Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

Author
Hazard, Harry W. (Harry Williams), 1918-1989
Series
Numismatic Studies
Publisher
American Numismatic Society
Place
New York
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Source
Donum
Source
Worldcat
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Worldcat Works
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HathiTrust

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CC BY-NC

Acknowledgement

Open access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities/Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program.

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: LATE MEDIEVAL NORTH AFRICA

The region termed North Africa is a geographic unit whose natural isolation by formidable physical barriers has led to an unusually persistent historical isolation. The deserts to the east and south have proven far more effective deterrents to military and commercial intercourse than the sea to the north; the ocean on the west was not opened as a frontier until the Portuguese expansion of the sixteenth century.

At the time of the rise of Islam in the seventh century this region was divided between the Eastern Roman Empire, which had retaken the fortified coastal cities from the Vandals, and the Berbers, who held the interior. The Arab conquest of North Africa was slow and bitter compared to the rapid successes in Egypt and Syria, but by the end of the seventh century it was virtually complete. During the next five decades under the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus the religion of Islam and the Arabic language spread unchecked, and the transfer after 750 to agents of the 'Abbāsids was not difficult.

The loss of Spain, to an Umayyad scion, the unrest of the Berbers, and the distance from Baghdad made North Africa a troublesome province. Morocco broke away in 789 under the 'Alid Idrīsids, while in 800 Tunisia and adjacent lands became semi-independent under the hereditary governorship of the Aghlabids. All eastern bonds were severed in 909 when the Shī'ite Fāṭimids seized power; their conquest of Egypt in 969 and the transfer of their capital thither in 972 left North Africa a power vacuum.

Between that date and 1047, when the late medieval period covered in this study may arbitrarily be said to commence, Morocco was disputed among Berber chieftains, with some intervention by Spanish Moslems, though only Ceuta remained under Andalusian control at the terminal date. Western Algeria was also dominated by Berber leaders, while eastern Algeria had been governed since 1014 by the Ḥammādid dynasty of Ṣanhājah Berbers and Tunisia was still nominally a Fāṭimid dependency under their loyal Zīrid governors.

Within the next decade Ceuta had expelled its Ḥammūdid masters and come under local Barghawāṭah Berber rule; the rest of Morocco was rapidly being brought under the control of a militant new sect, the Murābiṭ s, whose leaders were veiled Lamtūnah Berbers from the Sahara; Tunisia had rebelled against the Fāṭimids and become independent and officially Sunnite under the Zīrids, and had been punished by a devastating invasion of Arabs from upper Egypt, the Banū-Hilāl and the Banū-Sulaym.

This new order lasted for nearly a century. The Murābiṭs conquered all of Morocco as well as western Algeria, the western Sahara, and Andalusia, ruling until 1147. The Ḥammādids, though under Arab attack, held most of eastern Algeria until 1152. The Zīrids, penned by the Arabs into fortified ports, turned to commerce and piracy, when Normans from Sicily started invasions which yielded them control of several ports until 1160.

The common victor over Murābiṭs, Ḥammādids, and Sicilians, as well as over the marauding Arabs and the petty princelings of Andalusia and Tunisia, were the Muwaḥḥids, a unitarian sect ruled by Kūmiyah Berbers from the High Atlas, who established an empire stretching from Tripolitania to the Atlantic and including all of Moslem Spain. Their sway dissolved after half a century, and ended in 1269 with the fall of Marrakesh, their empire being thenceforth divided among smaller but more enduring successor dynasties of less theological motivation.

Moslem Spain regained its independence under the rival Hūdid and Naṣrid families, each of which occasionally controlled the part of North Africa around Ceuta. Pressure of Christian reconquest steadily reduced the Moslem holdings, and finally eliminated them with the surrender of Granada in 1492.

Morocco was the portion of the conquerors of the Muwaḥḥids, the Marīnid dynasty of Zanātah Berbers, who were replaced in 1465 by the Zanātah Waṭṭāsids, who in turn lost a triangular struggle with the Portuguese and the 'Alid Sharīfs. The Sharīfian victory in 1554 after a 44-year contest marked the beginning of the modern period in Morocco.

Western Algeria fell to the Ziyānids, another Zanātah Berber family, who ruled at Tlemcen despite invasions and other interruptions until the Ottoman conquest n 1556.

Eastern Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripolitania formed the domain of the Maṣmūdah Berber Ḥafṣids, whose powerful and prosperous state survived French, Spanish, and Italian assaults as well as Marīnid invasions, but fell in 1574 to the Ottoman Turks.

With the establishment of Ottoman hegemony over Algeria and Tunisia the modern phase of North African history commenced, so that the late medieval period covered by this study may be termed its independent Sunnite Berber epoch, between the early medieval Shī'ites (Idrīsids and Fāṭimids), Arabs, and foreigners (Umayyads, 'Abbāsids, Spanish Umayyads and Ḥammūdids, and Egyptian Fāṭimids), on the one hand, and the modern Shī'ite Sharīfs of Morocco and the Ottoman Turks on the other. Still later, of course, European Christians dominated the whole of North Africa, with French efforts being most successful and enduring.


MINTS IN NORTH AFRICA AND IN Spain

As in the index of mints, the mints discussed in this chapter are divided by continents. African mints are treated first, listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order, so that names preceded by the definite article al- are grouped together between Aghmāt and Bijāyah. The Spanish mints, similarly listed in strict Arabic alphabetical order, commence with number 38, and are followed by notes on coins with mints, mintless coins, and mint inscriptions.

The locations of these mint towns are indicated on the map.

A. African Mints

1. Azammūr أزمور

This Moroccan Atlantic port came into prominence, both as a town and as a mint, at a relatively late date. Apart from one late Muwaḥḥid double dinar (514) and one early Waṭṭāsid dinar (869) — neither of them beyond question — its appearance is limited to a handful of fourteenth-century Marīnid gold, noteworthy chiefly for variant spellings of the mint town: al-Zammūr, al-Zamwār, Azamwār, and Azammū.

2. Aghmāt أغمات

This south Moroccan caravan center between mountain and desert appears exclusively on Murābiṭ gold. Dinars exist for almost every year from 486 to 540 except the decade 516 To 526, of which only 523 is known. The significance, if any, of this hiatus is not reflected in historical accounts.

3. al-Jazā'ir ألجزائر

Algiers occurs with the definite article only on a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1091). For other coins from this mint see Jazā'ir.

4. al-Ḥāmmah ألحامة

The only coin known to have been struck at this western Tunisian oasis is a Ḥafṣid double dinar (616) discovered and discussed by Farrugia de Candia.

5. al-Qayrawān أاقيروان

Kairouan, south of Tunis, was the Zīrid capital before the eleventh-century Arab invasion, and appears on al-Mu'izz's Sunnite gold (3–11) between 441 and 448 with the interesting appellation "City of the power of Islam".

6. al-Mahdīyah ألمهدى

When ejected from Kairouan, the Zīrid al-Mu'izz fled to the strongly fortified Tunisian port of Mahdia, where Sunnite dinars (12a, 13) had already been struck for him in 446 and 447; he and his son Tamīm minted Shī'ite dinars there (15–23) between 449 and 459. See also Mahdīyah.

7. al-Nāṣirīyah ألناصرية

This alternative Arab name for Bougie is said by Ibn-Khaldūn to occur as the mint for a dinar (25) struck by the last Ḥammādid ruler in 543, no surviving specimens of which are recorded.

8. Bijāyah بجاية

Bougie, an important port in eastern Algeria, appears in its usual form on early Muwaḥḥid gold, on Muwaḥḥid or Ḥafṣid silver (1085), on much Ḥafṣid gold — reflecting its often independent status as a provincial capital, and on Marīnid gold (759, 769, 778) struck during recurrent invasions.

9. Biskirah بسكرة

Biskra, in east central Algeria, appears only on a single Ḥafṣid double dinar (611), discovered and commented on by Farrugia de Candia.

10. Banī-Tāwadā بني تاودا

This Berber clan gave its name to a central Moroccan market town which served as a Murābiṭ mint in the year 513 (168).

11. Tāzā تازا

Mazdara' ibn-Ḥayyān during his rebellion against the Muwaḥḥids in 559 is said by Ibn-abī-Zar' to have coined gold (499) in this north Moroccan fortress town, but it is doubtful whether the mint name appeared on the coin, no specimens of which are known to have survived.

12. Tadghah تدغة

This Idrīsid mint near Sijilmāsah in southern Morocco is said to appear on a single Muwaḥḥid dinar (449), but this must be considered unlikely. The transliterated form usually reported, Bad'ah, is an incorrect rendition of the unpointed Arabic.

13. Taṭwān تطوان

Tetouan, near Ceuta, is reported as the mint for a single Marīnid double dinar (818) by Brèthes, who does not specify the Arabic spelling and whose readings must always be considered suspect.

14. Tilimsān تلمسان

Tlemcen served many dynasties as their chief mint in western Algeria: Murābiṭs, Muwaḥḥids, Ḥafṣids, and Marīnids (the two last-named during recurrent conquests), as well as the Ziyānids, whose capital it was and almost all of whose scarce coins were struck there over a span of more than three centuries.

15. Tanas تنس

The Algerian port of Tenes is found on a single Ḥafṣid double dinar (640) and on a hybrid piece (H8).

16. Tūzar توزر

The inland Tunisian town of Tozeur, like its neighbors al-Ḥāmmah and Biskra, is found only on one Ḥafṣid gold piece (628) reported by Farrugia de Candia.

17. Tūnis تونس

The Ḥafṣid capital appears as mint on a few Muwaḥḥid and Marīnid coins and several Ḥafṣid pieces of gold, silver, and copper; in addition, it was almost certainly the unnamed source of most mintless Ḥafṣid gold.

18. Tīn Mallal تين ملل

This Atlas mountain cradle of Ibn-Tūmart's Muwaḥḥid sect is said by Bel to appear as mint (in the form Tin Mallal) on a few specimens of a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1089), but the reading is open to question.

19. Jarbah جرية

The only coin reported for this pirates' haven off the Tunisian coast is a square Muwaḥḥid or Ḥafṣid dirhem (1090).

20. Jazā'ir جزائر

Algiers, without the definite article, was an outlying mint for Ḥafṣid (549, 637, 638), Ziyānid (649), and Marīnid (763) gold. See also al-Jazā'ir.

21. Ribāṭ al-Fatḥ رباط الفتح

Rabat, on the Atlantic coast of northern Morocco, was a subsidiary Muwaḥḥid mint for gold (475) and silver (1078, 1092).

22. Sabtah سبتة

Ceuta, opposite Gibraltar, changed hands frequently during the late medieval period, occurring as mint on Ḥammūdid silver and copper, Murābiṭ gold and silver, Muwaḥḥid gold and silver, Hūdid silver, Ḥafṣid gold, Marīnid gold and silver, and Naṣrid gold. Especially important are the many coins struck at Ceuta by rebels and independent chieftains, including the Barghawāṭah Saqaut and his son (880–886, 1157–1160), the last Murābiṭ insurgent Yaḥyâ al-Ṣaḥrāwī (443), Muwaḥḥid partisans (1057–1061) and rebels (1076, 1077), Hūdid agents (540, 1117–1120), local shaykhs (541, 1121), a Ḥafṣid governor (553), and Naṣrid intruders (868, 1153); many of these do not bear the mint name.

23. Sijilmāsah سجلماسة

This vanished south Moroccan city was the stronghold of the early Murābiṭs and a perennial haven for dissidents under later dynasties. An almost complete set of Murābiṭ dinars survives, scattered Muwaḥḥid gold and silver, an odd Muwaḥḥid-style dinar (554) struck by al-Khazrajī as a Ḥafṣid vassal, and a considerable quantity of Marīnid gold and silver.

24. Safāqus سفاقس

Sfax, a Tunisian port, is a Zīrid mint on two exceptional dinars reported by Farrugia de Candia (12, 24).

25. Salā سلا

This twin port of Rabat, in northern Morocco, is found on one Murābiṭ dinar (183), two Muwaḥḥid dinars (454, 455), and one Marīnid double dinar (789), suggesting a slight but continuous peripheral importance.

26. Ṣabrah صبرة

Reversion from the Fāṭimid name al-Manṣūrīyah to the original Ṣabrah was the first numismatic fore-shadowing of the Zīrid revolt, furnishing the arbitrary starting date for this study. It occurs for this Tunisian suburb of Kairouan only on dinars (1, 2) dated 439 and 440.

27. Ṭarābulus طرابلس

Although Tripoli is a standard Fāṭimid mint, Syrian rather than Libyan Tripoli was intended at this period, so such coins are excluded. The only North African coins struck after 439 with this mint are a handful of Ḥafṣid gold pieces. No coins are known for the many local amīrs.

28. Ṭanjah طنجة

Tangier appears to have been completely overshadowed by Ceuta, occurring only on one Murābiṭ qirat (974).

29. Fās فاس

Fez has been since Idrīsid times one of the most important cities of Morocco, and this importance is reflected in its use as mint on a nearly complete series of Murābiṭ dinars from 484 to 539, several Muwaḥḥid coins of gold, silver, and copper, and a large quantity of Marīnid gold with occasional silver. Many mintless Muwaḥḥid and Marīnid coins were probably minted at Fez.

30. Qābis قابس

Gabes, an important south Tunisian port, was identified on a single Jāmi'id dinar (24a) by Prieto y Vives and confirmed on a clearer specimen in this study.

31. Qusanṭīnah قسنطينة

Constantine, in inland eastern Algeria, appears as a provincial capital on a small group of Ḥafṣid double dinars, including one of an independent princeling (601).

32. Qafṣah قفصة

Gafsa, an oasis in western Tunisia, occurs intermittently as a peripheral Ḥafṣid mint for gold (587, 605, 619, 620).

33. Marrākush مراكش

Marrakesh shared with Fez the supremacy of Morocco, and consequently is found on a rich group of Murābiṭ dinars, several Muwaḥḥid gold and silver pieces, and a quantity of Marīnid gold, to which must be added the bulk of mintless Muwaḥḥid and Marīnid gold.

34. Miknāsah مكناسة

Meknes, near Fez, was overshadowed by its neighbor, being reported on scattered Murābiṭ silver (906, 907) and Muwaḥḥid gold (464, 465) and silver (1099).

35. Mahdīyah مهدية

This variant without the definite article is reported on a single Ḥafṣid dinar (621) by Farrugia de Candia. See al-Mahdīyah.

36. Nūl نول

This caravan depot on the Wādī Nūn in southern Morocco appears in this form between 494 and 511 on Murābiṭ dinars.

37. Nūl Lamṭah نول لمطة

After 513 Nūl was modified by adding the clan-name of the local Berbers, occurring regularly past the downfall of the Murābiṭs to an anonymous dinar (444) dated 542. Distorted forms of this name may occur on Muwaḥḥid gold (490) and silver (1100), but it does not appear thereafter.

B. Spanish Mints

38. Ishbīliyah إشبيلية

Seville issued a steady stream of Murābiṭ dinars from 489 to 541 except for the decades 500–509 and 527–534, with occasional silver. The earliest Muwaḥḥids minted gold and silver there, and just before its reconquest by Castile a double dinar (555) was struck for the Ḥafṣid Yaḥyâ I by his cousin and representative there.

39. Ighranāṭahإغرناطة

This variant for Granada was used instead of Gharnāṭah on a quantity of Murābiṭ gold and some silver and copper struck between 504 and 527, and on dinars dated 540 and 541 (438–440), when it was one of the few Spanish towns still under Murābiṭ control.

40. al-Jazīrah ألجزيرة

Algeciras minted Murābiṭ dinars (230–233) from 507 to 509.

41. al-Qanṭarah ألقنطرة

A Murābiṭ dinar (115) of Yūsuf, dated 496, is ascribed by Colson to Alcantara, with the Arabic spelling not specified.

42. al-Marīyah ألمرية

Almeria was one of the most prolific Murābiṭ mints in Spain, being represented in 492, from 494 to 499, and from 506 to 539 by a rich series of dinars, with several varieties per year at times and with many specimens in excellent condition of typical issues.

43. Balansiyah بلنسية

Between 496 and 512 Valencia struck Murābiṭ dinars, and a dirhem (947) in 503; no other coins are ascribed to this mint except a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1107).

44. Bayyāsah بياسة

Codera noted a Murābiṭ dinar dated 497 from Baeza (106), an otherwise unrecorded mint for African rulers.

45. Jayyān جيان

Jaen struck occasional silver for Murābiṭs and early Muwaḥḥids, and a single Muwaḥḥid dinar (471).

46. Dāniyah دانية

Denia is found on a few Murābiṭ dinars from 495 to 504, and on a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1109).

47. Saraqusṭah سرقسطة

Saragossa appears as mint only on a very few Murābiṭ dirhems (948, 949, 1162), having been conquered late and lost early.

48. Sanlūkah سنلوكة

San Lucar struck a little gold (108) and silver (900, 901) for the Murābiṭ Yūsuf ibn-Tāshfīn.

49. Shāṭibah شاطبة

Jativa occurs on Murābiṭ dinars struck between 489 and 500.

50. Sharīsh شريش

Only silver is known for Jerez: Murābiṭ (950) and Muwaḥḥid (1110).

51. Gharnāṭahغرناطة

This Arabic equivalent for Granada, though less popular with the Murābiṭs than Ighranāṭah, occurs on gold, silver, and copper, including a post-downfall dinar (445) of Maymūn ibn-Badr dated 545. This spelling also appears on square Muwaḥḥid dirhems and on a double dinar (556) struck by Ibn-al-Aḥmar as a Ḥafṣid vassal.

52. Qurṭubah قرطبة

Cordova is found on Murābiṭ gold and silver from 486 to 507. In 540 and 541 the rebel Ḥamdīn ibn-Muḥammad struck Murābiṭ gold (441, 442) and silver (1038, 1052) there, as well as silver in his own name; then followed Ibn-Ghāniyah's 542 dinar (446). Cordova also served the Muwaḥḥids briefly as a mint for gold (472) and silver (1112).

53. Qanṭarat al-Sayf قنطرة السيف

This alternative for Alcantara may occur on the dinar (115) reported by Colson, instead of al-Qanṭarah.

54. Qūnkah قونكة

Cuenca appears only on a single Murābiṭ dirhem (966) dated 506.

55. Laushah لوشة

Loja may be the mint on a Murābiṭ dinar (258) dated 511.

56. Mālaqah مالقة

At Malaga were struck a few Murābiṭ dinars between 494 and 506, a Murābiṭ qirat (967), and some Muwaḥḥid silver. Muwaḥḥid gold reported for Malaga by Prieto y Vives was misread.

57. Mānurqah مانرقة

Minorca is represented only by a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1114).

58. Mursiyah مرسية

A series of Murābiṭ dinars was struck at Murcia from 501 to 512, and both Murābiṭ and Muwaḥḥid silver. Noteworthy are anonymous dirhems (968, 969) dated 502 and 503 and a square half dirhem (1074) in the name of 'Abd-al-Mu'min, though Murcia was not taken by the Muwaḥḥids until nine years after his death.

59. Mayūrqah ميورقة

Majorca, like Minorca, occurs only on a square Muwaḥḥid dirhem (1116).

C. Illegible Mints

A certain number of coins have mint names which are illegible either by clipping, by poor engraving, by wear, or by obscure reproduction. These coins are listed in the index, and whatever can be reconstructed of the mint name is given under each such coin's description in the corpus.

D. Without Mints

A large number of coins have no mint inscription, and only rarely has an effort been made to attribute them to definite towns. The bulk of Murābiṭ silver is mintless, probably having been coined at various mints, chiefly in Spain. Most of the mintless Muwaḥḥid and Marīnid gold was probably struck at Marrākush and Fās, but the plentiful mintless silver comes from many places, including European imitators. Ḥafṣid mintless gold and silver must have been struck chiefly at Tūnis, and Hūdid North African issues at Sabtah. No rule can be deduced by which the mint was named or omitted, except that it was almost always identified on Murābiṭ gold.

E. Mint Inscriptions

See section J of the chapter on conventional inscriptions for al-maḥrūsah, ḥaḍr, ḥaḍrat, and madīnat.


TITLES

A. Transcendent

Certain titles found on the coins under consideration transcend the purely human and were in general reserved for divinely inspired leaders second only to Muḥammad (and 'Alī among Shī'ites). Such titles include khalīfat Allāh, imām al-ummah, and imāmunā.

1. khalīfat Allāh خليفة الله

Vicar of God: applied only to the Mahdī, Muḥammad ibn-Tūmart, by the Muwaḥḥids and the Ḥafṣids, chiefly on their gold.

2. imām al-ummah امام الامة

Leader of the community: applied to the Mahdī by the Muwaḥḥids and the Ḥafṣids, solely on their gold, and to the 'Abbāsid caliph on Hūdid gold (541).

3. imāmunā امامنا

Our leader: applied to the Mahdī by the Muwaḥḥids and the Ḥafṣids, chiefly on their silver, to the 'Abbāsid caliph on Hūdid silver (1117–1120), and to himself by Muwaḥḥid 10 (1078–1083).

B. Caliphal

The titles al-khalīfah, al-imām, and amīr al-mu'minīn were strictly limited to rulers of caliphal pretensions and were often used consecutively to stress various aspects of the supreme authority.

4. al-khalīfah ألخليفة

The caliph: a title reserved by the Muwaḥḥids for their first ruler, 'Abd-al-Mu'min, except on the medal (M1); applied to the 'Abbāsid caliph by the Hūdids (540, 541, 1121).

5. al-imām ألإمام

The leader: applied to the Fāṭimid Ma'add by his Zīrid vassals, to the 'Abbāsids by nominal Jāmi',d, Ḥammādid, Murābiṭ, and Hūdid vassals, to themselves by the Ḥammūdids, to an unidentified suzerain by their Barghawāṭah governors, to 'Abd-al-Mu'min by the Muwaḥḥids, to additional Muwaḥḥids on the medal (M1), and to unspecified persons by the Muwaḥḥid partisans (446a, 1059–1061).

6. amīr al-mu'minīn أمير المؤمنين

Commander of the believers: applied exactly as al-imām, and usually together with it; also used by all the Muwaḥḥids, most of the Ḥafṣids — including 15B, who had no right to it (603), and Marīnids 12 (always), 24 (rarely: 839, 853), and 26 (once: 867); attributed (probably incorrectly) to Ziyānid 5 (648, 649); applied to the Ottomans by their Ziyānid vassals (670, 671).

C. Caliphal (Dual)

The dual forms al-khalifatayn, al-khalīfatayn al-rāshidayn, and amīray al-mu'minīn were used following ibn- to indicate descent from two caliphs.

7. al-khalīfatayn ألخليفتين

Of the two caliphs: applied only to the first two Muwaḥḥids.

8. al-khalīfatayn al-rāshidayn ألخليفتين الراشدين

Of the two orthodox caliphs: misapplied to the first three Muwaḥḥids on a hybrid gold piece (H4).

9. amīray al-mu'minīn أميرى المؤمنين

Of two commanders of the believers: applied only to the first two Muwaḥḥids (511).

D. Caliphal (Plural)

The corresponding plural forms were similarly used after ibn- to indicate descent from more than two caliphs (often untruthfully).

10. al-khulafā' ألخلفاء

Of the caliphs: used only on one coin (512) in reference to three and to four Muwaḥḥids.

11. al-khulafā' al-rāshidīn ألخلفاء الراشدين

Of the orthodox caliphs: used correctly by the early Muwaḥḥids in reference to three and to four predecessors, incorrectly by 10 in reference to only two. Frequently misused by the Marīnids, this phrase is also found on two coins dubiously ascribed to Ziyānid 5 (648, 649) and on one Hūdid double dinar (540) in reference to the 'Abbāsids.

12. umarā' al-mu'minīn أمراء المؤمنين

Of (the) commanders of the believers: used correctly on a few coins in reference to three and to four Muwaḥḥids.

E. Sub-Caliphal

The title amīr al-muslimīn has been appropriately designated sub-caliphal by van Berchem in his definitive study of occidental titles; no other title falls into this category.

13. amīr al-muslimīn أمير المسلمين

Commander of the Moslems: used by the later Murābiṭs but never by Yūsuf, despite the historians, also by the Murābiṭ partisan Yaḥyâ al-Ṣaḥrāwī (443), by most of the Ziyānids, most of the Marīnids except 12, and several of the Waṭṭāsids. Noteworthy are a Murābiṭ qirat (913), assigning this title to Yūsuf, and a Marīnid double dinar (793) where it is applied to two amīrs who had no valid claim to it.

F. Royal

Titles which may be considered royal include al-malik, sulṭān or al-sulṭān, and al-amīr al-ajall.

14. al-malik ألملك

The king: used only by Ḥafṣid 21 (637, 638) and Marīnid 13 (787).

15. sulṭān سلطان

Sultan: used only by the late Ḥafṣid 27 on his silver (1130, 1132).

16. al-sulṭān ألسلطان

The sultan: used by the same late Ḥafṣid on his silver (1124–1129) and by his predecessors 21 (637, 638) and 26 (644) on their gold.

17. al-amīr al-ajall ألأمير الأجل

The highest commander: used by Muwaḥḥids 1A and 2 as heirs, and by 2 before achieving caliphal recognition; used by Ḥafṣids 1 and 4 in eschewing caliphship, and by 2 and 10 prior to their achieving caliphal rank.

G. Princely

Several titles were used to indicate non-royal ancestors, heirs, or independent princes not aspiring to dynasty-wide rule; these may be termed princely, and include al-amīr, al-amīr al-ṭāhir, sayyid, al-sayyid, and sayyidinā.

18. al-amīr ألامير

The commander: used by all the early Murābiṭs exclusively and by the later ones for heirs or for themselves in limited space. Used while heir by Ḥammūdid 9 (872–874) and Muwaḥḥid 4 (1075: tentative); as independent prince by Zīrid 8A (24a), Ḥammādid 9 (25), Muwaḥḥid 9A (1076, 1077), Ḥafṣid 6A (574–576), Ḥafṣid 12 (594), and Naṣrid 8 (868); for ancestors by Muwaḥḥids (536) and Ḥafṣids (557–561, 603, 609).

19. al-amīr al-ṭāhir ألأمير الطاهر

Of the righteous commander: used only by Muwaḥḥid 12 in reference to a non-royal ancestor (522–535, M1).

20. sayyid سيد

Of (the) chief: used only by Muwaḥḥid 13 in reference to non-royal ancestors (537).

21. al-sayyid ألسيد

The chief: used only by Marīnid 20A as independent prince (831, 832).

22. sayyidinā سيدنا

Of our chief: used only by Muwaḥḥids 12 (M1) and 13 (538) in reference to non-royal ancestors.

H. Princely (Dual)

The dual forms al-amīrayn and sayyidaynā were used following ibn- to indicate descent from two princes.

23. al-amīrayn ألأميرين

Of the two commanders: applied only to the first two Muwaḥḥids as a contraction of amīray al-mu'minin (503).

24. sayyidaynā سيدينا

Of our two chiefs: applied only to the first two Muwaḥḥids (M1).

I. Princely (Plural)

The plural forms al-umarā;' and al-umarā;' al-rāshidīn were likewise used after ibn- to indicate descent from more than two princes.

25. al-umarā' ألامراء

Of the commanders: applied only to the first 3 Muwaḥḥids (1075: tentative).

26. al-umarā' al-rāshidīn ألامراء الراشدين

Of the orthodox commanders: used of the first 3 Muwaḥḥids (1076, 1077), and constantly by the Ḥafṣids.

J. Heritorial

The final group of titles — walī al-'ahd, walī 'ahdihi, and al-ḥājib — was reserved exclusively for proclaimed heirs.

27. walī al-'ahd ولي العهد

Heir: used for Ḥammūdid 9 (875–879), Murābiṭ 4 (1017), and Muwaḥḥid 4 (1075: tentative).

28. walī 'ahdihi ولي عهده

His heir: applied to Murābiṭs 3, 3A, 4, and 5.

29. al-ḥājib ألحاجب

The chancellor: applied to Ḥammūdids 9B and 9C (887).


PROPER NAMES

The Arabic and Berber proper names as they appear on the coins can be grouped into four classes. There are personal names (Arabic singular ism), many of them Koranic equivalents of Biblical names, others ordinary Arabic substantives. There are such names preceded by abū-, father of, seldom indicating actual relationship. There are both such types preceded by ibn-, son of, indicating direct sonship and arbitrarily differentiated in this study from Ibn-, indicating more remote kinship, a form which never appears on the coins. Forms in ibn- and abū- are both termed kunyah in Arabic. And there are clan or tribe names, usually in the nisbah form al-'Abbāsī or the Ibn- (plural Banū-) form. Each group is treated briefly in Arabic alphabetical order, with names appearing on coins numbered and others lettered.

A. Personal Names

(Arabic singular ism)

1. Ibrāhīm إبراهيم

Abraham: Murābiṭs 1B, 5; Ḥafṣids 4, 16. Not on coins (hereafter abbreviated to N.o.c.): Hūdid 3A; Ḥafṣid 12B; Marīnid 14.

2. Abū-Bakr أبو بكر

Father of young camel: Murābiṭ 1; Ḥafṣid 10. Despite its composition this is a personal name, derived from the first caliph. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 9; Marīnid 4.

3. Aḥmad أحمد

Most praised: Ḥafṣids 17, 27; Ziyānid 19; Marīnid 20; Waṭṭāsid 4. N.o.c.: Hūdid 1A; Ḥafṣids 4A (real name), 14; Ziyānids 24, 28.

4. Idrīs إدريس

Enoch: Ḥammūdid 6; Muwaḥḥid 8. N.o.c.: Muwaḥḥid 13.

5. Isḥāq إسحاق

Isaac: Murābiṭ 6.

a. al-Ḥasan ألحسن

The fortunate: N.o.c.: Zīrid 8. Occurs on coins as epithet.

6. al-Rashīd ألرشيد

The orthodox: Zīrid 8A. Occurs also as epithet.

The Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa

CORRIGENDA AND ADDENDA

page item or coin line now reads should read
10 16 n 1556. in 1556.
18 5 3 Jāmi',d Jāmi'id
24 23 2 Ḥafṣids Ḥafṣid
37 23 1 يوكلت توكلت
38 24 1 يوكلت توكلت
40 54 1 ويرزقه ويرزقه
40 60 2 الله الله
56 11 Ḥammadids Ḥammādids
59 13 Murabiṭ Murābiṭ
61 6 through though
63 2 Almerica Almeria
65 (genealogical tree) (connecting line omitted) (connect 4 to 5 by a vertical line)
70 8 1 abū'l-Baqā' abū'l-Baqā'
76 20 1 ibn-al-Za'im ibn-al-Za'īm
82 18 in known is known
84 6 887 897
85 9 Banu- Banū-
88 9 306 295
94 24a OF 1 لا اله لا اله
95 13 ibn-Nāṣir ibn-al-Nāṣir
97 28 RF 2 لله الله
121 286 5 as م as مر
130 8 ستر سير
133 382 OF 4 يرسف يوسف
149 32 Mazdara 'ibn- Mazdara' ibn-
149 499 4 Rawḍ Rauḍ
151 507 RS 2 اصرا امرا
154 513 RF 1 الفاسم القاسم
154 517 3 اجاهد الجاهد
155 520 OS 2 اصرا امرا
158 540 RF 4 االخلفا الخلفا
160 547 RF 3 واالحول والحول
162 560 RF 2 ايى ابى
162 561 OS 1 الاقير الامير
163 563 OF 2 جليفة خليفة
167 582 RS 1 الاميى الامير
167 582 RS 2 بنصو بنصر
168 582 1 امير امير
168 584 OS 1 لرحيم الرحيم
172 600 OS 2 جليفة خليفة
178 629 OS 1 الرجيم الرحيم
178 630 RF 1 او ابو
189 669 OF 1 له اله
198 704 RF 1 يوكلت توكلت
198 707 OF 2 اصنت امنت
203 735 RF 4 امتر امير
205 747 7 pl. XIII pl. XXIII
210 780 RF 3 ا.ده ايده
214 793 5 اني ابي
217 810 RF 2 من عن
217 810 OS 1 ولهكم والهكم
221 834 9 2nd in 2nd
224 850 RF 1 امولانا مولانا
229 4 Banu- Banū-
231 H 10 2 امها امنها
233 871 RF 3 فان فلن
238 900 6 سنه سنة
243 927 RF 1 ولى ولي
243 927 10 وعلي ولي
245 941 6 صوات صلوات
247 953 OM 1 يوكلت توكلت
250 977 OF 3 لامير الامير
265 39 Nor Not
274 1127 OF 4 خليقة خليفة
280 1155 RF 1 عبد الله عبدالله
289 26 Belleís-Letres Belles-Lettres
290 45 birauḍ bi-rauḍ
325 10 561 1561
326 1 Sipecimens Specimens
330 7 (headings) (delete)
335 12 Fas Fās
370 36 االسلام الاسلام
371 5 نغس نفس
371 30 ننينا نبينا

(Referred to on pages 45 and 47)

Murābiṭ silver with no inscription on OF except mint mark:

938

Murābiṭ silver with ornament alone on OF:

935, 988, 1009, 1012, 1013, 1024–1026, 1028, 1049, 1050; also 1064 (Muwaḥḥid)

Murābiṭ silver with blank OF:

890, 898, 899, 934, 936, 937, 944–946, 989, 990, 995, 1010, 1013, 1016, 1016b, 1031, 1033

Coins with errors in engraving:

11, 18, 26, 42, 47, 49, 54, 63, 72, 94, 97, 129, 170, 217, 219, 221, 230, 258, 273, 340, 359, 395, 407, 426, 438, 469, 490, 506, 513, 516, 530, 609, 613, 638, 667, 715, 716, 775, 795, 811, 817, 828, H3, H4

Coins with errors in striking:

610, 617, 618, 622, 623, 624, 629, 630, 634, 642, 704–706, 709, 740, 804, H 1–H 14, 1030, 1055, 1097, 1157–1171

Printed in Germany at J. J. Augustin, Glückstadt

b. al-Za'īm ألزعيم

The chief: N.o.c.: Ziyānids 7, 10.

c. al-Sa'īd ألسعيد

The happy: N.o.c.: Ziyānid 16. Occurs on coins as epithet.

7. al-'Izz ألعز

The power: Ḥammūdid 9B.

d. al-'Azīz ألعزيز

The powerful: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 8.

8. al-Faḍl ألفضل

The honor: Ḥafṣids 4A (assumed name), 15.

e. al-Qā'id ألقائد

The general: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 2.

f. al-Mu'izz ألمعز

The made-powerful: N.o.c.: Zīrid 4.

g. al-Manṣūr ألمنصور

The rendered-victorious: N.o.c.: 'Abbāsid 36; Ḥammādid 6. Occurs on coins as epithet.

h. al-Nāṣir ألناصر

The victorious: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 5.

i. Bādīs باديس

—: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 7.

j. Bulukkīn بلكين

—: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 4.

9. Tāshfīn تاشفين

—: Murābiṭ 4. N.o.c.: Marīnid 15.

k. Tamīm تميم

Tall: N.o.c.: Zīrid 5.

10. Ḥasan حسن

Fortunate: Ziyānid 29.

1. Ḥammū حمو

—: N.o.c.: Zīrid 4A.

11. Khālid خالد

Eternal: Ḥafṣid 8. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 18.

12. Zakarīyā' زكرياء

Zachariah: Ḥafṣid 11. N.o.C.: Ḥafṣid 24.

13. Sa'd سعد

Fortune: engraver's name in tiny letters (904, 1017).

14. Saqaut سقوت

—: Ḥammūdids 9A, 9C.

15. Sulaymān سليمان

Solomon: Ottoman 10 (on Ziyānids 26, 27: 670, 671). N.o.c.: Marīnid 9.

16. Sīr سير

—: Murābiṭ 3A.

m. 'Āmir عامر

Commanding: N.o.c.: Marīnid 8.

17. 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq عبد الحق

Servant of the truth: Marīnid 28. N.o.c.: Marīnid 1.

n. 'Abd-al-Ḥalīm عبد الحليم

Servant of the forbearing: N.o.c.: Marīnid 16.

18. 'Abd-al-Raḥmān عبد الرحمان

Servant of the merciful: Ḥafṣid 15A; Ziyānids 5, 9, 15; Marīnid 20A. N.o.c.: Ziyānid 21.

