. On the obverse medallion of gold is a female head to the right, encircled by a band inscribed REPUBLICA DE Chile. On the reverse medallion is a laurel branch encircled by a band inscribed AL MERITO. The ribbon displays the national colours, three equal stripes of blue, red and white. The first class decoration of gold is suspended around the neck and the other classes are worn on the left breast.

Guadagnini, p. 180.

MEDAL FOR MAYPO, or Maipo, 1818. At this time the Chilean forces were headed by the Dictator Bernardo O'Higgins, and the final victory over the Spaniards was at the battle of Maipo on April 5, 1818, on the plains by the river of the same name, near Santiago.

Chile PL. III

figure

Order of Merit

Five thousand Chilean and Argentine patriots under San Martin, won the victory over 5,500 Spaniards led by General Manuel Osori (1770–1830). Each side lost over 1,000 men. Osori escaped, but 2,200 men and the principal Spanish officers surrendered.

The medal authorized May 10, 1818, is an oval of gold, silver or copper, 30 × 28 mm., having on the obverse a five-pointed star within laurel branches, encircled by CHILE RECONOCIDO AL VALOR Y CONSTANCIA, and on the reverse, within laurel branches, is DE LOS VENCEDORES DE MAIPO AB 5 1818. A variant of gold has the inscription, LA PATRIA A LOS VENCEDORES DE MAYPO ABRIL 5 DE 1818.* A copper star, octagonal (with curved sides) and ball-tipped, 29 mm., was also issued, having on the obverse a five-pointed star within a laurel wreath and encircled by the same inscription as the silver medal. The reverse is plain. The ribbon is bright red. This decoration was also awarded to the Argentine troops.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 111, Pl. IV, No. 3.

* Rosa, Monetario , p. 329, illus.; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 111, Pl. IV, No. 4; Premios Militares, I, p. 292; Rosa, Leyes , p. 211.

MEDAL FOR VALDIVIA 1820. Valdivia is a city in the province of the same name, in southern Chile.

Chile PL. IV

figure

Maypo Valdiva

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Valdivia Liberators of Peru 1820

The city was founded in 1552, and named for Pedro de Valdivia, a Spanish soldier and the conqueror of this section of the country. It was occupied by the Spaniards until February, 1820, when it was captured by the patriots under Cochrane after a three day fight. The decoration is of gold and of two sizes in silver. The gold form has a six-pointed star with rays in the angles, surrounded by a green-enamelled wreath of laurel, the whole suspended from a ribbon bar in the form of an oval laurel wreath. The star has a white-enamelled rim bearing the inscription RESTAURADOR DE LA PATRIA. The field is divided horizontally— above are the remains of a ruined fort, below quills and an ink well on a book at the left and a mailed arm holding a sword upright to the right. The silver form of this medal is of two sizes (45 and 40 mm.) at the greatest width. The inscription and the arms on the star are the same but there is no enamelling of the silver star. It has ball tips, and the rays completely fill the angles between the points. From Medina's illustration it seems possible that the silver medals may have been issued in circular form without having been cut out just as appears to have been the practice in Bolivia, compare page 42.

Another medal concerned with this victory is described by Medina. It was created on April 24th, 1821, and is of silver and 39 mm. in diameter. On the obverse within a laurel wreath is a hexagonal ball-tipped star. In the centre is a fort with flag flying, and around this is LA PAT A LOS HERO Y RESTAURo DE VALDo On the reverse, within a circle, is EL DIA 2 FEBo DE 1820. The ribbon is of white, blue and red in equal stripes.

Salbach, No. 697–698; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 116, Pl. IV, Nos. 5, 6; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 92, illus.

MEDAL FOR LIBERATORS OF Peru, 1820. General San Martin, by a decree of August 15, 1821, awarded this medal to men of the Chilean army and navy who assisted in the liberation of Peru. It is an oval of gold or silver, 30 × 25 mm., with laurel branches on the ribbon ring. On the center, superimposed on flags and trophies with sun above, is a shield inscribed YO FUI DEL EXTO LIBERTADOR for the army. For the navy the inscription is YO FUI DE LA ESQUADRA LIBERTA DORA. Around this is a laurel wreath. A gold variant of this is edged with laurel and has an oval laurel wreath above for ribbon. On the shield is YO FUI DEL EJERtO. LIBERTADOR.

Although Rosa states the reverse is plain, he quotes Medina as possessing two variants shown on Plate IV, Nos. 8 and 9 of Medallas Chileanas. The first has on the obverse, in addition to above inscription, ANO DE 1821, and the second a reverse with radiant sun and with a broad ribbon bar.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 228; Premios Militares, III, p. 49; Rosa, Monetario , p. 443, illus.; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 129, Pl. IV, Nos. 8, 9.

MEDAL FOR PUNTA DEL MEDANO. This was authorized February 28, 1822, for those suppressing an uprising at Punta del Medano on August 31, 1821. It is a gold or silver medal, 35 mm., having on the obverse within a laurel wreath, mountain peaks from the centre of which is a liberty cap on a staff (coat-of-arms of Mendoza). On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is ANIQUILÈ LA ANARQUIA AGTO 31 DE 1821. Medina describes a variant with the inscription PUNTA DEL MEDANO MENDOZA AGOSTA 1821, which he declares is not authentic.

Premios Militares, III, p. 152; Rosa, Med. Arg., p. 95; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 120, No. 37.

MEDAL FOR CHILOE 1826. After the resignation of O'Higgins in 1823, there was an uprising of the royalists and Indians of this island province in the South. For the troops taking part in suppressing the insurrection this medal was authorized by a decree of February 18, 1826. On the obverse is, COLMO SU GLORIA EN CHILOE LA MILITAR DE Chile. The reverse is inscribed, CAMPANA DE 1826. For the navy the obverse inscription is, LA MARINA DE Chile .

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 166.

MEDAL FOR CALLAO 1826. This was awarded the Chilean troops who assisted in capturing from the Spaniards, the port of Callao in Peru. It is an oval gold or silver medal, 30 × 25 mm., edged with a laurel wreath and suspended from a knot of ribbon in metal.

Chile PL. V

figure

Punta del Medano

Baron 1837

Callao 1826

In the center is a fort with a flag flying, and in the upper field is, TOMA DEL CALLAO EN 1826. A variant of this medal has only a tower and the same inscription.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 131, Pl. IV, No. 7; Salbach, Nos. 405, 984.

STAR FOR ANCACHS 1839. Ancachs is a maritime province of Peru, north of Lima, corresponding to the colonial intendencia of Huaylas. One of the engagements during the three years war to prevent the confederation of Peru and Bolivia, took place at this point, and Chile awarded this decoration to members of her army, by a decree of March 28, 1839.

It is an eight-pointed star of gold (36 mm.), or silver (43 mm.). This star is composed of rays on which there is a green laurel wreath in high relief and within it a red medallion with a white-enamelled star in the center, encircled by a white-enamelled band inscribed, AL VALOR INVENCIBLE EN ANCACHS . On the reverse medallion is 20 ENERO DE 1839. A green laurel wreath forms the ring for the ribbon, which has three equal stripes—red at the sides separated by white.

Medina describes a gold star of seven points, 36 mm. in diameter, having only ANCACH on the obverse band, and without the green-enamelled wreath.

Chile PL. VI

figure

Ancachs Yungay

In the Salbach catalogue (No. 692) Schulman describes a gold star of eight points of rays, 18 mm. in diameter, inscribed EL VALOR EN ANCACH .

In the writer's collection is a silver star, 43 mm. in diameter, with the obverse inscription, as first described, on a silver band and with a plain round ring for the ribbon.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 143; Salbach, No. 416.

MEDAL OF MONTEAGUDO. By a decree of September 6, 1836, this medal was awarded to the men of the frigate "Monteagudo." On the obverse within laurel branches is FIEL A LA PATRIA EN Io DE AGOSTO DE 1836. On the reverse is A LA LEALTAD MANIFESTADA EN LA FRIGATA MONTEAGUDO .

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 137.

CROSS FOR BARON 1837. In 1836 Chile declared a war on Bolivia and Peru, in an effort to prevent the confederation of the two countries. By a decree of June 16, 1837, this decoration of gold or silver was instituted. The illustrations are taken from the silver cross; there are slight differences in details—the points of the star touch the rim on the gold cross, and do not have rays in the angles. It is a five-pointed star, each point terminating in a tiny rosette; the large circular medallion bears a shield on which is another fivepointed star (the arms of Chile); encircling this is A LOS FIELES DEFENSORES D LA LEI. The reverse (silver) medallion bears a five-pointed star with five rays over the right side of each element of the star, encircled by a band with the inscription ALTURAS DEL BARON JUN. 6 DE 1837.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 138, PI. V, No. 2; Salbach, Nos. 418, 419; Rosa, Leyes , p. 317.

CROSS FOR YUNGAY, 1839. During the war against the Peruvian-Bolivian confederation, a battle was fought at the gold-mining village of Yungay in the province of Ancachs, Peru. The Chilean troops defeated the Peruvians led by Santa Cruz. By decree of March 25, 1839, this decoration was awarded. It is a white-enamelled gold (or silver) five-pointed star with ball tips, and with rays in the angles, with a green-enamelled wreath for the ribbon bar. On the gilt medallion is a city and mountain with a laurel wreath above; in the exergue is PAN DE AZVCAR. An encircling red band bears the inscription EL GOBo DE Chile A LOS VENC8. EN YUNGAY . (The Government of Chile to the conquerors of Yungay). On the reverse is EL 20 DE ENERO DE 1839. The ribbon is blue, red and white, the national colours of Chile. The silver star is without the suspension wreath. This cross like the one for Casma, which differs only in the center medallion, is made in two parts. The medallion was struck from dies at the mint and to this the enclosing star with its rays, a separate unit, was soldered.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 141, Pl. V, No. 3; Rosa, Leyes , p. 326; Sculfort, Nos. 1265, 1266; Salbach, No. 414.

MEDAL FOR YUNGAY, 1839. This is an oval silver medal, 36 × 30 mm., authorized December 21, 1839, bearing on the obverse within two laurel branches a shield surmounted by a radiant five-pointed star and inscribed YO FUI DEL EJERCITO RESTAURAD'R. On the reverse, within laurel branches is VENCEDOR EN YUNGAY EL 20 DE ENERO DE 1839. The ribbon displays the national colours.

Salbach, No. 700; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 141, Pl. V, No. 4; Rosa, Leyes , p. 327.