19. 'Abd-al-'Azīz عبد العزيز

Servant of the powerful: Ḥafṣid 19; Marīnids 18, 24. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 5.

20. 'Abd-Allāh عبد الله

Servant of God: Ziyānids 13, 26; Marīnid 25. N.o.c.: 'Abbāsid 37; Muwaḥḥids 7, 7A. Usually occurs on coins as epithet.

21. 'Abd-al-Mu'min عبد المؤمن

Servant of the believing: Muwaḥḥid 1 (on 1–13, Ḥafṣid 1); Marīnid 17A. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 23.

22. 'Abd-al-Wāḥid عبد الواحد

Servant of the one: Muwaḥḥid 10 (on 10, 11); Ziyānid 17. N.o.c.: Muwaḥḥid 6; Ḥafṣid 12C.

23. 'Uthmān عثمان

Young snake: Ḥafṣids 21; Marīnids 10, 26. N.o.c.: Ziyānids 2, 6; Marīnid 2.

24. 'Alī علي

Noble: Murābiṭs 1A, 3; Ḥafṣid 20A; Waṭṭāsid 3. N.o.c.: Zīrid 7; Muwaḥḥid 11; Marīnid 11.

25. 'Umar عمر

Omar: Ḥafṣids 6, 13. N.o.c.: Marīnids 5, 10A.

26. 'Imrān عمران

—: Muwaḥḥid 9A.

27. Fāris فارس

Cavalier: Marīnid 12.

28. Mālik مالك

Ruler: Name of engraver or mint-master (933).

o. Muḥsan محسن

Made-beneficent: N.o.c.: Ḥammādid 3.

29. Muḥammad محمد

Highly-praised: Ḥammūdid 9; Muwaḥḥids 1A, 4 (on 4, 5, 8, 9); Ḥafṣids 2, 7, 12, 15B, 20, 25, 26; Ziyānids 12, 14, 20, 27; Marīnids 13, 17, 19, 22; Naṣrid 8; Waṭṭāsids 1, 2. N.o.c.: 'Abbāsid 31; Muwaḥḥid 0; Hūdid 1; Ḥafṣids 12A, 28; Ziyānids 3, 8A, 18, 22, 23; Marīnids 3, 12A, 23, 27; Naṣrid 1; Waṭṭāsid 5.

30. Mazdara' مزدرع

—: Muwaḥḥid 2A.

31. Ma'add معد

Arranged: Fāṭimid 8 (on Zīrids 4, 5: 15–23).

32. Mūsâ موسى

Moses: Ziyānids 4, 8; Marīnid 21. N.o.c.: Ziyānid 25.

p. Maymūn ميمون

Auspicious: N.o.c.: Murābiṭ 6C.

33. Yāshir ياشر

—: mint-master at Seville (218–221, 339–343).

34. Yaḥyâ يحيى

John; Ḥammādid 9; Murābiṭ 6A; Muwaḥḥid 9; Ḥafṣids 1, 3. N.o.c.: Zīrid 6; Murābiṭ 6B; Ḥafṣids 6A, 22.

35. Ya'qūb يعقوب

Jacob: Muwaḥḥid 3 (on 3–5, 8, 9); Marīnid 6.

q. Yaghmurāsan يغمراسن

—: N.o.c.: Ziyānid 1.

36. Yūsuf يوسف

Joseph: Murābiṭ 2; Muwaḥḥids 2 (on 2–5, 8, 9, 12, 13, Ḥafṣid 1), 5. N.o.c.: Ziyānid 11; Marīnid 7.

37.?

Illegible name: 897. N.o.c. (ism unknown): Murābiṭ 6D.

B. Names with abū-

(Arabic singular kunyah)

The paternal relationship suggested by this form is usually arbitrary, certain combinations reappearing constantly, as indicated, regardless of the actual names of a man's sons, or even of his sonlessness. These were so invariable that late historians frequently apply them to the Murābiṭs, who did not use them, while the Ziyānid rulers actually invented a name of this type for their Ottoman suzerain.

r. abū-Aḥmad ابو أحمد

Father of most praised: N.o.c.: 'Abbāsid 37. With 'Abd-Allāh.

38. abū-Isḥāq أبو اسحاق

Father of Isaac: Ḥafṣids 4, 16. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 12B. With Ibrāhīm.

39. abū'l-Baqā' أبو البقاء

Father of the enduring: Ḥafṣid 8. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 18. With Khālid. No instance of the use of al-Baqā' as a personal name occurs in this study.

s. abū'l-Ḥajjāj أبو الحجاج

Father of the pilgrim: N.o.c.: Ziyānid 11. With Yūsuf. Al-Ḥajjāj does not occur as a personal name in this study.

40. abū'l-Ḥasan أبو الحسن

Father of the fortunate: Muwaḥḥid 11; Ḥafṣid 20A. N.o.c.: Marīnid 11; Waṭṭāsid 3. With 'Alī.

41. abū'l-Rabī' أبو الربيع

Father of the springtime: erroneously applied to Ottoman 10 by Ziyānids 26, 27 (670, 671). N.o.c.: Marīnid 9. With Sulaymān. Al-Rabī' does not occur as a personal name in this study.

42. abū'l-'Abbāsابو العباس

Father of the leonine: Ḥafṣids 4A (assumed name), 15, 17, 27; Ziyānid 19; Marīnid 20. N.o.c.: Hūdid 1A; Ḥafṣid 14; Marīnid 20; Waṭṭāsid 4. With Aḥmad or al-Faḍl. Al-'Abbās does not occur as a personal name in this study.

43. abū'l-'Ulâ أبو العلى

Father of the noblest: Muwaḥḥids 8, (on 8, 10, 11), 13. With Idrīs. Al-'Ulâ does not occur as a personal name in this study.

t. abū'l-Futūḥ أبو الفتوح

Father of the victories: N.o.c.: Zīrid 7. With 'Alī. Al-Futūḥ does not occur as a personal name in this study.

u. abū'l-Qāsim أبو القاسم

Father of the handsome: N.o.c.: Hūdid 3A. With Ibrāhīm. Al-Qāsim does not occur as a personal name in this study.

— abū-Bakr أبو بكر

See personal names.

v. abū-Tāshfīn أبو تاشفين

Father of Tāshfīn: N.o.c.: Ziyānids 5, 9, 15, 21. With 'Abd-al-Raḥmān.

44. abū-Tamīm أبو تميم

Father of strong: Fāṭimid 8 (on Zīrids 4, 5): with Ma'add. N.o.c.: Zīrid 4: with al-Mu'izz.

w. abū-Thābit أبو ثابت

Father of steadfast: N.o.c.: Ziyānids 7, 10 (al-Za'īm); Marīnid 8 ('Āmir). Thābit does not occur as a personal name in this study.

45. abū-Ja'far أبو جعفر

Father of rivulet: 'Abbāsid 36 (on Hūdid 1A: 1121). With al-Manṣūr (used as proper name, not as epithet). Ja'far does not occur as a personal name in this study.

46. abū-Ḥafṣ أبو حفص

Father of lion-cub: Muwaḥḥid 12; Ḥafṣids 6, 13. N.o.c.: Marīnid 5. With 'Umar. Ḥafṣ does not occur as a personal name in this study.

x. abū-Ḥammū أبو حمو

Father of Ḥammū: N.o.c.: Ziyānids 4, 8, 25. With Mūsâ. Sometimes spelt ابو حموا in inscriptions.

47. abū-Zakarīyā' أبو زكرياء

Father of Zachariah: Muwaḥḥid 9; Ḥafṣids 1, 3, 6A. N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 22. With Yaḥyâ.

y. abū-Ziyān أبو زيان

Father of ornament: N.o.c.: Ziyānids 3, 8A, 12, 24, 28; Marīnids 12A, 17, 19, 22, 23. With Muḥammad or Aḥmad. Ziyān does not occur as a personal name in this study.

48. abū-Zayd أبو زيد

Father of increase: Ḥafṣid 15A. N.o.c.: Marīnid 20A. With 'Abd-al-Raḥmān. Zayd does not occur as a personal name in this study.

49. abū-Sālim أبو سالم

Father of safe: Marīnid 14. With Ibrāhīm. Sālim does not occur as a personal name in this study.

50. abū-Sa'īd أبو سعيد

Father of happy: Marīnid 10. N.o.c.: Ziyānids 2, 6; Marīnids 2, 26. With 'Uthmān. Sa'īd does not occur as a personal name in this study.

z. abū-Ṭāhir أبو طاهر

Father of righteous: N.o.c.: Zīrid 6. With Yaḥyâ. Ṭāhir does not occur as a personal name in this study.

aa. abū-'Āmir أبو عامر

Father of commander: N.o.c.: Marīnid 25. With 'Abd-Allāh.

51. abū-'Abd-Allāh أبو عبد الله

Father of (the) servant of God: 'Abbāsid 31 (on Ḥammādid 9: 25); Muwaḥḥid 4 (on 3–5, 8, 9); Ḥafṣids 2, 7, 12, 15B, 20, 25, 26; Ziyānids 18, 20, 27; Marīnid 13. N.o.c.: Hūdid 1; Ḥafṣids 12A, 28; Ziyānids 14, 22, 23; Marīnid 27; Naṣrids 1, 8; Waṭṭāsids 1, 2, 5. With Muḥammad.

bb. abū-'Alī أبو علي

Father of noble: N.o.c.: Marīnid 10A. With 'Umar.

cc. abu-'Umar أبو عمر

Father of Omar: N.o.c.: Marīnid 15. With Tāshfīn.

52. abu-'Amr أبو عمرو

Father of life: Ḥafṣid 21. With 'Uthmān. 'Amr does not occur as a personal name in this study.

dd. abū-'Inān أبو عنان

Father of bridle: N.o.c.: Marīnid 12. With Fāris. 'Inān does not occur as a personal name in this study.

53. abū-Fāris أبو فارس

Father of cavalier: Ḥafṣid 19; Marīnid 21 (with Mūsâ). N.o.c.: Ḥafṣid 5; Marīnids 18, 24. With 'Abd-al-'Azīz except as noted.

54. abū-Mālik أبو مالك

Father of ruler: Marīnid 17A: with 'Abd-al-Mu'min. N.o.c.: Ziyānid 17: with 'Abd-al-Wāḥid. Mālik occurs in this study as a personal name only for an engraver or mintmaster.

55. abū-Muḥammad أبو محمد

Father of highly-praised: Muwaḥḥids 1 ('Abd-al-Mu'min; on 1–13, Ḥafṣid 1), 10 ('Abd-al-Wāḥid); Ziyānids 13 ('Abd-Allāh), 29 (Ḥasan). N.o.c.: Muwaḥḥids 6 ('Abd-al-Wāḥid), 7 ('Abd-Allāh), 7A ('Abd-Allāh); Ḥafṣids 12C ('Abd-al-Wāḥid), 23 ('Abd-al-Mu'min); Ziyānid 26 ('Abd-Allāh); Marīnids 1 ('Abd-al-Ḥaqq), 16 ('Abd-al-Ḥalīm), 28 ('Abd-al-Ḥaqq). Usually with name in 'Abd-.

ee. abū-Ma'rūf أبو نعروف

Father of benefit: N.o.c.: Marīnid 3. With Muḥammad. Ma'rūf does not occur as a personal name in this study.

56. abū-Mūsâ أبو موسى

Father of Moses: Muwaḥḥid 9A. With 'Imrān.

57. abū-Yaḥyâ أبو يحيى

Father of John: Ḥafṣids 10 (Abū-Bakr), 11 (Zakarīyā'). N.o.c.: Zīrids 5 (Tamīm), 8 (al-Ḥasan); Ḥafṣids 9 (Abū-Bakr), 24 (Zakarīyā'); Ziyānid 1 (Yaghmurāsan); Marīnid 4 (Abū-Bakr).

58. abū-Ya'qūb أبو يعقوب

Father of Jacob: Muwaḥḥids 2 (on 2–13, Ḥafṣid 1), 5. N.o.c.: Marīnid 7. With Yūsuf.

59. abū-Yūsuf أبو يوسف

Father of Joseph: Muwaḥḥid 3 (on 3–5, 8–11 ). N.o.c.: Marīnid 6. With Ya'qūb.

ff. abū-?

Father of?: N.o.c. (kunyah unknown): Ziyānid 16.

C. Names with ibn-

(Arabic singular kunyah)

These names, and their analogues — titles and epithets preceded by ibn- — occur constantly on the coins to indicate direct descent, which is often very useful for the historian. Yet no practical purpose would be served by an analysis of them similar to those of groups A and B, and reference to the index of proper names will serve to locate any desired name of this type.

As was stated at the start of this chapter, an arbitrary distinction has been made between ibn-, indicating sonship, and Ibn-, indicating more remote descent, a form which never appears on the coins. This distinction is not derived from the coins, on which بن and أبن are used interchangeably to indicate sonship.

Four persons mentioned in this study are frequently referred to by names in Ibn-; they are Ibn-abī-'Umārah (Ḥafṣid 4A; real name), Ibn-al-Aḥmar (Naṣrid 1), Ibn-Ghāniyah (Murābiṭ 6B), and Ibn-Hūd (Hūdid 1).

D. Clan or Tribe Names

An Arab or Berber generally has a nisbah ending in -ī, indicating tribe or birthplace; sometimes he has several. The only one of these occurring on the coins is al-'Abbāsī, occurring on Ḥammādid, Murābiṭ, and Hūdid gold and Hūdid silver. Naturally, all the persons discussed in this study possessed a name or names of this type, but the only ones which require listing are those of rebels and governors not belonging to the main dynasties.

al-Barghawāṭī: Zīrid 4A; Ḥammūdids 9A, 9B, 9C.

al-Bayyāsī: Muwaḥḥid 7A.

al-Jāmi'ī: Zīrid 8A.

al-Ṣaḥrāwī (the Saharan): Murābiṭ 6A.

al-Ṣanhājī: Muwaḥḥid 2A.

al-'Azafī: Hūdid 3A.

al-Lamtūnī: Murābiṭ 6C.

al-Massūfī: Murābiṭ 6B.

al-Yānashtī: Hūdid 1A.

One other proper name occurring on the coins belongs to this general group: Banī-Tāshfīn (445, 446, 1053–1056) as an inclusive term for all the Murābiṭs commencing with 2, used in Spain after the downfall of the dynasty.


EPITHETS

One royal prerogative throughout Islam has been the use of epithets (Arabic singular laqab) in conjunction with proper names and titles or as substitutes for them. Those used in late medieval North Africa can best be subdivided by grammatical form: participial nouns, participial phrases, adjectival nouns, adjectival phrases, and other types. Only those occurring on the coins are discussed.

A. Participial Nouns

1. al-Ma'mūn ألأمون

The trustworthy: Muwaḥḥid 8 (on 8, 10, 11). Also occurs with ibn- on Muwaḥḥids 10, 11, referring to 8.

2. al-Mujāhid ألمجاهد

The holy-warrior: Muwaḥḥid 8; Ḥafṣid 12.

3. al-Murtaḍâ ألمرتضى

The approved: Muwaḥḥid 12.

4. al-Mustanṣir أمستنصر

The asking assistance: Ḥafṣid 15B; Marīnid 20.

5. al-Ma'ān ألمعان

The helped: Ḥammūdid 9A.

6. al-Mu'tamid ألمعتمد

The relying: Muwaḥḥid 13.

7. al-Manṣūr ألمنصور

The rendered-victorious: Ḥammādid 9; Ḥammūdid 9A. Also occurs with ibn- on Muwaḥḥids 8, 10, referring to 3. Occurs also as personal name, though not on coins.

8. al-Mahdī ألمهدي

The guided: Muwaḥḥid 0 (on most Muwaḥḥid and Ḥafṣid coins).

9. al-Mu'ayyad ألمؤيد

The strengthened: Ḥafṣids 10, 12.

10. al-Wāthiq ألواثق

The trusting: Muwaḥḥid 13.

B. Participial Phrases

11. al-'Ālī-bi-Allāh ألعالي بالله

The lofty with God: Ḥammūdid 6.

12. al-Qā'im-bi-amr-Allāh ألقائم بامر الله

The upright in (the) commandment of God: 'Abbāsid 36 (on Hūdid 1); Muwaḥḥid 1 (on 1–13, Ḥafṣids 1, 2); Ḥafṣid 11.

13. al-Qā'im-bi-ḥaqq-Allāh ألقائم بحق الله

The upright in (the) truth of God: Ḥafṣid 4A (the impostor).

14. al-Qā'im-li-Allāh-bi-a'lā'-dīn-al-ḥaqq ألقائم لله بأعلاء دين الحق

The upright for God in (the) nobility of (the) faith of the truth: Marīnid 6.

15. al-Mutawakkil-'alâ-Allāh ألمتوكل على الله

The relying upon God: Ḥafṣids 10, 15, 17, 19, 20A, 21, 25, 27; Ziyānids 5, 15, 17, 18, 26, 27; Marīnids 12, 13, 17, 20A, 21.

16. al-Mutawakkil-'alâ-Allāh-waḥdihi ألمتوكل على الله وحده

The relying upon God alone: Ḥafṣid 21.

17. al-Mutawakkil-'alâ-rabb-al-'ālamīn ألموكل على رب العالمين

The relying upon (the) master of the worlds: Ziyānids 4, 8, 9, 12–14 ; Marīnid 12; Waṭṭāsid 3.

18. al-Mujāhid-fī-sabīl-Allāh ألمجاهد عي سبيل الله

The holy-warrior in (the) path of God: Muwaḥḥid 10 (on 10, 11); Ḥafṣids 4, 19, 21.

19. al-Murtaḍâ-li-amr-Allāh ألمرتضى لأمر الله

The approved in (the) commandment of God: Muwaḥḥid 12. Occurs on his medal in the shortened form al-Murtaḍâ-li-amrihi.

20. al-Musta'īn-bi-Allāh ألمستعين بالله

The asking help of God: Marīnid 14.

21. al-Mustanṣir-bi-Allāh ألمستنصر بالله

The asking assistance of God: 'Abbāsid 36 (on Hūdid 1A); Fāṭimid 8 (on Zīrids 4, 5); Ḥafṣids 2, 6, 7, 15B, 16, 20; Marīnids 10, 20, 24–26.

22. al-Muẓaffar-bi-Allāh ألمظفر بالله

The rendered-victorious by God: Ḥafṣid 15A.

23. al-Mu'taṣim-bi-Allāh ألمعتصم بالله

The having recourse to God: Ziyānid 19.

24. al-Mu'taḍid-bi-Allāh ألمعتضد بالله

The asking assistance of God: Muwaḥḥid 11.

25. al-Muqtafī-li-amr-Allāh ألمقتفى لامر الله

The following in (the) commandment of God: 'Abbāsid 31 on Ḥammādid 9.

26. al-Muntakhab-li-iḥyā'-dīn-Allāh ألمنبخب لاحياء دين الله

The predestined for revival of (the) faith of God: Ḥafṣid 6A.

27. al-Muntaṣir-bi-Allāh ألمنتصر بالله

The conquering for God: Marīnid 22.

28. al-Manṣūr-bi-faḍl-Allāh ألمنصور بفضل الله

The rendered-victorious in (the) honor of God: Ḥafṣids 2, 4A, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15A, 15B, 16, 17.

29. al-Mahdī-alladhī-yashriku'l-nabī المهدى الذى يشرك النبي

The guided who will accompany the prophet: Murābiṭ 6A.

30. al-Mu'min-bi-Allāh المؤمن بالله

The believing in God: Muwaḥḥid 12.

31. al-Mu'ayyad-bi-Allāh المؤيد بالله

The strengthened by God: Muwaḥḥid 9A.

32. al-Mu'ayyad-bi-faḍl-Allāh المؤبد بفضل الله

The strengthened in (the) honor of God: Ḥafṣid 3.

33. al-Mu'ayyad-bi-naṣr-Allāh المؤيد بنصر الله

The strengthened in (the) victory of God: Ḥafṣids 6, 10, 15, 15B, 17, 19–21.

34. al-Nāṣir-li-dīn-Allāh ألناصر لدين الله

The victorious for (the) faith of God: Ḥafṣids 8, 13.

35. al-Wāthiq-bi-Allāh ألوائق بالله

The trusting in God: Muwaḥḥid 13; Ḥafṣids 3, 21; Ziyānid 14.

C. Adjectival Nouns

36. al-As'ad ألأسعد

The happiest: Muwaḥḥid 11.

37. al-Ḥasan ألحسن

The fortunate: Ḥafṣid 26. Also occurs with ibn- on Ḥafṣid 27, referring to 26. Occurs also as personal name, though not on coins.

38. al-Rashīd ألرشيد

The orthodox: Muwaḥḥid 10 (on 10, 11); Marīnid 13. Occurs also as personal name.

39. al-Sa'īd ألسعيد

The happy: Marīnids 13, 17, 19; Waṭṭāsid 1. Occurs also as personal name, though not on coins.

40. al-Gharīb ألغريب

The foreigner: Muwaḥḥid 2A.

D. Adjectival Phrases

41. al-Rashīd-bi-Allāh ألرشيد بالله

The orthodox for God: Muwaḥḥid 10.

42. al-'Azīz-bi-Allāh ألعزيز بالله

The powerful for God: occurs only with ibn- on Ḥammādid 9, referring to Ḥammādid 8.

43. al-Ghanī-bi-Allāh ألغني بالله

The wealthy in God: Ziyānid 12; Naṣrid 8.

E. Other Types

44. arḥam umarā' al-muslimīn أرحم أمراء المسلمين

Most merciful of (the) commanders of the Moslems: Murābiṭs 6B, 6C, referring to Murābiṭs 2–6, the Banū-Tāshfīn.

45. Bahā'-al-Daulah بهاء الدولة

Splendor of the state: Ḥammūdid 9A. This typically oriental Moslem epithet is almost unique in the west.

46. Ḍiyā'-al-Daulah ضياؤ الدولة

Brightness of the state: Ḥammūdids 9B, 9C. This is the only other such epithet found on these coins.

47. 'Abd-Allāh عبد الله

Servant of God: the most common epithet, used in reference to the 'Abbāsids by Zīrid 8A and all the Murābiṭs; applied to themselves by Ḥammūdids 9A, 9B; Ḥafṣids 15B, 21, 27; most of the Ziyānids and Marīnids; Naṣrid 8; Waṭṭāsids 1–4. Occurs also on partisan Muwaḥḥid silver and as personal name.

48. Mahdī-al-Dīn مهدى الدين

Guided of the faith: on Muwaḥḥid partisan silver. Epithets in -Dīn, like those in -Daulah, have an oriental flavor.

49. Maulānā مولانا

Our master: Ḥafṣid 27; Marīnids 20, 24. A relatively modern epithet.

50. Nāṣir-al-Dīn ناصرالدين

Victor of the faith: Murābiṭs 3–6; Marīnid 6. A typically oriental epithet.


CONVENTIONAL INSCRIPTIONS

A large majority of the conventional inscriptions on the coins are religious. Of these some are Koranic, some call down blessings on Muḥammad and his family and companions, some praise 'Alī or the Mahdī, some intercede on behalf of the ruler or the mint, some introduce the clause on the striking of the coin, and others are general expressions of piety. They are grouped in the order given, being listed alphabetically within each group, and are followed by secular inscriptions.

A. Koranic Verses

1. The praise (is) unto God; 1:1. الحمد لله

2. The praise (is) unto God, master of the worlds; 1:1. الحمد لله رب العالمين

3. The honor (is) unto God; 10:66. العزة لله

4. God (is) excellent as a preserver, and he (is the) most merciful of the merciful; 12:64. الله خير حافظا وهو ارحم الراحمين

5. God (is) our master; 7:87, 42:14. الله ربنا

6. God (is the) friend (of); 2:258, 3:61, 45:18. الله ولي

7. God renders victorious; 30:4. ينصر (for Koranic الله(الله

8. Verily God (is) observant with the servants; 40:47. ان الله بصير بالعباد

9. Verily God commands the justice and the goodness and sheltering of (the) owners of kinship, and he forbids the immorality and the wrongdoing and the injustice; 16:92. ان الله بامر بالعدل والاحسان وايتاء ذى القربى وينهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر والبغي

10. Verily we have opened for thee a manifest opening so that God may pardon thee for what has preceded among thy sin and what came later, and may perfect his grace upon thee, and may guide thee on a straight path, and that God may render thee victorious with an honorable victory; 48:1–3. انا فتحنا لك فتحا مبينا ليغفر لك الله ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر و يتم نعمتهوا (for Koranic نعمته) عليك ويهديك صراطا مستقيما وينصرك الله نصرا عزيزا

11. In (the) name of God; passim. بسم الله

12. In (the) name of God — the merciful, the compassionate; passim. بسم الله الرحمن الحيم

13. May he be blessed who (has) in his hand the kingdom, and he (is) over every thing powerful; 67:1. تبارك الذي بيده الملك وهو على كل شيء قدير

14. May he be exalted; 27:64. تعالى

15. I have relied upon God; 11:59. توكلت على الله

16. My sufficiency (is) God; 9:130, 39:39. حسبي الله

17. My sufficiency (is) God, and how excellent is the trustee; 3:167. حسبي (for Koranic الله ونعم الوكيل(حسبنا

18. Our master, judge between us and our people as to the truth, and thou (art the) best of the arbitrators; 7:87. ربنا افتح بيننا و بين قومنا بالحق وانت خير الفاتحين

19. Our master (is) God; 22:41, 41:30, 46:12. ربنا الله

20. Our master, upon thee we have relied and unto thee we have returned and unto thee (is) the result; 60:4. ربنا عليك توكلنا واليك انبنا واليك المصير

21. God has been merciful to him; 6:16 (Allāh understood in Koran). رحمه الله

22. God has spoken truth; 3:89, 48:27. صدق الله

23. Upon him I have relied; 9:130 etc. عليه يوكلت

24. Upon him I have relied and unto him I return; 11:90, 42:8. عليه يوكلت واليه انيب

25. Say (that) nothing befalls us except what God has written for us; he (is) our master, and on God then let the believers rely; say do you await; 9:51–52. قل لن يصيبنا الا ما كتب الله لنا هو مولانا و على الله فليتوكل المؤمنون قل هل تربصون

26. (There is) no god except God; passim. لا اله الا الله

27. (There is) no god except him; 2:158. لا اله الا هو

28. (There is) no god except him — the merciful, the compassionate; 2:158. لا اله الا هو الرحمن الرحيم

29. (There is) no partner unto him; 6:163. لا شريك له

30. (There is) no strength except in God; 18:37. لا قوة الا بالله

31. Muḥammad (is the) messenger of God; 48:29. محمد رسول الله

32. Muḥammad (is the) messenger of God; he has sent him with the guidance and (the) faith of the truth, so that he may proclaim it above every faith, even if the polytheists dislike (it); 9:33, 61:9 (first four words paraphrased). محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى ودين الحق ليطهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون

33. And whoever has recourse to God, then he has already been guided on a straight path; 3:96. و) من يعتصم بالله فقد هدى الي صراط مستقيم)

34. Victory (is) from God; 61:13. نصر من الله

35. Victory (is) from God and conquest (is) near; 61:13. نصر من الله وفتح قريب

36. God has rendered him victorious; 9:40. نصره الله

37. (The) victory of God (is) near; 2:210. الله قريب (for Koranic نصره (نصر

38. He (is) the first and the last and the evident and the hidden, and he (is) in every thing omniscient; 57:3. هو الاول و الاخر والظاهر والباطن وهو بكل شيء عليم

39. And dread a day on which you will be brought back to God; then every man will be paid what he has earned; and they will not be wronged; 2:281. واتقوا يوما ترجعون فيه الى الله ثم توفى كل نفس ما كسبت وهم لا يظلمون

40. And I entrust my affair to God; 40:47. وأفوض أمرى الى الله

41. And God guides whomever he wishes on a straight path; 2:209, 24:45. و الله يهدى من يشاء الى صراط مستقيم

42. And your god (is) a single God; 2:158. والهكم اله واحد

43. And deliver (the) good news to the believers; 2:223 etc. وبشر المؤمنين

44. God has promised to those among you who have believed and have practised good works that he will make them successors on the earth as he made those who preceded them successors; 24:54. وعد الله الذين امنوا منكم وعملوا الصالحات ليستخلفنهم في الارض كما استخلف الذين من قبلهم

45. And certainly we have written in the psalms, after the invocation, that my servants — the righteous — shall inherit the earth; 21:105. ولقد كتبنا قي الزبور من بعد الذكر ان الارض يرثها عبادي الصالحون

46. And (there is) not the victory except from beside God; 3:122. وما النصر الا من عند الله

47. And (there is) not the victory except from beside God — the strong, the wise; 3:122. وما النصر الامن عند الله العزيز الحكيم

48. And whatever (is) unto you of a pleasant (kind), then (it is) from God; 16:55. وما بكم من نعمة فمن الله

49. And you will not will unless God has willed; verily God is knowing, wise; 76:30. وما تشاؤن الا ان يشاء الله ان الله كان عليما حكيما

50. And (there is) not my success except with God; 11:90. وما توفيقي الا بالله

51. And (there is) not any god except God; 5:77 (paraphrased). وما من اله الا الله (for Koranic اله واحد)

52. And whoever desires other than Islam as a faith, then it will not be accepted from him; 3:79. و من يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه

53. And whoever desires other than Islam as a faith, then it will not be accepted from him, and he (will be) in the end among the perishing; 3:79. ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دبن يقبل منه وهوفي الاخرةمن الخاسرين

54. And whoever fears God, he will establish a way of escape for him, and will provide for him from whence he is unaware; 65:2. ومن يتق الله يجعل له مخرجا ويرزقه من حيث لا يحتسب

55. And whoever relies upon God, then he (is) his sufficiency; verily God (is) attaining his commandment; 65:3. ومن يتوكل على الله فهم حسب ان الله بالغ امره

56. And whoever relies upon God, then he (is) his sufficiency; verily God (is) attaining his commandment; certainly God has appointed for every thing a measure; 65:3. ومن يتوكل على الله فهو حسبه ان الله بالغ امره قد جعل الله لكل شيء قدرا

57. And he (is) master of the mighty throne; 9:130. وهو رب العرش العظيم

58. O you who have believed, endure and be patient and persevere and fear God, then perhaps you will succeed; 3:200. يا ايها الذين امنوا اصبروا وصابروا وربطوا (for Koranic وربطوا واتقوا الله لعلكم تفلحون(ورابطوا

59. O you who have believed, obey God and obey the messenger and (the) holders of command among you; 4:62. ياايها الذين امنوا اطيعوا الله واطيعوا الرسول واولي الامر منكم

60. O thou prophet, we have sent thee as a witness and a bringer of good news and a warner and a summoner to God; 33:44–45. يا ايها النبي انا ارسلناك شاهدا ومبشرا ونذيرا وداعيا الى الله

61. Day of the faith; passim. يوم الدين

B. For the Prophet Muḥammad

No useful purpose would be served by a detailed analysis with individual translations of the large group of conventional inscriptions which ring changes on the single theme: the blessing of God be upon our chief Muḥammad and upon his family and companions. An alphabetical list with occasional notes follows.

62. صلوات الله عليه

63. صلوات الله عليه وعلى اله

64. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد

65. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد واله

66. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد واله سلم

67. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد واله سلم تسليما

68. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد واله وصحبه وسلم تسليما

69. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد وسلم تسليم

70. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وسلم تسليما

71. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى اله وصحبه وسلم

72. صلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى اله وصحبه وسلم تسليما

73. صلى الله على سيدنا ومولانا محمد وعلى اله وصحبه الاكرمين

74. صلى الله على محمد

75. خاتم النبيين) صلى الله على محمد خاتم النبيين — seal of the prophets — is Koranic; 33:40)

76. صلى الله على محمد واله

77. صلى الله على محمد واله الطيبين الطاهرين

78. صلى الله على محمد وعلى اله

79. صلى الله على محمد وعلى اله وسلم تسليما

80. صلى الله على محمد وعلى اله وصليه وسلم تسليما

81. صلى الله عليه

82. صلى الله عليه وسلم

83. صلى الله عليه وسلم تسليما

84. Muḥammad (is the) messenger of God and his servant. محمد رسول الله وعبده

85. Muḥammad (is) our messenger. محمد رسولنا

86. Muḥammad (is) his messenger and his servant. محمد رسوله وعبده

87. Muḥammad (is the) servant of God and his messenger. محمد عبد الله ورسوله

88. Muḥammad (is) his servant and his messenger. محمد عبده ورسوله

89. وصلى الله على سيدنا ومولانا محمد

90. And Muḥammad (is) our prophet. ومحمد نبينا

C. For 'Alī (Shī'ite)

91. 'Alī (is the) most distinguished of the agents and minister of (the) best of the messengers. و)علي افضل الوصيين ووزير خير المرسلين)

92. 'Alī (is the) friend of God. علي ولي الله

D. For the Mahdī

93. (The) messenger of God, who delivered the good news of it. الذي بشربه رسول الله

E. For the Ruler (religious)

94. I ask help of God; how excellent is the helper. استعين بالله نعم المعين

95. God help him and render him victorious. اعانه الله ونصره

96. God help him and render him victorious by grace of his compact. اعانه الله ونصره بمنة يمينه

97. I had recourse to God. اعتصمت بالله

98. I have trusted in God. امنت بالله

99. God help ... ايد الله

100. God help his commandment and render strong his victory. ايد الله امره واعزنصره

101. God help him. ايده الله

102. God — may he be exalted — help him. ايده الله تعالى

103. God — may he be exalted — help him and render him victorious. ايده الله تعالى ونصره

104. God help him and render him victorious. ايده الله ونصره

105. My trust (is) in God alone. ثقتي بالله وحده

106. My sufficiency (is) God alone. حسبي الله وحده

107. He has summoned. دعا

108. God render victorious ... نصر الله

109. Our defense (is) in God. نصرتنا بالله

110. (The) friend of God. ولى الله

111. He asks help of God. يستعين بالله

112. He has recourse to (the) compact of God. (Compare Koran 3:98). يعتصم بحبل الله

F. For the Mint (religious)

113. God — may he be exalted — preserve it for the Moslems. ابقاها الله تعالى للمسلمين

114. God protect it. امنها الله

115. God — may he be exalted — protect it. امنها الله تعالى

116. God — may he be exalted — protect it by his grace and his generosity. امنها الله تعالى بمنه وكرمه

117. God guard it. حرسها الله

118. God guard it by his grace. حرسها الله بمنه

119. God — may he be exalted — guard it. حرسها الله تعالى

120. God — may he be exalted — guard it by his grace. حرسها الله تعالى بمنه

121. God — may he be exalted — guard it by his grace and his generosity. حرسها الله تعالى بمنه ركرمه

122. God — may he be exalted — guard it and protect it. حرسها الله تعالى وامنها

G. For the Striking (religious)

Most of this group of inscriptions are variations or abridgments of the formula: in the name of God — the merciful, the compassionate — this dinar (or dirhem) was struck at ...

123. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب

124. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب ب

125. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب في

126. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هذ(ا) الدرهم ب

127. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هذ(أ) الدين(أ)رب

128. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم عونك يالله ضرب هذا الدينارب

129. (used only on Jāmi'id: 24a) بسم الله الرحمن ضرب هذا الدينارب

130. بسم الله امر بضرب هذ الدبنار في

131. بسم الله ضرب ب

132. بسم الله ضرب هذ(أ) الدرهم

133. بسم الله ضرب هذ(أ) الدرهم ب

134. بسم الله ضرب هذ(أ) الدين(أ)رب

H. Other Religious Inscriptions

135. The whole commandment (is) unto God. و)الامر كله لله)

136. The whole commandment (is) unto God alone. الامر كله لله وحده

137. The reliance (is) upon God. و)التوكل على الله)

138. God (is) the preserver. الحافظ الله

139. The truth. الحق

140. The praise (is) unto God alone. و) الحمد لله وحده)

141. The might and the strength (are) in God. و)الحول والقوة (با)الله)

142. The thanksgiving (is) unto God. و)الشكر لله)

143. The grandeur (is) unto God. و)العظمة لله)

144. The Koran (is) our leader. القران امامنا

145. The Koran (is the) proof of God. القران حجة الله

146. The Koran (is the) word of God. القران كلام الله

147. God has fostered whoever has relied upon him. الله ربي من توكل عليه

148. God has rendered victorious whoever has relied upon him. الله نصر من توكل عليه

149. God (is) a friend of whoever has relied upon him, and has rendered victorious whoever executes his commandment. الله ولي من توكل عليه ونصر من يقضى امره

150. The kingdom (is) unto God. و) الملك لله)

151. The kingdom (is) unto God alone. الملك لله وحده

152. The grace (is) unto God. و)المنة لله)

153. The one (is) God. الواحد الله

154. God help them. ايدهم الله

155. At (the) commandment of God. بامر الله

156. May (God) bless it. بركه

157. (There is) no god except God alone. لا اله الا الله وحده

158. (There is) no might and no strength except in God. و)لا حول ولا قوة الا بالله)

159.(There is) no conqueror except God.(Naṣrid motto)و)لاغالب الا الله)

160. For (the) unity of the eternal God. لتوحيد الاله الله

161. How near (is the) succor of God. (Early Ziyānid motto) ما اقرب فرج الله

162. What God has wished. ما شا الله

163. How excellent the powerful (is) God. نعم القادر الله

164. And the asking help (is) unto God. والاستعانة بالله

165. And the thanksgiving (is) unto God for his grace. والشكر لله على نعمته

166. And the power (is) unto God. والقدرة لله

167. And the guidance (is) from God. والهداية من الله

I. For the Ruler (secular)

168. May his victory become illustrious. عز نصره

169. Power. عزة

170. At (the) command of ... عن امر

J. For the Mint (secular)

171. The guarded (applied to Bijāyah and Sabtah). المحروسة

172. (The) vicinity (of ...) حضر

173. (The) district (of...) حضرة

174. (The) city (of ...)مدينة

175. City of (the) power of Islam and (of ...) مدينة عز الاسلام و

K. For the Striking (secular)

176. It has been struck. ضرب

177. It has been struck at ... ضرب ب

178. It has been struck in... ضرب في

179. This dirhem has been struck. ضرب هذالدرهم

180. It has been coined at ... طبع ب

L. Other Secular Inscriptions

181. Quarter of the dinar. ربع الدينر

182. Year. سنة

183. Year. عام

184. (On the) first day of Sha'bān (the eighth month). غزة شعبان

185. In (the) year. في سنة

186. In Sha'bān (the eighth month). في شعبان

187. In (the) month of the spring (the third or fourth month). في شهر الربيع

188. In (the) month of Sha'bān (the eighth month). قي شهر شعبان

189. Former weight. وزن قديم


EPIGRAPHY AND ORNAMENTATION

The style and script traditional in the Caliphal coinage, round fields surrounded by unbroken margins in plain Kūfī, are characteristic of all the coins at the opening of this survey. The Zīrid coins continued to be based on Fāṭimid models; the Ḥammūdid silver was a debased version of that struck by the Spanish Umayyads; the Murābiṭs combined these styles into a strong simple style of their own which was a model of clarity. A few Naskhī or part-Naskhī pieces are found among their silver, but Kūfī greatly predominated.

All this was deliberately changed by the Muwaḥḥids, probably to fulfill the prophecy that power would be seized by a leader who would alter the currency on the occasion of a conjunction of certain planets. The style then introduced, which lasted with minor changes and exceptions for the balance of the late medieval period, included square silver, chiefly in the cursive Naskhī script, and round gold with field inscriptions in a square inscribed in a circle, the segments of which also held legends, all in Naskhī script except for some ornamented Kūfī introduced by certain early Ḥafṣids and Marīnids.

This ornamented Kūfī is the script erroneously termed Qarmaṭic (karmathic) by many orientalists, although it has no connection whatever with the Qarmaṭī heretical sect. This fallacy has persisted despite complete refutation by Fraehn in the Journal Asiatique for 1828. The script, which had a wide but short-lived popularity in the last half of the thirteenth Christian century and the first decade of the fourteenth, was probably introduced into North Africa by refugees from Andalusia after the fall of Seville.

Vagaries in the spelling of the inscriptions abound. Abū- and abī- are used interchangeably by the Ḥafṣids; masculine and feminine dates, by the Murābiṭs. Alifs are inserted in or omitted from such words as ibn-, raḥmān, ta'ālâ, and dīnār according to the whim of the engraver. Diacritical marks are usually entirely absent; when present they are more often ornamental than significant.

In rare cases, punches were used by the engraver to incise straight lines and circles, especially on Ḥammūdid coins. The general practice, however, was to engrave the design by hand in reverse on a die like the one described by Marçais. This inevitably led to such minor errors as the omission or duplication of letters and even of whole words, but these were held to a reasonable minimum by careful supervision, and faulty dies were frequently withdrawn and corrected. An index of coins with engraving errors is supplied for the use of those who desire to pursue this line of inquiry further.

Very few of the dies are signed: two with the name Sa'd in tiny letters, possibly one with Mālik.

Ornamentation, as distinguished from lettering, is extremely limited. None of the coins bears a pictorial device, and only a few pieces of silver, separately indexed, have a face covered by a geometrical design. Individual letters and blank spaces are often enhanced by the application of minor scrolls and flourishes, though the effort to decode any meaning they may have conveyed has been fruitless. Otherwise it is limited to line and dotted squares surrounding field inscriptions, and occasional lengthening of letters to fill areas in an esthetically satisfying manner.


MINTING TECHNIQUE

The methods used in striking the late medieval North African coinage are nowhere clearly described, but can easily be deduced from the money itself and from the coin die described by Marçais. The obverse was engraved on one tool, the reverse on a base, a cold metal flan of the correct size was inserted, a blow was struck, and the finished coin was removed. No cast coins have been found.

Some control was exercised so that obverse and reverse appeared in the desired relative position, but this was subject to great relaxation. Occasional coins survive, and are listed in the miscellaneous index, with errors in striking, including the combining of two obverses, the use of a flan of the wrong size, and such mistakes. Misstruck and doublestruck specimens, however, are not specially noted.

Very few names of mint-masters appear on these coins. Yāshir, Mālik, and Ibn-Kaukab may be Murābiṭ mint-masters; others may be indicated by the relatively frequent mint-marks, consisting of one or more letters of the alphabet.

No systematic study of these mint-marks has been attempted. They are frequently not mentioned by persons recording coins, so that the existing data are necessarily incomplete, but they are separately indexed for ready reference.

Mention should be made here of certain Murābiṭ silver on which one side has been deliberately left blank. Vives ascribes this to a system of indicating denominations, though not all extant coins fit into his table. These coins are listed in the miscellaneous index, as are coins with only an ornament on one side instead of a legend.


METROLOGY

Much the larger portion of the coins under examination were made of gold. The Zīrid and Murābiṭ dinar, and presumably the Ḥammādid, was designed to weigh about 4.2 grams, with halves and quarters and even eighths weighing correct fractions of that figure. The Zīrid dinar, of which surviving specimens average 4.11 grams and are known as heavy as 4.35, was 22–24 millimeters in diameter; the Murābiṭ, averaging 4.05 grams and never over 4.3, was 23–27 millimeters across. Half dinars were 15–16 millimeters, quarters 13–15, and eighths about 11.

The coins as struck were apparently fairly uniform in size and weight, and the gold was of good quality. It came across the Sahara from the negroes' regions, in sufficient quantity to strike a rich and variegated coinage.

With the advent of the Muwaḥḥids the quality and quantity of the gold used apparently was sustained, but the standard of weight and size was permanently altered. A wide, thin double dinar was introduced, averaging 4.55 grams, 27–32 millimeters in diameter. The dinar, averaging 2.27 grams, was 19–22 millimeters; the half, at 1.15 grams, 14–16 millimeters, the quarter, at .55, about 13 millimeters. Successor dynasties followed these specifications with minor alterations; some Ḥafṣid double dinars were slightly smaller, some Marīnid slightly broader; most dinars somewhat broader; a few Ziyānid and Marīnid halves considerably broader; but in general the plan was adhered to without significant modification.

After the middle of the Muwaḥḥid period the number of specimens diminishes sharply, with Ziyānid and Waṭṭāsid gold definitely scarce. The quality was never seriously diminished, and purchasing power remained high, though definite analyses belong rather to economic than to numismatic history. Apparently far more need of fractional gold existed under the later dynasties than under the Murābiṭs, whose dinars account for over 99% of their surviving gold.

The place of silver in the various dynastic coinages varied greatly. For the Ḥammūdids only silver so base as to be readily considered copper was struck, whereas the Zīrids followed the Fāṭimids in seldom using silver. The Murābiṭs struck large quantities of silver, both dirhems of traditional appearance with dates and mints and 1-gram qirats and fractions thereof as subsidiary small change.

A few electrum coins survive for the Murābiṭs, but no data is available indicating their denomination or purpose.

The square silver struck by the Muwaḥḥids and Ḥafṣids is plentiful and found widespread contemporary acceptance — being counterfeited extensively among the Christians of Spain and France. The square dirhems averaged about 1.5 gram and were 13–19 millimeters square. They survive in great numbers, making more unaccountable the lack of identifiable Ziyānid silver and the relative scarcity of silver attributable to the Marīnids and the Waṭṭāsids.

Silver was presumably mined locally in Morocco and Spain. Its value relative to gold fluctuated, being never more than one tenth and seldom less than one twentieth by weight. The purity of the alloy also suffered fluctuations, being depreciated and restored on several occasions.

Copper was simply not recognized as a precious metal suitable for coinage. Dinars and square and round dirhems were occasionally imitated in copper or struck in silver so base as to be distinguishable only with difficulty from it, but the few attempts to coin copper openly met with violent popular opposition. Only at the very end of Ḥafṣid rule were a few coppers struck, foreshadowing modern token currency, but this development was impossible throughout most of the late medieval period in North Africa.


THE RULERS AND THEIR COINAGES

The following chapters cover the coinage of each dynasty as a separate unit. Before each has been inserted a chronological list of rulers, with a condensed genealogical tree for each except the Fāṭimids, the Hūdids, and the Ottomans, which have but one ruler apiece affected by North African numismatic history for the late medieval period. The information in the lists of rulers has been derived from medieval inscriptions and documents and from extensive comparison of medieval Arabic histories, chronicles, geographies, biographies, and other works; it has been corrected or confirmed from evidence found on the coins themselves. Although the actual coins have been consulted whenever possible, the other sources have been used in the best modern published versions, as listed in the bibliographies. When such sources conflict, the more probable has been determined and utilized; when gaps remained after exhaustive research, I have filled them from modern sources or from my own conclusions as to the most likely of possible alternatives.

After each item of information there has been placed, within parentheses, a short reference to one or more sources, in this order: gold (g), electrum (e), silver (s), and copper (c); inscriptions (B and a number, referring to the historical reference bibliography, part B); documents (C and a number); medieval Arabic works (A and a number). Failing these, modern sources (D and a number) or my own conclusions (H) supply the data. Although this system is rather unwieldy and unattractive, no better way of supplying this essential reference material has presented itself; it is hoped that familiarity will render it less objectionable. The parentheses following Christian dates indicate the source from which the month of the Moslem year was derived, enabling me to specify the correct one of the two possible Christian years.

The 'Abbāsids in North Africa

Sunnite khalīfahs of the Banū'l-'Abbās of Baghdad A.H. 132–656 (A.D. 749–1258):

1–25 too early.

26–31 generically on Murābiṭ gold 26–90, 92–446.

31 al-Muqtafī-li-amr-Allāh (g, A35h) abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A35h) Muḥammad (A35h) ibn-Aḥmad (28; A35h) A.H. 530 (A35h) –555 (A35h) A.D. 1136 (no alternative) –1160 (A35h): generically on Zīrid gold 24a and Murābiṭ gold (see above), specified on Ḥammādid gold 25.

32–35 no African coins.

36 al-Mustanṣir-bi-Allāh (s, A35h) abū-Ja'far (s, A35h) al-Manṣūr (A20a) ibn-Muḥammad (35; A35h) A.H. 623 (A35h) –640 (A20a) A.D. 1226 (no alternative) –1242 (A20a): generically on Hūdid gold 540 and silver 1117–1120, specified on Hūdid silver 1121.

37 al-Musta'ṣim-bi-Allāh (A35h), abū-Aḥmad (A35h) 'Abd-Allāh (A35h) ibn-al-Manṣūr (36; A35h) A.H. 640 (A35h) –656 (A35h) A.D. 1242 (A35h) –1258 (A35h): generically on Hūdid gold 541.

image

The 'Abbāsid caliphs of Baghdad had once controlled all North Africa, but their sway had ended with the attainment of independence by the Aghlabids and the Idrīsids about A.D. 800, just as it had previously been terminated in Spain by the establishment of the Umayyad amīrate. The Fāṭimid conquests in the tenth century had closed all Africa to them permanently.

With this in mind, it is clear that the appearance of 'Abbāsid names and titles on late medieval North African coins in no respect represented a revival of their temporal power. What it did signify was a spiritual submission to the theory of a single orthodox Sunnite caliphate.

This distinction is clearly seen in the Murābiṭ gold coinage. With a single unexplained exception (91) every piece of Murābiṭ gold accords the epithet 'Abd-Allāh and the Caliphal titles al-imām and amīr al-mu'minīn to this distant and shadowy suzerain, who was never individually named, though occasionally generically called al-'Abbāsī on the later dinars. For themselves the Murābiṭs adopted the lesser titles al-amīr and amīr al-muslimīn, never aspiring to full Caliphal rank. The silver, not restricted by Moslem political theory to the caliph, does not carry the deferential formulas.

Shortly after the downfall of the Murābiṭs in A.H. 541, two of their neighbors rendered analogous numismatic homage to the 'Abbāsids. Yaḥyâ, the 9th Ḥammādid, specified al-Muqtafī on a dinar dated 543 (25) reported by Ibn-Khaldūn, while the Jāmi'id Rashīd of Gabes followed the Murābiṭ formula in his 551 dinar (24a). Both of these coins indicate anti-Fāṭimid sentiment similar to that motivating the great Zīrid revolt, in which 'Abbāsid banners and prayers were substituted for Fāṭimid, though for some reason the 'Abbāsid caliphs were never mentioned on the Sunnite Zīrid coins of al-Mu'izz.

Both Yaḥyâ and Rashīd fell, like the Murābiṭs, before the powerful Muwaḥḥid military machine, and the 'Abbāsids disappeared from North African coins for nearly eighty years. The Banū-Ghāniyah, collateral descendants of the Murābiṭs, invaded Tunisia from their Balearic stronghold, and referred to the 'Abbāsids as suzerains in their Friday prayers, following family tradition, but no coins exist for their decades of banditry on the Muwaḥḥid frontiers. If any are ever located, they may be expected to bear 'Abbāsid formulas.

During the Muwaḥḥid collapse after A.H. 624 Ibn-Hūd made good his independence in Spain and struck several coins in nominal allegiance to the distant 'Abbāsid caliph, as an act of defiance to the Muwaḥḥids. The only Hūdid coins considered in this study are those few struck in North Africa; during the three months of A.H. 630 that Ibn-Hūd controlled Ceuta both gold (540) and silver (1117–1120) were apparently struck there, with pro- 'Abbāsid legends replacing the normal Muwaḥḥid ones.

A further step was taken by the shaykh al-Yānashtī, who governed Ceuta for the next five years and coined silver in the name of the 36th 'Abbāsid, al-Mustanṣir, dated 635 (1121).

The final 'Abbāsid coin struck in North Africa (541), although mintless and dateless, can confidently be ascribed to the amīr al-'Azafī at Ceuta between A.H. 647 and the termination of the 'Abbāsid caliphate in 656 by the Mongol Hūlāgū.

With the end of the caliphate proper came the end of numismatic recognition in North Africa, for the puppet-caliphs maintained by the Mamlūks at Cairo seem to have exercised no such dominance over occidental loyalties as their legitimate predecessors had done for five centuries.

The Fāṭimids in North Africa

Shī'ite imāms of the Banū-Fāṭimah of Cairo A.H. 297–567 (A.D. 909–1171).

1–7 too early.

8 al-Mustanṣir-bi-Allāh (g, A35e) abū-Tamīm (g, A41a) Ma'add (g, A35e) ibn-'Alī (7; A35e) A.H. 427 (A18b) –487 (A18b) A.D. 1036 (A18b) –1094 (A18b): specified on Zīrid gold 1, 2, 15–23.

9–14 no African coins.

Although the Shī'ite Fāṭimid imāms had risen to power in Tunisia, they resolved in A.D. 969 to shift their seat of government to newly-conquered Egypt, leaving North Africa under a governor. For this post was chosen the able Ṣanhājah Berber general Bulukkīn ibn-Zīrī; the demands of loyalty were dutifully fulfilled by him, by his son al-Manṣūr, and by al-Manṣūr's son Bādīs. By the fourth generation, however, the bonds had greatly slackened, and the combined motives of personal ambition, Sunnite proclivities, and apparent security from reprisal led to the Zīrid revolt of al-Mu'izz ibn-Bādīs.

The historians give a variety of dates for the various steps in this revolt; the coins afford an exact chronology. The standard Fāṭimid dinars minted at al-Mahdīyah and al-Manṣūrīyah through A.H. 438 represent the old order; both mint cities were named for Fāṭimid founders. The first sign of aversion appeared in 439, when the old name Ṣabrah was used instead of al-Manṣūrīyah, though Fāṭimid formulas were retained and al-Mustanṣir was named as suzerain; no further change occurred in 440.

With 441, however, the revolt became unequivocal. The dinars of that and subsequent years eliminated all reference to al-Mustanṣir, substituted Sunnite for Shī'ite formulas, and were usually minted at Kairouan. As far as Arabic historians disclose, the revolt was final, though numismatists have long known of later coins naming al-Mustanṣir and struck at al-Mahdīyah.

Apparently Farrugia de Candia was the first to make the obvious deduction that the Zīrids must have sought a reconciliation with their vindictive former overlord, who had sent the Banū-Hilāl and the Banū-Sulaym to ravage Tunisia. Whether this tardy remorse was accepted by al-Mustanṣir cannot now be determined, but since the new series continued for ten years, it may be supposed to have met with some measure of success.

The net effect from the Fāṭimid point of view may be briefly recapitulated. Until 438, normal dinars. In 439 and 440, normal dinars (1, 2) except for the ominous change in mint-name. From 441 to 449, rebellion. From 449 to 454, resumption of normal dinars under al-Mu'izz. From 454 to 459, continuation of normal dinars under Tamīm. After 459, nothing, despite one coin reported for 480 but rejected as unbelievable.

Thus the long history of Fāṭimid coinage in North Africa came to its final close in 459, as far as surviving coins indicate. The last quarter-century, analysed here, was perhaps the most important, revealing as it does a vital diplomatic development of which no written record seems to have survived.

The nominal Fāṭimid suzerainty over the Ḥammādids of eastern Algeria probably lasted somewhat longer but does not seem to have been reflected on coins, for the only recorded coin of this dynasty (25) is said by Ibn-Khaldūn to have been struck on the occasion of the disavowal of Fāṭimid supremacy.

The Zīrids of Tunisia

Ṣanhājah Berber rulers of the Banū-Zīrī of Tunisia A.H. 362–543 (A.D. 972–1148).

1–3 too early.

4 abū-Tamīm (B11, A27b) al-Mu'izz (B11, A35e) ibn-Bādīs (3; B11, A35e) A.H. 406 (A35e) –454 (A35e) A.D. 1016 (A41a) –1062 (A36c):

First series (for Fāṭimid 8) A.H. 439 (g) –440 (g, A35e) gold 1, 2.

Second series (independent) A.H. 441 (g, A41a) –449 (g) anonymous gold 3–14, anonymous silver 871.

Third series (for Fāṭimid 8) A.H. 449 (g) –454 (A35e) gold 15–17.

4A Ḥammū (A35e) ibn-Malīl (A35e) independent Barghawāṭah Berber governor of Sfax A.H. 451 (A35e) –493 (A35e) A.D. 1059 (H) –1099 (D9) anonymous gold 24.

5 abū-Yaḥyâ (A36C) Tamīm (B11, A35e) ibn-al-Mu'izz (4; B11, A35e) A.H. 454 (g, A35e) –501 (A35e) A.D. 1062 (A36C) –1108 (A36C):

First series (for Fāṭimid 8) A.H. 454 (g, A35e) –459 (g) gold 18–23.

Second series (independent) A.H. 459 (H) –501 (A35e) no coins.

6 abū-Ṭāhir (A36C) Yaḥyâ. (A35e) ibn-Tamīm (5; A35e) A.H. 501 (A35e) –509 (A35e) A.D. 1108 (A41a) –1116 (A41a) no coins.

7 abū'l-Futūḥ (A35e) 'Alī (A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ (6; A35e) A.H. 509 (A35e) –515 (A35e) A.D. 1116 (A41a) –1121 (A41a) no coins.

8 abū-Yaḥyâ. (A36C) al-Ḥasan A35e) ibn-'Alī (7; A35e) A.H. 515 (A35e) –543 (A35e) A.D. 1121 (A41a) –1148 (A41a) no coins.

8A Rashīd (g) ibn-Rashīd (g, A35e) independent Jāmi'id Arab governor of Gabes A.H. 5xx (?) –554 (A84e) A.D. 115X (?) –1159 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 24a.

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The history of the Ṣanhājah Berber dynasty known as the Zīrids is successively one of prosperity, disaster, and redirection. From A.H. 372, the effective date of Bulukkīn's governorship, to 438 their numismatic history is that of provincial Fāṭimid mints.

This study opens in 439 with the first stirrings of revolt, the substitution on otherwise normal Fāṭimid dinars of the ancient name Ṣabrah for the Fāṭimid al-Manṣūrīyah. Al-Mu'izz struck Shī'ite dinars of this type through 440, anonymous Sunnite coins from 441 to 449, and Shī'ite dinars from 449 to his death in 454; these were continued through 459 by his son Tamīm. Apparently no further coins were struck by members of the main Zīrid dynasty.

These sparse facts suggest many questions, to which only the most tentative answers can be supplied. The motives for the revolt are well known: al-Mu'izz's ambition and Sunnism buttressed by his misplaced feeling of security. Apparently no one event was the occasion for his rebellion, but rather a general sense that the time was ripe.

Numismatically, the changes made in 441 were not far-reaching. The shape, weight, and diameter of the standard dinar were retained; quarters and eighths were occasionally minted for change, with scanty silver, just as under the Fāṭimids. Only the inscriptions were altered, but this was done thoroughly. The Shī'ite praise of 'Alī was eliminated from the obverse face; for the Fāṭimid names and titles on the reverse face was substituted a Koranic quotation; another replaced the previous obverse margin; even the mint inscription on the reverse margin was altered.

The new style lasted at Kairouan through 448, with a similar coin from Sfax ascribed to 449. In that year al-Mu'izz fled to the fortified port of al-Mahdīyah, leaving the rest of Tunisia to be pillaged by the Arab invaders. His coins from 449 to his death in 454 were struck at al-Mahdīyah, where his son Tamīm as governor had already coined Sunnite dinars for him in 446 and 447.

The unexpected fact is that the final group is Shī'ite in every respect. 'Alī is venerated; al-Mustanṣir is named and accorded Caliphal titles; the concentric style is revived. There can be no possible doubt as to the significance of all this: an attempt at reconciliation with al-Mustanṣir, inexplicably ignored or suppressed in medieval Arabic histories.

This Shī'ite series was continued by Tamīm through 459; its duration, and the variety in styles utilized, suggest acceptance by Cairo as a Fāṭimid mint in good standing from 449 to 459. Motives on both sides are easy to understand: the Zīrids seeking any ally against the ferocious horde devastating Tunisia and vainly hoping that al-Mustanṣir could control the destroyers he had loosed; the Fāṭimid delighted with his revenge and welcoming the subservient penitent as a testimony to his firm way with dissenters.

Between 459 and the Sicilian conquest of al-Mahdīyah in 543, the Zīrids, ruling chiefly the capital with little or no hinterland, capitalized on adversity by turning seaward. A judicious alternation of commerce and corsairship partially restored their power and prosperity. For what reason, then, did they not resume coining money?

The answer must surely be sought in the cutting by nomad Arabs of their source of supply for raw gold, previously shipped across the Sahara by camel caravan. What gold they secured by trade or raid was already minted, and adequate to their needs. Silver had always been rare in Tunisia, even in Aghlabid times. And finally, if any coins were struck by the later Zīrids, they were probably looted by the Sicilian Normans and eventually melted into bullion.

The relatively few surviving Zīrid coins are chiefly gold dinars weighing about 4.05 grams, with a diameter of about 23 millimeters, neatly struck, in Kūfī script. The inscriptions on the Shī'ite series are identical with standard Fāṭimid legends; the Sunnite ones, being anonymous, are remarkable only in the unusual minting phrase "struck in (the) city of (the) power of Islam and al-Qayrawān", ironic in view of the fact that Kairouan would soon lie utterly in ruins.

An anonymous dinar of Zīrid type (24) is, because of its mint and date, ascribed by Farrugia de Candia to the independent Barghawāṭah Berber governor of Sfax Ḥammū ibn-Malīl, whose attack on al-Mahdīyah was defeated by Tamīm. Its date, 461, is the latest known for Tunisia before the Sicilian conquest.

A still more unusual Murābiṭ-style dinar (24a) is reported by Prieto y Vives as struck at Qābis in 551 by al-Rashīd ibn-Rāfi'. Since his illustration is execrable, and since the al-Rashīd to whom he refers died in 543 and was not the son or descendant of Rāfi', I at first reluctantly rejected this coin, until I located the Schulman specimen, the clear photograph of which disproves its ascription to Qādis (Cadiz) for 552. Prolonged scrutiny led me to the present reading, al-Rashīd ibn-Rashīd, suggesting one of the two sons of Prieto's al-Rashīd who ruled between his death and the Muwaḥḥid conquest of Gabes in 554, with Sicilian interruptions. Ibn-Khaldūn gives their names as Muḥammad and Mudāfi'; the latter signifies postponing and is probably a nick-name, so it seems a reasonable assumption that the dinar was struck by the last Jāmi'id under his real name al-Rashīd.

Any alternative explanation would have either to identify another person named al-Rashīd who could have ruled Gabes in 551 or to explain why the first al-Rashīd was not ibn-Kāmil, as Ibn-Kaldūn calls him, as well as the discrepancy in dates. Perhaps my solution requires fewer untenable assumptions than its competitors.

No coins are recorded for the other local Arab and Berber rulers of cities or tribes in Tunisia, Tripolitania, or eastern Algeria during this turbulent period, though some few of them may have minted a little gold.

The Ḥammadids of Eastern Algeria

Ṣanhājah Berber rulers of the Banū-Ḥammād of eastern Algeria A.H. 405–547 (A.D. 1014–1152).

1 too early.

2 al-Qā'id (A35e) ibn-Ḥammād (1; A35e) A.H. 419 (A35e) –446 (A35e) A.D. 1028 (A41a) –1055 (A41a) no coins.

3 Muḥsan (A35e) ibn-al-Qā'id (2; A35e) A.H. 446 (A35e) –447 (A35e) A.D. 1055 (A41a) –1055 (A41a) no coins.

4 Bulukkīn (A35e) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Ḥammād (1; A35e) A.H. 447 (A35e) –454 (A35e) A.D. 1055 (A41a) –1062 (A41a) no coins.

5 al-Nāṣir (C12, A35e) ibn-'Alannās ibn-Ḥammād (1; A35e) A.H. 454 (A35e) –481 (A35e) A.D. 1062 (A41a) –1088 (A41a) no coins.

6 al-Manṣūr (A35e) ibn-al-Nāṣir (5; A35e) A.H. 481 (A35e) –498 (A35e) A.D. 1088 (A41a) –1104 (D9, D14) no coins.

7 Bādīs (A35e) ibn-al-Manṣūr (6; A35e) A.H. 498 (A35e) –498 (A41a) A.D. 1104 (D9, D14) –1105 (A41a) no coins.

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8 al-'Azīz (A35e) ibn-al-Manṣūr (6; A35e) A.H. 498 (A41a) –515 (A35e) A.D. 1105 (A41a) –1121 (A60b) no coins.

9 Yaḥyâ (g, A35e) ibn-al-'Azīz (8; g, A35e) A.H. 515 (A35e) –547 (A35e) A.D. 1121 (A60b) –1152 (C11) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31) 25.

The numismatic history of the Ḥammāmdid dynasty must be based on somewhat inadequate material, for the sad fact is that no coin survives which has been soundly attributed to these Ṣanhājah Berber cousins and rivals of the Zīrids.

Between Ḥammād's declaration of independence in A.H. 405 and al-Manṣūr's accession in 481 no coins were minted, according to Ibn-Khaldūn, but between 481 and the Muwaḥḥid conquest in 547 several coins must have been struck; we know only the 543 dinar (25) described by Ibn-Khaldūn, of which no surviving specimen is recorded. M. de Beylie, who excavated Qal'at Banī-Ḥammād, provided in an appendix to his volume a group of preposterous sketches, purporting to represent this and other Ḥammādid coins; fortunately, he expressed serious doubts of their reliability. He also included a photograph of a coin he dug up and attributed to al-Manṣur, the 6th Ḥammādid, on unascertainable grounds. It appears to be a well-worn Fāṭimid dinar of indeterminable mint and date; the original, supposedly in the Bibliothèque Nationale, cannot be located.

The external politics of the Ḥammādids were to counter their kinsmen, the Zīrids. Whichever supported the 'Abbāsids would find its neighbor in the Fāṭimids' camp. Each strove to turn the Arab hordes, and the Sicilian Normans, against the other. Before the Arab invasions they were military rivals; afterwards, piratical. When the last Zīrid was defeated by the Sicilians, he fled for refuge to the last Ḥammādid, who put him in prison.

The Ḥammūdids in North Africa

'Alid Arab rulers of the Banū-Ḥammūd of Malaga A.H. 407–449 (A.D. 1016–1057).

1–5 too early.

6 Idrīs II (s, A48a) ibn-Yaḥyâ I (3; A48a) A.H. 434 (A6b) –446 (s, A6b) A.D. 1043 (A48a) –1055 (notes to A48a):

Without heir A.H. 434 (A6b) –439 (H) A.D. 1043 (A48a) –1047 (H) too early.

With heir Muḥammad (9; s, A27c) A.H. 439 (s) –446 (s, A6b) A.D. 1047 (H) –1055 (notes to A48a) silver 872–879.

7–9 no African coins.

interregnum between end of dynasty proper and independence of 9A A.H. 449 (D9) –453 (A27C) A.D. 1057 (D9) –1061 (H).

9A Saqaut (s, c, A90) ibn-Muḥammad (H) Barghawāṭah Berber governor of Ceuta A.H. 453 (A27C) –471 (A90) A.D. 1061 (H) –1078 (H):

With heir al-'izz (9B; s, c, A27c) silver 880–886, copper 1157–1160.

9B al-'izz (s, A27c) ibn-Saqaut (9A; A35e) Barghawāṭah Berber governor of Ceuta A.H. 471 (A90) –476 (A35e) A.D. 1078 (H) –1083 (A35e):

With heir Saqaut (9C; s) silver 887.

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Pre-eminent among the petty kings who divided up Umayyad Spain in the early eleventh century were, at first, the Ḥammūdids of Malaga, but by A.H. 439, when this study starts, they had been outmatched by the 'Abbādids of Seville, and even within their tiny state they dissipated their strength in internecine warfare. A branch of the family held Algeciras, while the main dynasty also ruled Ceuta in Africa, bringing them within the scope of this study.

The only member of the dynasty proper to coin at Ceuta after 439 was the 6th, Idrīs II, with his son Muḥammad as heir. He struck only silver of poor alloy, like all his family, of whom Muḥammad I, Idrīs III, and al-Qāsim II were at war with him after 438. It was for this reason that he was often forced to take refuge at Ceuta, where his support was centered, though he also spent some time in prison there.

His dirhems are similar to those of the later Spanish Umayyads and the other petty kings in style and content. He assumed caliphal titles and epithets but did not mention his descent. The script is a thin degenerate Kūfī.

After the collapse of the dynasty in 449, Ceuta was held by a succession of non-royal adventurers culminating in the Barghawāṭah Berber Saqaut and his posterity. His coins, in an illegible stubby Kūfī script on silver so base it is usually termed copper, are nonetheless important. They are said by Vives to date from 455 to 467, but del Rivero, who is far from infallible, challenges all dates prior to 464. 462 does exist; for 455 and 456, doubt may be justified.

They are crowded with names, titles, and epithets. Saqaut is al-Manṣūr, al-Ma'ān, Bahā'-al-Daulah. He, or some person unknown, is al-imām, 'Abd-Allāh, amīr al-mu'minīn. His son al-'izz is al-ḥājib, the chancellor.

The tough, elderly ex-slave who assumed this welter of nomenclature died in battle against the Murābiṭ Yūsuf ibn-Tāshfīn, leaving al-'izz to continue the defense of Ceuta. This he managed for an incredible five additional years before being captured; by insolence he provoked Yūsuf into killing him untortured. His embattled tenure — 471–476 — is represented numismatically by a mintless, dateless base silver dirhem with the field inscriptions inside octagons.

Again he, or some unknown and unspecified person, is al-imām, 'Abd-Allāh, amīr al-mu'minīn. He is Ḍiyā'-al-Daulah, which is, like his father's Bahā'-al-Daulah, an epithet with an oriental flavor not found elsewhere in this study. And al-ḥājib is Saqaut, Ḍiyā'-al-Daulah too. Though the latter is generally presumed to be al-'Izz's father, no explanation has been offered for the change in epithets or for his appearance as chancellor following his undoubted death. My own conclusion is that a third generation is involved, with the younger Saqaut as heir to his father al-'Izz and sharing the same epithet. He is not mentioned by historians.

Of the other pre-Murābiṭ rulers of Morocco no coins survive dated after A.H. 439, unless some of the curious small gold coins ascribed by Brèthes to the Banū-Khazrūn of Sijilmāsah are that late. As noted in the corpus, these coins are not available for study, nor are published descriptions and plates adequate; there are probably many such coins to be unearthed by archaeologists and ethnologists in Morocco for the use of later generations of scholars.

The Murabiṭ Sect

Lamtūnah Berber rulers of the Murābiṭūn A.H. 448–541 (A.D. 1056–1147).

1 Abū-Bakr (g, s, c, A35e) ibn-'Umar (g, s, c, A35e) A.H. 448 (A84e) –480 (g, A35e) A.D. 1056 (A84e) –1087 (A84d) gold (for 'Abbāsids 26 and 27, not identified) 26–52, silver 888–890, copper 1161.

1A 'Alī (g) ibn-x (?) governor of Sijilmāsah about A.H. 459 (H) A.D. 1067 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsid 26, not identified) 53.

1B Ibrāhīm (g) ibn-Abī-Bakr (1; g) governor of Sijilmāsah A.H. 462 (g) –467 (g) A.D. 1070 (H) –1074 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsid 26, not identified) 54–57.

2 Yūsuf (g, s, B11, A35e) ibn-Tāshfīn (cousin of 1; g, s, B11, A35e) A.H. 480 (g, A35e) –500 (g, A36c) A.D. 1087 (A84d) –1106 (A36C):

Without heir A.H. 480 (g, A35e) –496 (A84d) A.D. 1087 (A84d) –1103 (A84d) gold (for 'Abbāsids 27 and 28, not identified) 58–120, silver 891–901.

With heir 'Alī (3; g, s, A35e) A.H. 496 (A84d) –500 (g, A36c) A.D. 1103 (A84d) –1106 (A36C) gold (for 'Abbāsid 28, not identified) 121–151, silver 902–904.

3 'Alī (g, e, s, c, A35e) ibn-Yūsuf (2; g, e, s, c, A35e) A.H. 500 (A36C) –537 (g, A35e) A. D. 1106 (A36C) –1143 (A36C):

Without heir A.H. 500 (A36C) –522 (g) A. D. 1106 (A36C) –1128 (no alternative) gold (for 'Abbāsids 28 and 29, not identified) 152–291, electrum 939, silver 905–938, 940–967, 970–972, anonymous silver 968, 969, copper 1162–1169.

With heir Sīr (3A; g, e, s, A51b) A.H. 522 (g) –533 (g) A.D. 1128 (no alternative) –1139 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsids 29–31, not identified) 292–361, electrum 991, 992, silver 973–990, 993, 994.

With heir Tāshfīn (4; g, s, A35e) A.H. 533 (g, A84d) –537 (g. A35e) A.D. 1139 (H) –1143 (A36C) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 362–403, silver 995–1017.