CROSS FOR CASMA, 1839. By decree of March 28, 1839, this was awarded for the naval combat at Casma. It is similar to the Cross for Yungay and bears on the white-enamelled center a naval crown above two laurel branches, around which is a red-enamelled band inscriped EL GOBo. DE Chile A LOS VENC8. EN CASMA . On the reverse medallion is EL 13 DE ENERO DE 1839. The similarity of this decoration to that for Yungay has been explained under the entry for that cross.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 140, No. 49; Salbach, No. 417; Rosa, Leyes , p. 324.

Chile PL. VII

figure

Casma

Abtao

Papudo

MEDAL FOR CIVIL WAR, 1851. Awarded by decree of April 23, 1851, to the National Guard of Santiago for service during the civil wars of 1851. It is an oval, gold or silver-gilt medal, 35 × 28 mm., showing on the obverse an open book, a radiant five-pointed star above, and the inscription DEFENSOR DE LAS LEYES . On the reverse, within laurel branches, is 20 DE ABRIL DE 1851. The ribbon is red, blue and white of equal stripes.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 146, No. 54; Salbach, Nos. 411, 412; Rosa, Leyes , p. 333.

MEDAL FOR PAPUDO 1865. In 1865, Chile became involved in a war with Spain, owing to her sympathy for Peru, and many Chilean ports were blockaded. This decoration, awarded by Bolivia, is of gold or silver, 38 mm., being a six-armed Maltese cross, ball-tipped, superimposed on a laurel wreath. In the round center medallion is the bust of the Bolivian President Melgarejo to left, encircled by BOLIVIA A LOS VALI8 DE LA ESMERALDA . On the reverse are the arms of Bolivia, encircled by, PAPUDO NOVIEMBRE 26 DE 1865. On the wreath above the medal is a band inscribed, VIVE Chile . In Schulman's catalogue of the Eyndhoven Sale (March 17, 1924) he illustrates under No. 2461 a silver medal, 40 mm. in diameter, showing both sides, like those described above, save that they are not cut out to form a cross.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 148, Pl. V, No. 5; Fonrobert, No. 9981.

CROSS FOR ABTAO 1866. Abtao Cove is near Antofagasta, then part of Bolivia. The decoration for this engagement with the Spanish forces, is a gold or silver cross of six double-pointed arms, enamelled white and with gold rays in the angles. On a white medallion is, ABTAO 7 DE FEBRERO 1866, and on the reverse is, LA PATRIA RECONCIDA. A gold ribbon bar is attached for the red and white ribbon.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 149; Fonrobert, No. 9976; Sculfort, No. 1333; Salbach, No. 686.

MEDAL FOR ABTAO. This is an oval gold or silver medal, 32 × 26 mm. On the obverse is a shield superimposed on the flags of Bolivia, Chile and Peru, and trophies of war. The shield is inscribed, A LOS VENCEDORES EN ABTAO . On the reverse is, 7 DE FEBRERO 1866, 57 CANONES CONTRA 92.

By a law of August 29, 1867, the Congress of Chile authorized the officers to accept "la medalla de honor con que les ha distinguido el Gobierno de Bolivia."

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 148, PI.l V, No. 6.

NAVAL MEDAL FOR IQUIQUE. In 1879, the Bolivian authorities seized some property of the Chilean Nitrate Company in Antofagasta, then a part of the Bolivian province of Atacama. This brought about a war in which Peru sided with Bolivia. It was known as the War of the Pacific, or the Nitrate War. At its close Chile took possession of all the Bolivian sea-coast (the provinces of Tacna and Arica) and the Peruvian province of Tarapaca.

The first naval engagement took place at Iquique, in Peru, when the Chilean ships, "Esmeralda" and "Covadonga" essayed to blockade that port. The Peruvian vessels, "Huascar" and "Independencia" attempted relief. The "Esmeralda" was sunk by the "Huascar" and the "Independencia" ran ashore while pursuing the "Covadonga." Later the "Huascar" was captured by the "Covadonga" (October 8, 1879) near Puerto Lamar, Antofagasta, and the Peruvian navy ceased to exist.

To reward their seamen, Chile, by a decree of September 12, 1879, authorized this medal of gold or silver, in the form of a shield framed in green-enamelled laurel branches, bearing on the obverse a vessel, the whole being superimposed on an anchor and flanked by flags.

On the reverse is, IQUIQUE 21 DE MA YO DE 1879. The ribbon is dark blue, carrying a bar inscribed COVADONGA, the name of the ship which destroyed the Peruvian "Huascar"; and ARICA for a later engagement.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 150, Pl. IX, No. 5; Sculfort, No. 1264; Salbach, No. 431.

MEDAL FOR IQUIQUE. Another medal was issued for this engagement—a circular silver medal (24 mm.), having on the obverse center two naval vessels in combat—the "Esmeralda" and the "Huascar."

Chile PL. VIII

figure

Iquique Cross for 1879–1880

figure

Tarapaca Lima

The legend is EL PUEBLO DE SANTIAGO A LOS HEROES DE IQUIQUE *; on the reverse within laurel branches is the date, 21 DE MAYO DE 1879. This was given by the city of Santiago.1

Still another medal of bronze-gilt, 28 mm., was awarded, having on the obverse the two ships in combat, and above on a scroll, IQUIQUE , and below, MAYO 21 DE 1879. On the reverse is, HOMENAJE A LOS HEROES.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 151, PI. IX, Nos. 2 and 3; Salbach, No. 432.

MEDAL FOR ANGAMOS. This was of white metal, 36 mm.; it bears on the obverse the bust of General Manuel Baquedano within laurel branches, encircled by * AL EJERCITO Y ESCUADRA EL PUEBLO CHILENO *. The medal is signed "V. Prinz." On the reverse, a scene of the naval combat is encircled by the legend * RECUERDO DE LA CAMPANA 1879–80–1881 *.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 152, PI. IX, No. 9.

CROSS FOR TARAPACA 1879. Awarded for services in the first land battle near Pisagua, Tarapaca, Peru, which occurred November 27, 1879. The decoration is a gold star of six double-pointed arms with rays in the angles, having on the obverse medallion of gold the word, TARAPACA, and on the reverse medallion, 27 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1879. The ribbon is red with a white stripe in the center.

CROSS FOR 1879–1880. This was given by decree of September 1, 1880, for services in the various engagements during the War of the Pacific. For officers it is a gold, white-enamelled ball-tipped star of five points with rays in the angles and suspended from a helmet and flags, 40 mm. In the center medallion is the head of Athena, to right, on a red-enamelled field, around which is a blue band inscribed in letters of gold, CAMPANA A BOLIVIA I EL Peru. On a red band encircling the reverse blue center is DE 14 DE FEBRERO DE 1879 A 7 DE JUNIO DE 1880. The ribbon is red, blue and white. Bars were attached to the ribbon for the several engagements, Arica, Tacna, Los Angeles, Tarapaca, San Francisco, Pisagua, Chorillos, Angamos, Mirqflores, Chipana, Antofagasta, Sorpresa de Iquique, Noviembre–19–1879, Mayo–26–1880, Junio–7–1880.

The silver cross for junior officers, troops, etc., (not illustrated) is similar to above but without the helmet and flags above and with the arms of the cross decorated with scales. The ribbon is red. The same bars were carried on the ribbon.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 152; Rosa, Monetario, p. 332; Sculfort, No. 1269; Salbach, Nos. 422–423.

CROSS FOR CAMPAIGN OF LIMA. The Lima campaign started in November 1880, under the leadership of General Baquedano; by January 18, 1881, Lima and Callao had surrendered. The cross was created by a law of January 14, 1882. The officer's cross of gold, 44 mm., is white-enamelled, of five arms, double-pointed and ball-tipped, with three green laurel leaves in the angles, 43 mm. On the obverse gold (or silver) medallion is a five-pointed, silver star encircled by a blue band inscribed, CAMPANA DE LIMA 1881. The reverse is similar save the inscription, which is REPUBLIC A DE Chile. The ribbon is red with a wide white band in the center. The cross for the junior officers is silver gilt. The cross for the soldiers is all silver or bronze with arms decorated with scales; the center of the medallion is gilt and the band is blue, as is also the suspension ribbon. Bars are attached for the several engagements, as follows: San Francisco (Nov. 19–1880), Tarapaca (Nov. 27–1880) in the Tacna campaign; Chorillos (Jan. 13–1881), Miraflores (Jan. 15–1881), and Angamos, all in the Lima sector.

Salbach, No. 685; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 154, PI. X, No. 2; Rosa, Monetario, p. 335, illus.; Sculfort, Nos. 1271, 1272, 1273.

End Notes

1 MEDAL FOR IQUIQUE. No authority has been found for the silver medal 33 mm. in diameter, of octagonal form with concave edges, bearing on the obverse the Star of Chile on which is a fireman's (?) casque or helmet. This is encircled by COMPANIA DE BOM-BEROS SARJENTO CLDEA * IQUIQUE *. On the reverse, within laurel branches is JUSTICIA/AL/MERITO. The ribbon is light blue.

Chile PL. IX

figure

Valparaiso Aconcagua

figure

Huamachuco German Instructors

MEDAL OF VALPARAISO. This was given by the city of Valparaiso to its troops serving in the war with Peru and Bolivia in 1879–1881. It is a gold or silver medal, 30 mm., framed in laurel leaves and having a condor with spread wings as the suspension device. Within the wreath is a blue-enamelled band inscribed VALPARAISO A SUS VALIENTES, encircling the arms of that city. On a background of rays is an anchor surmounted by a crown formed of ships' sails and on the anchor is a shield bearing a two-funnelled ship and with a star above. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath, are three stars and the inscription, BATALLON ClVICO, and below, DE ARTILLERIA NAVAL. Encircling this device is CAMPANA CONTRA EL Peru Y BOLIVIA 1879–1881.

Variations of this medal for the several contingents are inscribed on the reverse center: BATALLONO VALPARAISO, or, REJIMENTO VALPARAISO. The ribbon is half red and half blue and bars were issued for the engagements in which the bearer served, such as Callao, Chorillos , etc.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 158, Pl. XI, No. 2; Rosa, Monetario , pp. 333–334, illus.; Salbach, Nos. 424–425; Sculfort, No. 1268.

CROSS FOR HUAMACHUCO 1883. After the fall of Lima in January, 1881, the inhabitants of the country districts refused to surrender and continued to be troublesome. An engagement was fought at Huamachuco in the coastal province of Liberdad (Peru), for which this decoration was awarded in gold or silver, by a law of December 27, 1883. It is a Maltese cross, enamelled red, each arm terminating in three points. On the obverse is a five-pointed star encircled by a red band inscribed in gold, HVAMACHVCO *JVLIO 10 1883 *. On the reverse, at the center, are three mountains in gold. The ribbon has alternating narrow stripes of red and white—eight in all.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 155, PI. X, No. 3; Rosa, Monetario , p. 336, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 363; Salbach, No. 420.

MEDAL FOR MIRAFLORES. This was given by the city of Quillota (one of the oldest cities of Chile). It is of white metal, 24 mm., having on the obverse * QUILLOTA A SUS HI JOS *, and on the reverse, within laurel branches, MIRAFLORES ENERO 15 1881.

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 158, PI. X, No. 4.

MEDAL FOR BATTALION OF ACONCAGUA. A silver medal, 24 mm., having on the obverse a shield bearing the arms of Chile, surmounted by three plumes and superimposed on two crossed flags around which is * AL BATALLON ACONCAGUA 1884*. On. the reverse, within laurel branches is LOS ACONCAGUINOS RESIDENTES EN SANTIAGO .

Medina, Medallas Chilenas, p. 158, PI. X, No. 5.

MEDAL FOR GERMAN INSTRUCTORS 1897. This is a cross of four curved arms, 32 mm., in diameter, having on the obverse center a five-pointed star within a laurel wreath, and on the cross arms, REPUBLICA DE Chile, a tower, a gun carriage and 1897. On the reverse center, the arms of Chile, and on the arms of the cross, EL MINISTERIO DE GUERRA A LOS IN-STRUCTORES ALEMANES. A variant in gold of which evidently one only was awarded, bears on the reverse, EL MINISTERIO DE GUERRA AL INSTRUCTOR V. LINDHOLM. From the appearance of these pieces one is inclined to believe they were of German make, as they differ so materially from the usual South American medal.

Salbach, Nos. 438–439.

End Notes

1 José de San Martin was born February 25, 1778, at Yapeyú, on the Uruguay River. He was educated in Spain and became a lieutenant-colonel in the army of that country. In 1811 he returned to Buenos Aires and entered the army in the cause of independence. After ably assisting the Chileans and Peruvians in driving the Spaniards from their territories, he returned to Europe in 1822, and lived in seclusion near Paris. He died at Boulogne, August 17, 1850.

COLOMBIA

The Spaniards discovered this region in the 15th century and soon thereafter commenced its settlement. Various adventurers assumed control over sections of the country. In 1514 these districts were united into the province of Tierra-Firma. In 1564 the Spanish monarch, Philip II (1556-1598) styled it New Granada, which name was continued until the overthrow of Spanish rule in the early part of the 19th century. Included in this title was the present territory of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Under the leadership of Simon Bolivar 1 after declaring their independence in 1819, the three sections were united as the Republic of Colombia. Venezuela withdrew in 1829 and Ecuador in 1830, and soon after the Republic of New Granada was established. Civil wars were frequent among the various departments but these terminated in 1861, when at the Congress of Bogata the United States of Colombia was established. In 1886 the Republic of Colombia was formed. Panama seceded in 1903 and declared itself free and independent.

The history of Colombia is linked up with that of Venezuela and Ecuador, and with the viceroyalty of Peru, so decorations and war medals issued prior to 1831 are seldom to be distinguished. Likewise, several of the medals attributed to Peru may also be classed with those of Colombia; but these have been treated under the respective countries and will be found elsewhere.

The Cross for Junin and the Medal for Junin will be found described under those of Peru, although the Congress of Colombia decreed on February II, 1825, that special honours and insignia be accorded to Bolivar and to Sucre, and awarded similar pieces to those of Peru. At the same time decorations were awarded to the troops from Colombia taking part in the victory at Junin in August, 1824. These are described under Peru.

Filatel. Argen ., Aug. 1926, p. 587.

CROSS FOR CARTAGENA 1814. This was created April 1, 1816, by the king of Spain for the men of the army and navy who took part in the seige of Cartagena in 1814. It was of gold for the officers and silver for the men, and is a green-enamelled cross with triple-pointed arms, ball-tipped at the centre points. On the obverse medallion is a gold head of the king, encircled by a white band inscribed A SU REY FERNANDO CONSTANCIA Y FIDELIDAD, and on the reverse white medallion is VENCEDORES DE CARTAGENA DE INDIAS. The ribbon is of three equal stripes—red in the centre and green on the sides. Rosa in his Numismatica; Independencia de America, 1904, page 50, gives the obverse inscription as PREMIO A LA FIDELIDAD. This was, no doubt, on a cross made in South America whereas that given on page 83 of Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 31 was of Spanish production.

Gillingham, Spanish Orders, p. 83.

CROSS FOR BOYACA 1819. The Popular Assembly, reunited in Bogota September 9, 1819, authorized this decoration for the Colombian troops who fought against the Spanish royalist forces, led by General Barreiro, August 7, 1819, and gained the independence of the country. General San Martin said that the battle of Boyaca was the Waterloo of the Spanish forces in Colombia, and resulted in the freedom of New Granada and Venezuela from Spanish domination. The gold cross for the officers (silver for troops), was worn with a green ribbon.1

MEDAL FOR BOYACA 1819. Alejander Rosa gives this as an oval silver or bronze medal, 25 × 20 mm., having on the obverse a Maltese cross encircled by a laurel wreath, above which is BOYACA with two crossed palm branches below, and a plain reverse.

MEDAL OF BOLIVAR. On the obverse the bust of Bolivar is encircled by the inscription COLOMBIA A SU LIBERTADOR and on the reverse SIMON BOLIVAR ILUSTRE GENERAL SABIO LEGISLADOR CUIDADANO INTEGRO LIBERTADOR Y PADRE DE LA PATRIA. Still another decoration is given without date of authorization—a decoration of brilliants in the form of a sun, inscribed EL PROTECTOR DEL Peru AL LIBERT ADOR DE COLOMBIA .1

In Glendining's Catalogue, June 9, 1913, No. 759 a gold medal, 35 mm. in diameter, was described and illustrated. It bore on the obverse the uniformed bust of the Liberator facing to the right and SIMON BOLIVAR . On the reverse is CREATOR REPUBLICAE COLOMBIAE 1820.

MEDAL FOR CUNDINAMARCA 1820. This was authorized by a decree of January 6, 1820, of gold for generals and of silver for junior officers and the troops. It is 25 mm. in diameter bearing on the obverse, within a laurel wreath, the inscription in relief LIBERTADOR DE CUNDINAMARCA . The reverse is plain and the ribbon is bright red. Rosa describes a variant of the same size but with engraved inscription and without the wreath.

Rosa, Numismatica, pp. 43–45, illus.

MEDAL FOR CARABOBO 1821. This battle occurred on June 24, 1821, and on the following July 20th, this medal was authorized in gold and silver. It is an oval shield to be sewn on the sleeve, 34 × 31 mm., bearing an impressed inscription VENCEDOR EN CARABOBO AÑO DE 1821, between a sabre and a laurel branch.

Rosa, Numismatica, pp. 45–46 illus.

MEDAL FOR PALACÉ 1811. This was awarded for the first battle for independence in New Granada March 28, 1811, and had on the obverse three crosses and a mountain range, at the base of which is a building with a radiant sun above (said to be the arms of Popayan) and on the reverse are mountains (arms of the City of Cali).

Other medals are mentioned by Rosa, but no description is given.—Cartagena 1821, Maracaibo July 24, 1823, inscribed AL VALOR DE LA ARMADA DE LA COLOMBIA , and a variant inscribed AL VALOR Y CONSTANCIA A NO DE 1823.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 50.

MEDAL FOR PICHINCHA 1822. After the battle of Pichincha near Quito, Ecuador, May 24, 1822, this medal was authorized (June 18, 1822) by the Colombian authorities for the Peruvian troops taking part. It was an oval gold or silver medal, 30 × 25 mm. having on the obverse LIBERTADOR DE QUITO EN PICHINCHA encircling three mountain peaks. On the reverse GRATITUD DE COLOMBIA A LA DIVISION DEL Peru with two laurel branches in the centre. The ribbon is the tri-colour of Colombia, red, blue and yellow. Other medals for Pichincha are described under Ecuador and Peru.

Premios Militares, III, p. 81; Rosa, Leyes , p. 246; Filatel. Argen ., Jan. 1924, p. 354.

MEDAL FOR AYACUCHO 1824. On December 19, 1824, Marshal Sucre authorized this medal for the Colombian troops taking part in the battle of Ayacucho, in Peru, on December 9, 1824. It is of gold for the officers and of silver for the troops, having on the obverse centre, within a laurel wreath, COLOMBIA A SUS BRAVOS EN EL Peru . On the reverse is a sword crossed by a rifle, encircled by VENCEDOR EN A YACUCHO 9 DE DICIEMBRE AÑO 14.

Premios Militares, III, p. 106; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 49.

MEDAL FOR TARQUI 1829. This was awarded by General Sucre February 27, 1829, to the Colombian troops who were victorious over the Peruvians and Bolivians at the battle of Tarqui, February 26, 1829. It is of gold or silver and bears on the obverse upper field the inscription VENGADORES DE COLOMBIA EN TARQUI , below which are a rifle and lance crossed. No reverse is given and the ribbon is said to be green.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 308.

CENTENNIAL CROSS OF BOYACA 1919. In honour of the centennial of the battle of Boyaca in 1819 this cross was created August 8, 1919, by Decree No. 1667 and awarded to the officers and men of the army of Colombia. It is a Maltese cross of 50 centimeters diameter, having on the obverse the flag of the republic, enamelled in colours, encircled by a gold band inscribed CEN-TENARIO DE BOYACA and on the reverse 1819–1919. The ribbon is light blue. The cross was of silver for officers and of bronze for the troops. On April 17, 1922, the award was modified and its award to eminent foreigners was permitted. The decoration was altered to three classes, gold, silver and bronze. On the obverse the bust of the liberator (Bolivar) replaced the national flag and the inscription was changed to COLOMBIA—CENTENNIAL OF BOYACA . The reverse was also changed and the inscription read 1819—7 DE AGOSTO DE 1919. A third change was made in 1927 when the third class was discontinued. The first class of gold was to be awarded to ministers, diplomats and generals, both native and foreign. The second class of silver to lesser officials. Later the same year a still further change was to have been made, creating five classes, similar to the Order of the Legion of Honour of France and similar orders, but no confirmation of this has been obtained.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 51; Rosa, Leyes , p. 215; Filatel Argen., April 1924, p. 406.

MILITARY ORDER OF SAN MATEO. This was authorized by a decree of the President (No. 349) and consists of three classes.