4 Tāshfīn (g, s, A35e) ibn-'Alī (3; g, s, A35e) A.H. 537 (g, A35e) –540 (g, A51c) A.D. 1143 (A84e) –1145 (A51C):

Without heir A.H. 537 (g, A35e) –538 (A91) A.D. 1143 (A84e) –1144 (A91) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 404–421, silver 1018–1033.

With heir Ibrāhīm (5; g, s, A35e) A.H. 538 (g. A91) –540 (g. A51c) A.D. 1144 (A91) –1145 (A51C) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 422–432, silver 1034–1038.

5 Ibrāhīm (A35e) ibn-Tāshfīn (4; A35e) A.H. 540 (A51C) –540 (H) A.D. 1145 (A51C) –1145 (H) no coins.

6 Isḥāq (g, s, A35e) ibn-'Alī (3; g, s, A35e) A.H. 540 (g) –541 (g, A35e) A.D. 1145 (H) –1147 (A35e) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 433–442, silver 1039–1052.

6A Yaḥyâ (g, A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr ibn-'Alī (3; g, A35e), called al-Ṣaḥrāwī (A35e), rebel at Ceuta against Muwaḥḥids A.H. 542 (A35e) –543 (g, A84e) A.D. 1147 (H) –1148 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 443.

6B Yaḥyâ (C11, A35e) ibn-'Alī (C11, A35e), called Ibn-Ghāniyah (A35e), Massūfah Berber governor of Granada A.H. 541 (A51C) –543 (C11, A35e) A.D. 1147 (A51C) –1148 (C11) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified, and the Banū-Tāshfīn) 446, silver (for the Banū- Tāshfīn) 1053–1056.

6C Maymūn (A35e) ibn-Badr (Codera) Lamtūnah Berber governor of Cordova until A.H. 549 (A35e) A. D. 1154 (H) gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified, and the Banū-Tāshfīn) 445.

6D unidentified governor of Nūl Lamṭah about A.H. 542 (g) A. D. 1147 (H) anonymous gold (for 'Abbāsid 31, not identified) 444.

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After the sparse coinage of their predecessors and contemporaries, the Murābiṭs provide a splendid contrast. Here we have available a rich and bountiful series generous in proper names, titles, mints, and dates.

None of this was to be expected of the puritanical sect established by the reformer 'Abd-Allāh ibn-YāSīn among the veiled (mulaththimūn) tribesmen of the Sahara. After the death, in battle against negroes of Ghana to the south, of the founder and of his skilled general Yaḥyâ ibn-'Umar, al-Lamtūnī, Yaḥyâ's brother Abū-Bakr assumed command of the Murābiṭ (outpost) army, and is generally considered to have been the first temporal ruler of the sect and the founder of the ruling dynasty.

Sijilmāsah, the first important city taken by the Murābiṭs, fell in A.H. 446; Abū-Bakr assumed command in 448; his first surviving dinar was struck there in 450. Yet the pattern established by this grave and uncultured desert chieftain in this remote Moroccan stronghold was followed without important alteration by his veiled successors ruling not only Morocco but all Moslem Spain, and was fully worthy of that prosperous and civilized land.

The coinage was based on the gold dinar, with a weight of about 4.2 grams and an average diameter of 25 millimeters. Over 1500 specimens are reported, with over 400 having recorded weights averaging 4.05 grams. Much of this was struck in Spain, through the raw gold doubtless was obtained from the negroes south of the Sahara, and was thus the first large quantity of gold struck in western Europe since Roman times. Spanish Christian gold was directly patterned on that of their Moslem foes.

Very little fractional gold is known: two half dinars (52, 210) and a single quarter dinar (91). Of more interest are the few electrum coins reported (939, 991, 992), the only instance in this study of the use of this alloy; I have not discovered the name applied to these electrum coins or their relative value.

A substantial amount and great variety of Murābiṭ silver exists. Denominations include both the old dirhem, the size of a dinar but varying in weight, and the new qirat, about 13 millimeters in diameter and averaging .95 gram, with halves, quarters, eighths, and even sixteenths thereof. Mints are often named, but more often not; the great assortment of types suggests widespread minting with considerable local autonomy.

Copper is restricted to a few imitation dinars and dirhems which may have been debased official issues but were probably contemporary forgeries.

Nearly half the known gold coins included in this survey are Murābiṭ, and nearly half the total number of specimens recorded. This prolific minting within less than a century must reflect an extraordinary prosperity, which had the usual effect of softening up the heirs of the warriors so that they fell easy prey to the next wave of hardy Berber invaders, the fanatical Muwaḥḥids.

Except for a few silver pieces in Naskhī, or Kūfī and Naskhī, the Murābiṭ coins are engraved in a plain Kūfī, somewhat coarse at the start but usually clear and elegant. The usual terse religious invocation precedes the name and title of the ruler and of his heir, if any, on the obverse field.

The reverse field is normally devoted to the 'Abbāsid caliph: al-imām, 'Abd-Allāh, amīr al-mu'minīn, sometimes al-'Abbāsī. The obverse margin is Koranic; the reverse contains the minting inscription with mint and date, an estimable custom from the historian's point of view. Because of this, there is little difficulty in attributing Murābiṭ gold, while the silver is almost equally straightforward.

Abū-Bakr, with the title al-amīr, struck dinars at Sijilmāsah from 450 to 480. The 450 pattern recurs for every succeeding year except three small clusters: 452–453, 459–460, and 464–466. In 452 a slightly different pattern was tried, but soon discarded. The second gap probably corresponds to the dinar (53) dated 45x, the last digit being punched out, struck by one 'Alī, who is otherwise completely unidentified; the assumption is that he was a relative or lieutenant left in command while Abū-Bakr led a military expedition southward. The same theory would account for the dinars (54–57) dated 462 to 466 or 467 and struck by al-amīr Ibrāhīm ibn-Abī-Bakr, obviously a son left in temporary command, though he is overlooked by the Arabic historians.

These historians say that in 453 Abū-Bakr turned Morocco over to his cousin and lieutenant Yūsuf ibn-Tāshfīn, devoting the remainder of his life to spreading Islam by militant methods among the negroes of the Senegal region. Yūsuf's 27-year tenure as viceroy, before Abū-Bakr's death in battle in 480, left no slightest numismatic traces — in direct contradiction of several Arabic chroniclers — though during this period he founded Marrakesh, conquered Fez and Ceuta in Morocco, took Tlemcen in Algeria, and defeated the Spanish Christians at Zallaca.

Again contrary to the evidence of the Arabic historians, when Yūsuf did assume power in 480 he did not adopt the title amīr al-muslimīn, for all his coins limit themselves simply to al-amīr.

Commencing with Sijilmāsah alone, Yūsuf slowly added other mints: Ceuta (484), Fez (484), Aghmāt (486), Cordova (486), Seville (489), Jativa (489), Marrakesh (490), San Lucar (491), Almeria (492), Granada (493), Tlemcen (494), Nūl (494), Malaga (494), Denia (495), Alcantara (496), and Baeza (497). Not all of these struck annually, but they turned out a substantial number of standardized dinars and a handful of silver.

Among the few innovations found on Yūsuf's dinars are mint-marks (often ك once ض) and the first instance of the substitution of عام for its synonym سنة year (112). Both of these novelties were to become very common on later Murābiṭ gold.

In 496 Yūsuf had his son 'Alī proclaimed heir apparent, and this event was reflected on half of the surviving issues of 497, while by 499 all the mints then striking had redesigned their dies to honor the heir. Apparently each mint was free to do this when and how it willed, to judge from the variety of solutions contrived; even mints using the mark ك thought by some to designate a common mint-master, followed no common course. A Sijilmāsah dinar (172) outdid itself by implying that 'Alī rather than Yūsuf was ruling, a change which actually occurred in 500, on the first day of which Yūsuf died at a very advanced age.

All coins of Yūsuf dated 500 (132, 140, 146, 147) are presumably posthumous issues from previously prepared dies; for convenience they are grouped with his regular coins.

The coinage as inherited by 'Alī might be characterized thus: mostly gold, of high quality and regularity, well engraved and well struck at almost every important city of Morocco and Andalusia, with considerable autonomy at each mint as regards selection and arrangement of legends on both gold and silver. During his tranquil reign of 37 years it flourished and proliferated abundantly. Chronological subdivisions are provided by the proclamation as heir apparent of his son Sīr in 522 and of his son Tāshfīn in 533 after Sīr's death.

His African mints in 500 were Aghmāt, Sijilmāsah, and Marrakesh, to which were added Fez (501), Nūl (501), Tlemcen (505), Salā (508), Banī-Tāwadā (513), and Ceuta and Meknes (dateless silver). Sijilmāsah, which had recognized him prematurely, continued to accord him only the family title al-amīr until 520, but the others used the sub-caliphal amīr al-muslimīn from 500.

Mints for dinars in Spain were Seville (from 510), where a slight rearrangement of the obverse face was made, and where a mint-master named Yāshir added his name to the coins after 519, Valencia (500–512), Algeciras (507–509), Denia (500–504), Jativa (500 only), Granada (from 501), where a new reverse margin was introduced in 519 and in 520 a special annotation treated in the following paragraph, Cordova (503 only), Loja (511 only), Malaga (500–506), Murcia (501–512), where oddly anonymous dirhems were also struck, and Almerica (from 506). It is noteworthy that only Seville, Granada, and Almeria were in operation as this period ended.

Granada's innovation of 520 was the insertion of the words "waznu qadīmu", former weight, outside the inner circle. This implication of a deficiency made good will not bear scrutiny; 30 Granada dinars struck between 501 and 520 average 3.97– grams, while 12 with the new claim average 3.94+; apparently this was merely bureaucracy at work, twelfth century model.

Several of the dinar mints also struck silver, as did Saragossa, Jerez, and Cuenca. Much of the mintless silver is also probably attributable to Spain; it is varied and well-executed, but does not require detailed comment.

The eleven years in which Sīr was heir, 522–533, found his name added by each mint as local option specified. Aghmāt, Sijilmāsah, Fez, Marrakesh, and Nūl Lamṭah continued to be the African dinar mints, with Ceuta and Tangier coining silver. Seville, with Yāshir as mint-master, Granada, and Almeria struck dinars in Spain; Murcia continued dirhems.

The final years 533–537, with Tāshfīn as heir, used the same five Moroccan dinar mints, with Tlemcen in western Algeria, while Ceuta still coined silver. Al-'Abbāsī was often added to the reverse field, and minor varieties proliferated. Only Seville and Almeria continued in Spain, where insurrection threatened, with silver from Jaen.

Thus over the long generation of 'Alī's reign the coinage remained fairly stable in appearance, weight, and legends, but the mints gradually closed and those which stayed open lost their fine judgment, changing styles rapidly and overcrowding fields and margins as if the insertion of an extra pious phrase afforded more in spiritual merit than it cost in artistic self-respect.

The same mints for gold that had served Tāshfīn as heir of 'Alī continued to serve him as ruler. His own dinars, especially those on which his son Ibrāhīm appears as heir, tend to be overcrowded in field and margin, and their style was changed more frequently than necessary. Codera made skillful use of the 540 Tlemcen dinar (406) to refute the Arabic historians' oft-repeated assertion that Tāshfīn's death occurred at Oran in Ramaḍān of 539. His silver is wholly mintless except for a Cordovan coin which must have been struck by the petty king Ḥamdīn ibn-Muḥammad.

No coins exist for Ibrāhīm's brief reign in 540.

Ḥamdīn must also have been responsible for two (441, 442) of the few dinars bearing Isḥāq's name; they were minted at Cordova in 540 and 541. Granada was revived as a dinar mint along with Seville, for Almeria had fallen to Christian assailants. Similarly, available mints in Morocco were limited to Aghmāt, Marrakesh, and Nūl Lamṭah, and the number of issues dropped sharply under heavy Muwaḥḥid pressure, though a good deal of mintless silver was coined.

The fall of Marrākush and execution of Isḥāq in 541 brought the main dynasty to its close, but Murābiṭ garrisons held out in several strongholds. The dinar (443) struck by al-Ṣaḥrāwī at Ceuta in 543 gives his genealogy, his sub-caliphal and extraordinary spiritual pretensions, and the true date of his surrender, often set at 542. The dinars (445, 446) and silver minted in memory of the Banū-Tāshfīn mark the continued resistance of Cordova and Granada.

Nūl Lamṭah, too, must have held out for a few months, as the anonymous dinar (444) indicates, but no record survives of the governor responsible.

The other petty rulers who struck coins in Spain either, like Ḥamdīn, just prior to 541, or between Murābiṭ and Muwaḥḥid rule, fall outside the scope of this study. It should not be forgotten that it is to this transitional period that the unique Jāmi'id (24a) and Ḥammādid (25) dinars belong, as well as the partisan Muwaḥḥid gold and silver struck in Africa and Spain.

The larger significance of the Murābiṭ coinage as historical documentation is evident when it is compared with the extreme paucity of their epigraphic and documentary remains and with the extraordinary meagerness of the historical sources concerning their supremacy. Ibn-Khaldūn, for example, devotes about one-fifth as much space to the Murābiṭs as to the Muwaḥḥids, and his colleagues do likewise, so that much of the information derivable from the legends on the gold fills a vacuum left by the historians.

The Muwaḥḥid Sect

Kūmiyah Berber rulers of the Muwaḥḥidūn A.H. 524–668 (A.D. 1130–1269).

0 al-Mahdī (g, s, c, A35e) Muḥammad (A35e) ibn-Tūmart (A35e) spiritual leader A.H. 515 (A35e) –522 (A35e) A.D. 1121 (A85C) –1128 (no alternative) no coins; mentioned posthumously on most Muwaḥḥid and Ḥafṣid coins.

interregnum between death of 0 and proclamation of 1 A.H. 522 (A35e) –524 (A35e) A.D. 1128 (no alternative) –1130 (A15).

1 abū-Muḥammad (g, s, B1, A51b) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (g, s, B1, A35e) ibn-'Alī (g, s, B1, A35e) A.H. 524 (A35e) –558 (A35e) A.D. 1130 (A15) –1163 (A35e):

Without heir A.H. 524 (A35e) –551 (C11) A.D. 1130 (A15) –1156 (C11) anonymous partisan gold 446a, gold 447–472, anonymous partisan silver 1057–1061, partisan silver 1062–1064, silver 1065–1074.

With heir abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A35e) Muḥammad (1A; g, A35e) A.H. 551 (C11) –558 (A35e) A.D. 1156 (C11) –1163 (A84d) gold 473–480.

With heir abū-Ya'qūb (g, A35e) Yūsuf (2; g, A35e) A.H. 558 (A35e) –558 (A35e) A.D. 1163 (A84d) –1163 (A35e) gold (see 2 as ruler).

2 abū-Ya'qūb (g, B1, C2, A35e) Yūsuf I (g, C2, A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min (1; g, B1, A35e) A.H. 558 (A35e) –580 (A35e) A.D. 1163 (A84d) –1184 (A51C):

First series, as amīr A.H. 558 (A35e) –563 (A35e) A.D. 1163 (A35e) –1168 (A84d) gold 481–492.

Second series, as amīr al-mu'minīn A.H. 563 (A35e) –580 (A35e) A.D. 1168 (A84d) –1184 (A51C) gold 493–498.

2A Mazdara' (g, A84d) ibn-Ḥayyān (A51C) Ṣanhājah Berber rebel at Tāzā A.H. 559 (A84d) –559 (A84d) A.D. 1164 (H) –1164 (A84d) gold 499.

3 abū-Yūsuf (g, A35e) Ya'qūb (g, A35e) ibn-Yūsuf I (2; A35e) A.H. 580 (A35e) –595 (A35e) A.D. 1184 (A84d) –1199 (A35e):

Without heir A.H. 580 (A35e) –587 (A35e) A.D. 1184 (A84d) –1191 (H) gold 500–503.

With heir abū-'Abd-Allāh (s, A51c) Muḥammad (4; A35e) A.H. 587 (A35e) –595 (A35e) A.D. 1191 (H) –1199 (A35e) silver 1075.

4 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A51c) Muḥammad (g, A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb (3; A35e) A.H. 595 (A35e) –610 (A35e) A.D. 1199 (A35e) –1213 (A51c) gold 504–506.

5 abū-Ya'qūb (g, A85c) Yūsuf II (g, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad (4; A35e) A.H. 610 (A35e) –620 (A35e) A.D. 1213 (A51C) –1224 (A35e) gold 507–509.

6 abū-Muḥammad (A35e) 'Abd-al-Wāḥid I (A35e) ibn-Yūsuf I (2; A35e) A.H. 620 (A35e) –621 (A35e) A.D. 1224 (A35e) –1224 (A35e) (opposed during 621 by 7) no coins.

7 abū-Muḥammad (C2, A35e) 'Abd-Allāh (B1, C2, A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb (3; A35e) A.H. 621 (A84d) –624 (B1, A35e) A.D. 1224 (A84d) –1227 (B1, A35e) (opposed during 621 by 6 and during 624 by 9) gold 510.

7A abū-Muḥammad (A35e) 'Abd-Allāh (A35i) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min (1; A35e) rebel at Baeza A.H. 621 (A35e) –626 (A35e) A.D. 1224 (H) –1229 (H) no coins.

8 abū'l-'Ulâ (g, A35e) Idrīs I (g, A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb (3; g, A35e) A.H. 624 (A35e) –629 (A84d) A.D. 1227 (A84e) –1232 (A84d) (opposed 624–629 by 9):

First series, with al-Mahdī A.H. 624 (A35e) –627 (A84e) A.D. 1227 (A84e) –1230 (A84e) gold 511.

Second series, without al-Mahdī A.H. 627 (A84e) –629 (A84d) A.D. 1230 (A84e) –1232 (A84d) no coins.

9 abū-Zakarīyā' (g, A84d) Yaḥyâ (g, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad (4; A35e) A.H. 624 (A35e) –633 (A35e) A.D. 1227 (A84d) –1236 (A84d) (opposed during 624 by 7, 624–629 by 8, and 630–633 by 10) gold 512.

9A abū-Mūsâ (s, A35e) 'Imrān (s, A84d) ibn-Ya'qūb (3; A35e) rebel amīr at Ceuta A.H. 629 (A84d) –630 (A35e) A.D. 1232 (H) –1232 (D15) silver 1076, 1077.

10 abū-Muḥammad (g, A85c) 'Abd-al-Wāḥid II (g, A35e) ibn-Idrīs I (8; g, A35e) A.H. 630 (A35e) –640 (A35e) A.D. 1232 (A35e) –1242 (A84d) (opposed 630–633 by 9):

First series, without al-Mahdī A.H. 630 (A35e) –631 (H) A.D. 1232 (A35e) –1234 (H) gold 513, silver 1078–1084.

Second series, with al-Mahdī A.H. 631 (H) –640 (A35e) A.D. 1234 (H) –1242 (A84d) gold 514–517.

image

11 abū'l-Ḥasan (g, A35e) 'Alī (A35e) ibn-Idrīs I (8; g, A35e) A.H. 640 (A35e) –646 (A35e) A.D. 1242 (A84d) –1248 (A35e) gold 518–521.

12 abū-Ḥafṣ (g, A35e) 'Umar (B23, C19, A35e) ibn-Isḥāq ibn-Yūsuf I (2; g, C19, A35e) A.H. 646 (A35e) –665 (A35e) A.D. 1248 (A35e) –1266 (A84e) (opposed during 665 by 13) gold 522–536, gold medal M1.

13 abū'l-'Ulâ (g, A35e) Idrīs II (A35e) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min (1; g, A35e) A.H. 665 (A35e) –668 (A35e) A.D. 1266 (A84d) –1269 (A36C) (opposed during 665 by 12) gold 537–539.

2–13 and Ḥafṣids: anonymous silver 1085–1116, anonymous copper 1170, 1171.

The parallels between Murābiṭ and Muwaḥḥid history are striking. Each was a fanatically militant sect founded by a religious reformer in a remote section of Morocco, drawing its initial support from a previously unimportant group of tribes, sweeping irresistably over the strongly defended cities, and finally conquering all of Moslem Spain. Muḥammad ibn-Tūmart, called al-Mahdī, played 'Abd-Allāh ibn-YāSīn's role with a considerable difference; he was not a warrior-missionary like his prototype but a subtle theologian who wrote a book of unitarian anti-anthropomorphic doctrine. He recruited supporters among the Maṣmūdah Berbers of the high Atlas, while the first Murābiṭs had been Lamṭah and Lamtūnah Berbers of Ṣanhājah stock from the edge of the Sahara. His opposition was more unified and better organized than had been the case in the preceding century, and after overcoming it his generals struck eastward rather than southward.

Numismatically the contrast was complete and spectacular. The Murābiṭ gold had derived its style and weight standard from a long Moslem tradition ascending to the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus; this was deliberately repudiated by the Muwaḥḥids (unitarians). The new dinar had a diameter of 19–22 millimeters and a standard weight of 2.4 grams; 146 weighed specimens average 2.27. The metal remained excellent, as did the quality of engraving and minting.

A cursive Naskhī script replaced the traditional Kūfī. The field inscription was placed in a square inscribed in a circle, with the four segments available for additional legends instead of the former single margin. The new style, with only slight modifications, was retained by all the later dynasties considered in this study, so that A.H. 540 may be considered as a numismatic watershed. Double dinars as well as fractions were soon introduced to provide flexibility; the large coins served admirably to house the extended genealogical inscriptions and epithets on which the Muwaḥḥids laid so much importance. The range of their diameters is 27–32 millimeters; 275 weighed specimens average 4.55 grams.

The content of the legends underwent an equally drastic revision. The Mahdī's preeminence was added to the usual religious dogmas, while 'Abd-al-Mu'min and his successors with their names, titles, epithets, and genealogies gradually crowded all other phrases off the coins. Dates were never noted, and mints only occasionally, so that the gains for the historian are offset by these losses.

The most important point, and one which has never heretofore been adequately stressed, is the conscientious precision in terminology. A large proportion of the perfectly clear late Muwaḥḥid double dinars have been badly misread by competent scholars who nevertheless changed duals to plurals or made comparable errors. Lane-Poole, Lavoix, Vives, Prieto, and others analyzed these coins and corrected individual misreadings while perpetuating others because they did not apprehend this underlying principle, which may readily be confirmed from the coins or the plates.

In the silver as in the gold spectacular changes were introduced by 'Abd-al-Mu'min. After a few trial pieces he jettisoned the traditional style in favor of square silver in a cursive Naskhī script; his heirs developed this into the anonymous square dirhem which was struck for decades throughout North Africa and Andalusia in enormous quantities, and was counterfeited extensively by the Christians.

With occasional exceptions the remaining silver considered in this study, by whatever dynasty it was minted, is square with legends derived from the Muwaḥḥid pattern. Thus the net effect of the numismatic reforms introduced by one man and developed by his heirs was to last for over four centuries.

As was true for the Murābiṭs, the Muwaḥḥids left no copper coins except a few debased or fraudulent dirhems. Al-Marrākushī noted that gilded copper dinars were minted to ransom the sayyid 'Isâ ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from his Arab captors, but none has survived, and the anecdote may be apocryphal.

The first partisan issues, oddly inscribed gold (446a) and silver (1057–1064), soon gave way to a standardized coinage with a variety of African and Andalusian mints. The conquests of the Muwaḥḥids were promptly reflected on their dinars, possibly as a deliberate method of propaganda, possibly by opening mints to coin the captured gold and silver for paying the soldiers. Any late Zīrid and Ḥammādid coins may have been lost to posterity in this way, although a full assortment of late Murābiṭ coins survived.

'Abd-al-Mu'min used the caliphal title amīr al-mu'minīn on both gold and silver. Mint-names and mint-marks occur in various positions on his gold, most of which was struck in Africa. A preponderance of his silver, aside from the mintless variety, came from Spanish mint-towns, including Murcia, not captured until nine years after his death.

In 551 he made his son abū-Abd-Allāh Muḥammad his heir and added his name to the gold with the title al-amīr al-ajall. Though both of these events are recorded by reputable historians, the resulting series of dinars has usually been ascribed to the 4th Muwaḥḥid, of the same name, Silvestre de Sacy's correct attribution having been disregarded.

Just before his death in 558 'Abd-al-Mu'min chose another son, Yūsuf, as heir instead of the dissolute Muḥammad. It is impossible to distinguish any dinars on which Yūsuf may have appeared as heir from those of the early part of his own reign, during which he contented himself with the title al-amīr al-ajall. Seville is his only Spanish mint, both before and after his election as amīr al-mu'minīn in 563.

No silver bears Yūsuf's name or that of most of his successors, for it was at this period that the anonymous square dirhems were introduced. It is almost impossible to ascribe these coins to individual rulers, or even to dynasties, as the Ḥafṣids continued to strike them for an indeterminate period. Blancard's study on the European imitations enables them to be recognized with comparative ease by their confused engraving, while Bel and Farrugia de Candia have made valuable studies of these coins, but except for distinguishing those in ornamented Kūfī as definitely Ḥafṣid, it is still necessary to consider those in Naskhī or plain Kūfī as belonging to any of a number of Muwaḥḥids or Ḥafṣids.

During 559, early in Yūsuf's reign, Mazdara' ibn-Ḥayyān rebelled at Tāzā, struck gold — of which no specimen has been reported in modern collections —, and was suppressed.

Ya'qūb struck the first of the splendid series of double dinars, with his father and grandfather named on the reverse field and himself on the reverse segments. Some numismatists refer to these double dinars as dinars, but the correct value is established by the "quarter dinar" denomination specified on coin 446a, weighing 55 gram, about one eighth of the normal weight of the double dinars. An odd square silver piece (1075) may refer to his son Muḥammad as heir, but this attribution is questionable.

As caliph, Muḥammad struck double dinars quite unlike the series of dinars often erroneously ascribed to him. His conquest of the Baleares is reflected in the appearance of Majorca and Minorca as mints for anonymous silver.

His son Yūsuf II continued to add his name to those of his ancestors on the gold, but he was soon replaced by his great-uncle 'Abd-al-Wāḥid I, for whom no coins are known. The latter's nephew and successful opponent 'Abd-Allāh is assigned an undescribed dinar. The rebel al-Bayyāsī struck no coins which have survived. Coins of any of this group may be found in future excavations.

Idrīs I is said by the historians to have deleted al-Mahdī's name from the gold in 627, but his only surviving double dinar (511) must have preceded that event, as it is orthodox except for having six lines instead of five in each field. His nephew and opponent Yaḥyâ also has but a single known double dinar, while Idrīs' brother 'Imrān, who made himself independent at Ceuta, apparently coined only silver (1076, 1077) with the title al-amīr.

'Abd-al-Wāḥid II inherited his father's anti-Mahdī coinage and developed it in both gold and silver. His early gold praised the Koran instead of the Mahdī; his early silver was round and substituted his own epithet al-Rashīd for the Mahdī as imāmunā. Suggestions of a date appear on some of this silver, but clearer specimens must be found to determine whether the historical date for the restoration of al-Mahdī's name, 631, is confirmed or contradicted by the silver. The later gold coins show that this restoration actually did occur. One of these bears an unidentified mint misread by Prieto as Mālaqah (Malaga).

His brother 'Alī struck a few normal double dinars; he was succeeded by a distant cousin named 'Umar who minted a variety of gold. 'Umar's mints included Ceuta, Sijilmāsah, and an unidentified city, also misread by Prieto as Mālaqah. An interesting gold medal is owned and described by Brèthes.

The final Muwaḥḥid, another distant cousin named Idrīs II, struck a few more gold pieces to close out the numismatic history of this distinguished dynasty, since no coins are reported for the several Muwaḥḥid pretenders who arose after the Marīnid victory in 668.

The Hūdids in North Africa

Arab rulers of the Banū-Hūd of Murcia A.H. 625–668 (A.D. 1228–1269).

1 abū-'Abd-Allāh (notes to A84e) Muḥammad I (A35e) ibn-Yūsuf (A35e) A.H. 625 (A26) –635 (A35e) A.D. 1228 (A48a) –1238 (A48a) anonymous gold (for 'Abbāsid 36, not identified) 540, anonymous silver (for 'Abbāsid 36, not identified) 1117–1120.

1A abū'l-'Abbās (A26) Aḥmad (A35e) ibn-x (?), called al-Yānashtī (A35e), independent amīr of Ceuta A.H. 630 (A26) –635 (s, A35e) A.D. 1233 (A84e) –1238 (A84e) silver (for 'Abbāsid 36) 1121.

2, 3 no African coins.

3A abū'l-Qāsim (A35e) Ibrāhīm (notes to A80b) ibn-abī'l-'Abbās (A70b), called al-'Azafī (A35e), independent amīr of Ceuta A.H. 647 (A35e) –677 (H) A.D. 1249 (H) –1278 (notes to A80b) anonymous gold (for 'Abbāsid 37, not identified) 541.

4 no African coins.

The Hūdids, as one of the petty dynasties of Moslem Spain which arose on the ruins of the Muwaḥḥid empire, are excluded from this study except for their North African issues.

After the Muwaḥḥid amīr 'Imrān had declared himself independent at Ceuta in A.H. 629, he found himself unable to hold out, so in 630 he exchanged the town for a sinecure under Ibn-Hūd, who retained Ceuta for three months under the governorship of one al-Qāshtīnī. To this period may be ascribed a double dinar (540) and several square dirhems (1117–1120) on which references to the Mahdī and the Muwaḥḥids were replaced by generalized homage to the 'Abbāsid caliph, never individually specified. The approximate date of these coins is determined by the style, analogous to contemporary Muwaḥḥid pieces, and the attribution follows because Ibn-Hūd is the only ruler during this period who both controlled African territory and acknowledged 'Abbāsid suzerainty.

Later in 630 Ibn-Hūd's governor was expelled by the inhabitants, who gave the command to the amīr Aḥmad al-Yānashtī. This amīr kept power for five years, including a sea blockade by the Genoese, whom he bought off for a large ransom. To him must be attributed the round dirhem dated 635 (1121), which was struck in the name of the 'Abbāsid caliph abū-Ja'far, al-Mustanṣir-bi-Allāh.

Then Ceuta passed into Muwaḥḥid control until 643, and into Ḥafṣid vassaldom until 647, but for the next three decades it was again independent under the local amīr abū'l-Qāsim, al-'Azafī, who struck a double dinar (541) of Ḥafṣid type with pro-'Abbāsid legends at some time before 656, when the last 'Abbāsid caliph was killed by Hūlāgū during the sack of Baghdad. The date is established by the date of the Ḥafṣid coins from which it clearly derives; the attribution rests on the elimination of other possibilities for this date and 'Abbāsid recognition.

The Ḥafṣids of Tunisia and Eastern Algeria

Maṣmūdah Berber rulers of the Banū-Ḥafṣ of Tunisia and eastern Algeria A.H. 627–982 (A.D. 1230–1574).

1 abū-Zakarīyā' (g, C18, A35e) Yaḥyâ I (g, B13, A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Wāḥid (g, B13, C18, A35e) A.H. 627 (A84e) –647 (A35e) A.D. 1230 (A84e) –1249 (A35e):

First series, Muwaḥḥid name A.H. 627 (A84e) –634 (A35e) A.D. 1230 (A84e) –1236 (D4) gold 542–544.

Second series, Muwaḥḥid and Ḥafṣid names A.H. 634 (A35e) –640 (A85C) A.D. 1236 (D4) –1242 (A85C) gold 545, 546.

Third series, Ḥafṣid name A.H. 640 (A85C) –647 (A35e) A.D. 1242 (A85C) –1249 (A35e) gold 547–552, partisan gold 553–556.

2 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, C17, A35e) Muḥammad I (g, C15, A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ I (1; g, C18, A35e) A.H. 647 (A35e) –675 (A35e) A.D. 1249 (A35e) –1277 (A35e):

First series, as amīr A.H. 647 (A35e) –650 (A85C) A.D. 1249 (A35e) –1253 (A85C) gold 557–561.

Second series, as amīr al-mu'minīn A.H. 650 (A85C) –675 (A35e) A.D. 1253 (A85C) –1277 (A35e) gold 562–566, copper 1172.

2–8 anonymous silver 1122, 1123.

3 abū-Zakarīyā' (g, C12, A85c) Yaḥyâ II (g, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad I (2; A35e) A.H. 675 (A35e) –678 (A35e) A.D. 1277 (A35e) –1279 (A35e) (opposed 677–678 by 4) gold 567, 568.

4 abū-Isḥāq (g, A35e) Ibrāhīm I (g, A35h) ibn-Yaḥyâ I (1; g, A35e) A.H. 677 (A85C) –681 (A35e) A.D. 1279 (A85C) –1283 (A35e) (opposed 677–678 by 3 and during 681 by 4A) gold 569.

4A Aḥmad (A35e) ibn-Marzūq (A35e), called Ibn-abī-'Umārah (A35e), impostor pretending to be abū'l-'Abbās (g) al-Faḍl (g, A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ II (3; A35e) A.H. 681 (A35e) –683 (A35e) A.D. 1282 (A65) –1284 (A35e) (opposed during 681 by 4, 681–682 by 5, and during 683 by 6) gold 570.

5 abū-Fāris (A35e) 'Abd-al-'Azīz I (A35e) ibn-Ibrāhīm I (4; A35e) A.H. 681 (A35e) –682 (A35e) A.D. 1283 (A35e) –1283 (A35e) (opposed 681–682 by 4A) no coins.

6 abū-Ḥafṣ (g, B11, C12, A35e) 'Umar I (g, A35h) ibn-Yaḥyâ I (1; A35e) A.H. 683 (A35e) –694 (A35e) A.D. 1284 (A65) –1295 (A35e) (opposed during 683 by 4A and 683–694 by 6A) gold 571–573.

6A abū-Zakarīyā' (g, C12, A35e) Yaḥyâ (A35e) ibn-Ibrāhīm I (4; A35e) amīr at Bougie A.H. 683 (A35e) –700 (D4) A.D. 1284 (D4, D14) –1301 (D4) (opposed 683–694 by 6 and 694–700 by 7) gold 574–576.

7 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, C12, A35e) Muḥammad II (g, C12, A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ II (3; C12, A35e) A.H. 694 (A35e) –709 (A35e) A.D. 1295 (A35e) –1309 (A35e) (opposed 694–700 by 6A and 700–709 by 8) gold 577–579.

8 abū'l-Baqā' (g, A35e) Khālid I (g, C12, A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ (6A; C12, A35e) A.H. 700 (D4) –711 (A35e) A.D. 1301 (D4) –1311 (A85C) (opposed 700–709 by 7, during 709 by 9, 710–711 by 10, and during 711 by 11):

First series, as amīr at Bougie A.H. 700 (D4) –709 (A35e) A.D. 1301 (D4) –1309 (A35e) no coins.

Second series, as amīr al-mu'minīn A.H. 709 (A35e) –711 (A35e) A.D. 1309 (A35e) –1311 (A85C) gold 580.

9 abū-Yaḥyâ (A35e) Abū-Bakr I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān ibn-Abī-Bakr ibn-Yaḥyâ I (1; A35e) A.H. 709 (A35e) –709 (A35e) A.D. 1309 (A35e) –1309 (A35e) (opposed during 709 by 8) no coins.

10 abū-Yaḥyâ (g, C14, A35e) Abū-Bakr II (g, C14, A35E) ibn-Yaḥyâ (6A; C12, A35e) A.H. 710 (A35e) –747 (A35e) A.D. 1310 (A18b) –1346 (A35e) (opposed 710–711 by 8, 711–717 by 11, 717–723 by 12, 721–730 by 12A, 724–725 by 12B, and 729–732 by 12C):

First series, as amīr at Bougie and Constantine A.H. 710 (A35e) –718 (A85C) A.D. 1310 (A18b) –1318 (A85C) gold 581–583.

Second series, as amīr al-mu'minīn A.H. 718 (A85C) –747 (A35e) A.D. 1318 (A85C) –1346 (A35e) gold 584–591.

11 abū-Yaḥyâ (g, C2, A35e) Zakarīyā' I (g, C2, A35e) ibn-Aḥmad ibn-Muḥammad (brother of 1; C2, A35e) A.H. 711 (A35e) –717 (A35e) A.D. 1311 (A65) –1318 (A85C) (opposed during 711 by 8 and 711–717 by 10) gold 592, 593.