The decoration is a Maltese cross superimposed on a green enamelled laurel wreath. On the obverse centre medallion of purple is a bust of Ricaurte encircled by a band inscribed RICAURTE 1814–1914. On the reverse is COLOMBIA—ORDEN MILITAR DE SAN MATEO .

The ribbon is of the national colours.

End Notes

1 Bolivar was born at Caracas, July 24, 1783, and died at San Pedro, December 17, 1830.
1 Ramon Azpuria, Biografias de hombres notables de Hispano-America . Caracas, 1877. Vol. IV, p. XXII of Appendix.
1 Page XXX, Vol. IV, Biografias de hombres notables de Hispano-America . Caracas. 1877, by Ramon Azpuria.

ECUADOR

From the time Francois Pizarro (1471–1541) discovered Peru in 1530 and the Spaniards occupied the seacoast, Quito and its adjacent territory remained part of the viceroyalty of Peru. From 1710 until 1722 it was part of the viceroyalty of Santa Fé, but it was restored to Peru in 1723. The people of Ecuador with Bolivar's aid succeeded in securing their independence in 1822, after the battle of Pichincha. In 1819 a confederation had been effected between New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela and Ecuador. This was known as the Republic of Colombia. In 1828 political differences arose with Peru and these resulted in the occupation of Cuenca and Guayaquil by Peruvian troops; but after the Ecuadorian victory at Tarqui in the following year, peace was restored. In 1829 Venezuela withdrew from this triple alliance, and the following year the present Republic of Ecuador was established.

MEDAL FOR PICHINCHA 1822. While Ecuador was under the government of Peru and during the wars for independence, a battle was fought, May 24, 1822, on the side of Mount Pichincha near Quito, at an elevation of 10,200 feet. The people of Guayaquil led by Antonio José de Sucre (sent by Bolivar) and reinforced by Argentine, Peruvian and Chilean troops defeated the Spanish forces. Two days after this battle the Spanish general, Don Melchor de Aymeric, capitulated and the independence of Ecuador was assured. On May 29, 1822, the municipality of Quito created this decoration, of gold for the officers and of silver for the troops. The medal, 35 mm. in diameter, bears a twelve-armed star the arms of which are interlaced with a laurel wreath. The obverse medallion has in the centre three mountain peaks surmounted by a radiant sun, above which is LIBERTADOR DE QUITO and below ANO DE 1822. The reverse is inscribed EL CABILDO DE QUITO . The medal is surmounted by an oval laurel wreath for the ribbon, which has equal stripes of red, blue, and yellow.

A variant is oval in form, 38 × 42 mm., displaying on the obverse within laurel branches, a shield crowned with a liberty cap, bearing a sun-burst, flags and a horn of plenty and inscribed A LOS LIBERTADORES DE QUITO . On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is a shield inscribed YO FUI DEL EJERCITO LIBERTADOR.

Other medals for Pichincha are described under Colombia and Peru.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 243; Premios Militares, III, p. 80; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 46, illus., p. 58, illus.; Fonrobert, No. 8332.

Alejandro Rosa in his Numismatica, mentions several medals and escudos for the following engagements but gives no description.

ECUADOR

figure

Pichincha

figure

Cross for Independence

For battle of Calibio January 15, 1814.

For battle of Bombona April 7, 1822.

For Campana de Pasto June 8, 1822.

Rosa, 'Numismatica, p. 51.

CROSS FOR INDEPENDENCE. What is believed to be an Ecuadorean decoration is in the writer's cabinet, though no authority has been found describing it. A white-enamelled gold cross, double-pointed and ball-tipped, is surmounted by two green-enamelled scrolls attached to the suspension ring. On the white medallion in figures of gold is 1831, presumably the year of its creation. Encircling this is a blue enamelled band inscribed in gold letters GUERRA DE INDEPENDENCIA*.

If this is of Ecuador, it was probably created in 1831 to commemorate the final independence of the present republic.

ORDER OF MERIT. This is awarded for civil and military acts of distinction, and has three classes. The first is a gold medal with a yellow ribbon; the second of silver with blue ribbon and the third class medal is bronze suspended by a red ribbon.

The decoration is circular in form, composed of twelve rays, interlaced with a laurel wreath and suspended from an oval wreath for the ribbon. On the centre medallion are the arms of the republic in relief (three mountains and a radiant sun) encircled by a band inscribed REPUBLICA DEL ECUADOR—AL MERITO.

STAR OF ABDON CALDERON. This was instituted October 22, 1904, in memory of the battle of Pichincha May 24, 1822, and is awarded to citizens only, for military merit (three classes, gold, silver and bronze). The decoration is a five pointed star composed of rays, through which a laurel wreath is interlaced. On the centre medallion is the head of Calderon facing left, in relief, surrounded by ABDON CALDERON—1822 (1822 being the first year of independence from Spanish control). On the reverse medallion is inscribed REPUBLICA DEL ECUADOR and the first four signs of the zodiac. The ribbon has equal stripes of yellow, blue and red, the national colours.

Guadagnini, p. 182; Montalbo, Suppl. p. 80.


PARAGUAY

This interior republic of South America, first settled by the Spaniards in 1536, was attached to the viceroyalty of La Plata in 1776. The colony declared its independence of Spain in 1811, but refused to join the Argentine Confederation. It was under various dictatorships from 1814 to 1865. The last was that of Francisco Solano Lopez (1826–1870) who brought on the war against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, which ended so disastrously for Paraguay. The constitution of the present republic was adopted in 1870.

The six war-medals issued by the government of Paraguay described here were all created by the Dictator Lopez, for engagements in the war against the Triple Alliance. Lopez and his country were completely shut off from the outside world and were compelled to make such medals as were authorized. Some of the decorations were engraved, and one was cast, supposedly in his arsenal, by Charles, whose name appears on one medal as the designer. In consequence, the Paraguayan decorations are seldom pretentious—their rarity is some compensation for their lack of finish.

The writer is indebted to Mr. Charles H. Roberts of Buenos Aires for much of the information of the Paraguayan medals contained herein.

NATIONAL ORDER OF MERIT. This was created at Asuncion, April 8, 1865, by Lopez, the Marshal-President of the Republic and Commander-in-Chief of the Army. It was intended to have several grades with an enamelled decoration, but owing to the isolation of the country this was impossible, and the only known specimens are of chased gold, though some recipients are said to have painted theirs. The decoration is a five-pointed ball-tipped star with crossed cannon in the angles, superimposed on a laurel wreath and surmounted by a similar wreath, tied with a knot of ribbon. On the medallion is a star encircled by HONOR ET GLORIA and on the reverse PREMIUM MERITI. The ribbon was purple with three narrow stripes of red, white and blue each side. This award was for military merit during the five years' war against the Triple Alliance. The plaque, without the suspension wreath, is about double the size of the cross.

MEDAL FOR RIACHUELO. Instituted at the army headquarters of Humaita, July 2, 1865, for those taking part in the engagement against the allied navy at Riachuelo on the Parana River near Corrientes, on June 11–13, 1865. It is a cast medal 30 mm. in diameter, bearing in the obverse center EL MARISCAL PRESIDENTE, encircled by AL 2o REGIMENTO DE ARTILLERIA A CABALLO, with two crossed cannon and cannonballs below. The whole is encircled by a laurel wreath. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is RIACHUELO 11 Y 13 JUNIO 1865. The ribbon is black with blue edges. The medal was of gold for the superior officers, of silver for junior officers, and of copper for soldiers.

CROSS FOR CORRALES. Authorized by Lopez by a decree issued at army headquarters at Paso de la Patria, February 13, 1866, for the troops taking part in the engagement near Corrientes on January 31st. The decorations were engraved sheets of silver for officers and similarly made pieces of copper for soldiers, in the form of a cross with trefoil ends. These crosses were about 58 × 42 mm. in size. On the obverse is engraved VENCIO EN CORRALES 31 ENERO 1866. The reverse is plain and the ribbon is blue with a white stripe in the centre, and is attached to a ring affixed to the back of the cross.

MEDAL FOR TUIUTI, 1867. Created by decree of November 15, 1867, issued from headquarters at Paso Pacú. At the second battle of Tuiuti on the third of November, 1867, although the forces of Lopez were defeated by the allied armies, this medal was authorized to reward his surviving soldiers. It is of bronze, 35 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse centre military trophies encircled by the inscription EL MARISCAL LOPEZ A LOS BRAVOS DE TUIUTI, and on the reverse, within a laurel wreath 3 DE NOVIEMBRE 1867, below which is Charles , the name of the engraver. The ribbon is half green and half blue.

PARAGUAY

figure

Riachuelo

Tuiuti

Tataiyba

Meili, No. 135; Cavalcanti, p. 58, No. 103; Sculfort, No. 1350.

MEDAL FOR TATAIYBA 1867. Created by decree issued at Paso Pacú, October 24, 1867, and awarded to the regiment of cavalry who fought their way through a greatly superior force of Brazilian troops. The medal was gold for the commanding major, silver for the other officers and of copper for the soldiers; 200 survivors in all. It is 30 mm. in diameter, having on the obverse centre a cavalryman with a lance, encircled by the inscription EL MARISCAL LOPEZ A LOS VALIENTES DE TATAIYBA. On the reverse, within a laurel wreath is 21 DE OCTUBRE 1867. The ribbon is half red and half yellow.

Cavalcanti, p. 57, No. 102; Meili, No. 134.

MEDAL FOR ACAIUASA. Authorized July 24, 1868, by a decree issued at San Fernando. It was of gold for the colonel and of silver for the troops, being a double-pointed four-armed cross made of engraved sheets of metal. On the obverse centre is a five-pointed star encircled by ACAIUASA 18 DE JULIO 1868 and on the reverse, encircling a five-pointed star is A LA DECISION Y BRAVURA. The ribbon is of six stripes, alternately blue and red.

Salbach, No. 3015.


Peru

This part of the Empire of the Incas was conquered by the Spaniards in 1533–34 under Francisco Pizarro (1471–1541); the viceroyalty of Peru was established at Lima in 1535. At the beginning of the eighteenth century this viceroyalty included the Isthmus of Panama and all of South America save the Portuguese colony of Brazil. When the inhabitants of Peru first attempted to throw off the Spanish yoke they were ably assisted by General San Martin of Argentina and by the Chilean forces under Lord Cochrane. The independence of the country was proclaimed in 1821, but it was not until December 9, 1824, that the Spanish Viceroy was finally defeated at the battle of Ayacucho and the republic of Peru definitely established. Peru united with Bolivia in 1836 but was forced by Chile to separate in 1839. It was again at war with Spain in 1865–1866; was attacked by Chile in 1879 and compelled to cede to that country the province of Tarapaca in 1883. The "War of the Pacific"—Chile against Bolivia and Peru, 1879–1883—arose from claims by Chile to the nitrate regions of Atacama in Peru and Bolivia. In February, 1879, Antofagasta was seized; Iquique blockaded April 5, 1879; a naval engagement May 21; the Peruvian ironclad "Huascar" taken by the Chileans off Port Angamos October 8; Pisagua captured November 2; Allies defeated November 19, at San Francisco; Peruvian victory at Tarapaca, Chilean victory at Los Angeles March 22, 1880; again victorious at Tacna May 26th; Callao blockaded April 10 and bombarded May 26; Arica taken June 7; Chilean victories of Chorrillos January 13, 1881; at Miraflores January 15th and Lima taken January 17, 1881.