12 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A35e) Muḥammad III (g, A35e) ibn-Zakarīyā' I (11; A35e) A.H. 717 (A35e) –723 (A35e) A.D. 1317 (A35e) –1323 (no alternative) (opposed 717–723 by 10 and 721–723 by 12A) gold 594.

12A abū-'Abd-Allāh (A35e) Muḥammad (A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr ibn-Mūsâ (cousin of 1; A35e) pretender A.H. 721 (A35e) –730 (A35e) A.D. 1321 (A35e) –1330 (A35e) (opposed 721–730 by 10, 721–723 by 12, 724–725 by 12B, and 729–730 by 12C) no coins.

12B abū-Isḥāq (A35e) Ibrāhīm (A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr I (9; A35e) pretender A.H. 724 (D14) –725 (A35e) A.D. 1324 (D14) –1325 (A35e) (opposed 724–725 by 10 and 12A) no coins.

12C abū-Muḥammad (H) 'Abd-al-Wāḥid (A35e) ibn-Zakarīyā' I (11; A35e) pretender A.H. 729 (A35e) –732 (A35e) A.D. 1329 (H) –1332 (A35e) (opposed 729–732 by 10 and 729–730 by 12A) no coins.

13 abū-Ḥafṣ (g, A35e) 'Umar II (g, A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; g, A35e) A.H. 747 (A35e) –748 (A35e) A.D. 1346 (A35e) –1347 (A85c) (opposed during 747 by 14) gold 595, 596.

14 abū'l-'Abbās (A35e) Aḥmad I (A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; A35e) A.H. 747 (A35e) –747 (A35e) A.D. 1346 (A35e) –1346 (A35e) (opposed during 747 by 13) no coins.

interregnum under Marīnid 11 between death of 13 and independence of 15 A.H. 748 (A35e) –749 (A35e) A.D. 1347 (A85c) –1348 (D4, D14).

15 abū'l-'Abbās (g, A35e) al-Faḍl (g, A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; g, A35e) A.H. 749 (A35e) –751 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (D4, D14) –1350 (A35e) (opposed 749–751 by 15A and 15B):

First series, at Bougie A.H. 749 (A35e) –749 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (D4, D14) –1349 (D14) gold 597, 598.

Second series, at Tunis A.H. 750 (A35e) –751 (A35e) A.D. 1350 (A85c) –1350 (A35e) gold 599, 600.

15A abū-Zayd (g, A35e) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān (g, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; A35e) amīr at Constantine A.H. 749 (A35e) –755 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (D4, D14) –1355 (D14) (opposed 749–751 by 15 and 751–755 by 16) gold 601.

15B abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A35e) Muḥammad (g, A35e) ibn-Yaḥyâ ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; g, A35e) amīr at Bougie A.H. 749 (A35e) –753 (A35e), 761 (A35e) –767 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (A35e) –1352 (D14), 1360 (D14) –1366 (A61b) (opposed 749–751 by 15 and 761–767 by 16 and 17):

First reign (see above) gold 602.

Second reign, Marīnid influence (see above) gold 603.

16 abū-Isḥāq (g, C5, A35e) Ibrāhīm II (g, C5, A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; g, C5, A35e) A.H. 751 (A35e) –770 (A35e) A.D. 1350 (A35e) –1369 (A65) (opposed 751–755 by 15A, 761–767 by 15B, and 755–758, 761–770 by 17) gold 604–607.

17 abū'l-'Abbās (g, B20, C2, A35e) Aḥmad II (g, B20, C14, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-Abī-Bakr II (10; g, C14, A35e) A.H. 755 (A35e)-758 (A35e), 761 (A35e) –796 (A35e) A.D. 1354 (D14) –1357 (D4, D14), 1360 (A85C) –1394 (A35e) (opposed 761–767 by 15B, 755–758, 761–770 by 16, and 770–772 by 18):

First reign (see above) gold 608.

Second reign, Marīnid influence (see above) gold 609.

18 abū'l-Baqā' (A35e) Khālid II (A35e) ibn-Ibrāhīm II (16; A35e) A.H. 770 (A35e) –772 (A85c) A.D. 1369 (A65) –1370 (A85c) (opposed 770–772 by 17) no coins.

19 abū-Fāris (g, C2, A35e) 'Abd-al-'Aziz II (g, C2, A85c) ibn-Aḥmad II (17; g, C2, A35e) A.H. 796 (A35e) –837 (A85c) A.D. 1394 (A35e) –1434 (A85c) gold 610–625.

20 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A85c) Muḥammad IV (g, A85c) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Abd-al-'Azīz II (19, A85c) A.H. 837 (A85c) –839 (A85c) A.D. 1434 (A85c) –1435 (A85c) gold 626.

20A abū'l-Ḥasan (g, A85c) 'Alī (g, A85c) ibn-'Abd-al-'Azīz II (19; g, A85c) amīr at Bougie A.H. 839 (A85c) –856 (A85c) A.D. 1435 (A32) –1452 (D4) (opposed 839–856 by 21) gold 627.

21 abū-'Amr (g, C12, A85c) 'Uthmān (g, C2, A85c) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Abd-al-'Azīz II (19; C2, A85c) A.H.839 (A85c) –893 (A69) A.D. 1435 (A85c) –1488 (A69) (opposed 839–856 by 20A):

First series, Ḥafṣid style: gold 628–636.

Second series, Ḥafṣid style with 4-line reverse field: gold 637, 638.

Third series, Marīnid style with 4-line fields: gold 639, 640.

22 abū-Zakarīyā' (A85c) Yaḥyâ III (A85c) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Uthmān (21; A69) A.H. 893 (A69) –894 (A69) A.D. 1488 (A69) –1489 (A69) (opposed during 894 by 23) no coins.

23 abū-Muḥammad (H) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (A69) ibn-Ibrāhīm ibn-'Uthmān (21; A69) A.H. 894 (A69) –895 (D4) A.D. 1489 (A69) –1490 (D4) (opposed during 894 by 22) no coins.

24 abū-Yaḥyâ (D4) Zakarīyā' II (A69) ibn-Yaḥyâ III (22; A69) A.H. 895 (D4) –899 (A18a) A.D. 1490 (D4) –1494 (A18a) no coins.

25 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A18a) Muḥammad V (g, A18a) ibn-al-Ḥasan ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Uthmān (21; A18a) A.H. 899 (A18a) –932 (A18a) A.D. 1494 (A18a) –1526 (A18a) gold 641–643.

26 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A18a) Muḥammad VI (g) ibn-Muḥammad V (25; g, A18a) A.H. 932 (A18a) –941 (D14), 942 (D14) –948 (D14) A.D. 1526 (A18a) –1534 (D14), 1535 (D14) –1542 (D14):

First reign, as amīr al-mu'minīn (see above) gold 644.

Second reign, as vassal of Charles I of Spain (see above) no coins.

interregnum under Khayr-al-Dīn and Turks between deposition and restoration of 26 A.H. 941 (D14) –942 (D14) A.D. 1534 (D14) –1535 (D14).

27 abū'l-'Abbās (c, A18a) Aḥmad III (s, c, A18a) ibn-Muḥammad VI (26; s) A.H. 948 (D14) –977 (D14) A.D. 1542 (D14) –1569 (D14) silver 1124–1132, copper 1173, 1174.

interregnum under Turks between deposition of 27 and installation of 28 A.H. 977 (D14) –981 (A32) A.D. 1569 (D14) –1573 (D14).

28 abū-'Abd-Allāh (A18a) Muḥammad VII (D14) ibn-Muḥammad VI (26; D14) vassal of Philip II of Spain A.H. 981 (A32) –982 (A32) A.D. 1573 (D14) –1574 (A32) no coins.

The Ḥafṣids claimed the spiritual and political succession from the Muwaḥḥids, and their coins were designed accordingly. Their double dinars, dinars, and smaller gold pieces followed the Muwaḥḥid standards, and surviving specimens average slightly better weight than those of their predecessors. By restricting the field inscriptions to three lines, they avoided over-crowding them; the script used was a cursive Naskhī or a highly ornamented Kūfī. Silver in the latter script is definitely Ḥafṣid; otherwise, their anonymous silver is very difficult to distinguish from that struck by the Muwaḥḥids.

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The inscriptions on the gold almost invariably include, in the obverse field, one of several phrases in honor of the Mahdī; the sequence of these fields affords one of the best methods of dating these dateless gold pieces. The reverse field and segments normally give the current ruler's name, title, epithets, and condensed genealogy. Mints occur on many of these coins but dates are unknown until near the end of the dynasty, when they appear on the silver in the form of numerals, under Ottoman influence.

The power of the Ḥafṣids lasted for over three centuries, with minor interruptions by Marīnid invaders in the fourteenth century and major conflicts with Turks and Spanish in the sixteenth, at which time the legibility of the coins was seriously impaired.

The attribution of Ḥafṣid gold, though not as automatic as that of the Murābiṭ and Muwaḥḥid pieces, is seldom difficult, because of the sequence of obverse styles and scripts. Yaḥyâ I's gold falls into three series corresponding to the stages by which he passed from being a Muwaḥḥid governor to being an independent sovereign, though contenting himself with the title al-amīr al-ajall. In 627, when his suzerain Idrīs I renounced the unitarian doctrines of the Mahdī and removed him from the coins, Yaḥyâ seized the opportunity to disown this heresy and strike coins in the name of the Mahdī and 'Abd-al-Mu'min, friend of his grandfather abū-Ḥafṣ 'Umar, a virtual declaration of independence. In 634 he added his own name; in 640 he deleted that of 'Abd-al-Mu'min, completing the political separation from the Muwaḥḥids, but he and his heirs never repudiated the Mahdī or deleted his name from their money. Of particular importance are the coins struck for Yaḥyâ by vassals in Morocco (553, 554) and Spain (555, 556), as each can be linked with a particular event in his intricate maneuvering for power. Ceuta acknowledged him from 643 to 647, between the Muwaḥḥid domination and its freedom under al-'Azafī, whose gold is described with that of the Hūdids. Sijilmāsah under al-Khazrajī recognized his authority only in 640 and 641.

Seville sought his aid during its final siege by the Christians, while Granada recognized him briefly before Ibn-al-Aḥmar established independent Naṣrid rule there, to endure until A.D. 1492.

Muḥammad I,, the opponent of Louis IX of France in his fatal crusade, did not inherit his father's foreign holdings, but his prosperous home province was an ample heritage which he carefully strengthened, while developing commerce with Italy. His coins fall into two series, as he used the title al-amīr al-ajall until 650, when he adopted the Caliphal amīr al-mu'minīn, for which he secured international approval after the Mongol conquest of Baghdad in 656. It is on the latter series that the ornamented Kūfī script was introduced, possibly by exiles from Seville, who were very numerous and influential in Muḥammad's court.

The gold of his son Yaḥyâ II was patterned on his, but when Ibrāhīm I seized power he reverted to the earlier style and the title al-amīr al-ajall.

The impostor Ibn-abī-'Umārah, claiming to be al-Faḍl ibn-Yaḥyâ II, who had been murdered in prison, left a single double dinar (570), which has not heretofore been correctly ascribed. No coins can be attributed to his rival 'Abd-al-'Azīz I, whose reign lasted less than a year.

Several ornamented Kūfī coins were struck by 'Umar I and by his contemporary at Bougie, Yaḥyâ, who used the title al-amīr. A small group of double dinars in both scripts can safely be ascribed to Muḥammad II, and a single ornamented Kūfī one to his rival Khālid I, with no coins for the short reign of Abū-Bakr I.

During his long embattled tenure Abū-Bakr II struck a big group of gold coins, while his opponents Zakarīyā' I and Muḥammad III left a few with unusual obverse inscriptions. The three pretenders did not leave coins.

A double dinar belongs to 'Umar II, and the eighth dinar of Paris is probably his, but he murdered his brother Aḥmad I before the latter had a chance to mint gold. The Marīnid invasion caused by this event led to partition among al-Faḍl, 'Abd-al-Raḥmān, and Muḥammad, each of whom struck distinctive gold; the double dinar (603) struck by Muḥammad during his second reign after captivity among the Marīnids is particularly noteworthy for the Marīnid phraseology in the reverse segments.

A group of double dinars struck by Ibrāhīm II, including the last ornamented Kūfī gold piece, precedes two minted for his opponent Aḥmad II, the second of which (609) followed his Marīnid captivity, judging by its five-line fields. Khālid II's short reign left no numismatic records.

The long and prosperous reign of 'Abd-al-'Azīz II is reflected by his plentiful gold, in much of which the diameter is wrong for the denomination indicated by the legends and weight. One double dinar may be attributed to his successor Muḥammad IV, though this is not certain, and one to his son 'Alī at Bougie.

'Uthmān's long rule produced a quantity of gold, some of which, struck in Algeria, is unusual in the wording and arrangement of the legends and in the modified Kūfī script.

No coins are reported for his three ephemeral successors, while the gold assigned Muḥammad V is either partly illegible, the wrong size, or tentative. Muḥammad VI's single gold piece also has illegible segments; it was during his reign that the Turks and Spaniards fought each other for control of Tunis. It is apparent that the troubles which overwhelmed the Ḥafṣid state after 'Uthmān's death seriously affected both the quantity and the quality of the gold, which now ceased entirely.

For the long, turbulent reign of Aḥmad III no gold survives, but a quantity of dated silver showing Turkish influence has been found, and a few pieces of copper. No coins are reported for the final Ḥafṣid, Muḥammad VII, nor for the many independent Ḥafṣid amīrs or local Arab and Berber rebels.

This lengthy series of Ḥafṣid gold, with the final silver and copper pieces, is most useful in correcting existing lists of the Ḥafṣid rulers. Extensive revisions have been made in such points as nomenclature and relationships, following the excellent start made by Brunschvig and Farrugia de Candia.

The Ziyānids of Western Algeria

Zanātah Berber rulers of the Banū-Ziyān (Banū-'Abd-al-Wād) of western Algeria A.H. 633–964 (A.D. 1236–1556).

1 abū-Yaḥyâ (B8, A81) Yaghmurāsan (B8, A35e) ibn-Ziyān (B8, A35e) A.H. 633 (A35e) –681 (A35e) A.D. 1236 (A81) –1283 (A35e) anonymous gold, Ḥafṣid style 645.

2 abū-Sa'īd (A81) 'Uthmān I (A35e) ibn-Yaghmurāsan (1; A35e) A.H. 681 (A35e) –703 (A35e) A.D. 1283 (A35e) –1304 (A81) no coins.

3 abū-Ziyān (A35e) Muḥammad I (A35e) ibn-'Uthmān I (2; A35e) A.H. 703 (A35e) –707 (A35e) A.D. 1304 (A81) –1308 (A35e) no coins.

4 abū-Ḥammū (C12, A35e) Mūsâ I (g, A35e) ibn-'Uthmān I (2; A35e) A.H. 707 (A35e) –718 (A35e) A.D. 1308 (A35e) –1318 (A35e) gold 646.

5 abū-Tāshfīn (B10, C12, A35e) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān I (g, C14, A35e) ibn-Mūsâ I (4; A35e) A.H. 718 (A35e) –737 (A35e) A.D. 1318 (A35e) –1337 (A35e) gold 647–649.

interregnum under Marīnid 11 between death of 5 and independence of 6 A.H. 737 (A35e) –749 (A35e) A.D. 1337 (A35e) –1348 (A35e).

6 abū-Sa'īd (A35e) 'Uthmān II (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān ibn-Yaḥyâ ibn-Yaghmurāsan (1; A35e) A.H. 749 (A35e) –753 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (A35e) –1352 (A35e) no coins.

7 abū-Thābit (A35e) al-Za'īm I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān ibn-Yaḥyâ ibn-Yaghmurāsan (1; A35e) A.H. 753 (A35e) –753 (A35e) A.D. 1352 (A35e) –1352 (A75) no coins.

interregnum under Marīnids 12 and 13 between death of 7 and independence of 8 A.H. 753 (A35e) –760 (A35e) A.D. 1352 (A75) –1359 (A35e).

8 abū-Ḥammū (B8, A35e) Mūsâ II (g, B8, A35e) ibn-Yūsuf ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān ibn-Yaḥyâ ibn-Yaghmurāsan (1; B8, A35e) A.H. 760 (A35e) –791 (A35e) A.D. 1359 (A5a) –1389 (A35e) (opposed 762–779 by 8A and 788–791 by 9) gold 650, 651.

8A abū-Ziyān (A35e) Muḥammad (A35e) ibn-'Uthmān II (6; A35e) pretender A.H. 762 (A35e) –779 (A35e) A.D. 1360 (D14) –1377 (D14) (opposed 762–779 by 8) no coins.

9 abū-Tāshfīn (A35e) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān II (g, A35e) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; B8, A35e) A.H. 788 (A35e) –795 (A35e) A.D. 1387 (D14) –1393 (A35e) (opposed 788–791 by 8) gold 652.

10 abū-Thābit (A5c) al-Za'īm II (A5a) ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān II (9; A35e) A.H. 795 (A35e) –795 (A5a) A.D. 1393 (A35e) –1393 (A5a) no coins.

11 abū'l-Ḥajjāj (A8) Yūsuf (A35e) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; A35e) A.H. 795 (A5a) –796 (A35e) A.D. 1393 (A5a) –1394 (A75) no coins.

12 abū-Ziyān (A35e) Muḥammad II (g, A35e) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; A35e) A.H. 796 (A35e) –802 (A5a) A.D. 1394 (A75) –1399 (A5a) gold 653.

13 abū-Muḥammad (g, A75) 'Abd-Allāh I (g, A5a) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; A5a) A.H. 802 (A5a) –804 (A5a) A.D. 1399 (A5a) –1402 (A5a) gold 654.

14 abū-'Abd-Allāh (A75) Muḥammad III (g, B8, A5a) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; B8, A5a) A.H. 804 (A5a) –813 (B8, A75) A.D. 1402 (A5a) –1411 (B8, A75) gold 655–657.

15 abū-Tāshfīn (H) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān III (g, A75) ibn-Muḥammad III (14; A75) A.H. 813 (A75) –814 (A75) A.D. 1411 (A75) –1411 (A75) gold 658.

16 abū-x (?) al-Sa'īd (A75) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; A75) A.H. 814 (A75) –814 (A75) A.D. 1411 (A75) –1411 (A75) no coins.

17 abū-Mālik (B8) 'Abd-al-Wāḥid (g, B8, A85c) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; B8, A85c) A.H. 814 (A75) –827 (A75), 831 (A75) –833 (B8, A75) A.D. 1411 (A75) –1424 (A75), 1428 (A75) –1430 (B8, A75) gold 659–662.

18 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, A75) Muḥammad IV (A85c) ibn-'Abd-al-Raḥmān II (9; A85C) A.H. 827 (A75) –831 (A75), 833 (A75) –834 (A75) A.D. 1424 (A75) –1428 (A75), 1430 (A75) –1431 (A75) gold 663, 664.

19 abū'l-'Abbās (g, B8, A85c) Aḥmad I (g, B8, A85c) ibn-Mūsâ II (8; A85c) A.H. 834 (A75) –866 (A75) A.D. 1431 (A75) –1462 (A75) gold 665–668.

20 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, B8, A75) Muḥammad V (g, B8, A85c) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-al-Za'im II (10; A75) A.H. 866 (A75) –873 (D1) A.D. 1462 (A75) –1468 (D1) gold 669.

21 abū-Tāshfīn (D1) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān IV (H) ibn-Muḥammad V (20; D1) A.H. 873 (D1) –873 (D1) A.D. 1468 (D1) –1468 (D1) no coins.

22 abū-'Abd-Allāh (B8) Muḥammad VI (B8) ibn-Muḥammad V (20; D18) A.H. 873 (D1) –910 (D1) A.D. 1468 (D1) –1505 (D1) no coins.

23 abū-'Abd-Allāh (B8) Muḥammad VII (B8) ibn-Muḥammad VI (22; B8) A.H. 910 (D1) –922 (D1) A.D. 1505 (D1) –1516 (D1):

Independent A.H. 910 (D1) –918 (H) A.D. 1505 (D1) –1512 (D14) no coins.

Vassal of Ferdinand II of Aragon A.H. 918 (H) –922 (D1) A.D. 1512 (D14) –1516 (D1) no coins.

24 abū-Ziyān (D14) Aḥmad II (H) ibn-Muḥammad VI (22; D14) vassal of Ottoman Salīm I (9) A.H. 922 (D14) –922 (D14), 923 (D14) –924 (D14) A.D. 1516 (D14) –1516 (D14), 1517 (D14) –1518 (D14) (opposed 923–924 by 25) no coins.

25 abū-Ḥammū (D18) Mūsâ III (D18) ibn-Muḥammad V (20; D18) vassal of Charles I of Spain A.H. 922 (D14) –934 (D1) A.D. 1516 (D1) –1528 (D1) (opposed 923–924 by 24) no coins.

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26 abū-Muḥammad (B8) 'Abd-Allāh II (g, B8) ibn-Muḥammad V (20; D18) A.H. 934 (D1) –947 (D1) A.D. 1528 (D1) –1540 (D1):

Vassal of Ottoman 10 A.H. 934 (D1) –942 (D14) A.D. 1528 (D1) –1535 (D14) gold 670.

Vassal of Charles I of Spain A.H. 942 (D14) –947 (D1) A.D. 1535 (D14) –1540 (D1) no coins.

27 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g, D14) Muḥammad VIII (g, D14) ibn-'Abd-Allāh II (26; D18) A.H. 947 (D14) –949 (D14), 949 (D1) –950 (D14) A.D. 1540 (D14) –1543 (H), 1543 (D1) –1543 (D14):

First reign, as vassal of Ottoman 10 (see above) gold 671.

Second reign (see above), as vassal of Charles I of Spain, no coins.

28 abū-Ziyān (D18) Aḥmad III (D18) ibn-'Abd-Allāh II (26; D18) vassal of Ottoman 10 A.H. 949 (D14) –949 (D1), 950 (D14) –957 (D1) A.D. 1543 (H) –1543 (D1), 1543 (D14) –1550 (D1) no coins.

29 abū-Muḥammad (g, D14) Ḥasan (g, D14) ibn-'Abd-Allāh II (26; D18) A.H. 957 (D1) –964 (D1) A.D. 1550 (D1) –1556 (D1) gold 672.

Crushed between their powerful neighbors, the Ḥafṣids and the Marīnids, the Ziyānids were frequently besieged or driven from their capital at Tlemcen into the mountains, and were occasionally overthrown, with subsequent interregnums, yet they managed to survive as a dynasty for well over three centuries, until the controversy between Turks and Spaniards was settled by the Ottoman conquest. During this span they also suffered an excessive amount of intra-dynastic rebellion, yet their capital prospered and a fair amount of gold was coined there.

Relatively few specimens of this Ziyānid gold are extant, and their attribution is made more difficult by the repetition of proper names in the family, but by correlation with Brosselard's epigraphic studies and with the historians of the earlier period, a reasonable certitude may be achieved. Thus the anonymous gold piece in Ḥafṣid style, identical except for mint with the contemporary gold of Morocco, is ascribed to Yaghmurāsan because at the period when it was struck he was master of Tlemcen, and because he, like his Marīnid contemporaries, was nominally a Ḥafṣid vassal.

No coins can be ascribed to 'Uthmān I and Muḥammad I, but the double dinars inscribed "mā aqrabu farju Allāh" surely belong to Mūsâ I and 'Abd-al-Raḥmān I, referring as they do to the unexpected lifting of the eight-year siege of Tlemcen at the death of the Marīnid Yūsuf.

Two of the most puzzling coins in the corpus (648, 649) are reluctantly inserted here, but I have been completely unable to account for the title amīr al-mu'minīn and the other anomalous features, or to read the last line of the reverse field, of which all reported versions are demonstrably wrong. The Algiers issue may be questionable but the Tlemcen coin does exist; it was struck by an 'Abd-al-Raḥmān with Caliphal pretensions; his name and title and the Tlemcen mint are perfectly clear but inexplicable.

For the brothers 'Uthmān II and al-Za'īm I, who ruled between the two Marīnid conquests, no gold is known to have survived, though 'Uthmān is said by Yaḥyâ Ibn-Khaldūn to have struck some.

Mūsâ II's long reign bore fruit in one double dinar and probably in one dinar, while a similar double dinar exists for 'Abd-al-Raḥmān II, if Brèthes' attempt to paint the name of Yaghmurāsan on the sole extant specimen has not misled me.

No coins exist for the short reigns of al-Za'īm II and Yūsuf, but Moyse reports a double dinar of Muḥammad II and the Paris specimen seems to fit 'Abd-Allāh I, though ascribed to Muḥammad V.

Three gold pieces are assignable to Muḥammad III by the epithet al-Wāthiq-bi-Allāh, and a Paris dinar tentatively to 'Abd-al-Raḥmān III, with no coins for al-Sa'īd, who ruled for less than a year.

An assortment of gold coins bears the name of 'Abd-al-Wāḥid, while similar coins can be attributed to his opponent Muḥammad IV. Aḥmad I left a group of gold pieces with his epithet al-Mu'taṣim-bi-Allāh, and a half dinar may belong to Muḥammad V or one of his namesakes.

No coins have been assigned to the next five rulers, whose reigns were very disturbed by Turkish-Spanish combats. To 'Abd-Allāh II and Muḥammad VIII can confidently be assigned the two double dinars (670, 671) which bear besides their names and titles that of amīr al-mu'minīn abū'l-Rabī' Sulaymān. An incredible amount of fruitless controversy among such experts as Lavoix, van Berchem, Prieto, and Fasmer has been fomented by these coins, which were obviously struck by these vassals of the Ottoman sultan Sulaymān, called the Magnificent by Europeans and the Lawgiver by his own people.

The fact that he did not actually bear the kunyah abū'l-Rabī' is no objection; all Sulaymāns in the occident used this name, and it was ascribed to him as unhesitatingly as abū-Ya'qūb to Yūsuf ibn-Tāshfīn or abū'l-Ḥasan to his son 'Alī by later historians, though as their gold shows the Murābiṭs, like the Ottomans, did not use names in abū-. In Tunisia, on the other hand, an inscription termed Sulayman abū'l-Futūḥ with equally little justification.

With this discussion permanently closed, it may be hoped, we may skip Aḥmad III, with no coins reported, for the final Ziyānid gold piece, a half dinar of Ḥasan.

The numismatic history of this dynasty is sketchy because of the scarcity of available specimens; it is possible that future archaeological finds will complete the representation of this family.

No silver and copper can be ascribed to the Ziyānids, although they must certainly have struck some silver during their lengthy control of western Algeria; Leo Africanus' assertion that at least the later rulers of this dynasty coined both silver and copper is probably correct, especially by analogy with the late Ḥafṣid pieces.

The Marīnids of Morocco

Zanātah Berber rulers of the Banū-Marīn of Morocco A.H. 592–869 (A.D. 1196–1465).

1 abū-Muḥammad (A92) 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq I (g, B4, C14, A35e) ibn-Maḥyū (A35e) A.H. 592 (A92) –614 (A35e) A.D. 1196 (A92) –1217 (A84e) no coins.

2 abū-Sa'īd (A35e) 'Uthmān I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Ḥaqq I (1; A35e) A.H. 614 (A35e) –638 (A92) A.D.1217 (A84e) –1240 (A92) no coins.

3 abū-Ma'rūf (A84d) Muḥammad I (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Ḥaqq I (1; A35e) A.H. 638 (A92) –642 (A35e) A.D. 1240 (A92) –1244 (A84d) no coins.

4 abū-Yaḥyâ (A35e) Abū-Bakr (A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Ḥaqq I (1; A35e) A.H. 642 (A35e) –656 (A35e) A.D. 1244 (A84d) –1258 (no alternative) anonymous gold, Ḥafṣid style 673–712, anonymous silver 1133, 1134.

5 abū-Ḥafṣ (A5b) 'Umar (A35e) ibn-Abī-Bakr (4; A35e) A.H. 656 (A35e) –658 (A92) A.D. 1258 (no alternative) –1259 (A92) (opposed 656–658 by 6) no coins.

6 abū-Yūsuf (B4, C14, A35e) Ya'qūb (g, B4, C14, A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-Ḥaqq I (1; g, B4, C14, A35e) A.H. 656 (A35e) –685 (A35e) A.D. 1258 (no alternative) –1286 (A35e) (opposed 656–658 by 5):

First series, Ḥafṣid style A.H. 656 (A35e) –668 (A35e) A.D. 1258 (no alternative) –1269 (A35e) anonymous gold (see 4).

Second series, Marīnid style A.H. 668 (A35e) –685 (A35e) A.D. 1269 (A35e) –1286 (A35e) gold 713, 714, anonymous silver 1135.

7 abū-Ya'qūb (B11, C12, A35e) Yūsuf (A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb (6; B24, A35e) A.H. 685 (A35e) –706 (B24, A35e) A.D. 1286 (A35e) –1307 (B24, A35e) anonymous gold 715–725, anonymous silver 1136–1140.

8 abū-Thābit (C12, A35e) 'Āmir (A35e) ibn-'Abd-Allāh ibn-Yūsuf (7; A84d) A.H. 706 (A35e) –708 (A35e) A.D. 1307 (A35e) –1308 (A35e) no coins.

9 abū'l-Rabī' (C12, A35e) Sulaymān (A35e) ibn-'Abd-Allāh ibn-Yūsuf (7; A84d) A.H. 708 (A35e) –710 (A35e) A.D. 1308 (A35e) –1310 (A35e) no coins.

10 abū-Sa'īd (g, B4, C14, A35e) 'Uthmān II (g, B4, A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb (6; B4, C14, A35e) A.H. 710 (A35e) –731 (A35e) A.D. 1310 (A35e) –1331 (A35e) (opposed 714–731 by 10A) gold 726–745.

10A abū-'Alī (g, B4, A35e) 'Umar (g, B4, A35e) ibn-'Uthmān II (10; A35e) amīr at Sijilmāsah A.H. 714 (A35e) –733 (A35e) A.D. 1315 (A84e) –1333 (D17) (opposed 714–731 by 10 and 731–733 by 11) no coins.

11 abū'l-Ḥasan (B4, C14, A35e) 'Alī (B4, A35e) ibn-'Uthmān II (10; B4, C14, A35e) A.H. 731 (A35e) –752 (B9, A35e) A.D. 1331 (A35e) –1351 (B9, A35e) (opposed 731–733 by 10A and 749–752 by 12):

First series, Marīnid inscriptions: anonymous gold 746–749, anonymous silver 1141–1146.

Second series, Marīnid and Naṣrid inscriptions A.H. 731 (A35e) –740 (A35e) A.D. 1331 (A35e) –1340 (A35e) anonymous gold 750–758.

Third series, Marīnid and Ziyānid inscriptions A.H. 737 (A35e) –752 (B9, A35e) A.D. 1337 (A35e) –1351 (B9, A35e) anonymous gold 759–768, anonymous silver 1147.

12 abū-'Inān (B4, C12, A35e) Fāris (g, B4, A35e) ibn-'Alī (11; B4, A35e) A.H. 749 (A35e) –759 (A35e) A.D. 1348 (A35e) –1358 (A35e) (opposed 749–752 by 11):

First series, Marīnid style: gold 769–777.

Second series, Ḥafṣid style: gold 778–786.

12A abū-Ziyān (A5b) Muḥammad (A5b) ibn-Fāris (12; A5b) pretender A.H. 759 (A5b) –759 (A5b) A.D. 1358 (A5b) –1358 (A5b) no coins.

13 abū-'Abd-Allāh (g) Muḥammad II (A35e) ibn-Fāris (12; A35e) A.H. 759 (A35e) –760 (A35e) A.D. 1358 (A35e) –1359 (A35e) gold 787.

14 abū-Sālim (B2, C14, A35e) Ibrāhīm (A35e) ibn-'Alī (11; B2, C14, A35e) A.H. 760 (A35e) –762 (A35e) A.D. 1359 (A35e) –1361 (A35e) gold 788, anonymous silver 1148.

15 abū-'Umar (A35e) Tāshfīn (A35e) ibn-'Alī (11; A35e) A.H. 762 (A35e) –763 (A35e) A.D. 1361 (A35e) –1361 (A35e) no coins.

16 abū-Muḥammad (A39a) 'Abd-al-Ḥalīm (A35e) ibn-'Umar (10A; A35e) A.H. 763 (A35e) –764 (A35e) A.D. 1361 (A5b) –1362 (A35e) (opposed 763–764 by 17) no coins.

17 abū-Ziyān (A35e) Muḥammad III (g, A35e) ibn-Ya'qūb ibn-'Alī (11; A35e) A.H.763 (A35e) –767 (A5b) A.D. 1361 (A35e) –1366 (A5b) (opposed 763–764 by 16 and 764–765 by 17A) gold 789–792.

17A abū-Mālik (g) 'Abd-al-Mu'min (g, A35e) ibn- 'Umar (10A; g, A35e) amīr at Sijilmāsah A.H.764 (D14) –765 (H) A.D. 1362 (D14) –1363 (H) (opposed 764–765 by 17) gold 793.

interregnum under vizir between death of 17 and accession of 18 A.H. 767 (A5b) –768 (A35e) A.D. 1366 (A5b) –1366 (A35e).

18 abū-Fāris (B4, A5b) 'Abd-al-'Azīz I (g, B4, A35e) ibn-'Alī (11; B4, A35e) A.H. 768 (A35e)-774 (A35e) A.D. 1366 (A35e) –1372 (A35e) gold 794–796.

19 abū-Ziyān (A5b) Muḥammad IV (g, A35e) ibn-'Abd-al-'Azīz I (18; A35e) A.H.774 (A35e) –776 (A35e) A.D. 1372 (A85c) –1374 (A35e) gold 797–799.

20 abū'l-'Abbās (g, C14, A35e) Aḥmad (g, s, A35e) ibn-Ibrāhīm (14; C14, A35e) A.H. 775 (A5b) –786 (A35e), 789 (A35e) –796 (A35e) A.D. 1373 (A5b) –1384 (A5b), 1387 (A35e) –1393 (A35e) (opposed 776–784 by 20A):

First series, without amīr al-muslimīn or Naṣrid inscription: gold 800–805.

Second series, without amīr al-muslimīn, with Naṣrid inscription: gold 806–809.

Third series, with amīr al-muslimīn, without Naṣrid inscription: gold 810–829, silver 1149.

Fourth series, with amīr al-muslimīn and Naṣrid inscription: gold 830.

20A abū-Zayd (A70b) 'Abd-al-Raḥmān (g, s, A35e) ibn-'Alī ibn-'Umar (10A; g, s, A35e) sayyid at Marrakesh A.H. 776 (A35e) –784 (A35e) A.D. 1374 (A70b) –1382 (A35e) (opposed 776–784 by 20) gold 831, 832, silver 1150.

21 abū-Fāris (g, A5b) Mūsâ (g, A35e) ibn-Fāris (12; A35e) A.H. 786 (A35e) –788 (A5b) A.D. 1384 (A35e) –1386 (A5b) gold 833, 834.

22 abū-Ziyān (A5b) Muḥammad V (g, A35e) ibn-Aḥmad (20; A35e) A.H. 788 (A5b) –788 (A35e) A.D. 1386 (A5b) –1386 (A35e) gold 835.

23 abū-Ziyān (A5b) Muḥammad VI (A35e) ibn-Muḥammad ibn-'Alī (11; A35e) A.H. 788 (A35e) –789 (A35e) A.D. 1386 (A35e) –1387 (A35e) no coins.

24 abū-Fāris (A35e) 'Abd-al-'Azīz II (g, A35e) ibn-Aḥmad (20; A35e) A.H. 796 (A35e) –799 (A5b) A.D. 1393 (A35e) –1396 (A5b):

First series, Marīnid style: gold 836–839.

Second series, Ḥafṣid style: gold 840–854.

25 abū-'Āmir (A5b) 'Abd-Allāh (g, A5b) ibn-Aḥmad (20; A5b) A.H. 799 (A5b) –800 (A5b) A.D. 1396 (A5b) –1398 (A5b) Ḥafṣid style gold 855–859.

26 abū-Sa'īd (B4, A5b) 'Uthmān III (g, C14, A5b) ibn-Aḥmad (20; C14, A5b) A.H. 800 (A5b) –823 (A74) A.D. 1398 (A5b) –1420 (A74) Ḥafṣid style gold 860–867.

27 abū-'Abd-Allāh (A74) Muḥammad VII (A32) ibn-'Abd-Allāh ibn-abī-Tarīq ibn-Fāris (12; H) A.H. 823 (A74) –830 (D6) A.D. 1420 (A74) –1427 (H) (opposed 823–830 by 28) no coins.

28 abū-Muḥammad (B4, A32) 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq II (s, B4, A85c) ibn-'Uthmān III (26; B4, A32) A.H.823 (D6, D9) –869 (A85c) A.D. 1420 (D6, D9) –1465 (A85c) (opposed 823–830 by 27) silver 1151, 1152.

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The numismatic history of the Marīnids is essentially simple, but the necessary preliminary groundwork has never been done, so that all major collections contain more or less large groups of "unascribed Moorish gold". This anonymous gold can easily be divided into two portions by the number of lines in each field, and it is the three-line Ḥafṣid type which must be considered first.

No Marīnid gold bearing proper names in known for any ruler earlier than Ya'qūb, whose accession occurred in A.H. 656. The anonymous gold was not struck by the Ḥafṣids, as the Mahdī is not named and the mint towns were not under Ḥafṣid control, nor by the Ziyānids, by reason of the mints; there are no such objections to terming it Marīnid, which it obviously is. In style and legends it most closely resembles the earlier Ḥafṣid gold, especially as some of it is in ornamented Kūfi script corresponding to that used by the Ḥafṣids for a few decades starting about 650. The early Marīnids were nominal Ḥafṣid vassals; presumably this gold was struck by Abū-Bakr and Ya'qūb chiefly, but not entirely, before the final overthrow of the Muwaḥḥids in 668. It is likely, but less certain, that much of the anonymous silver with similar inscriptions was also struck by these two rulers.

Next come two gold pieces of Ya'qūb with his name and titles, probably struck after 668, and then another gap during the prosperous reign of his son Yūsuf. This can promptly be filled with a single fine series from the five-line group, as shown in the corpus, a group whose style and legends are intermediate between those of Ya'qūb and those of 'Uthmān II, and whose mints are plentiful but limited to Morocco. Anonymous silver bearing similar legends can also be assigned to Yūsuf. For 'Āmir and Sulaymān no coins are extant.

A substantial series of gold bears the name of 'Uthmān II, from several mints within Morocco, but none survives for his son and opponent 'Umar, amīr of Sijilmāsah, and none bearing the name of 'Uthmān's son and successor 'Alī, a pious but ambitious man who invaded Spain but was disastrously defeated by the Christians at Tarifa, conquered Algeria and Tunisia, was again disastrously defeated by Arabs near Kairouan, and was the victim of domestic rebellion, shipwreck, and exile.

To him belongs the balance of the anonymous gold, some of which bears the Naṣrid motto and was doubtless struck before his defeat at Tarifa in 740, and some of which bears the Ziyānid motto and was struck, after the conquest of Tlemcen in 737, at mints which include not only Fez and Sijilmāsah but Tlemcen, Algiers, Bougie, and Tunis. To these groups of gold exactly fitting the known facts of 'Alī's career may be added corresponding groups of anonymous silver.

His son and rival Fāris assumed the title of amīr al-mu'minīn, and a full series of gold displays it for mints which include Tlemcen and Bougie, again victims of Marīnid conquest. A parallel series of Ḥafṣid-type gold with three-line fields also bears Fāris' name and titles.

For the rulers who followed in quick succession a handful of gold survives: none for the pretender Muḥammad, one tentatively for Muḥammad II, one for Ibrāhīm if my reading of Brèthes' illegible specimen is correct, none for Tāshfīn, none for 'Abd-al-Ḥalīm, three or four for Muḥammad III, and one fine double dinar for the amīr 'Abd-al-Mu'min at Sijilmāsah.

'Abd-al-'Azīz I again conquered Tlemcen and left numismatic evidence of his achievement, with two other double dinars from Fez. Muḥammad IV minted three coins at Fez.

The only silver attributable to this troubled era is an anonymous piece ascribed to Ibrāhīm because of similarity to the gold which seems to bear his name.

For Aḥmad's bisected reign a large quantity of gold and a little silver is extant, while his rival at Marrakesh, 'Abd-al-Raḥmān, also minted both gold and silver.

Again rulers gained and lost power rapidly: Mūsâ two years, two issues; Muḥammad V less than a year, one double dinar; Muḥammad VI one year, no coins. In his three years 'Abd-al-'Azīz II struck four coins in Marīnid style and several in Ḥafṣid style, with an unexpected change to the three-line field. This was continued on a handful of gold by 'Abd-Allāh, who reigned only one year, and on a larger group by 'Uthmān III, who ruled until 823.

No coins exist for Muḥammad VII and no gold for 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq II, though one silver piece may definitely be ascribed to his violent reign and another tentatively.

This dynasty's numismatic history, then, can readily be understood by matching each group of anonymous gold and silver to its most likely originator on considerations of style, inscriptions, and mints. When this is done a steady development is made available for study instead of the jagged, gap-filled outlines heretofore published.

Considered as a whole, Marīnid gold of each denomination is somewhat broader than its Ḥafṣid equivalent but extant specimens average slightly lighter. 4.57 grams is the average weight of 182 double dinars and 2.26 grams of 51 dinars. The style is less attractive and the inscriptions less legible than those of all but the last Ḥafṣids, but they are not inferior to the Ziyānids'. The silver is adequately engraved and struck, but the general effect is one of steady decline from the high Muwaḥḥid standards.

The Naṣrids in North Africa

Arab rulers of the Banū-Naṣr (Banū'l-Aḥmar) of Granada A.H. 629–887 (A.D.1232–1492)

1 abū-'Abd-Allāh (B14, C17) Muḥammad I (B14, C17, A35e) ibn-Yūsuf (B14, A84d) A.H. 629 (A84d) –671 (B14, A74) A.D. 1232 (D9) –1273 (B14) no African coins; gold struck as vassal of Ḥafṣid 1 556.

2 no African coins.

3 abū-'Abd-Allāh (B15, C17, A48a) Muḥammad III (C17, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad II (2; B15, C17, A35e) A.H. 701 (B14, A35e) –708 (B14, A35e) A.D. 1302 (B14, A35e) –1309 (B14, A35e) see below.

4 abū'l-Juyūsh (B14, A35e) Naṣr (B14, A35e) ibn-Muḥammad II (2; B14, A35e) A.H. 708 (B14, A35e) –713 (A48a) A.D. 1309 (B14, A48a) –1314 (A48a) see below.

5–7 no African coins.

8 abū-'Abd-Allāh (B15, A35e) Muḥammad V (g, B15, A35e) ibn-Yūsuf I (7; g, B15, A35e) A.H. 755 (A35e) –760 (A35e), 763 (A35e) –793 (A48a) A.D. 1354 (A35e) –1359 (A35e), 1362 (A35e) –1391 (D9, D14) gold 868.

3, 4, or 8 anonymous silver 1153.

9–21 no African coins.

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The Naṣrids of Granada controlled Ceuta from A.H. 705 to 709 and from 786 to 789. The square silver (1153) bearing the name of this mint and their motto "wa-lā ghālibu illā Allāh" could belong to either of these periods, but similar silver reported for Fez must be tentatively rejected, as the Naṣrids never held secure control of the inland capital. If the Fez coins should be confirmed as correct, they might be ascribed to the Marīnid 'Alī, who struck gold bearing the Naṣrid insription; this would raise the question of whether he also struck the Ceuta coins.

The only Naṣrid gold reported from North Africa is a double dinar (868) minted at Ceuta by Muḥammad V, though the first Naṣrid ruler before declaring his independence struck a double dinar (556) at Granada for the Ḥafṣid Yaḥyâ I.

Except for the coins just discussed, the numismatic history of the Naṣrids falls outside the scope of this study.

The Waṭṭāsids of Morocco

Zanātah Berber riders of the Banū-Waṭṭās of Morocco A.H. 869–961 (A.D. 1465–1554).

1 abū-'Abd-Allāh (H) Muḥammad I (g, A29b) ibn-Yaḥyâ (A29b) A.H. 869 (D6) –910 (D6) A.D. 1465 (D6) –1504 (D6) gold 869.

2 abū-'Abd-Allāh (notes to A32) Muḥammad II (g, s, C6, A32) ibn-Muḥammad I (1; C6, A32) A.H. 910 (D6) –932 (A29b) A.D. 1504 (D6) –1525 (D6) gold 870, silver 1154.

3 abū'l-Ḥasan (A32) 'Alī (s, A29b) ibn-Muḥammad I (1; A32) A.H. 932 (A29b) –932 (A29b), 961 (A29b) –961 (A29b) A.D. 1525 (D6) –1526 (A29b), 1554 (A29b) –1554 (A29b) silver 1155.

4 abū'l-'Abbās (A29b) Aḥmad (s, C6, A32) ibn-Muḥammad II (2; C6, A29b) A.H. 932 (A29b) –952 (D6), 956 (D14) –957 (D14) A.D. 1526 (A29b) –1545 (D6), 1549 (D14) –1550 (D14) silver 1156.

5 abū-'Abd-Allāh (H) Muḥammad III (A32) ibn-Aḥmad (4; A32) A.H. 952 (A32) –956 (D14) A.D. 1545 (D6) –1549 (D14) no coins.

interregnum under Sharīfs between surrender of 4 and restoration of 3 A.H. 957 (D14) –961 (A29b) A.D. 1550 (D14) –1554 (A29b).

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During the reign of the last Marīnid, 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq II, who came to the throne as a child, the vizirial power was held by several members of the Waṭṭāsid family, a few of whom survived a massacre arranged by 'Abd-al-Ḥaqq when he reached maturity. At his death they competed for power with the rising Sharīfs, and succeeded in controlling part of Morocco for nearly a century.

Very few coins are attributed to the Waṭṭāsids. A small series of silver in a thin Naskhī script, reported and illustrated by Brèthes, seems fairly safe because of the sequence of names; the few gold coins are less satisfactory. Studies by Massignon and Cour have established the names and dates of this obscure dynasty; it may be that further gold will be discovered.

The Ottomans in North Africa

Sulṭāns of the Osmanli Turks (Banū-'Uthmān) of Constantinople A.H. 699–1342. (A.D. 1299–1924).

1-9 no African coins.

10 Sulaymān I (g, B13) ibn-Salīm I (9; D18) A.H. 926 (D18) –974 (D18) A.D. 1520 (D18) –1566 (D18) specified on Ziyānid gold 670, 671.

11–37 excluded from this study.

The Ottoman Turks, who conquered Tunisia and Algeria from the Ḥafṣids and Ziyānids, are excluded from this study. An exception is made for the two gold pieces struck in the name of Sulaymān I by his Ziyānid vassals, and for a Ḥafṣid square dirhem (1102) counterstamped طْ.

The gold pieces show no Ottoman influence; the name abū'l-Rabī' prefixed to Sulaymān shows that no Ottoman had any part in designing them.

The counter-stamp is presumably an Ottoman validation of a current piece of Ḥafṣid silver.


CORPUS OF COINS

struck in North Africa, or struck elsewhere by North African rulers, between A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047) and the Ottoman and Sharīfian conquests of the late tenth Moslem (16th) century.

Abbreviations (other than bibliographic) used in this corpus:

a above
b beneath
d date
F field
fig. figure
m mint
M margin
o obverse
p. page
pl. plate
R reverse
S segment
sp. specimens
v. volume

Bibliographic reference abbreviations are listed on pages 286–306.

GOLD

'Abbāsid Gold

struck in North Africa after A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047) in the name of the Sunnite khalīfahs, the Banū'l-'Abbās of Baghdād.

As the 'Abbāsids exercised no direct control over North Africa during this period, all coins bearing their name were actually struck by independent local rulers, and are therefore listed under the respective dynasties: Zīrid, Ḥammādid, Murābiṭ, and Hūdid.

Fāṭimid Gold

struck in North Africa after A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047) in the name of the Shī'ite imāms, the Banū-Fāṭimah of Cairo (al-Qāhirah).

As the Fāṭimids exercised no direct control over North Africa during this period, all coins bearing their name were actually struck by Zīrid rulers, and are therefore listed under the latter dynasty.

Zīrid Gold

struck in North Africa after A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047) by the Ṣanhājah Berber rulers of Tunisia, the Banū-Zīrī (or by their contemporaries in Tunisia) in Kūfī script.

abū-Tamīm al-Mu'izz ibn-Bādīs

A.H. 406–454

A.D. 1016–1062

Coins struck by the earlier Zīrids, and by al-Mu'izz prior to A.H. 439, are excluded from this corpus.

First (Shī'ite) series:

Struck in A.H. 439 and 440 in the name of the Fāṭimid imām

abū-Tamīm Ma'add ibn-'Alī

A.H. 427–487

A.D. 1036–1094

1. Ṣabrah – 439 – dinar. Plate I

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

علي ولي الله

RF الامام

المسنتصر بالله

امير المؤمنين

OM محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى ودبن الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون

RM (date)سنة (mint) بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينرب

BN III 337 (pl. IV): OM ends with المشر, mint given as Ṭabarīyah (corrected by Monchicourt).

F:Fatimites 165 (pl. IV): OM ends with كله; 166 (2 sp.): mint given as صبر (misprint).

2. Ṣabrah – 440 – dinar.

As 1.

F: Fatimites 166 note: d, m only. F: Fatimites II 44: OM ends with كله.

Second (Sunnite) series:

Struck anonymously by al-Mu'izz between A.H. 441 and 449 after his repudiation of Fāṭimid suzerainty.

3. al-Qayrawān – 441 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

وحده لا شريك له

محمد رسول الله

RF ومن يبتغ غير

الاسلام دينا

فلن يقبل منه

OM ياايها النبي انا ارسلناك شاهدا مبشرا ونديرا وداعيا الى الله

RM (date) سنة (mint) بسم الله ضرب بمدينة عز الاسلام و

KM II 855 (pl. V). Welzl 12232, 12233 (2 sp.): illustrated in Schiepati (pl. II, no. 14). Soret:F 129 note. F: Fatimites 168. Farrugia: d, m only.

4. al-Qayrawān – 442 – dinar. Plate I

As 3.

F:Fatimites 169 (pl. IV), 170 (2 sp.): و b RF. Farrugia: d, m only.

5. al-Qayrawān – 442 – dinar.

As 3 except OM: ولقد كتبنا في الزبور بعد الذكر ان الارض يرثا عبادي الصاحون

Welzl 12234: illustrated in Schiepati (pl. II, no. 15).

6. al-Qayrawān – [44]3 – quarter dinar.

As 3 except OM, which ends at ودا.

KM II 856 (pl. V): d illegible, margins largely illegible. Soret: F 130: margins partly illegible.

F:Fatimites 171: d illegible, ونذيرا omitted from OM (misprint, corrected by letter).

7. al-Qayrawān – 444 – dinar.

As 3.

Schiepati 70 (pl. II, no. 1): d uncertain. F:Fatimites 171 note: d, m only. B 793 bis (p. 271): d, m only. F:Fatimites II 46.

8. al-Qayrawān – 445 – dinar.

As 3 except OM, which ends at ونذيرا and OF: الا اله الا الله

محمد

رسول الله

Schiepati 71 (pl. II, no. 2): d uncertain. F:Fatimites 171 note. F:Fatimites II 47: length of OM not specified.

9. al-Qayrawān – 446 – dinar.

OF الله

OM (inner) لا اله الا الله محمد رسول

OM (outer) as OM of 3.

RM (inner) ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل

RM (outer) as RM of 3.

F:Fatimites II 49.

RF منه

10. al-Qayrawān – 8/[4]46 – dinar.

As 3 except RM: بسم الله omitted, سنة preceded by غرة شعبان.

Ø 2106: description inaccurate, identified from impression furnished by Galster. F:Fatimites II 48.

11. al-Qayrawān – 448 – dinar.

As 3 except OM, which ends at وداعيا, and RM, which has errors in engraving.

Farrugia: و a RF.

12. Madīnat Safāqus – 449 – dinar.

OF as OF of 3.

OM as OM of 1.

RM as RM of 1 plus بركه.

Farrugia.

RF as RF of 3.

12a. al-Mahdīyah – 446 – dinar.

As 3 except RM: (date) سنة (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب ب.

Ø 2105: description inaccurate, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

13. al-Mahdīyah – 8/447 – dinar.

Not described; presumably as 3 except RM:

(date) في شعبان سنة (mint) بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينار

Casanova 1318:d, m only.

14. (mint?) – [4]4x – eighth dinar.

Apparently as 3.

BN II 934 (pl. IX): margins largely illegible, RF worn.

Third (Shī'ite) series:

Struck between A.H. 449 and 454 in the name of the Fāṭimid imām

abū-Tamīm Ma'add ibn-'Alī

A.H. 427–487

A.D. 1036–1094

following resumption of acknowledgment of Fāṭimid suzerainty.

15. al-Mahdīyah – 449 – dinar.

As 1 except RM:

(date) سنة(mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضربهذا الدينر ب.

Farrugia.

16. al-Mahdīyah – 4/451 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

وحده لا شريك له

محمد رسول الله

علي ولي الله

RF معد

الامام لبو تميم

المستنصر بالله

امير المؤمنين

OM as OM of 1 through المشر.

RM (date) في شهر الربيع سنة (mint) بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينرب.

Bergmann 17 (pl., no. 4: R only).

17. al-Mahdīyah – 453 – dinar.

May be as 15.

Blau:N 98: d, m only.

abū-Yaḥyâ Tamīm ibn-al-Mu'izz

A.H. 454–501

A.D. 1062–1108

Shī'ite series:

Struck between A.H. 454 and 459 in the name of the Fāṭimid imām

abū-Tamīm Ma'add ibn-'Alī

A.H. 427–487

A.D. 1036–1094

prior to final repudiation of Fāṭimid suzerainty.

18. al-Mahdīyah – 454 – dinar.

OF الامام معد

ابو تميم

RF المسنتصر بالله

امير المؤمنين

OM (inner)(لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله وعلي افضل الوصيين ووزير خير المر(سلين

OM (outer) as OM of 1.

RM (inner) دعا الامام معد لتوحيد الا اله الصمد

RM (outer) as RM of 1.

BN III 389: mint defective, al-Mahd only.

19. al-Mahdīyah – 455 – dinar. Plate I

As 18 except OM (inner) which ends at خير, and has علي instead of وعلي.

BM IV 166 (pl. II): ر b OF.

20. al-Mahdīyah – 455 – dinar. Plate I

OM (inner) لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله

OM (middle) وعلي افضل الوصيين ووزير خير المرسلين

OM (outer) as OM of 16.

RM (inner) المستنصر بالله امير المؤمنين

RM (middle) as RM (inner) of 18.

RM (outer) as RM of 1.

ANS; Miles 383 (pl. IV).

21. al-Mahdīyah – 456 – dinar.

Apparently as 20.

Balog.

22. al-Mahdīyah – 8/457 – dinar.

OF as RF of 18.

RF as OF of 18.

OM (inner) as OM (inner) of 19.

OM (outer) as OM of 1.

RM (inner) as RM (inner) of 18.

RM (outer) as RM of 16, with شعبان instead of الربيع.

BM IV 167: ر b OF.

23. al-Mahdīyah – 8/459 – dinar.

As 18 except RM (outer): as RM of 13.

F:Fatimites II 41: inner OM ends at خير.

No coins are reliably reported for the rest of Tamīm's reign, A.H. 460–501. Blau:N 101, ascribed to al-Mahdīyah for A.H. 480 without further description, is presumably misread; Blau:N 103, ascribed to al-Mahdīyah for an illegible date, is, because of the criss-cross design, almost certainly an issue of the Sicily (Ṣiqillīyah) mint.

abū-Ṭāhir Yaḥyâ ibn-Tamīm

A.H. 501–509

A.D. 1108–1116

No coins reported.

abū'l-Futūḥ 'Alī ibn-Yaḥyâ

A.H. 509–515

A.D. 1116–1121

No coins reported.

abū-Yaḥyâ al-Ḥasan ibn-'Alī

A.H. 515–543

A.D. 1121–1148

No coins reported.

No coins are reported for the local Arab and Berber rulers in Tunisia and Algeria — other than the Zīrids and Ḥammādids — in the interval between the Arab invasion of A.H. 443 (A.D. 1051) and the completion of the Muwaḥḥid conquest in A.H. 555 (A.D. 1160) with the following two exceptions.

Ḥammū ibn-Malīl

independent Barghawāṭah Berber governor of

Sfax (Safāqus)

A.H. 451–493

A.D. 1059–1100

24. Safāqus – 461 – anonymous dinar.

OF as OF of 3.

OM as OM of 1 through المشر.

RM as RM of 1.

Farrugia.

RF as RF of 3.

Rashīd ibn-Rashīd

independent Jāmi'id Arab governor of Gabes (Qābis)

A.H. 5xx–554

A.D. 115x–1159

Struck in the name of the 'Abbāsid khalīfah, who was not individually identified:

al-Muqtafī-li-amr-Allāh, abū-'Abd-'Allāh Muḥammad ibn-Aḥmad

A.H. 530–555

A.D. 1136–1160

24a. Qābis – 551 – dinar. Plate I

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير الرشيد

بن رشيد

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير الملؤمنين

OM ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الاخرة من الخاسرين

RM (date) عام (mint) بسم الله الرحمن ضرب هذا الدينارب

S: Beyram 293 (pl. II): given as 552 Qādis (Cadiz) (disproved by plate), OF misread.

P:Miscelánea p. 128 (fig.) OF misread. This coin is termed "rashīdī" by Ibn-Khaldūn ( Kitāb al-'ibar , Būlāq edition, vol. VI, p. 167).

Ḥammādid Gold

struck in North Africa after A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047)

by the Ṣanhājah Berber rulers of eastern Algeria, the Banū-Ḥammād in Kūfī script.

No Ḥammādid coins are reported for the period prior to A.H. 439.

al-Qā'id ibn-Ḥammād

A.H. 419–446

A.D. 1028–1055

No coins reported.

Muḥsan ibn-al-Qā'id

A.H. 446–447

A.D. 1055–1055

No coins reported.

Bulukkīn ibn-Muḥammad

A.H. 447–454

A.D. 1055–1062

No coins reported.

al-Nāṣir ibn-'Alannās

A.H. 454–481

A.D. 1062–1088

No coins reported.

al-Manṣūr ibn-Nāṣir

A.H. 481–498

A.D. 1088–1104

— (mint?) – (date?) – dinar.

OM (inner) as OM (inner) of 20.

OM (middle) as OM (middle) of 20.

OM (outer) illegible.

RM (inner) illegible.

RM (middle) as RM (inner) of 18.

RM (outer) illegible.

Beylie (fig. 74): not described; tentatively reconstructed from figure; attribution to this ruler not explained; apparently an illegible Fāṭimid dinar falling outside the scope of this corpus. Ibn-Khaldūn states that this ruler was the first Ḥammādid to mint coins.

Bādīs ibn-al-Manṣūr

A.H. 498–498

A.D. 1104–1105

No coins reported.

al-'Azīz ibn-al-Manṣūr

A.H. 498–515

A.D. 1105–1121

No coins reported.

Yaḥyâ ibn-al-'Azīz

A.H. 515–547

A.D. 1121–1152

Struck in the name of the 'Abbāsid khalīfah

al-Muqtafī-li-amr-Allāh, abū-'Abd-Allāh Muḥammad ibn-Aḥmad

A.H. 530–555

A.D. 1136–1160

25. al-Nāṣirīyah – 543 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله

يعتصم بحبل الله يحيى

بن العزيز بالله الامير المنصور

RF الامام ابو عبد الله

المقتفى لامر الله

امير المؤمنين العباسى

OM واتقوا يوما ترجعون فيه الى الله ثم توفى كل نفس ما كسبت وهم لا يظلمون

RM (date) سنة (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هذا الدينارب

This coin is not listed in any modern collection, and it is possible that no specimens have survived. It is, however, fully described (except for division into lines) by Ibn-Khaldūn (Kitāb al-'ibar, Būlāq edition, vol. VI, page 177). The purported illustration in de Beylie's appendix (fig. 6) is, like the other alleged coins from the same source, incredible, as de Beylie realized.

Ḥammūdid Gold

struck in North Africa after A.H. 439 (A.D. 1047) in the name of the Banū-Ḥammūd of Malaga (Mālaqah) or of their Barghawāṭah Berber governors.

No gold reported.

No coins are reported for the period following A.H. 439 for the petty pre-Murābiṭ Berber rulers in Morocco with the exception of Ḥammūdid silver and copper, to be described later, and a curious group of small gold coins — B 774–793 (pl. XII) — ascribed by Brèthes to the Banū-Khazrūn, who ruled Sijilmāsah until the Murābiṭ conquest of A.H. 446, and to their contemporaries. His readings are too tentative and fragmentary, and his plates too illegible, to permit intelligent discussion of these coins, although they clearly demand careful study and comment when they can be made available to scholars.

Murābiṭ Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain by the Lamtūnah Berber rulers of the Murābiṭūn sect in Kīfī script.

Almost all Murābiṭ gold was struck in the name of the 'Abbāsid khalīfah, who was never individually identified, but was generically termed "al-imām, 'Abd Allāh, amīr al-muīminīn" and sometimes also "al-'Abbāsī".

Abū-Bakr ibn-'Umar

A.H. 448–480

A.D. 1056–1087

26. Sijilmāsah – 450 – dinar. Plate I

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير ابو بكر

بن عمر

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين

OM ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الاخرة من الخاسرين

RM (date) سنة (mint) بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينارب.

V 1425 (AV). BN II 507 (pl. II): engraving errors. C:Decadencia p. 375, no. 1 (pl. I).

27. Sijilmāsah – 451 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1426 (AV). Rivero:M 97 (pl. II). Ø 2069: OM largely illegible.

28. Sijilmāsah – 452 – dinar. Plate I

OF لا اله الا

الله

محمد رسول

الله

RF الامام عبد

لله امير المؤمنين

والامير ابوبكر

نب عمر

OM as OM of 26.

RM as RM of 26.

S: Beyram 288 (pl. II). B 794 (pl. XIII): date given as 454 (disproved by plate.)

29. Sijilmāsah – 454? – dinar.

As 28.

B 795 (pl. XIII): date illegible in plate.

30. Sijilmāsah – 454? – dinar.

As 26.

Soret:F 131: date uncertain.

31. Sijilmāsah – 455 – dinar.

As 26.

B 796–802 (pl. XIII: 801; coin illustrated under no. 800 is 38) (7 sp.).

32. Sijilmāsah – 456 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1427. BN II 508 (pl. II). S: Beyram 287.

33. Sijilmāsah – 457 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1428. BM V 1 (pl. I): فمن for ومن in OM (misprint). B 803, 804 (2 sp.).

34. Sijilmāsah – 458 – dinar.

As 26.

B 805, 806 (2 sp).

35. Sijilmāsah – 461 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1429 (AV). KM II 563. Ø 2070.

7

36. Sijilmāsah – 462 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1430 (AV). BN II 509. Ø 2071.

37. Sijilmāsah – 463 – dinar.

As 26.

Welzl 12235. Ø 2072.

38. Sijilmāsah – 467 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1431 (AV). B 807 (pl. XIII, under no. 800).

39. Sijilmāsah – 468 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1432 (AV). BN II 510. Cerdá 350: d, m only. Spink (1902) 79532. Sotheby 379: d, m only. S: Michal II 453.

40. Sijilmāsah – 469 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1433 (AV). BN II 511. L:Calvert 45. Spink (1907) 30491: d, m only. B 808.

41. Sijilmāsah – 470 – dinar.

As 26.

S: Michael II 454, 455 (2 sp.). See also copper: 1161.

42. Sijilmāsah – 471 – dinar.

As 26.

HSA 13156: ضب for ضرب in RM (engraving error). V 1435 (AV). J:Mohammedan p. 267: date read as 491 but presumably this year since ruler is given as Abū-Bakr. S:White 2177. S:Judice II 3089. Sotheby 379: d, m only. S:Michael II 456, 457? (pl. II) (2 sp.?). S:Grantley 2158. S:Gotha 975 (pl. XI).

43. Sijilmāsah – 472 – dinar.

As 26.

ANS. V 1436 (AV). Adler: C 85 (pl. VI). S: Michael II 458. S:Grantley 2159.

44. Sijilmāsah – 473 – dinar.

As 26.

HSA 15796. V 1437 (AV). Spink (1902) 79531; d, m only. Sotheby 379: d, m only.

45. Sijilmāsah – 474 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1438 (AV, Campaner). B 809.

46. Sijilmāsah – [4]75 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1439 (AV). B 810.

47. Sijilmāsah – 476 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1439 bis (p. 393). BN II 512. B 811. Balog: engraving errors in RM.

48. Sijilmāsah – 477 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1440 (AV, 2 others). Cerdá 351: d, m only. B 812, 813 (2 sp.).

49. Sijilmāsah – 478 – dinar.

As 26.

V 1441 (AV, 1 other), 1442 (AV). BM V 2: الا for الاخرة in OM (engraving error). Markov: E

p. 90, no. 1: d, m only. B 814, 815 (2 sp.).

50. Sijilmāsah – 479 – dinar.

As 26.

L:Calvert 46. B 816.

51. Sijilmāsah – 480 – dinar.

As 26.

B 817.

52. (mint?) – (date?) – half dinar.

OF as OF of 26.

RF الامام

عبد الله

المومنين

OM illegible.

RM largely illegible.

B 818 (pl. XIII), 818 bis (2 sp.): description indicating no margins disproved by plate showing remains of margins rendered illegible by clipping.

'Alī ibn-?

governor of Sijilmāsah

probably about A.H. 459 (A.D. 1067)

53. Sijilmāsah – 45x – dinar. Plate I

As 26 except OF: لا اله الا

الله

محمد رسول الله

علي

B 821 (pl. XIII): last digit of date punched out, misread as 450.

Ibrāhīm ibn-Abī-Bakr

governor of Sijilmāsah

A.H. 462–467

A.D. 1070–1074

54. Sijilmāsah – 462 – dinar.

As 26 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير ابراهيم

بن ابي بكر

V 1446. BM V 3 (pl. I: o only). BN II 514: ضر for ضرب in RM (engraving error). Marsden 350 (pl. XXI): ضرهذا for ضرب هذا in RM.

55. Sijilmāsah – 465 – dinar. Plate I

As 54.

V 1447. BN II 515 (pl. II).

7*

56. Sijilmāsah – 466 – dinar.

As 54.

V 1448 (AV).

57. Sijilmāsah – 467? – dinar.

As 54.

B 820 (pl. XIII): plate largely illegible, including date.

Yūsuf ibn-Tāshfīn

A.H. 480–500

A.D. 1087–1106

58. Aghmāt – 486 – dinar.

As 26 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير يوسف بن

تاشفين

V 1465 (Merle). BM V 4, 5 (2 sp.); ك b RF. Bartholomaei 60. Calvo p. 191.

59. Aghmāt – 487 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1466 (AV). BN II 516: ك b RF. Soret:F 132: ك b RF. C:Decadencia p. 376, no. 2 (pl. I): ك b RF. B 836.

60. Aghmāt – 488 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1467 (AV). BN II 517 (pl. II): ك b RF. Weyl: G 1183: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 4: d, m only. B 837.

61. Aghmāt – 489 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1468 (AV). BM V 6 (pl. I): without ك. BN II 518: without ك. Markov: E p. 881 no. 4a: d, m only, Rivero: M 100 (pl. II): ك b RF.

62. Aghmāt – 490 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1469 (AH, AV 2 sp.). BN II 519: without ك. B 838.

63. Aghmāt – 590 (for 490) – dinar.

As 58; the erroneous date apparently represents an engraving error.

V 1470. BM V 7: ك b RF.

64. Aghmāt – 491 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1471 (PG, AV). BN II 520: ك b RF. L:Calvert 47: ك b RF. B 839.

65. Aghmāt – 492 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1472 (AV). BN II 521: ك b RF. Cunha II 1524. Markov: E p. 966, no. 4b: d, m only. J:Mohammedan p. 267: d, m only. Sotheby 380: d, m only. B 840.

66. Aghmāt – 493 – dinar. Plate I

As 58.

HSA 13173: ك b RF. V 1473 (AV, 1 other), 1474. BM X p. 3, no. 9f: ك b RF. BN II 522: ك b RF. Soret:F 133: ك b RF. Demaeght v. IX, p. 202 (fig.): ك b RF. Markov: E p. 90, no. 5: d, m only. S:White 2179: d, m only. Ø 2074: illegible letter b RF.

67. Aghmāt – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1475 (AV). BN II 523: ك b RF. Höst: E and N 4 (pl. XXXIII): ك b RF. Weyl: G 1184: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 6: d, m only. Ø 2075.

68. Aghmāt – 495 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1476 (AV). BN II 524: ك b RF. Weyl: G 1185: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 7: d, m only.

69. Aghmāt – 496 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1477 (AV), 1478. BN II 525: ك b RF. Colson p. 241: d, m only.

70. Aghmāt – 497 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1479 (AV). B 841.

71. Aghmāt – 498 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1480 (PG, AV). B 842–847 (pl. XIII: 847) (6 sp.): ك b RF.

72. Tilimsān or Balansiyah – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

L:Calvert 48: mint image, ك b RF. If date is correctly read, mint is presumably Tilimsān, as Balansiyah was not taken until 495.

73. Sabtah – 484 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1464 (AV, 1 other). MA 488. Cerdá 354: d, m only. Rivero: M 99 (pl. II) without ك.

74. Sijilmāsah – 480 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1449 (Howland): d, m in OM (misprint). BN II 527 (pl. III): without ك. Spink (1902) 79533. Sotheby 380: d, m only. B 822.

75. Sijilmāsah – 481 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1450 (AV). Weyl: G 1182: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 3: d, m only. Ø 2073. B 823, 824 (2 sp.).

76. Sijilmāsah – 482 – dinar.

As 58.

ANS: without ك. V 1451 (AV).

77. Sijilmāsah – 483 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1452 (FC, AV). D: Lorichs 4705. Cerdá 352: d, m only. Markov: E p. 880, no. 3a: d, m only. B 825 (coin illustrated under no. 825 in pl. XIII is 78).

78. Sijilmāsah – 484 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1453 (PG, AV). BM X p. 3, no. 3k: ⊃ (for ك?) b RF. BN II 528: ك b RF. Cerdá 353: d, m only. Colson p. 241: d, m only. B 825 bis (pl. XIII, under no. 825) ك b RF.

79. Sijilmāsah – 485 – dinar.

As 58.

HSA 13182: ك b RF. V 1454 (AV 2 sp., 2 others), 1455 (AV). BM X p. 3, no. 3m. ⊃ (for ك?) b RF. BN II 529: without ك. Cerdá 355: d, m only. Markov: E p. 880, no. 3b: d, m only. S: White 2178 (?): reference or date wrong.

80. Sijilmāsah – 486 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1456 (AV 2 sp.). Cerdá 356; d, m only. Zambaur II 267: without ك. B 826–828 (3 sp.).

81. Sijilmāsah – [4]87 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1457 (PG, AV, 1 other). B 829.

82. Sijilmāsah – 488 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Cerdá 357: d, m only.

83. Sijilmāsah – 490 – dinar.

As 58.

B 830.

84. Sijilmāsah – 491 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1458 (PG, AV 3 sp.). L: Khedivial p. 328: date read as 471 but presumably this year since Yūsuf is given as ruler, ك b RF.

85. Sijilmāsah – 493 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1459 (AV).

86. Sijilmāsah – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

Markov:E p. 881, no. 6a: d, m only. Ziya 2028. B 831, 832 (2 sp.).

87. Sijilmāsah – 495 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1460 (AV 2 sp.). BN II 530: without ك. B 833, 834 (2 sp.).

88. Sijilmāsah – 496 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1461 (Campaner). Weyl: G 1186: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90 no. 8: d, m only.

89. Sijilmāsah – 497 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1462 (AV). BN II 531: without ك. S:Gotha 976.

90. Sijilmāsah – 498 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1463 (AV).

91. Sijilmāsah – (no date) – quarter dinar: Kūfī and Naskhī script. Plate I

OF لا اله الا

الله

محمد رسول الله

(mint)

RF الامير

يوسف بن

تاشفين

No margins.