SPANISH MEDAL FOR CALLAO, 1819. Awarded by the Spanish Viceroy for the defenders of Callao in 1819, against the patriots, who under Lord Thomas Cochrane (1775–1860) had sent fire-ships into the harbour of Callao to destroy the Spanish fleet. It is a silver medal, 39 mm. in diameter, made in Lima, depicting on the obverse an exploding ship, and to the right three Spanish vessels. In the foreground two light ships and in the upper field the legend PREMIO A LA FIDELIDAD Y AL VALOR. Below DAVALOS F. (Fecit) gives us the name of the designer. On the reverse, within an oak wreath is DEFENSA DEL CALLAO EN MARZO Y OCTUBRE DE 1819.

Although Alejandro Rosa describes this as a commemorative medal and illustrates it as having no suspension ring, Mr. C. H. Roberts of Buenos Aires, has in his collection a specimen with a suspension ring affixed to the medal for the ribbon.

Fonrobert, No. 9188; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 69, illus.

MEDAL FOR GUERILLAS. This was authorized by San Martin October 1, 1822 (Rosa says 1821) for the guerilla forces in the war for independence.

Peru PL. I

figure

Guerillas Order of the Sun

figure

Numancia Battalion Pasco 1820

It is an oval of gold for officers and of silver for the troops, 40 × 37 mm., edged with a laurel wreathon the upper half, and inscribed on the obverse EL VALOR ES MI DIVISA, and with a radiant sun encircled by A LAS PATRIDAS DE GUERRILLA on the reverse. The ribbon is white and red.

Premios Militares, III, p. 54, illus.; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 56, illus.; Rosa, Leyes, p. 231; Rosa, Monetario , p. 444, illus.; Fonrobert, No. 8990.

MEDAL FOR LIBERATORS OF Peru. Authorized August 15, 1821, by General San Martin, for the Peruvian and Chilean troops taking part in the liberation of Peru from the Spanish domination. It is a gold or silver oval, 30 × 25 mm., with laurel branches on the ribbon ring. A complete description of this will be found under Chile.

Premios Militares, III, p. 49; Rosa, Leyes , p. 228; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 55, illus.; Rosa, Monetario , p. 443, illus.

MEDALS FOR INDEPENDENCE. Authorized January 11, 1822, by San Martin, for all troops taking part in the war for independence. It is of gold, having on the obverse the arms of Peru, and on the reverse AL PATRIOTISMO DE LAS MAS SENSIBLES. Sculfort described another medal of silver, having on the obverse a radiant sun, surrounded by the inscription LIMA LIBRE JURO SU INDEPENDENCE EN 28 DE JULIO D 1821. On the reverse, within laurel branches is BAJO LA PROTECCION DEL EGERCITO LIBERATADOR DEL Peru MAN-DADO POR SAN MARTIN . The ribbon is red edged with green. This is said to have been authorized by San Martin on October 1, 1821.1

Rosa, Leyes , p. 241; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 71; Sculfort, No. 1329; Rosa, Monetario, p. 444, illus.

THE ORDER OF THE SUN. When General José de San Martin, the Argentine liberator of Chile and Peru, reached Lima, he created this order by a decree dated at the Palacio Protectoral de Lima , October 8, 1821, for the purpose of rewarding those who had especially distinguished themselves in that campaign and in order to replace the Spanish Order of Isabella the Catholic. The decoration (uniface) was of gold or silver, 33 mm. in diameter, in the form of a radiant sun, having in the center a circular enamelled band enclosing a circular boss. The upper part of the band is white and is inscribed in red EL Peru; the lower part of red is inscribed in white A SUS LIBERTADORES. The ribbon is white. This decoration was awarded to those who had rendered distinguished service in the campaign, including Argentine and Chilean officers—in consequence, it is sometimes classed with the decorations of those countries. (The order was discontinued by a decree of March 9, 1825.)

The ORDER OF THE SUN was reëstablished by a presidential decree of April 14, 1921, to be awarded to Peruvians as well as foreigners, for both civil and military merit.

While article 7 of the decree states that "The insignia shall be determined," no official information has come to our notice, of its ever having been actually issued; although Guadagnini states the order had five classes and illustrates the plaque and officer's decoration. The latter is in the form of a radiant sun of eighteen gilt rays surmounted by a green-enamelled laurel wreath. On the centre is a medallion within a similar wreath and the inscription. The ribbon is coloured magenta.

Premios Militares, III, p. 63; Rosa, Leyes , p. 232; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 57, illus.; Guadagnini, p. 183.

MEDAL FOR THE NUMANCIA BATTALION. This is attributed to Peru and is said to have been awarded by General San Martin to that batallion of the royalist army commanded by Colonel Thomas Heres, which transferred its allegiance to the cause of independence on December 2, 1820. This gold medal is like the figure S reversed. On the obverse face are a sword and bayonet crossed through a laurel wreath, and on the edge, longitudinally, the inscription A LA LEALTAD A LOS MAS BRAVOS. In the reverse field is a radiant sun encircled by LIMA EJERCITO LIBERTADOR. The ribbon is the bicolour of Peru, half red and half white.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 69; Premios Militares, III, p. 33.

MEDAL FOR PASCO, 1820. By bulletin No. 7 of the Liberator San Martin, dated December 6, 1820, this gold (or silver) medal was authorized for the officers (and troops) taking part in the successful engagement at Cerro de Pasco, the capital of the Department of Junin, on the 5th of December, 1820. On the obverse, within a circular field surmounted by a sun, is A LOS VENCE-DORES DE PASCO , the whole within tied palm and laurel branches, the ends of the branches extending over the lower edge of the medal. On the reverse is DIC 6 DE 1820 in three lines. The ribbon is half white and half red. Rosa, in Numismatica (No. 50), describes the reverse inscription as DICIEMBRE 6 D 1820 in relief, in the upper field in an arc, and the obverse inscription intaglio.

"Revista Filatelica" Buenos Aires, No. 38, July 1930, illustrates a variant in the collection of Senor José Maria Marco du Pont, having on the obverse, the inscription A LOS | BENCEDO | RES DE | PASCO and on the reverse DIC 6 | DE | 1820.

Rosa, Leyes, p. 220; Premios Militares, III, p. 35; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 52.

MEDAL OF Peru FOR PICHINCHA, 1822. Awarded by a Peruvian decree of July 1, 1822, to the troops taking part in the battle of Mount Pichincha, near Quito, Ecuador, on May 24, 1822, in the struggle for independence. (See Ecuador and Colombia.) This is an oval medal of gold or silver, 45 × 38 mm., with a serrate rim. In the oval enclosed by a conventionalized wreath is a round medallion inscribed A LOS LIBERT ADORES DE QUITO, around which are horns of plenty and battle flags; above there is a radiant sun, and below clasped hands and a liberty cap, emblems of Colombia, Peru and Argentina. In the exergue on a bar is a band inscribed RENA. SOL. Peru (Renace el sol del Peru). The reverse is plain.

A variation of this medal in gold (uniface), measuring 42 × 30 mm., was illustrated in the catalogue of the Salbach Sale of February 20, 1911. It was edged with a laurel wreath and with a similar wreath for suspension. The center design and inscription were as above, but the word PERU is above the sun, and at the base on a ribbon scroll is EN PICHINCHA .

The American Numismatic Society has a smaller variety in silver, measuring 30 × 25, with an obverse similar to above, and on the reverse, within a laurel cable border, is a radiant sun encircled by LA PATRIA AGRADECIDA. A plain ring is used for suspension.

Premios Militares, III, p. 83; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 58, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 249.

Rosa in his Numismatica, 1904—pages 72–76 illustrates and describes five decorations awarded by the Spanish authorities to General Geronimo Valdes for his services in the cause of Spain in the Peruvian wars for independence. They are as follows:

End Notes

1 Ramon Azburia, Biografias de hombres notables de Hispano-America . Caracas, 1877. Vol. IV, p. XXIII of Appendix.

Peru PL. II

figure

Pichincha

Zepita

Ayacucho

CROSS FOR ICA. A double-pointed, five-armed gold cross enamelled red and surmounted by a laurel wreath for the ribbon. On a white oval medallion on the obverse is BATALLA DE YCA and on the reverse is ANO DE 1822. The ribbon is the Spanish red and yellow.

CROSS FOR TORATA. This is a four-armed cross with narrow gold arms terminating in balls, superimposed on a laurel wreath. On the white diamond centre is TORATA with ANO DE 1823 on the reverse. The ribbon is half white and half green.

CROSS FOR MONQUEGUA. A cross with four diamond-shaped arms, ball-tipped and enamelled green, with gold leaves in the angles. On the oval obverse medallion in MONQUEGUA and on the reverse is ANO DE 1823.

CROSS FOR SOUTHERN Peru. This is a cross of four diamond-shaped arms of gold, with narrow silver arms tipped with red balls in the angles. On the obverse oval medallion is inscribed CAMPANA DEL SUD DEL Peru EN SETIEMBRE & OCTUBRE DE 1823. The ribbon is white.

CROSS FOR AREQUIPA. This is a gold cross of four arms placed diagonally, with flowers of silver in the angles. On the oval obverse medallion is AREQUIPA 8 DE OCTUBRE DE 1823.

These medals are not given in any of the Spanish publications obtainable, and are of course the only ones of the kind, especially made for General Valdes.

MEDAL FOR ZEPITA 1823. This was authorized August 28, 1823, by Andrea de Santa Cruz for the Peruvian and Ecuadorian troops taking part in the struggle with the Spaniards, on August 25, 1823. The medal is an irregular pentagon of gold or silver, 30 × 25, mm. having on the obverse EN LA CUNA DE LOS TIRANOS LABRE SU SEPULCRO, with a wreath of flowers below. On the reverse is ZEPITA AGOSTO 25 DE 1823 within a laurel wreath. The ribbon is half red and half white.