BN II 532 (pl. III), 533 (2 sp.): before mint (not visible in plate). D: Lorichs 4707: described as one third of a dinar in Naskhī script, may be this coin. S:White 2180: denomination only. B 849–852 (pl. XIII: 852) (4 sp.).

92. Madīnat Fās – 484 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only. May be a specimen of 93 misread.

93. Madīnat Fās – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1484 (AV).

94. Fās – 497 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1485 (AV): date faultily engraved, read as 499 but probably this year since 'Alī is not designated heir.

95. Madīnat Marrākush – 490 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1481 (AV 2 sp.). BM X p. 3, no. 7t (pl. XXI): without ك. Brooke p. 77 (pl. VI, no. 2): without ك.

96. Mad[īnat] Marrākush – 491 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1482. BM V 8: without ك. Marsden 351 (pl. XXI): without ك.

97. Marrākush – 4(9)1 – dinar.

As 58; date faulty, 9 omitted.

V 1483. BN II 534: without ك.

98. Nūl – 494 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only.

— (mint?) – (date?) – dinar.

As 58.

B 848 (pl. XIII): ك b RF; this coin is a dinar with margins rendered illegible by clipping, not a half dinar as recorded.

— (mint?) – (date?) – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين

يوسف بن تاشفين

RF الامام

عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

العباسي

OM as OM of 26.

RM as RM of 26.

This coin, the inscriptions of which are reported by al-Maqrīzī, citing abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-al-Ḥalīm al-Gharnāṭī, has not been reported as existing in any modern collection; since the legends correspond to those of Murābiṭ coins struck several decades later, it can be confidently rejected as erroneous. Likewise coins, reported by several Moslem historians, with Yūsuf termed "amīr al-mu'minīn" are certainly non-existent.

Spanish mints.

99. Ishbīliyah – (4)89 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Yale.

100. Madīnat Ishbīliyah – [49]1 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1492 (AV): date partially illegible.

101. Madīnat Ishbīliyah – 493 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1493 (AV).

102. Ishbīliyah – 496 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1494 (PG).

103. Ishbīliyah – 497 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1495 (AV). BN II 535 (pl. III): ك b RF. Longpérier:D p. 429: d, m only. Rivero: E (pl. III, no. 1): ك b RF.

— Balansiyah or Tilimsān – 494 – dinar.

See 72.

104. Balansiyah – 496 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1503 (AV). Markov: E p. 881, no. 8a: d, m only.

105. Balansiyah – 497 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Longpérier:D p. 429: d, m only, 'Alī is not designated heir.

106. Bayyāsah – 497 – presumably a dinar.

Presumably as 58.

C:Çecas p. 343: d, m only; mint given as Bāyasah (error).

107. Dāniyah – 495 – dinar.

As 58 except that OM is followed by بسم الله.

KM II 565: without ك.

108. Sanlūkah – 491 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1491 (PG).

109. Shāṭibah – [4]89 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1490 (Andujar).

110. Gharnāṭah – 493 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1500 (AV), 1501 (Lahoz). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

111. Madīnat Qurṭubah – 486 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1486. BN II 540 (pl. III): without ك.

112. Madīnat Qurṭubah – 490 – dinar.

As 58 except RM, in which عام replaces ك.

V 1487 (PG).

113. Madīnat Qurṭubah – 492 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1488. BM V 9 (pl. I, R only): ض b RF.

114. Qurṭubah – 496 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1489 (PG). C:Tratado p. 196, no. 1 (pl. XX): without ك.

115. al-Qanṭarah or Qanṭarat al-Sayf – 496 – dinar.

Presumably as 58.

Colson p. 241: d, m only; mint given in Spanish, may be either of above forms in Arabic.

116. Madīnat Mālaqah – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1502 (AV).

117. al-Marīyah – 492 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1496 (AV).

118. al-Marīyah – 494 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1497 (AV). BN II 543 (pl. III): without ك. Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only. Rivero: M 101 (pl. II): without ك.

119. al-Marīyah – 495 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1498 (FC, AV).

120. Madīnat al-Marīyah – 495 – dinar.

As 58.

V 1499 (AV, Campaner). González p. 82 (fig. 18): without ك, mint uncertain.

With heir

'Alī ibn-Yūsuf

A.H. 496–500

A.D. 1103–1106

121. Aghmāt – 498 – dinar.

As 26 and 58 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير يوسف بن

تاشفين الامير

علي

V 1524 (AV 2 sp.). BN II 526: الامير for الامير in fourth line of OF, ك b RF. B 859: ك b RF.

122. Aghmāt – 499 – dinar.

As 121.

V 1525 (AV).

— Sijilmāsah – 499 – dinar.

See 172.

123. Marrākush – 499 – dinar.

As 26 and 121 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير يوسف بن تا

شفين والامير

علي

B 858 (pl. XIII): لحر (?) b RF.

124. Nūl – 497 – dinar.

Presumably as 121.

B 856: بكر (?) b RF.

Spanish mints.

125. Ishbīliyah – 498 – dinar.

As 121 except OF, top line of which is changed to الا اله الا الله.

B 857 ك: b presumably this OF, description incomplete.

126. Ishbīliyah – 499 – dinar.

As 125.

V 1526 (AV). Caballero p. 16: d, m only, ك b RF.

127. Balansiyah – 497 – dinar. Plate I

As 26 and 121 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير علي بن الامير

يوسف بن تاشفين

V 1505 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BM X p. 4, no. 91: no letter b RF, ascribed to 'Alī. BN II 536 (pl. III): no letter 6 RF. KM II 564 (pl. III): no letter b RF.

128. Balansiyah – 498 – dinar.

As 127.

V 1506 (PG, AV 2 sp., 2 others). BN II 537: no letter b RF. Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only.

129. Balansiyah – 498 – dinar.

As 127 except RM, from which سنة is omitted (engraving error).

V 1507 (AV, 2 others). MA 489: حس at end of RM. S: Ciscar 31 (pl. I): RM obscure in plate, no letter b RF. S: Gotha 977.

130. Balansiyah – 499 – dinar.

As 26 and 121 except OF:

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله الامير

يوسف بن تاشفين

الامير علي

V 1528 (FC, AV, 1 other). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

131. Balansiyah – 499 – dinar.

As 58 plus الامير علي b RF.

V 1516 (PG, AV).

132. Balansiyah – 500 (posthumous) – dinar.

As 131 plus حسبي الله at end of RM.

V 1517 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BM X p. 4, no. 9s: description inaccurate, ascribed to 'Alī, حسبن for حسبي in RM (engraving error). Colson p. 241: d, m only.

133. Dāniyah – 497 – dinar.

As 127.

V 1508. BN II 538: no letter b RF. Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only. D: Lorichs 4706: d, m only.

Weyl:G 1188: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 10: d, m only.

134. Dāniyah – 498 – dinar.

As 127 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

V 1509 (AV). Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only. Caballero p. 15, no. 2: ك b RF.

135. Dāniyah – 498 – dinar.

As 131.

V 1518 (PG). BN II 539: no letter b RF. C: Tratado p. 197, no. 4 (pl. XX): no letter b RF. Caballero p. 14, no. 1.

136. Dāniyah – 499 – dinar.

As 131 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

V 1519 (AV). Caballero p. 15: عام not specified.

137. Dāniyah – 499 – dinar.

As 121 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

V 1522 (UV, AV, 1 other), 1523 (AV).

138. Dāniyah – 499 – dinar.

As 123 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

Caballero p. 15, no. 3.

139. Dāniyah – 499 – dinar.

As 137 except OF:

ال اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير يوسف بن تا

شفين الامير علي

V 1521 (García).

140. Madīnat Dāniyah – 500 (posthumous) – dinar.

As 131.

V 1520 (AV). Caballero p. 15, no. 4.

141. Shāṭibah – 497 – dinar.

As 127 except OF, first line of which is changed to: لا اله الا الله.

V 1504 (AV).

142. Shāṭibah – 498 – dinar.

May be as 141 or as 125 and 143.

Weyl:G 1189: d, m only.

143. Shāṭibah – 499 – dinar.

As 125.

V 1527 (AV).

144. Qurṭubah – 497 – dinar.

As 58 and 131 except RF: الامام عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

الامير علي

V 1510. BN II 541: س b RF. Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only.

145. Qurṭubah – 498 – dinar.

As 144.

V 1511 (García).

146. Madīnat Mālaqah – 500 (posthumous) – dinar.

As 26 and 121 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير يوسف ولي

عهده الامير

علي

V 1529 (1 other). BN II 542: وولي for ولي on OF (misprint), no letter b RF.

147. Mālaqah – 500 (posthumous) – dinar.

As 146 except RM, in which الرحمن الرحيم follows بسم الله.

V 1530 (AV). Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only.

148. al-Marīyah – 497 – dinar.

As 58 and 131 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة, and RF:

الامير

الامام عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين

على

V 1512. BN II 544: no letter b RF. Longpérier: D p. 429: d, m only. Weyl: G 1187: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 9: d, m only.

149. al-Marīyah – 497 – dinar.

As 136.

V 1513 (AV).

150. al-Marīyah – 498 – dinar.

As 136.

V 1514 (PG, AV).

151. al-Marīyah – 499 – dinar.

As 136.

V 1515 (AV).

Yūsuf with 'Alī as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 58, standard type of Yūsuf, with following modifications (coins on which عام replaces سنة in RM are designated by *).

RF: على/امير المؤمنين/الله/الامام عبد/الامير: 148*.

RF: الامير علي/امير المؤمنين/الامام عبد الله: 144, 145.

الامير علي b RF: 131, 135, 136*, 140, 149*, 150*, 151*.

الامير علي b RF, حسبي الله at end of RM: 132.

Last 3 lines of OF: علي /تاشفين الامير / الامير يوسف بن: 121, 122, 124, 137*.

As preceding type with top line of OF: لا اله الا الله: 125, 126, 143.

Last 3 lines of OF: الامير علي/يوسف بن تاشفين/محمد رسول الله الامير: 130.

Last 3 lines of OF: علي/ شفين و الامير / الامير يوسف بن تا: 123, 138*.

Last 2 lines of OF: شفين الامير علي/ الامير يوسف بن تا: 139*.

Last 2 lines of OF: يوسف بن تاشفين/ الامير علي بن الامير: 127, 128, 133, 134*.

As preceding type but سنة omitted: 129.

As type of 127 with top line of OF: لا اله الا الله: 141, 142?.

Last 3 lines of OF: علي/عهده الامير/الامير يوسف ولي: 146.

As preceding type with الرحمن after بسم الله in RM: 147.

'Alī ibn- Yūsuf

A.H. 500–537

A.D. 1106–1143

See also posthumous dinars of Yūsuf: 132, 140, 146, 147.

152. Aghmāt – 500 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

ين يوسف

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المومنين

OM ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الاخرة من الخاسرين

RM (date) سنة (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هذا الدينارب

V 1552 (AV). BM X p. 4, no. 9t: ك b RF. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

153. Aghmāt – 501 – dinar.

As 152 but الرحمن الرحيم omitted from RM.

V 1553 (AV). BM V 10: ك b RF. BN II 547: ك b RF. Marsden 352 (pl. XXI): ك b RF (given as ك, corrected from plate). Fraehn: O p. 26 (frontispiece of "Lexici Meninskiani" vol. IV).

154. Aghmāt – 502 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1554 (AV). Zambaur II 268: ك b RF.

155. Aghmāt – 503 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1555 (AV).

156. Aghmāt – 504 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1556 (AV). BN II 548: ك b RF.

157. Aghmāt – 505 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1557 (AV). Lisbon.

158. Aghmāt – 506 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1558 (PG, AV). MA 516. C: Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Balog: ك b RF.

159. Aghmāt – 507 – dinar.

As 153.

HSA 531: ك b RF. V 1559 (AV). BN II 549: ك b RF.

160. Aghmāt – 508 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1560 (AH, AV). Lagumina p. 100, no. 1: ك b RF, فمن for ومن in OM (misprint?).

Figanier 274: ك b OF (misprint لك corrected by letter).

161. Aghmāt – 509 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1561 (AV). B 866 (pl. XIII): ك b RF. Thorburn: OM illegible, ك b RF.

162. Aghmāt – 510 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1562 (AV 2 sp.). Markov: E p. 881, no. 12a: d, m only.

163. Aghmāt – 511 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1563 (AV), 1564 (AV), 1565 (AV). BM V 17 (pl. I): ك b RF. BN II 550: ك b RF. KM II 590: ك b RF.

164. Aghmāt – 512 – dinar.

As 153.

HSA 9174: ك b RF. S: Michael I 1668: ك b RF. B 872 bis: ك b RF, description incomplete.

165. Aghmāt – 513 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1566 (PG, AV).

166. Aghmāt – 514 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1567 (AV). BM X p. 4, no. 18t: ك b RF.

167. Aghmāt – 515 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1568 (AV). BM V 20: ك b RF.

168. Banī-Tāwadā – 513 – dinar.

As 153 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

Colson p. 242: d, m only. B 873 (pl. XIV): mint given as Talaveira (error), illegible letters b RF, date illegible in plate.

169. Tilimsān – 505 – dinar.

As 152.

Ø 2080.

170. Tilimsān – 511 – dinar.

As 168; هاذ for هذ in RM (engraving error).

V 1585. BM V 18: ك b RF. Marsden 354 (pl. XXI): ك b RF.

171. Madīnat Tilimsān – 511 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1584 (AV). Colson p. 242: d, m only.

172. Sijilmāsah – 499 – dinar. This coin, if correctly reported, was struck for 'Alī as heir before the death of Yūsuf.

As 153 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامير علي بن

يوسف

V 1545 (AV).

173. Sijilmāsah – 500 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1546 (AV). B 835: three letters after date, ascribed to Yūsuf, may be this coin misread.

174. Sijilmāsah – 502 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1547 (AV).

175. Sijilmāsah – 504 – dinar.

As 172.

S: Gotha 981 (pl. XI): no letter b RF.

176. Sijilmāsah – 505 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1548 (AV).

177. Sijilmāsah – 508 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1549 (AV).

178. Sijilmāsah – 511 – dinar.

Presumably as 172.

B 872: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

179. Sijilmāsah – 513 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1550 (AH).

180. Sijilmāsah – 518 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1551 (PG): date faulty (misprint?).

181. Sijilmāsah – 520 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1590 (AV).

182. Sijilmāsah – 521 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1591. BM X p. 5, no. 290: top line OF divided لا اله الا/ الله (error), no letter b RF.

183. Salā – 508 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1583 (AV).

184. Madīnat Fās – 501? – dinar.

As 152 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

V 1569: date uncertain. BM V 12: date uncertain, 5th line OF illegible, ك b RF.

185. Madīnat Fās – 508 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1570 (AV).

186. Madīnat Fās – 508 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1571 (AV). BN II 560: ك b RF.

187. Madīnat Fās – 509 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1572 (AV), 1573 (Codera Imp.).

188. Madīnat Fās – 511 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 871: description incomplete.

189. Madīnat Fās – 512 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1574 (PG).

190. Madīnat Fās – 515? – dinar.

As 168.

V 1575 (García): date uncertain.

191. Madīnat Fās – 520 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

Spink (1900) 63240, (1902) 79537 (2 sp.): d, m only. B 882: description incomplete.

192. Madīnat Fās – 521 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1576 (UV, PG, FC, AV 2 sp.). MA 517. Spink (1901) 68378: d, m (given as Fās) only.

193. Madīnat Fās – 522 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 884: description incomplete.

194. Marrākush – 500 – dinar.

Probably as 152.

G p. 182: d, m only.

195. Marrākush – 510 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 867: ك b RF, description incomplete.

196. Marrākush – 516 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1586 (AH, AV).

197. Marrākush – 518 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1587. MA 518.

198. Marrākush – 519 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1588 (PG).

199. Marrākush – 520 – dinar.

As 184.

B 880 (pl. XIII): ك b RF, description inaccurate. Seaby G992: d, m only.

200. Marrākush – 521 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1589. MA 519. D: García 6088.

201. Nūl – 501 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1577 (UV).

202. Nūl – 509 – dinar.

As 153.

Marçais p. 182 (pl. I): ك b RF, mint dubious, may be Aghmāt (161).

203. Nūl – 510 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1578. BN II 572 (pl. III): ك b RF.

204. Nūl – 511 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1579 (AV).

205. Nūl Lamṭah – 513 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1580 (AV). B 885: ك b RF, description incomplete, date given as 523, mint given as Nūl, may be this coin, as Sīr is apparently not designated heir.

206. Nūl Lamṭah – 515 – dinar.

Presumably as 153.

Weyl:G 1197: d, m only. Markov: E p. 90, no. 14: d, m only.

207. Nūl Lamṭah – 516 – dinar.

As 153.

KM II 628: ك b RF.

208. Nūl Lamṭah – 518 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1581 (UV).

209. Nūl Lamṭah – 522 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1582. MA 515. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. S: Gotha 980 (pl. XI): date uncertain, given as 523 (error), ك b RF.

210. (no mint) – (no date) – half dinar.

OF as OF of 152. RF as RF of 152.

No margins (this is not a clipped dinar).

Longpérier:D p. 430 not described. B 886 (pl. XIV): ك b RF; misread.

Spanish mints.

211. Ishbīliyah – 510 – dinar.

As 153 except OF, top line of which is divided الله لا اله الا.

B 868: description incomplete.

212. Ishbīliyah – 515 – dinar.

As 211.

V 1655 (PG), 1656 (AV). MA 521. Cerdá 365: d, m only. Figanier 275: لك b RF (confirmed by letter).

213. Ishbīliyah – 516 – dinar.

As 211.

V 1657 (UV, PG, AV 3 sp., 1 other). BN II 575: لك b RF. MA 522. KM II 582, 583 (pl. III) (2 sp.): لك b RF. Tychsen, O. p. 42. Dorn:A p. 401. Longpérier: D p. 430: d, m only. D: Lorichs 4710: d, m only. Cerdá 367: d, m only. L:Oriental p. 235: لك b RF, reported as 153 (error). Calvo (pl. XI, no. 5): mint given as al-Marīyah (disproved by plate), لك b RF. Figanier 276 (pl. V): plate shows لك b RF. Thorburn: d, m only.

214. Ishbīliyah – 516 – dinar.

As 211 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

HSA 7896: لك b RF. V 1658 (FC, AV 3 sp.). BN II 576: ل b RF (error for لك). MA 522 note. Tornberg p. 275, no. 1: المومنين for المسلمين (error), لك b RF. Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 2; لك b RF, description inaccurate. Dorn I p. 55, no. 7, 8 (2 sp.): لك b RF. Markov: T 183 (= Swedish Royal Museum 1123).

215. Ishbīliyah – 517 – dinar.

As 211.

ANS: لك b RF. V 1659 (PG 2 sp., FC, AV 2 sp.). BM V 22: لك b RF. MA 523. KM II 584: لك b RF. Longpérier: D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tāshfīn (error). Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 4: لك b RF, description inaccurate. Cerdá 369: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 11: عام for سنة in RM (error?), لك b RF. Brosset col. 400; d, m only. Weyl: G 1202: d, m only. Markov: E p. 91, no. 19, 20 (2 sp.): d, m only. Spink (1898) 46650, (1901) 68380, (1902) 79534 (3 sp.): d, m only.

216. Ishbīliyah – 518 – dinar.

As 211.

HSA 13155: لك b RF. V 1660 (UV, AV 4 sp.). BM V 23: الخاسر for الخاسربن in OM, لك b RF. BN II 578: لك (read as لد) b RF. MA 524 (2 sp.). KM II 585: لك b RF. Cerdá 371: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 13: عام for سنة in RM (error?), لك b RF. Brosset col. 400: d, m only. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 21: d, m only. S: Judice II 3092 (pl. II): لك b RF. Ø 2086: description inaccurate, لك b RF. B 876: لك b RF, description inaccurate. Figanier 100: لك b RF, mint and date incorrectly recorded.

217. Ishbīliyah – 518 – dinar.

As 211 but with سنة repeated in RM (engraving error).

HSA 13184: الخاسر for الخاسرين in OM, لك b RF. V 1661 (UV).

218. Ishbīliyah – 519 – dinar.

As 211 but with ياشر b RF.

HSA 9175. V 1662 (UV, PG, AV, 2 others). BM V 24, 25 (2 sp.). BN II 577: date given as 517 but probably this year as ياشر appears. MA 525. KM II 586. Cerdá 372: description incomplete. Dorn I p. 56, no. 15, 16 (2 sp.): عام for سنة in RM (error?), لك b RF (error?). Weyl: G 1204: d, m only. Markov:E is p. 91, no. 22, 23 (2 sp.): d, m only. L: Khedivial p. 329. B 878: description inaccurate.

219. Ishbīliyah – 520 – dinar.

As 218.

HSA 13154. V 1663 (UV, PG, AV 3 sp., 1 other), 1664 (AH, PG, AV): date faulty. BM V 16: date 510 but probably engraving error for this year as ياشر appears; 27 (2 sp.?). BN II 579. MA 526 (2 sp.). Cerdá 375: description incomplete. Spink (1098) 46651, (1901) 60379, (1902) 79536 (3 sp.). S: Judice II 3093. B 879 (pl. XIII).

220. Ishbīliyah – 521 – dinar. Plate I

As 218.

ANS. V 1665 (UV 2 sp., PG, AV 3 sp.). BM V 29 (pl. I). BN II 580. MA 527 (3 sp.). KM II 587: الخاسر for الخاسرين in OM. Condé p. 279 (pl. III, no. 5): several slight errors. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only; with heir Tāshfīn (error). Cerdá 378: description incomplete.

221. Ishbīliyah – 522 – dinar.

As 218 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

HSA 13205: د for ر in ياشر (engraving error?). V 1666 (PG, AV). MA 528: as 218, corrected by Vives. Cerdá 380: description incomplete.

— Ighranāṭah – 504–522 – dinars.

See 241–256.

222. Balansiyah – 500 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1592 (PG, AV, 2 others), 1593 (AV): حس at end of RM. MA 493. Fleischer p. 387 (pl.): لي after الامام in RF (error), no letter b RF. Sentenach (pl. XVI, no. 1): no letter b RF.

223. Balansiyah – 501 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1594 (AV).

224. Balansiyah – 504 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1595 (UV, AV, 1 other). BN II 581: no letter b RF. Colson p. 242 (4 sp.): d, m only. D: Lorichs 4709: d, m only. Bartholomaei 61. Cerdá 361: d, m only. Sotheby 381: d, m only. B 862 (pl. XIV): description inaccurate, no letter b RF.

225. Balansiyah – 505 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1596 (PG, AV, 1 other). BN II 582: no letter b RF. KM II 591: no letter b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (4 sp.): d, m only.

226. Balansiyah – 508 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1597 (AV). BN II 583: س b RF. MA 494. D: García 6083: س b RF.

227. Balansiyah – 509 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1598. BN II 584 (pl. III): س b RF. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

228. Balansiyah – 512 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1599 (PG, AV). Longpérier:D p. 430 d, m only. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. D: García 6085: الرحمن الرحيم omitted from RM (error?). Cerdá 363: d, m only.

229. Madīnat Balansiyah – 512 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1600 (AV). MA 495. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only.

230. al-Jazīrah – 507 – dinar.

As 153; هاذ for هذ in RM (engraving error).

V 1634 (UV, PG, AV). BN II 585 (pl. IV), 586 (2 sp.): ك b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (15 sp.): d, m only. Caballero p. 16: d, m only, ك b RF. Markov:E p. 90, no. 12: d, m only. Rivero:M 105 (pl. II) ك b RF. Ø 2082: misread, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

231. al-Jazīrah – 507 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1635 (AV).

232. al-Jazīrah – 508 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1636 (AH, AV, 1 other). BN II 587: ك b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242 (7 sp.): d, m only. Caballero p. 16: d, m only, ك b RF. Ø 2083: misread, identified from impression furnished by Galster. B 864 (pl. XIV): date read as 507 (corrected from plate), ك b RF, description incomplete.

233. al-Jazīrah – 509 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Weyl:G 1195: d, m only.

234. Madīnat Dāniyah – 500 – dinar.

As 172.

V 1544 (PG). B 860 (pl. XIII): no letter b RF, description incorrect.

235. Dāniyah. – 500 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1601 (AV 2 sp.). Condé p. 278 (pl. III, no. 4): slightly misread, no letter b RF. Longpérier:D p. 429: d, m only. L'Oriental p. 235: incorrectly described, no letter b RF. Caballero p. 17.

236. Dāniyah – 501 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1602 (AV). Caballero p. 17.

237. Dāniyah – 504 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1603 (AV). Caballero p. 17.

238. Madīnat Shāṭibah – 500 – dinar.

As 172 except OF, top line of which. is changed to لا اله الا الله.

V 1543. (Gracío).

239. Gharnāṭah – 501 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1606 (AV): اهذ for هذ in RM (misprint?). BN II 588: no letter b RF, mint given as غراناطة (misprint). Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Rivero: M 104 (pl. II).

240. Gharnāṭah – 502 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1607 (AV, 1 other). Weyl:G 1194: d, m only. Markov:E p. 90, no. 11: d, m only.

241. Ighranāṭah – 504 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1608 (AV). Colson p. 242: d, m only. B 861: description inaccurate.

242. Ighranāṭah – 508 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1609 (AV). Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

243. Ighranāṭah – 509 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1610 (UV 2 sp., FC, AV 2 sp.). BN II 589: no letter b RF. KM II 594: mint given as Ighrānāṭah (error?), no letter b RF. Colson p. 242: d, m only. Cerdá 362: d, m only. Figanier 157: See also copper: 1163.

244. Ighranāṭah – 515 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1612 (AV). Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. C:Monedas p.381: d, m only. B 874: ك b RF, description incomplete.

245. Ighranāṭah – 515 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1613 (AV). BM V 19: ما a OF, لك b RF. BN II 590: ما a OF, لك (given as لد) b RF. MA 496 (2 sp.).

246. Ighranāṭah – 516 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1614 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BM V 21: ما a OF, لك b RF. BN II 591: ما a OF, لك b RF. MA 497 (2 sp.). KM II 595: ما a OF, لك b RF. Marsden 355 (pl. XXI): description inaccurate, plate shows ما a OF, لك RF. G p. 182: d, m only. Longpérier:D p. 430 d, m only, with name مالك. Fraehn: O p. 26: description incomplete, citing Aurivillius pl. IV, no. 7. Weyl:G 1199 (2 sp.): d, m only. Markov:E p. 90, no. 15; p. 91, no.16 (2 sp.): d, m only.

247. Ighranāṭah – 516 – dinar.

As 168.

HSA 10624: ما a OF, لك b RF. KM II 596: ما a OF, لك b RF. Dorn I p. 55, no. 4, 5, 6 (?) (3 sp.?): ما a OF, لك b RF.

248. Ighranāṭah – 517 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1615 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 592: ما a OF, لك b RF. MA 498 (2 sp.). KM II 597: ما a OF, كل b RF. D: Lorichs 4711 d, m only. Cerdá 368: d, m only. Weyl:G 1201: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91 no. 18: d, m only.

249. Ighranāṭah – 517 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1616 (AV). Dorn I p. 55, no. 9, 10 (2 sp.): ما a OF, لك b RF.

250. Ighranāṭah – 518 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1617. MA 499.

251. Ighranāṭah – 519 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1618 (AH, UV 2 sp., PG, AV). MA 500. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. L:Calvert 49: لب b RF.

252. Ighranāṭah – 519 – dinar.

As 152 except RM: (date) عام (mint) بسم الله امر بضرب هذا الديناررفي.

V 1619 (AH 2 sp., 1 other). MA 501.

253. Ighranāṭah – 520 – dinar.

As 252.

V 1620 (UV, AV). KM II 598: لم b RF (reported as ornament). L: Khedivial p. 329. Ø 2087: description of RM inaccurate.

254 Ighranāṭah – 520 – dinar.

As 252 plus وزن a RF and قديم b RF (outside of inner circle).

V 1621 (AH, AV). MA 502. KM II 599 (pl. III): لم b RF (reported as ornament). Cerdá 374: description incomplete. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only.

255. Ighranāṭah – 521 – dinar.

As 254.

V 1622 (AV, 1 other). BN II 593 (pl. IV): لم (read as ل) b RF. MA 503. KM II 600; لم b RF (reported as ornament). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Weyl:G 1205: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 25: d, m only.

256. Ighranāṭah – 522 – dinar. Plate I

As 254.

V 1623 (PG, AV). BM V 32 (pl. I): لم (read on p. XXI as عمر) b RF. BN II 594: لم (read as ل) b RF. MA 504 (2 sp.). C:Tratado p. 198, no. 5 (pl. XX): لم b RF. B 883 (pl. XII): لم b RF.

257. Qurṭubah – 503 – dinar.

As 152 except OF, top line of which is changed to:لا اله الا الله.

V 1654 (PG). MA 520 (2 sp.). KM II 603: اح (read as اد) b RF. Rivero:E (pl. III, no. 4): اح b RF. González p. 96 (fig. 25): illegible letter b RF.

258. Laushah? – 511 – dinar.

As 153.

B 869 (pl. XIII): mint given as "EL OUAKHA (LOJA)", for which correct Arabic name is Laushah, plate shows الوشة (?), no letter b RF. This may be a poorly engraved specimen of 278.

259. Mālaqah – 500 – dinar.

As 152 or 184.

D:Lorichs 4708: d, m only. Ø 2078: مون b RF.

260. Mālaqah – 501 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1604 (AV). BN II 598 (pl. IV): ز b RF. Longpérier:D p.430: d, m only. Cerdá 360: d, m only.

261. Mālaqah – 502 – dinar.

Probably as 184.

Colson p. 242: d, m only.

262. Mālaqah – 506 – dinar.

As 153 except RM, in which في precedes سنة.

V 1605 (PG).

263. Mursiyah – 501 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1624 (UV, PG, AV, 1 other). BM V II: م outside o inner circle. KM II 606: م outside o inner circle. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Colson p. 242: d, m only.

264. Mursiyah – 502 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1625 (FC, AV 2 sp.). Colson p. 242: d, m only.

265. Mursiyah – 502 – dinar.

As 184.

KM II 607: ه a OF (error?), و b RF (error for م?).

266. Mursiyah – 503 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1626 (UV, AV, 1 other).

267. Mursiyah – 504 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1627 (PG, FC, AV 3 sp., 1 other). Colson p. 242: d, m only. Sotheby 380: d, m only. Ø 2079: no letter b RF.

268. Mursiyah – 505 – dinar.

As 152.

ANS: no letter b RF. V 1628 (AV, 2 others). BM V 13. no letter b RF. BN II 599 (pl. IV): no letter b RF. MA 505. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. Ø 2081: no letter b RF.

269. Mursiyah – 506 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1629 (PG, AV, 1 other). MA 506. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only.

270. Mursiyah – 508 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1630 (AV), 1631 (AV, 2 others). BN II 600: no letter b RF. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only.

271. Mursiyah – 509 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1632 (UV, PG, 1 other). MA 507. Colson p. 242 (2 sp.): d, m only. Ø 2084. B 865 (coin illustrated under no. 865 in pl. XIII is 272): م b RF, description inaccurate.

272. Mursiyah – 512 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1633 (PG, FC, AV, 2 others). BM X p. 4, no. 18f: م b RF. C:Donativo 10. S:Gotha 978 (pl. XI): م b RF. B 870 (pl. XIII, under no. 865): م b RF (misread as و), description inaccurate.

273. al-Marīyah – 506 – dinar.

As 152.

V 1637 (Morales), 1638: الدير for الدينار in RM (engraving error). BM V 14: الدير for الدينار in RM, no letter b RF. Condé p. 281 (pl. IV, no. 4): misread, apparently this date. B 863: م (read as ام) b RF, description inaccurate.

274. al-Marīyah? – 507 – dinar.

As 153.

Soret:D 88: ك b RF, mint uncertain.

275. Madīnat al-Marīyah – 508 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1639. BM V 15: ح b RF. Marsden 353 (pl. XXI): ح b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only.

276. Madīnat al-Marīyah – 509 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1640 (AV).

277. al-Marīyah – 510 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1641 (UV 2 sp., AV). MA 508. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only.

278. al-Marīyah – 511 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1642. MA 509. D: García 6084.

279. al-Marīyah – 512 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1643 (AV).

280. al-Marīyah – 513 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1644 (AV).

281. al-Marīyah – 514 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1645 (UV, PG, AV). BN II 601 (pl. IV): no letter b RF.

282. al-Marīyah – 515 – dinar.

As 153.

Adler:C 86 (pl. VI): م b RF. Thorburn.

283. al-Marīyah – 515 – dinar.

As 168.

HSA 7895, 13147 (2 sp.): م b RF. V 1646 (UV 2 sp., PG, FC, AV 2 sp.). BM X p. 5, no. 20d: م b RF. BN II 602: م b RF. MA 510 (5 sp.). KM II 608: م b RF. Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 1: image at end of RM. Cerdá 364: d, m only. Dorn I p. 54, no. 1 p. 55, no. 2, 3 (3 sp.): م (read as مر) 6 RF. London p. 92 (2 sp.): date given as 525 but probably this year since Sīr is not designated heir. Weyl:G 1196: d, m only. L:Oriental p. 235. date given as 525 but Sīr not designated. Markov:E p. 90, no. 13: d, m only. S:Judice II 3091.

284. al-Marīyah – 516 – dinar.

As 168.

HSA 13165: م b RF, لن at end of RM. V 1647 (PG, AV): image at end of RM. BN II 603, 604 (2 sp.): م b RF. MA 511. KM II 609: م b RF, س (?) at end of OM and of RM. Welzl 12236. Longpérieri:D p. 430. d, m only. Fraehn: B 13: م b RF. Cerdá 366: d, m only. Weyl:G 1198: d, m only. Spink (1898) 46649, (1901) 68381 (2 sp.): d, m only. S:White 2181: d, m only. Ø 2085: RM misread. B 875 (pl. XIII): م b RF. Lisbon.

285. al-Marīyah – 517 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1648 (UV, PG 2 sp., AV 3 sp.). BN II 605: م b RF. KM II 610: م b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 3: م (read as مر) b RF. D: Lorichs 4712: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 12: م (read as مر) b RF. Weyli:G 1200: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 17: d, m only.

286. al-Marīyah – 518 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1649 (UV, AV 2 sp.). BN II 606: م b RF. MA 512. KM II 611: م – b RF. Dorn:A p. 401. Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 5: م (read as مر) b RF. Cerdá 370: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 14: م (read as م) b RF. B 877: description incomplete.

287. al-Marīyah – 519 – dinar.

As 168.

HSA 13148: م b RF, ه outside inner R circle. UM: م b RF. V 1650 (AH, PG, AV 2 sp.). BM V 26: م b RF. Weyl:G 1203: d, m only. Markov :E p. 91, no. 24: d, m only. Spink (1902) 79535: d, m only. S:Judice II 3096 (pl. II): date given as 529 (corrected from plate), م b RF, ه outside inner R circle.

288. Madīnat al-Marīyah – 520 – dinar.

Presumably as 168.

B 881: ك b RF, description incomplete.

289. al-Marīyah – 520 – dinar.

As 184.

V 1651 (UV, PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BM V 28: م b RF. BN II 607: م b RF, ه outside inner R circle. MA 513 (2 sp.). Longpérier:A pl. LV, no. 8): م b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tāshfīn (error). D. Lorichs 4713: d, m only. Cerdá 373: d, m only.

290. al-Marīyah – 521 – dinar.

As 153.

V 1652 (AH, PG, AV, 1 other). BN II 608: م b RF ه outside inner R circle. Tornberg p. 275, no. 2: المؤمنين for المسلمين in of (error), م (read as مر) b RF. Soret:F 134: م b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tāshfīn (error). Fraehn: N p. 87, no. 6: م (read as مر) b RF, عام for سنة in RM (error?). Cerdá 377: d, m only. Dorn I p. 56, no. 17: م (read as مر) b RF, عام for سنة in RM (error?).

291. al-Marīyah – 522 – dinar.

As 168.

V 1653 (UV, PG, AV). BM V 31:م b RF, ه outside inner R circle. BN II 609: م b RF, ه outside circle. MA 514 (2 sp.). Cerdá 379: d, m only. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Markov :E p. 881, no. 25a: d, m only. L: Khedivial p. 329:م b RF, ه outside circle.

'Alī without heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of 'Alī, with following modifications (coins on which عام replaces سنة in RM are designated by *).