A variant of this medal given to the Ecuadorian hussars is inscribed AL VALOR DE LOS II USARES DE ZEPITA and on the reverse ZEPITA 25 DE AGOSTO DE 1823.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 60, illus.; Rosa, Leyes, p. 272; Premios Militares, III, p. 96; Fonrobert, No. 9265; Salbach, No. 983.

CROSS FOR JUNIN. On August 6, 1824, a spirited cavalry battle was fought at Junin, near the shores of Lake Chinchay-Cocha, between Bolivar's and Sucre's Peruvian-Colombian troops and the Spanish forces led by a French adventurer in the service of Spain, General Jose Canterac. This action, decided entirely by the cavalry, was most desperate, although it lasted but forty-five minutes.

It was a complete success for Bolivar's army. The Congress of Peru, by a decree of March 29, 1828, awarded this cross to officers. It is a gold, red and white-enamelled double-pointed ball-tipped cross of five arms, surmounted by a laurel wreath and resting on a similar wreath. On the obverse medallion is BATALLA DE JUNIN and on the reverse, two crossed swords united by two flags. Variations of the cross were inscribed on the obverse simply JUNIN . In the catalogue of the Salbach Sale (Feb. 20, 1911) are described two crosses, one 33 mm., the other 18 mm., similar to the above, save for the inscriptions which were UNIN on each side.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 71; Salbach, Nos. 981, 982; Filatel. Argen., Aug. 1926, No. 35, p. 587; Rosa, Leyes, p. 305.

MEDAL FOR AYACUCHO, 1824. Although the independence of Peru was declared in 1821, the Spanish retained control of some sections in the interior of the country for a considerable time. Simon Bolivar had come from Colombia to aid the Peruvians who were commanded by General José de Lamar. The Spanish forces consisted of 9000 troops under the Viceroy La Serna, while the patriots had but 5780 men under General Sucre. The final battle in this campaign was fought at Ayacucho (Ayacucho was formerly called Huamanga or Guamango) on December 9, 1824, and lasted about one hour. The Viceroy and all his officers were captured and Spanish power in South America was at an end.

Peru PL. III

figure

Ayacucho Cross Callao 1826

figure

Callao 1826 Abtao 1866

The medals for this victory were issued in gold and silver; some were oval, 32 × 29 mm., others were round, 30 mm. in diameter. On the obverse they bear the uniformed bust of Bolivar facing to the right and A SU LIBERTADOR SIMON BOLIVAR . On the reverse were the arms of Peru 1 superimposed on battle flags and with a laurel wreath above and palm branches below, surrounded by the inscription EL Peru RESTAURADO EN AYACUCHO ANO DE 1824. The ribbon is red and white.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 297; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 63, illus.; Premios Militares, III, p. 116; Sculfort, No. 1330; Medina, Medallas Chilenas, pp. 135–136; Rosa, Monetario , p. 446, illus.

In the writer's collection, the round silver medal has under the bust of Bolivar the name of the engraver, A. DAVALOS G . and one of the oval medals, 33 × 28 mm., has under the bust the engraver's initials, ML. Vo. Go .

A variant was issued in gold and silver, 27 × 22 mm., having on the obverse two branches of laurel, crossed, and the word AYACUCHO above, with a plain reverse. Schulman illustrates in his catalogue of February 9, 1926 (No. 731) this variant surmounted by two laurel branches.

Premios Militares, III, p. 114; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 62, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , pp. 278–284; Salbach, No. 1003.

CROSS FOR AYACUCHO. Alejandro Rosa, in Numismatica (p. 65) describes this decoration for Ayacucho—a white-enamelled cross of five double-pointed, ball-tipped arms, superimposed on a green laurel wreath, with a similar wreath above for the ribbon bar. On the obverse medallion of gold is the laureated bust of General Bolivar facing to the left, encircled by a blue band inscribed SIMON BOLIVAR ; this in turn is encircled by eighteen brilliants. On the reverse medallion is REPUBLICA DEL Peru . The Salbach catalogue, February 20, 1911 (Nos. 1001 and 1002) describes a four-armed cross of gold, enamelled blue, and with gold rays in the angles. On the medallion is AYACUCHO. A bar on the ribbon is composed of a wreath of leaves. A smaller cross, 31 mm., was issued.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 65, illus.; Premios Militares, III, p. 243; Salbach, Nos. 1001, 1002.

MEDAL FOR CALLAO, 1826. The fortress of Callao was important in all the Peruvian wars, and in 1826 the troops of Chile and Venezuela assisted those of Peru against Spain. The struggle at Callao was the last attempt of the Spanish forces to hold their former colony in South America. It was captured, after a seige, on January 19, 1826; and on February 1st this medal was authorized. It is a uniface oval of gold or silver, 30 × 25 mm., edged with laurel branches and surmounted by palm and laurel branches for the ribbon bar. On the obverse centre is the Peruvian flag flying from a staff on top of a fort; in the upper field is TOMA DEL CALLAO EN 1826. The ribbon is red and white. A variant of this was also issued, of silver, 46 mm. × 35, having in the centre a fort with soldiers mounting a ladder and encircled by RENDIDO EL CALLAO AL VALOR SIN EJEMPLO.1 On the reverse is TOMA DEL CALLAO and below ANO DE 1826. Still another variant, a uniface oval medal, 33 × 27 mm., having in an oval a smaller fort and TOMA DEL CALLAO EN 1826, is described in the Fonrobert Catalogue—No. 9189. A similar medal is given in Salbach catalogue No. 984. Another variety brought to my attention is a uniface oval silver medal, 30 × 25, with milled edge, having a fort with flying flag within laurel and palm branches, above which is TOMA DEL CALLAO and in the exergue ANO DE 1826.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 67, illus.; Premios Militares, III, p. 122; Rosa, Monetario , p. 447, illus.; Rosa, Leyes , p. 301; Salbach, Nos. 984 and 985; Fonrobert, Nos. 9189, 9190.

CROSS FOR MATUCANAS, 1828. A short war with Colombia was brought on in 1828 by President General José de Lamar, who had commanded the troops at Ayacucho. The decoration is a gold cross of six arms enamelled in red and white for Peru, and in blue, white and red for Bolivia, with green laurel branches in the angles. On the obverse centre is EL Peru AL TRIUMFO HEROICO EN MATUCANAS . On the reverse is 18 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1828.

Salbach, No. 1013.

CROSS FOR YANACOCHA, 1835. (See Bolivia also.) During this year Santa Cruz came from Bolivia to the assistance of one of the political parties struggling for control of Peru and fought against Gamarra, one of the political contestants. The following year Chile interfered, siding with Gamarra, and three years of fighting ensued. Santa Cruz was defeated at Jungay in June, 1839 (see Chilean medal for Jungay). The battle of Yanacocha was fought on August 13, 1835, and several decorations were issued.

A five-pointed blue-enamelled star, 51 mm., bears on a shield the arms of Peru and Bolivia and the inscription VENCI EN YANACOCHA * and on the reverse AUCILIANDO AL Peru . One style has rays in the angles and both the above mottoes on the obverse, with a plain reverse.

A variation, 39 mm., has on the obverse the arms of Peru and Bolivia within palm and laurel branches encircled by VENCEDOR EN * YANACOCHA * .

A silver medal, said to have been awarded the Argentine troops assisting in this campaign, is described under Bolivia.

Salbach, Nos. 1005 and 1006; Fonrobert, Nos. 9260–9262.

MEDAL FOR SOCABAYA. On February 7, 1836, an engagement took place at Socabaya, in the province of Arequipa, between the Peruvian troops under General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, military chief of Peru, and the invading Bolivian forces led by Andrea Santa Cruz. These medals, of which there are at least two, are believed to belong to Bolivia, and will be found under that country, although several catalogues of foreign sales class them under Peru.

Another variety, 37 mm., is uniface and has on the obverse a radiant sun, HONOR Y PATRIA, between palm and laurel branches, above which is a condor.

Still another uniface medal has obverse as above and a reverse inscribed EN SOCABAYA A 7 DE FEBRERO DE 1836, within palm and laurel branches.

Filatel. Argett., Aug. 1926, p. 586; Fonrobert, Nos. 9252, 9253, 9254, 9255; Bergsöe, No. 1737.

SPANISH MEDAL FOR CALLAO, 1866. This bronze medal, 30 mm. in diameter, was designed by G. Sellan and made in Spain. On the obverse is the bust of Queen Isabella II facing to the right, and on the reverse is a shield superimposed upon an anchor. On the shield is CALLAO 2 DE MAYO 1866. The ribbon is yellow.

CROSS FOR ABTAO, 1866. In 1865, Peru was involved in a war with Spain. Many of the ports of Chile and Peru were blocaded. Abtao Cove, near Antofagasta, then part of Bolivia, was the scene of one of the engagements. This decoration is a white-enamelled gold star of six points with rays in the angles; in the centre is ABTAO 7 FEB 1866. On the reverse is LA PATRIA RECONCIDA. The ribbon is red with a small white stripe in the centre.

Sculfort, No. 1333; Padiglione, p. 71; Salbach, No. 686.

MEDAL FOR ABTAO, 1866. An oval silver medal, 32 × 26 mm. On the obverse is a shield inscribed A LOS VENCEDORES EN ABTAO , superimposed on trophies of war and crossed flags and surmounted by a sun. On the reverse is 7 DE FEBRERO 1866—57 CANONES CONTRA 92.

Padiglione, p. 16.

CROSS FOR CALLAO, 1866. During the war with Spain in 1866, when Bolivia and Chile came to the assistance of Peru, this cross was created to reward those taking part in the campaign. It is a gold or silver cross of six white-enamelled arms with rays in the angles. On the obverse centre medallion of white is inscribed FUE UNO DE MIS DEFENSORES, and on the reverse is CALLAO 2 DE MAYO DE 1866.

A variation of this decoration (which the Salbach catalogue states was given to the gunners) is a five-pointed star with ball tips, enamelled red, and surmounted by a green-enamelled wreath of laurel for ribbon. On the white centre medallion is a fortress encircled by a band inscribed in gold letters CALLAO 2 DE MAYO DE 1866. On the reverse is 50 CANONES CONTRA 500.

Schulman describes in the Salbach catalogue of February, 1911 (No. 986) a gold cross of seven arms, each with four points, enamelled red, surmounted by a green-enamelled wreath for suspension ribbon. On the centre medallion of red and white is EL CONGRESO A LOS RESTAURADORES DE SU PATRIA.

Rosa, Monetario , pp. 453, 454, illus.; Salbach, No. 986.

LEGION OF MERIT. This was founded by a decree of May 26, 1880, for civil and military merit, and is composed of three classes. For the military Legion of Merit, the first class was awarded for exceptional services on land or sea; the second class for individual distinguished services, and the third class for distinguished services collectively. The civil decoration was awarded for the sciences, arts, industry and charitable work, and the class varied accordingly.

The first class military decoration is a Greek cross of steel on a green-enamelled wreath, bearing on the obverse the inscription LA REPUBLICA AL MERITO MILITAR, and on the reverse the place and date for the award. The ribbon is red.

The second class decoration is similar, but the wreath is of gold and the third class has a steel wreath and a narrower red ribbon.

The decoration for civil merit is suspended from a light blue ribbon and the decoration is of silver with the inscription LA REPUBLICA AL MERITO CIVIL.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 353.

End Notes

1 The arms of Peru are, upper left, a llama; upper right, a palm tree, and in the lower half, a horn of plenty.
1 The American Numismatic Society have an open work medal with the castle of Callao in centre, encircled by a laurel wreath. On base of castle is RENDIDO EL CALLAO AL VALOR SIN EJEMPLO and on the reverse is EN 19 DE ENERO DE 1836. This may be an error of ten years in the date year.

URUGUAY

The early history of Uruguay is necessarily associated with that of the viceroyalty of Peru, under which authority it was until 1776, when it became attached to the viceroyalty of La Plata. The first European settlers in this country were the Spanish Jesuits, who arrived in the 17th century. The designation Estado Cisplatine was used from 1823, while it was a part of Brazil. A separation took place in 1825, and Uruguay was recognized as an independent republic in 1828. The country was coveted by its neighbors, and as there were not a few Europeans in Montevideo–political exiles many of them–there was no lack of leaders in attempts to control the government. Montevideo, (from 1843 to 1852), was beseiged by General Manuel Oribe (1802–1857) who had allied himself with the dictator of Buenos Aires, Jean Manuel De Rosas (1793–1877). The city was defended by General Paz, who was also assisted by Giuseppe Garibaldi, the great Italian patriot, who had gone to South America about the middle of the century. Garibaldi led his "Legion" in the battle of San Antonio, near Salta, in northern Uruguay, in February, 1846, for which, by decree of February 25, 1846, their standard was inscribed in letters of gold, "Hazana del 8 de Febrero de 1846 realizada por la Legion Italiana a las ordens de Garibaldi."

Rosa, Leyes , p. 330.

MEDAL FOR MONTEVIDEO 1842–1845. This was authorized in May, 1845, by the General Assembly of Uruguay, for the troops who defended the city of Montevideo during the seige of those years. The medals are oval—gold, silver and white metal—and bear on the obverse, between laurel branches: SITIO DE MONTEVIDEO encircled by GLORIA A LA CONSTANCIA Y AL VALOR. On the reverse center, the years 1842, 1843, 1844 or 1845 (according to the service), encircled by LA PATRIA RECONCIDA A SUS DEFENSORES. The ribbon is dark red.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 328.

MEDAL FOR MONTE-CASEROS 1852. Monte-Caseros is a village in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, where on February 3, 1852, the forces of Justo José de Urquiza (1800–1871) and his Brazilian allies defeated the forces of the dictator Rosas, forcing him to flee from the country. The medal was authorized February 13, 1852, by President Suarez, and is a gold, silver or white metal oval, 39 × 29 mm., having on the obverse center: AL VENCEDOR EN MONTE CACEROS, surrounded by EL GOBIERNO DE LA REPUBLIC A ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY , and on the reverse, 3 DE FEBRERO DE 1852. The ribbon is light blue.

Premios Militares, II, p. 232; Rosa, Leyes , p. 335; Rosa, Monetario , p. 474, illus.

MEDAL FOR YATAY 1865. By a decree of September 30, 1865, this was awarded to the Uruguayan troops serving with the allied forces of Argentina and Brazil, in the five years war with Paraguay. It is an oval gold, silver or bronze medal, 34 × 28 mm., having on the obverse an oval shield bearing the arms of Uruguay on a trophy of flags with a sunburst above. Around this is: *** VENCEDORES *** DEL YATAY, and on the reverse, within laurel branches is, * 17 DE AGOSTO DE 1865 *. The ribbon is blue and white, the national colours, five narrow strips of blue and six of white. The quarterings of the arms of Uruguay are: upper left, a pair of scales, upper right, a tower with flag flying; lower left, a prancing horse, and lower right, a bull.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 345; Rosa, Monetario , p. 475; Sculfort, No. 1350.

MEDAL FOR PARAGUAY 1865–1869. By a decree of April 4, 1891, this was authorized for the soldiers of the allied armies of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, taking part in the war with Paraguay. It is a bronze cross with four pointed arms resting on a laurel wreath and surmounted by a radiant sun. On the circular medallion are the arms of Uruguay in an oval, closed by laurel branches, and around the whole is: CAMPANA DEL PARAGUAY * 1865–1869 * . On the reverse center is: A LAS VIRTUDES MILITARES encircled by REPUBLIC A ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY .

URUGUAY

figure

Yatay

Paysandu

Paraguay

The superior officer's cross was surmounted by a gold sun; on that for the juniors the sun was of silver; and for the troops it was copper. The ribbon is red.

Premios Militares, II, p. 101; Rosa, Leyes , p. 373; Salbach, No. 3048.

MEDAL FOR PAYSANDU, or National defence. During the war with Paraguay, the Brazilian troops captured Paysandu, (Uruguay) after a fierce bombardment, on January 2, 1865.

This medal of silver is 30 mm. in diameter, bearing on the obverse center the arms of Uruguay encircled by the inscription, DEFENSA NACIONAL, 1864, PAYSANDU 1865. On the reverse is the bust of General Gomez facing to the left encircled by GENERAL LEANDRO GOMEZ GEFE DE LA PEAZA.


VENEZUELA

This portion of South America was discovered by Columbus in 1498; was conquered by the Spaniards during the sixteenth century and settled by the Spanish commercial house of the Welsers, under a grant of Charles V. It was included in the captain-generalcy of Caracas until 1810, when the revolutionary spirit developed and the region finally became independent in 1821. Venezuela was originally part of the republic of Colombia. In 1831 it withdrew and the United States of Venezuela was established.

The name Venezuela, meaning little Venice, was first bestowed by Alonzo de Ojeda in 1499 on an Indian village on the gulf of Maracaibo.

MILITARY ORDER OF THE LIBERATOR. This was created at Caracas, October 22, 1813, by General Simon Bolivar, as a reward to those who had distinguished themselves in the cause of independence of the country. The insignia is a star of seven rays, symbolical of the seven provinces which composed the country at that time. On the obverse is inscribed LIBERTADOR DE BENEZUELA and on the reverse SIMON BOLIVAR.

Rosa, Leyes , p. 200; Rosa, Numismatica, p. 42.

ORDER OF THE BUST OF BOLIVAR OR BUST OF THE LIBERATOR. This decoration instituted in honour of the hero-founder of the five South American republics of Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, was created by the Congress of Peru, February 11,1825. It was adopted in Venezuela by legislative decree of March 11, 1854; modified by President Guzman Blanco September 14, 1880; confirmed by decree of May 3, 1881, and new statutes were created for the order June 19, 1912. The decoration is awarded by the President, to citizens and foreigners, for civil or military services.1 There are five classes and the insignia is an oval of twenty-eight rays, having in the centre the bust of Bolivar encircled by a blue band inscribed SIMON BOLIVAR. On the reverse are the arms of Venezuela. In the lower half, a running horse; at the upper left a sheaf of wheat, and in the upper right crossed flags and swords supporting a staff on which is a Phrygian cap. Above this are two horns of plenty and below, on a scroll, is 19 ABRIL 1810, LIBERTAD 5 DE JULIO 1811. The ribbon displays the national colours, three equal stripes of red, light blue and orange.

The Order of the Bust of Bolivar is frequently called the Order of the Liberator in error. The former was founded by the Congress of Peru in 1825, while the latter was created by Bolivar at Caracas in 1813.

Rosa, Numismatica, p. 65; Trost, p. 86–87, PI. XXVII, no. 6, PI. XXXVIII, nos. 18, 19.

VENEZUELA PL. I

figure

Order of the Bust of Bolivar

MEDAL OF THE BUST OF BOLIVAR. One authority describes an oval gold or silver medal, 18 × 15 mm., having obverse and reverse the same as the decoration above described.

Rosa, Monetario , no. 1495.

ORDER OF MERIT. This was instituted by Congress on August 28, 1861, for foreigners as well as citizens, with three classes; Grand Cross, Commanders and Chevaliers. The decoration is a six-pointed, ball-tipped white-enamelled star resting on a green-enamelled wreath. On the obverse medallion are the arms of the republic, encircled by a blue band inscribed REPUBLICA DE VENEZUELA* . On the reverse centre is 29 AGOSTO 1861 encircled by a blue band inscribed HONOR AL MERITO* . The ribbon is red edged with light blue.

Cuomo, II, p. 877.

THE LEGION OF NATIONAL DEFENSE. This was founded by Congress on April 16, 1903, in the 92nd year of Independence and the 45th year of the Federation, for civil and military services to the nation. It consists of three classes. The decoration is a Greek cross, 35 mm., having on the obverse medallion the arms of Venezuela and on the reverse the words DEFENSA NACIONAL. The ribbon is red, blue and orange. The cross of the first class is enamelled in gold, the second class in blue and the third class in red.

VENEZUELA PL. II

figure

Bust of Bolivar

figure

Order of Merit

The following plaques or escudos are mentioned by Rosa in his Numismatica 1904, but no other description is given.

Battle of Victoria, February 12, 1814.

Battle of Boca-Checa, March 31, 1814.

Campaign of July and August, 1816.

Battle of Quebrada Honda, August 2, 1816.

Battle of Juncal, September 27, 1816.

Battle of Macuritas, January 28, 1817, inscribed

"Arroja Asombroso."

Battle of San Felix April n, 1817, inscribed "Ano de 1817 San Felix."

Assault on Porto Cabello, November 7, 1823.

MEDAL FOR LA GUAIRA AND VILLAR 1816. This medal was authorized by the Spanish authorities during their occupancy of the country. It is an oval silver medal, 22 × 19 mm., bearing in the obverse centre a winged victory sounding a trumpet and holding a laurel wreath in the left hand. This is encircled by A LOS ESFORZA8 VENCEDORES EN LAGA Y VILLAR . On the reverse centre are military trophies, around which is 13 Y 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1816.

Fonrobert, No. 8026; Schulman sale, Feb. 9, 1926, No. 802.

End Notes

1 From Condecoration del Busto del Libertador. Edicion official, Caracas. Imprenta Nacional, 1912.

BACK

INDEX

In the index which follows the names of the medals described in this monograph are listed in a single alphabet. Names of the countries in which the medals are believed to have originated are indicated by abbreviations in the parentheses following the name of the medal or decoration. The asterisk signifies that the piece so indicated is illustrated on the plates—usually on the plate immediately preceding or immediately following the page indicated. When several medals or decorations have been issued for the same battle or the same city (e. g. Abtao), the order is alphabetical by countries rather than chronological. Medals whose origin is in controversy are listed under the countries to which they are attributed in this monograph.

Abdon Calderon (Ecua.) 135
*Abtao Cross, 1866 (Ch.) 113
Abtao Cross, 1866 (Peru) 158
Abtao Medal, 1865 (Bol.) 60
*Abtao Medal, 1866 (Ch.) 113
*Abtao Medal, 1866 (Peru) 159
Acaiuasa, 1868 (Para.) 140
*Aconcagua Battalion, 1884 (Ch.) 121
*Ancachs, 1839 (Ch.) 106
*Andes Campaign, 1885 (Arg.) 37
Angamos, (Ch.) 116
Arequipa, 1823 (Peru) 150
*Aruhuma, 1810 (Arg.) 13
Avis, Order of St. Benedict of, (Braz.) 66
*Ayacucho Cross, 1824 (Peru) 155
*Ayacucho Medal, 1824 (Bol.) 44
Ayacucho Medal, 1824 (Col.) 128
*Ayacucho Medal, 1824 (Peru) 152
Ayohuma, 1815 (Bol.) 43
*Bahia, 1823 (Braz.) 79
*Baron, 1837 (Ch.) 108
Bolivar Cross (Bol.) 46
Bolivar Medal (Bol.) 47
Bolivar Medal (Col.) 125
*Bolivar, Medal of the Bust of (Venez.) 170
*Bolivar, Order of the Bust of (Venez.) 167
Boyaca Centennial Cross, 1919 (Col.) 128
Boyaca Cross, 1819 (Col.) 125
Boyaca Medal, 1819 (Col.) 125
*Bravery, Medal for, 1868 (Braz.) 87
*Buenos Aires, 1807 (Arg.) 10
Buenos Aires National Guard (Arg.) 35
Buenos Aires, Revolution 1880 (Arg.) 37
Calderon, Abdon (Ecua.) 135
Callao Cross. 1826 (Bol.) 46
*Callao Cross, 1866 (Bol.) 60
Callao Cross, 1866 (Peru) 159
*Callao Medal, 1826 (Bol.) 46
*Callao Medal, 1826 (Ch.) 104
Callao Medal, 1819 (Spanish) 142
*Callao Medal, 1826 (Peru) 155
Callao Medal, 1866 (Spanish) 158
Carabobo, 1821 (Col.) 126
Cartagena, 1814 (Col.). 124
*Casma, 1839 (Ch.) 110
*Catamarca, 1891 (Arg.) 40
Cayasta, 1839 (Arg.) 26
Cayenne, 1809 (Braz.) 76
*Cerrito and Montevideo, 1812–1814 (Arg.) 16
*Chaco, 1870–1884 (Arg.) 36
Chacabuco, 1817 (Arg.) 17
*Chacabuco, 1817 (Ch.) 93
Chiloe, 1826 (Ch.) 104
Christ, Order of (Braz.) 66
Christopher Columbus (Braz.) 72
*Cisplatina, 1823 (Braz.) 77
Civil War, 1851 (Ch.) 112
*Cobija, 1825 (Bol.) 44
*Coimbra, 1864 (Braz.) 83
Cordoba National Guard, 1869 (Arg.) 34
*Condor of the Andes (Bol.) 63
Corrales, 1866 (Ecua.) 138
Corrientes, 1843 (Arg.) 29
*Corrientes 1865 (Arg.) 31
*Corrientes National Guard (Arg.) 32
*Cross, 1879–1880 (Ch.) 117
*Cross of 1872 (Bol.) 62
Cundinamarca, 1820 (Col.) 126
*Curupaity, 1866 (Arg.) 32
Fidelity (Spanish) 93
*German Instructors, 1897 (Ch.) 122
Guaira and Villar, 1816 (Venez.) 172
*Guerillas, 1822 (Peru) 142
*Huamachuco, 1883 (Ch.) 120
*Humahuaca, 1817 (Arg.) 18
*Humaita, 1868 (Braz.) 88
Ica, 1822 (Peru) 150
*Independence, Cross for, 1831 (Ecua.) 134
Independence, Medal for (Braz.) 78
Independence, Medal for (Peru) 144
*Indian Insurrection, 1836 (Arg.) 23
Indian Uprising, 1837 (Arg.) 24
*Ingavi Cross, 1841 (Bol.) 53
*Ingavi Medal, 1841 (Bol.) 55
*Ituzaingo, 1827 (Arg.) 21
Iquique, 1879 (Ch.) 114
*Iquique Naval, (Ch.) 113
Junin, 1824 (Peru) 151
La Guaira (Venez) 172
Legion of Honor, 1866 (Bol.) 62
Liberator (Venez.) 167
*Liberators of Peru, 1820 (Ch.) 103
Liberators of Peru (Peru) 144
*Lima Campaign, 1881 (Ch.) 118
Long Service, (Braz.) 91
Matto Grosso, 1867 (Braz.) 86
Matucanas (Peru) 156
*Maypo, 1818 (Ch.) 98
*Medal for 1865 (Bol.) 58
Melgarejo, 1868 (Bol.) 60
*Merit, Legion of, 1817 (Ch.) 96
Merit, Legion of, 1880 (Peru) 160
*Merit, Medal of (Bol.) 47
Merit, Medal of (Braz.) 74
Merit, National Order of, 1865 (Para.) 136
*Merit, Order of, 1910 (Ch.) 98
Merit, Order of (Ecua.) 134
*Merit, Order of 1861 (Venez.) 170
Military Merit (Bol.). 63
Miraflores, 1881 (Ch.) 121
Monquegua, 1823 (Peru) 150
Monte-Caseros, 1852 (Urugu.) 163
Monteagudo, 1836 (Ch.) 108
*Montevideo, (Arg.) 16
Montevideo, 1813 (Braz.) 74
Montevideo, 1842–1845 (Urugu.) 163
National Defense, Legion of, 1903 (Venez.) 170
*Numancia Battalion, 1820 (Peru) 146
Order, Medal of, 1819 (Arg.) 20
*Pago-Largo, 1839 (Arg.) 24
Palacé, 1811 (Col.) 127
Papudo, 1865 (Bol.) 59
*Papudo, 1865 (Ch.) 112
Para, 1837 (Braz.) 79
*Para, State of (Braz.) 90
*Paraguay Cross, 1868–70 (Braz.) 88
*Paraguay Medal, 1865–1869 (Urugu.) 164
*Paraguay, Medal of Bravery, 1867–68 (Braz.) 87
*Paraguayan War, 1865–1870 (Arg.) 34
Paraguayan War (Allies) 1865–1870 (Arg.) 35
*Pasco, 1820 (Peru) 147
Pavon, 1861 (Arg.) 30
*Paysandu (Urugu.) 166
*Pedro I, Order of (Braz.) 70
*Perdriel, 1806 (Arg.) 9
*Pernambuco, 1824 (Braz.) 78
Peru, 1836 (Bol.) 52
Pichincha, 1822 (Arg.) 20
Pichincha, 1822 (Col.) 127
*Pichincha, 1822 (Ecua.) 131
*Pichincha, 1822 (Peru) 147
*Potosi, 1857 (Bol.) 56
Potosi, 1865 (Bol.) 59
*Punta del Medano, 1822 (Ch.) 104
Quebrachito, 1840 (Arg.) 28
Revolution of July 1890 (Arg.) 38
*Riachuelo, 1865 (Braz.) 86
*Riachuelo, 1865 (Para.) 137
*Ringuelet, 1893 (Arg.) 40
*Rio Colorado, 1833 (Arg.) 22
Rio da Prata, (Braz.) 80
Rio da Prata and Tonelero (Braz.) 80
*Rio de las Piedras, (Arg.) 13
*Rio Negro and Patagonia (Arg.) 37
Rio Salado, 1856 (Arg.) 30
*Rose, (Braz.) 70
St. James of the Sword (Braz.) 67
Salado, 1830 (Arg.) 22
*Salta, 1813 (Arg.) 14
Salta, 1817 (Arg.) 17
San Cala, 1841 (Arg.) 29
*San Luis Conspiracy, 1819 (Arg.) 18
San Mateo (Col.) 130
Santa Barbara, 1837 (Arg.) 23
Sante Fé, 1893 (Arg.) 40
Sauce Grande, 1840 (Arg.) 27
Socabaya Cross, 1836 (Bol.) 48
Socabaya Medal, 1836 (Bol.) 50
Socabaya Medal, 1836 (Peru) 158
Southern Army, 1838 (Bol.) 53
*Southern Cross (Braz.) 68
Southern Peru, 1823 (Peru) 150
*Sun, Order of (Peru) 145
*Tarapaca, 1879 (Ch.) 117
Tarqui, 1829 (Col.) 128
*Tataiyba, 1867 (Para.) 140
*Tonelero, 1851 (Braz.) 80
Torata, 1823 (Peru) 150
Tower and Sword (Braz.) 67
Tuiuti, 1867 (Ecua.) 138
*Tupiza, (Arg.) 12
*Uruguay Cross, 1817–22 (Braz.) 76
Uruguay and Buenos Aires Medal, 1852 (Braz.) 82
Uruguay Medal, 1852 (Braz.) 82
Uruguay Medal, 1865 (Braz.) 83
*Uruguayana, 1865 (Braz.) 84
*Valdivia, 1820 (Ch.) 100
*Valparaiso (Ch.) 120
Villar (Venez) 172
*Volunteers of 1822–23 (Braz.) 76
*War Cross, 1917–18 (Braz.) 90
*Yanacocha, 1835 (Bol.) 48
*Yanacocha, 1835 (Peru) 157
*Yatay, 1865 (Urugu.) 164
*Yungay Cross, 1839 (Ch.) 109
*Yungay Medal, 1839 (Ch.) 110
Zepita, 1823 (Peru) 151

figure

COIN I. Above: cross-section, reversed in photographing, (w 25) ; micrographs taken at consecutive points and coördinated. Below: Enlargements (× 45) not continuous; see text.


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