Standard: 153–167, 168*, 170*, 171*. 181–183, 185, 186–193*, 195–198*, 200*, 202–209, 229*, 230, 231–233* 241–244, 245*, 246, 247*, 248, 249*, 250, 251, 258, 274–280, 281*, 282, 283–287*, 288*?, 290, 291*.

Top line OF: لا اله الا/ الله: 211–213, 214*. 215, 216.

As preceding type with سنة repeated in RM: 217.

As type of 211 with ياشر b RF: 218–220, 221*.

With الرحمن الرحيم after بسم الله in RM: 152, 169, 184*, 194?, 199*, 201, 222–227, 228*, 235–237, 239, 240, 259?, 260*, 261*?, 263, 264, 265*, 266–269, 270–272*, 273, 289*.

As preceding type with top line OF لا اله الا الله: 257.

With في preceding سنة in RM: 262.

With RM: بسم الله امر بضرب هذا الدينار في: 252*, 253*.

As preceding type plus وزن قديم in RF: 254–256*.

Last 2 lines OF: يوسف/الامير على بن: 172–180, 234.

As preceding type with top line OF: لا اله الا الله: 238.

Without margins (half dinar): 210.

With heir

Sīr ibn-'Alī

A.H. 522–533

A.D. 1128–1139

292. Aghmāt – 523 – dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 901: d, m only.

293. Aghmāt – 527 – dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 914: d, m only, ك b RF.

294. Aghmāt – 528 – dinar.

Probably as 295.

B 921: d, m only, ك b RF.

295. Aghmāt – 529 – dinar.

As 153 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي بن

يوسف ولي عهده

الامير سير

V 1723 (UV 2 sp.). MA 564. Weyl:G 1207: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 26: d, m only.

B 924: d, m only, ك b RF

296. Aghmāt – 530 – dinar.

As 295.

HSA 15793: ك b RF. V 1724 (FC, AV). Cerdá 388: description incomplete. Markov:E p. 91, no. 27: d, m only.

297. Aghmāt – 531 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1725. BN II 551 (pl. III): ك b RF. Weyl:G 1208: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 30: d, m only. B 930: d, m only.

298. Aghmāt – 532? – dinar.

As 295.

V 1726 (UV): date uncertain.

299. Aghmāt – 533 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1727 (UV 3 sp.): date uncertain. B 957 (pl. xlv): ك b RF, Tāshfīn for Sīr (disproved by plate), description inaccurate.

300. Sijilmāsah – 523 – dinar.

As 153 and 295 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي بن يوسف

ولي عهده الامير

سير

V 1713 (UV).

301. Sijilmāsah – 524 – dinar.

As 300.

HSA 13166: no letter b RF. S:White 2182: d, m only.

302. Sijilmāsah – 525 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1714. BN II 554, 555 (2 sp.): no letter b RF.

303. Sijilmāsah – 526 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1715. BN II 556 (pl. III): no letter b RF. B 911:d, m only.

304. Sijilmāsah – 527 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1716. BN II 557: no letter b RF. KM II 592: no letter b RF.

305. Sijilmāsah – 528 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1717 (UV).

306. Sijilmāsah – 529? – dinar.

As 300.

V 1718 (UV): date uncertain.

307. Sijilmāsah – 530 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1719 (AV). B 929: d, m only.

308. Sijilmāsah – 531 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1720 (UV 2 sp.). B 935: d, m only.

309. Sijilmāsah – 532 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1721. BN II 558: no letter b RF. S: Judice II 3097. B 937: d, m only.

310. Sijilmāsah – 533 – dinar.

As 300.

V 1722 (PG, AV). KM II 593: no letter b RF.

311. Madīnat Fās – 524 – dinar.

As 295 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة

V 1728 (AV). B 905 (pl. XIV): ك b RF; plate not clear, may be 311a.

311a. Madīnat Fās – 524 – dinar.

As 311 but with يو shifted from 4th to end of 3rd line of OF.

BN II 561: ك b RF.

312. Madīnat Fās – 525 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1729 (UV 2 sp., PG, 1 other). B 907 (without Madīnat?), 908 (2 sp.?): ك b RF, description incomplete.

313. Madīnat Fās – 526 – dinar.

May be as 311 or as 314.

Sotheby 381: d, m only.

314. Madīnat Fās – 527 – dinar.

As 168 and 311 except OF:

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

ولى عهده

الامير سير

V 1758 (UV 2 sp., PG, AV 2 sp.). MA 565 (3 sp.). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 915: d, m only.

315. Madīnat Fās – 528 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1759 (UV, AV). MA 566. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 920: d, m only.

316. Madīnat Fās – 529 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1760 (AV). BN II 562: ك b RF. B 922: d, m only.

317. Madīnat Fās – 530 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1761 (UV, AV). MA 567. B 927: d, m only.

318. Madīnat Fās – 531 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1762 (UV, AV 2 sp.). BN II 563: ك b RF. Weyl:G 1210: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 28, 29 (2 sp.): d, m only. Ø 2101: RM incorrectly reported, Sīr misread as شين illegible letter b RF. B 932 (coin illustrated under no. 932 in pl. XIV is 319): d, m only.

319. Madīnat Fās – 532 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1763 (PG, AV 2 sp., 1 other). BN II 564: ك b RF C:Donativo 12. B 936 (pl. XIV, under no. 932): date given as 523 (misprint), ك b RF.

320. Madīnat Fās – 533 – dinar.

As 314.

V 1764 (PG). BM X p. 5, no. 39d: وولي for ولي on OF (engraving error?), ك b RF. B 938: d, m only.

321. Marrākush – 522 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1734 (PG). Soret:S 76. B 896 bis: ك b RF, description incomplete.

322. Marrākush – 523 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1735 (AV). BN II 569: ك b RF. MA 561. D: Lorichs 4714. B 899: ك b RF, description incomplete.

323. Marrākush – 524 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1736 (UV). KM II 604: ك b RF. Ø 2089: RM incorrectly described. B 904 (pl. XIV): ك b RF, description inaccurate, date illegible in plate.

324. Marrākush – 525 – dinar.

As 311.

HSA 13152: ك b RF V 1737 (UV, AV). MA 562. S:Judice II 3095. Rivero:M 108 (pl. III): ك b RF. B 906: ك b RF.

325. Marrākush – 527 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1738 (UV, AV). KM II 605: ك b RF. B 916: d, m only, ك b RF.

326. Marrākush – 528 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1739 (AV). B 918: d, m only, ك b RF.

327. Marrākush – 529 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1740. BM II 570: ك b RF. B 923: d, m only, ك b RF.

328. Marrākush – 530 – dinar.

May be as 295 or 311.

B 926: d, m only, ك b RF. B 895 with this date and mint is, from its numerical position, presumably a misprint for an undeterminable date. Lisbon: d, m only.

329. Marrākush – 531 – dinar.

As 311.

HSA 13131: ك b RF. B 934: d, m only, ك b RF.

330. Marrākush – 533 – dinar.

Presumably as 311.

B 940: d, m only.

— Nūl Lamṭah – 520 – dinar.

B 894: this date, with Sīr, is obviously a misprint.

331. Nūl Lamṭah – 522 – dinar.

As 153 and 295 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

ولي عهده الامير

سير

B 898 (pl. XIV, under no. 897): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

332. Nūl Lamṭah – 523 – dinar.

As 153 and 295 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي بن

يوسف والامير

سير

V 1711 (UV). MA 553: الامير for والامير in fourth line of OF (error?). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 897 (pl. XIV, under no. 898): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

333. Nūl Lamṭah – 524 – dinar.

May be as 295 or 332.

B 902. description incomplete.

334. Nūl Lamṭah – 525 – dinar.

As 295.

HSA 13153: ك b RF. V 1730 (PG, AV). S.Judice II 3094 (pl. II): ك b RF. B (pl. XIV, under no. 939, R only; o is 385): not described, ك b RF.

335. Nūl Lamṭah – 527 – dinar.

As 153 and 295 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

بن يوسف والا

مير سير

V 1712 (AV). B 917: d, m only.

336. Nūl Lamṭah – [52]8 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1731 (UV): date partially illegible.

337. Nūl Lamṭah – 530 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1732 (PG, AV). MA 563. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 925: d, m only, ك b RF.

338. Nūl Lamṭah – 531 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1733 (PG, 1 other). BM V 38 (pl. I): الخا for الخاسرين in OM, ك b RF. BN II 573: ك b RF.

KM II 629: ك b RF. B 931 (pl. XIV): ك b RF.

338a. Nūl Lamṭah – 532 – dinar.

As 295.

Ø 2090: misread, identified from impression furnished by Galster.

338b. Nūl Lamṭah – 533 – dinar.

Presumably as 295.

Thorburn.

Spanish mints.

339. Ishbīliyah – 522 – dinar.

As 331, except RM, in which عام replaces سنة, and RF, under which ياشر occurs.

HSA 13185: د following ياشر. V 1754 (AH, AV, 1 other). BM V 30: د following ياشر Cerdá 381: description incomplete. B 896 (pl. XIV): د following ياشر description inaccurate.

340. Ishbīliyah – 523 – dinar.

As 295 plus ياشر b RF.

V 1755 (AV). KM II 588: سة for سنة in RM (engraving error). B 900: description incomplete.

341. Ishbīliyah – 524 – dinar.

Presumably as 340.

B 903: description incomplete.

342. Ishbīliyah – 525 – dinar.

As 340.

V 1756 (AV). BM V 36: د following ياشر Cerdá 383: description incomplete. B 910: description incomplete.

343. Ishbīliyah – 526 – dinar.

As 340.

V 1757 (AV). Cerdá 384: description incomplete.

344. Ighranāṭah – 523 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله محمد

رسول الله صلىالله

عليه امير المسلمين

علي بن يوسف

OM as OM of 152.

RM as RM of 252.

V 1710. BM V 33: لم (read on p. xxi as عمر) b RF.

RF الامام

عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

الامير سير

345. Ighranāṭah? – 524 – dinar.

Probably as 311.

Leite 22: description incomplete, ك b RF.

346. Ighranāṭah – 527 – dinar.

Probably as 344.

Cerdá 385: description incomplete.

347. al-Marīyah – 522 – dinar.

As 295 except OF, as OF of 311a.

V 1741 (PG, AV, 1 other): as 295 (error?). MA 554. Ø 2088: RM incorrectly described.

348. al-Marīyah – 522 – dinar.

As 311a.

KM II 612: ل at end of OM, م b RF, ه outside inner R circle. C: Tratado p. 200, no. 8 (pl. XX): م b RF, ه outside circle.

349. al-Marīyah – 523 – dinar.

As 347.

V 1742 (PG, AV): as 295 (error?). BM V 34: م b RF, ه outside circle. Marsden 356 (pl. XXI): م b RF, ه outside circle, description inaccurate. Longpérier:D p. 430 (2 sp.): d, m only. Markov:E p. 881, no. 25b: d, m only. L: Khedivial p. 329: م b RF, ه outside circle.

350. al-Marīyah – 524 – dinar.

As 347.

V 1743 (UV, PG, AV): as 295 (error?). BM V 35: م b RF, ه outside circle. MA 555 (2 sp.). KM II 613: ل at end of OM, م b RF, ه outside circle. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tāshfīn (error).

351. al-Marīyah – 525 – dinar.

As 347.

V 1744 (PG, AV 2 sp.): as 295 (error?). BN II 610: as 295, م b RF, ه outside circle. MA 556. KM II 614: م b RF, ه outside circle. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only, with heir Tāshfīn (error). Cerdá 382: description incomplete. Weyl:G 1206: d, m only. S:Karabaczek 863: wrong reference given. S:Dodgson 59: wrong reference given. B 909: م b RF, description incomplete.

352. al-Marīyah – 526 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1745 (PG, AV). MA 557: as 311a (error). KM II 615: م b RF, ه outside circle. D: Lorichs 4715. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. B 912 (pl. XIV): م b RF.

353. al-Marīyah – 527 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1746 (UV, PG, FC, AV). B 913: d, m only, م b RF.

354. al-Marīyah – 528 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1747 (UV, PG). BN II 611: م b RF, ه outside circle. KM II 616: م b RF, ه outside circle.

B 919: d, m only, م b RF.

355. al-Marīyah – 529 – dinar.

As 295.

V 1748 (PG, AV). MA 558: as 347 (error). Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only. Cerdá 386: description incomplete. Sotheby 382: d, m only.

356. al-Marīyah – 529 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1749 (AV). BN II 612: م b RF, ه outside circle. MA 558 note: as 311a (error). KM II 617: م b RF, ه outside circle. Cerdá 387: description incomplete. C:Donativo 11.

357. al-Marīyah – 530 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1750 (PG, AV 3 sp.). BM V 37: م b RF, ه outside circle. MA 559: as 311a (error). KM II 618: م b RF, ه outside circle; 619: م b RF (2 sp.). B 928: d, m only, م b RF.

358. al-Marīyah – 531 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1751 (PG, AV). BN II 613: م b RF. KM II 620: م b RF. Weyl:G 1209: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 31: d, m only. Spink (1898) 46652, (1901) 68383, (1902) 79538 (3 sp.). B 933: d, m only, م b RF.

359. al-Marīyah – 532 – dinar.

As 295, but with بن repeated before 5th line of OF (engraving error).

HSA 15795: م b RF. KM II 621: م b RF.

360. al-Marīyah – 532 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1752 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 614: م b RF. MA 560: as 311a (error). C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only. Spink (1898) 46653, (1901) 68382, (1902) 79539 (3 sp.).

361. al-Marīyah – 533 – dinar.

As 311.

V 1753 (AV). KM II 622: م b RF. Condé p. 280 (pl. IV, no. 3): م b RF, several slight errors.

Longpérier:D p. 430 d, m only.

'Alī with Sīr as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of 'Alī, with following modifications (coins on which عام replaces سنة in RM are designated by *).

Last 3 lines of OF: الامير سير/يوسف ولي عهده/امير المسلمين علي بن: 292–299, 311*, 312*, 313*?, 321–326*, 327, 328–330*, 333?, 334, 336–338b, 345*, 352*, 353–355, 356–358*, 360*, 361*.

As preceding type with ياشر b RF: 340–343.

As type of 292 with بن repeated before last line of OF: 359.

Last 3 lines of OF: الامير سير/سف ولي عهده/امير المسلمين علي بن يو: 311a*, 347, 348*, 349–351.

Last 3 lines of OF: سير / ولي عهده الامير/ امير المسلمين علي بن يوسف: 300–310.

Last 3 lines of OF: سير /ولي عهده الامير/ امير المسلمين علي: 331.

As preceding type with ياشر b RF: 339*.

Last 3 lines of OF: الامير سير/ولي عهده/ امير المسلمين علي: 314–320*.

Last 3 lines of OF: سير /يوسف والامير / امير المسلمين علي بن: 332.

Last 3 lines of OF: مير سير / بن يوسف والا/ امير المسلمين علي: 335.

Different OF and RM; RF: الامير ستر /امير المومنين / عبد الله/ الامام: 344*, 346*?.

With heir

Tāshfīn ibn-'Alī

A.H. 533–537

A.D. 1139–1143

362. Aghmāt – 533 – dinar.

As 153 and 295 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي بن

يوسف ولي عهده

الامير تاشفين

V 1790 (PG, AV, 1 other). D: Lorichs 4716: description incomplete. Markov:E p. 91, no. 32: d, m only. S: Gotha 979.

363. Aghmāt – 533 – dinar.

As 153 and 362 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي بن

يوسف والامير

تاشفين

V 1779. BM V 39: ك b RF. BN II 552: ك b RF.

364. Aghmāt – 535 – dinar.

As 363.

V 1780. MA 575. B 951: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

365. Aghmāt – 536 – dinar.

As 363.

V 1781 (AV). B 959: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

366. Madīnat Tilimsān – 534 – dinar.

OF as OF of 362.

OM as OM of 152 and 362 plus بسم الله

RM as RM of 168 and 311.

RF as RF of 152 and 362.

V 1800. BN II 553 (pl. III): ك b RF.

367. Madīnat Tilimsān – 535 – dinar.

As 366.

V 1801. BM V 43: ك b RF.

368. Madīnat Tilimsān – 536 – dinar.

As 366.

V 1802 (PG). MA 578.

369. Sijilmāsah – 533 – dinar.

As 153 and 362 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين على بن يوسف

ولي عهده الامير

تاشفين

HSA 13151: no letter b RF. V 1782 (AV). MA 576: date uncertain. C:Monedas p. 381: d, m only.

370. Sijilmāsah – 534 – dinar.

As 362 or 369.

B 948: ك b RF, description incomplete.

371. Sijilmāsah – 535 – dinar.

As 362 but with يو shifted from 4th to end of 3rd line of OF.

V 1789: OF as OF of 362 (error). BN II 559: و after سف in 4th line of OF (error), no letter b RF.

372. Sijilmāsah – 536 – dinar.

Probably as 362 or 371.

B 961: description incomplete.

373. Madīnat Fās – 533 – dinar.

As 153 and 362 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة, and OF:

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

ولي عهده الامير

تاشفين

V 1783 (PG?, 1 other).

374. Madīnat Fās – 534 – dinar.

As 373.

ANS: ك b RF. V 1784 (UV, PG, AV). BM V 42: ك b OF and b RF.

375. Fās – 534 – dinar.

As 362.

B 947: ك b RF.

376. Fās – 535 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي

ولي عهده

اتاشفين

RF as RF of 152 and 362.

OM as OM of 152 and 362 plus صدق الله.

RM as RM of 184.

KM II 601: ك b RF.

377. Fās – 535 – dinar. Plate I

As 376: except RF: الامام

العباسي

عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

HSA 13134: ك b RF. V 1807 (PG, FC, AV). BM X p. 5, no. 42f (pl. XXI): ك b RF. BN II 565 pl. III): ك b RF. MA 579. Adler:C 87 (pl. VI): ك b RF. Cerdá 396 description incomplete. Weyl:G 1211: d, m only. Markov:E p. 91, no. 33: d, m only. B 949: ك b RF, description incomplete, RF as RF of 379 (error?).

378. Madīnat Fās – 536 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا

الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين

يوسف ولي عهده

الامير تاشفين

RF الامام

عبد الله

العباسي

امير المومنين

OM as OM of 152 and 362 plus امنت بالله.

RM (date) عام (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم عونك بالله ضرب هذا الدينارب.

HSA 13132: ك b RF. V 1808 (PG, FC, AV, 1 other): والامير for الامير on OF (error?). BM V 45 (pl. I) ك b RF BN 11 566: ك b RF. KM II 602: ك b RF. C:Decadencia p. 381, no. 7 (pl. I): ك b RF. B 956 (pl. XIV): ك b RF, description inaccurate. Mateu I p. 482 (pl. XXXV, no. 1): ك b RF.

379. Madīnat Fās – 537 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين علي ولي

عهده الامير

تاشفين

RF الامام

عبد الله

امير المؤمنين

العباسي

OM as OM of 152 and 362.

RM as RM of 184 and 376.

V 1809 (AV): OM as OM of 366 (error?). BN 11 508: ك b RF.

380. Marrākush – 533 – dinar.

As 362 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

V 1791 (UV, PG, AV). B 958 (coin illustrated under no. 958 in pl. XIV is 383): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

381. Marrākush – 534 – dinar.

As 380.

V 1792 (PG). BN II 571 (pl. III): ك b RF. Markov:E p. 881, no. 32a: d, m only.

382. Marrākush – 535 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه وسلم امير المسلمين

علي بن يوسف ولي عهده

الامير تاشفين

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين العبا

سي

OM as OM of 366.

RM as RM of 184 and 376.

V 1803 (UV). B 950: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

383. Marrākush – 536 – dinar.

OF as OF of 382.

OM as OM of 152 and 362.

RM as RM of 152.

RF as RF of 382.

B 954 (pl. XIV, under no. 958): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

384. Marrākush – 537 – dinar.

As 382 except OM, as OM of 152 and 362.

V 1804: as 382 (error?). BM V 46: ك b RF.

385. Nūl Lamṭah – 533 – dinar.

Probably as 371.

B 939 (pl. XIV, o only; R is 334): not described.

386. Nūl Lamṭah – [5]33 – dinar.

As 362 except last line of OF: تاشفين.

V 1785. BM V 41: ك b RF.

387. Nūl Lamṭah – 534 – dinar.

As 362.

V 1793 (AV).

388. Nūl Lamṭah – 534 – dinar.

As 386.

V 1786 (PG, AV 2 sp.). J:Mohammedan p. 267: d, m only. Sotheby 381: d, m only. Rivero:M 109 (pl. III): ك b RF. Lisbon.

389. Nūl Lamṭah – 535 – dinar.

As 386.

V 1787 (UV 2 sp.). B 952: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

390. Nūl Lamṭah – 536 – dinar.

Probably as 386.

B 955: description incomplete.

391. Nūl Lamṭah – 537 – dinar.

As 362.

Soret:S 77 (pl. XV, no. 13: mint only): as 380 (error?). Figanier 277 (pl. V): ك b RF (given as لك, corrected from plate).

392. Nūl Lamṭah – 537 – dinar.

As 386.

V 1788 (PG). BN II 574: ك b RF. MA 577. B 962: description inaccurate.

Spanish mints.

393. Ishbīliyah – 535 – dinar.

Probably as 394.

B 953: illegible letter b RF, description incomplete.

394. Ishbīliyah – 536 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى

الله عليه وسلم تسليما

امير المسلمين علي ولي

عهده الامير تا

شفين

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين

العباسى

OM as OM of 152 and 362.

RM (date) عام (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب ب.

V 1805 (PG, AV, 1 other): علي or ع b RF. BM X p. 6, no. 44d: ك b RF (confirmed by letter from John Walker).

395. Ishbīliyah – 537 – dinar.

As 394.

V 1806 (Howland): ع b RF. KM II 589 (pl. III): ع b RF, المسل for المسلمين in OF (engraving error).

396. al-Marīyah – 533 – dinar.

As 380.

V 1794 (PG, AV). BM V 40: م b RF. BN II 615: م b RF.

397. al-Marīyah – 534 – dinar.

As 362.

ANS: م b RF. V 1795 (PG, AV, 1 other). Cerdá 395: description incomplete. Sotheby 382: d, m only.

398. al-Marīyah – 534 – dinar.

As 371.

KM II 623: م b RF. Fraehn: B 14.

399. al-Marīyah – 534 – dinar.

As 380.

V 1796. BM X p. 5, no. 40f: م b RF.

400. al-Marīyah – 535 – dinar.

As 380.

V 1797 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp.). BN II 616: م b RF. Longpérier:D p. 430: d, m only.

400a. al-Marīyah – 535 – dinar.

As 371 except RM, in which عام replaces سنة.

BM V 44 م b RF. KM II 624, 625 (2 sp.): م b RF.

401. al-Marīyah – 536 – dinar.

As 380.

HSA 13133: م b RF. V 1798 (PG, AV 2 sp.). BN II 617: م b RF. Cerdá 397: description incomplete. B 960 (pl. XIV): م b RF, description inaccurate.

401a. al-Marīyah – 536 – dinar.

As 400a.

HSA 13197: م b RF.

402. al-Marīyah – 537 – dinar.

As 362.

V 1799 (PG 2 sp., AV). Longpérier:D p. 430 d, m only. Markov:E p. 881, no. 33a: d, m only. S: Beyram 289. Balog: d, m only.

402a. al-Marīyah – 537 – dinar.

As 371.

KM II 626, 627 (2 sp.): م b RF. C: Tratado p. 201, no. 11 (pl. XX): م b RF.

403. al-Marīyah – 537 – dinar.

As 400a.

BM X p. 6, no. 45m: م b RF.

'Alī with Tāshfīn as heir; recapitulation of types. All coins as 153, standard type of 'Alī, with following modifications (coins on which عام replaces سنة in RM are designated by *).

Last 3 lines of OF: تاشفين/يوفس والامير/امير المسلمين علي بن: 363–365.

Last 3 lines of OF: الامير تاشفين/يوسف ولي عهده/امير المسلمين علي بن: 362, 372?, 375, 380*, 381*, 387, 391, 396*, 397, 399*, 400*, 401*, 402.

As preceding type plus بسم الله at end of OM: 366–368*.

As type of 362 but with يو in 3rd line: 371, 385?, 398, 400a*, 401a*, 402a, 403*.

Last 3 lines of OF: تاشفين / ولي عهده الامير/امير المسلمين علي: 369, 370?.

As type of 362 with الامير omitted from last line of OF: 386, 388–390, 392.

Last 3 lines of OF: تاشفين /ولي عهده الامير /امير المسلمين علي: 373*, 374*.

Last 3 lines of OF: تاشفين /ولي عهده/امير المسلمين علي: 376* (margins with added words).

As preceding type except RF: امير المؤمنين /عبد الله/ العباسي /الامام: 377*

Different OF, OM, RM; RF:امير المؤمنين / العباسي /عبد الله/ الامام: 378*.

Different OF, OM, RM; RF: العباسي/ امير المؤمنين /عبد الله /الامام: 379*.

Different OF, RM; RF: العباسي /امير المؤمنين/ لله /عبد /الامام: 393–395*.

Different OF, OM, RM; RF: سي/ امير المومنين العبا/الله/عبد/ الامام: 382*, 383, 384*.

Tāshfīn ibn-'Alī

A.H. 537–540

A.D. 1143–1145

404. Aghmāt – 537 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

صلى الله عليه وسلم

امير المسلمين تاشفين

بن علي بن يوسف

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين العبا

سي

OM ومن يبتغ غير الاسلام دينا فلن يقبل منه وهو في الاخر من الخاسرين

RM (date) عام (mint) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هدا الدينارب.

B 971 (coin illustrated under no. 971 in pl. XV is 422): ك b RF, description incomplete.

405. Aghmāt – 538 – dinar.

Probably as 404.

B 974: ك b RF, 983: with heir Ibrāhīm (error?) (2 sp.?): description inaccurate.

406. Madīnat Tilimsān – 540 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين وناصر

الدين تاشفين

انب علي

RF الامام

عبد

الله العباسي

امير المومنين

Margins as on 404.

V 1865: error in engraving mint (misprint?). MA 593.

407. Sijilmāsah – 544 (presumably for 540) – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين

تاشفين بن علي

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المومنين

OM as OM 404.

RM (date) عام (mint) بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينارب.

V 1860. BM X p. 7, no. 70p.

408. Madīnat Fās – 537 – dinar.

OF ال اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المسلمين تاشفين بن علي

بن يوسف بن تاشفين

RF الامام

عبد الله

العباسي

امير المومنين

Margins as on 404.

V 1853. BN II 567: ك b RF.

409. Madīnat Fās – 537 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المسلمين تاشفين بن

علي بت يوسف ين

تاشفين

RF as RF of 404.

OM as OM of 404 plus بسم الله.

RM as RM of 404.

V 1851. MA 588. OM without بسم الله, corrected by Vives.

410. Madīnat Fās – 538 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المسلمين تاشفين بن علي

ابن يوسف بن تا

شفين

RF الامام

عبد

الله امير

المؤمنين العبا

سي

OM as OM of 409.

RM as RM of 407.

V 1852 (PG, AV). BN II 638 (pl. IV): ك b RF. MA 589: RF and OM incorrectly described, corrected by Vives. S: Gotha 982. B 973 (pl. XV):ك b RF, description inaccurate. Figanier 278: OM without بسم الله (misprint, corrected by letter).

411. Marrākush – 537 – dinar.

As 404.

B 970 (pl. XV): ك b RF.

412. Marrākush – 538 – dinar.

As 404.

V 1857 (AV), 1858. BN II 640 (pl. IV): ك b RF.

413. Nūl Lamṭah – 537 – dinar.

As 407 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين تاشفين

بن علي

B 972: ك b RF.

414. Nūl Lamṭah – 538 – dinar.

As 413 except RM in which سنة replaces عام.

V 1854. BN II 641 (pl. IV): ك b RF. KM II 652: ك b RF. Höst: E and N 3 (pl.XXXIII): ك b RF.

Ø 2103: illegible letter b RF. B 975 (pl. XV): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

415. Nūl Lamṭah – 539 – dinar.

As 414.

V 1855. MA 591.

416. Nūl Lamṭah – 540 – dinar.

As 414.

V 1856 (AV).

Spanish mints.

417. Ishbīliyah – 538 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى

الله عليه وسلم تسليما

امير المسلمين تاشفين

بن علي بن يوسف

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المومنين

العباسي

Margins as on 404.

V 1859. BN II 642 (pl. IV): م to left and ح to right of العباسي in RF.

418. al-Marīyah – 538 – dinar.

As 407 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين وناصر

الدين تاشفين بن علي

بن يوسف

V 1861 (AV 2 sp., 2 others). BN II 643 (pl. IV): م b RF. KM II 649: م b RF. Longpéier:D p. 430: d, m only. B 976 (pl. XV): م b RF.

419. al-Marīyah – 538 – dinar.

As 418 except RM, in which سنة replaces عام.

V 1862 (PG). BN II 644: م b RF. KM II 648: م b RF.

420. al-Marīyah, – 539 – dinar.

As 418.

V 1863 (PG, AV). MA 590.

421. al-Marīyah – 539 – dinar.

As 419 except RM, in which الرحمن الرحيم follows بسم الله.

V 1864 (PG).

With heir

Ibrāhīm ibn-Tāshfīn

A.H. 538–540

A.D. 1144–1145

422. Aghmāt – 539 – dinar.

OF apparently as OF of 427.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 414.

RF as RF of 404.

B (pl. XV, under no. 971): not described, reconstructed from plate, OF not clear, ك b RF.

423. Aghmāt – 539 – dinar.

As 414 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه امير المسلميت تاشفين

بن علي ولي عهده

الامير ابراهم

V 1866 (AV): RM wrongly reported.

424. Madīnat Sijilmāsah – 538? – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين تاشفين

بن علي ولي عهده

الامير ابراهيم

RF as RF of 417.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 407.

B 981: ك b RF.

425. Madīnat Fās – 539 – dinar.

OF as OF of 424.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 407.

RF as RF of 404.

V 1867: RM wrongly reported. BM V 68: ك b RF. B 982 (pl. XV): mint given as Fās and date as 538 (corrected from plate), ك b RF, عام omitted from RM (engraving error), description inaccurate.

426. Madīnat Fās – 539 – dinar.

As 425 except RF, as RF of 410.

BN II 639: ك b RF, عهد for عهده in fourth line of OF (engraving error).

427. Marrākush – 539 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه وسلم امير المسلمين

تاشفين علي بن يوسف

الامير ابراهيم

RF as RF of 404.

OM as OM of 409.

RM as RM of 404.

B 984 (pl. XV): date given as 537 (corrected from plate); 985 (2 sp.): ك b RF, description inaccurate.

428. Marrākush – 540 – dinar.

Probably as 427.

B 987: description incomplete.

429. Nūl Lamṭah – 539 – dinar.

Probably as 427.

B 986: description incomplete.

Spanish mints.

430. Ishbīliyah – 539 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه وسلم تسليما امير

المسلمين تاشفين بن علي ولي

عهده الامير ابراهيم

RF as RF of 417.

Margins as margins of 404, but with سنة replacing عام in RM.

V 1868 (PG, Gil). C: Tratado p. 203, no. 1 (pl. XXI): ع b RF.

430a. Ishbīliyah – 539 – dinar.

Apparently as 430 except OF, as OF of 424.

D: Lorichs 4717: description incomplete.

431. Ishbīliyah – 540 – dinar.

As 417 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه وسلم تسليما امير

المسلمين تاشفين بن علي

ولي عهده الامير

ابرهيم

V 1869. BM V 70 (pl. 1): ك b RF.

432. al-Marīyah – 539 – dinar.

As 409 except RM, in which سنة replaces عام and OF:

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله امير

المسلمين وناصر الدين

تاشفين بن علي ولي عهده

الامير ابراهيم

V 1870 (AV, 2 others). BM V 69: ه of عهده shifted to start of last line of OF, ع b OF م, b RF. BN II 645–647 (3 sp.):ه of عهده omitted (error), ع b OF, م 6 RF. MA 592 (3 sp.): ع b OF, OM without بسم الله, corrected by Vives. KM II 650 (pl. III), 651 (2 sp.): ع b OF, OM without بسم الله (visible in plate), م b RF, المسلمين for المؤمنين in RF (error). Fraehn:B 15: ع b OF, م (read as مر) b RF. Sawaszkiewicz p. 204: d, m only. Longpérier: D p.431: d, m only. Markov:E p. 92, no. 43: d, m only. Rodgers 7981: ع b OF, description inaccurate. C: Decadencia p. 383, no. 8 (pl. I): ع b OF, م b RF. Ziya 2029 (pl. II): ع b OF, description inaccurate, plate illegible. Rivero:M III (pl. III): ع b OF, م b RF.

Ibrāhīm ibn-Tāshfin

A.H. 540–540

A.D. 1145–1145

No coins reported.

Isḥāq ibn-'Alī

A.H. 540–541

A.D. 1145–1147

433. Aghmāt – 540 – dinar.

As 425 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

صلى الله عليه وسلم

امير المسلمين اسحق

بن علي بن يوسف

B 995: ك b RF, description incomplete.

434. Marrākush – 540 – dinar.

As 433.

B 994: ك b RF, description inaccurate.

435. Marrākush – 541 – dinar.

As 433.

B 996 (pl. XV): ك b RF.

436. Nūl Lamṭah – 540 – dinar.

As 414 except OF, in which اسحاق replaces تاشفين.

B 993 (pl. xv): ك b RF, description incorrect.

Spanish mints.

437. Ishbīliyah – 541 – dinar.

As 417 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى

الله عليه وسلم تسليما

امير المسلمين اسحاق

V 1892 (AV): الرحمن الرحيم not reported in RM (error?). KM II 656 (pl. III): ك b RF. Rivero:M 115 (pl. III): ك b RF.

438. Ighranāṭah – 540 – dinar.

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين اسحاق

بن علي بن يوسف

RF as RF of 406.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 407, but with هذ الدينار badly confused in engraving.

V 1889. BN II 653 (pl. IV): ف (read as و) b OF, بكر (?) b RF. KM II 657: ف b OF, بكر (?) b RF.

439. Ighranāṭah – 540 – dinar. Plate I

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله صلى الله

عليه وسلم امير المسلمين

اسحاق بن علي بن يوسف

RF الامام

عبد

الله

امير المؤمنين العباسي

OM as OM of 404 plus صدق الله بسم الله.

RM as RM of 404.

HSA 13202: ف b OF, بكر (?) b RF. V 1890 (PG, AV). BN II 652 (pl. IV): ف (read as و) b OF, بكر (?) b RF, صدق الله omitted (visible on plate). KM II 658: ف b OF, بكر (?) b RF, صدق الله omitted (error?). S: Michael I 1669: ف b OF, بكر (?) b RF.

440. Ighranāṭah – 541 – dinar.

OF as OF of 439.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 407.

RF as RF of 439.

HSA 15794: ك b RF, RM largely illegible, date and mint uncertain. V 1891 (FC). Sawaszkiewicz p. 204: d, m only.

441. Qurṭubah – 540 – dinar struck presumably by Ḥamdīn ibn-Muḥammad.

As 417 and 437 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

امير المسلمين اسحاق

بن علي ين يوسف

V 1888 (Codera Imp.).

442. Qurṭubah – 541 – dinar struck presumably by Ḥamdīn ibn-Muḥammad.

OF as OF of 437.

OM as OM of 409.

RM as RM of 421.

RF as RF of 417 and 437.

V 1893. BN II 654 (pl. V): ح b RF.

Murābiṭ partisans after A.H. 541 (A.D. 1147).

Many coins in Murābiṭ styles were struck after the downfall of the main dynasty at the death of Isḥāq; most of these were struck in Spain by local rulers and are therefore excluded from this corpus, but can be found in section 6a of Vives; those with North African mints, or with Spanish mints but struck in the name of the "Banī-Tāshfīn", follow.

Struck in North Africa.

443. Sabtah – 543 – dinar struck by a final Murābiṭ rebel against Muwaḥḥid rule, Yaḥyâ ibn-Abī-Bakr ibn-'Alī, called al-Ṣaḥrāwī.

As 404 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله المهدى

الذى يشرك النبي امير

المسلمين يحيى بن ابى بكر

بن علي بن يوسف

C:Familia p. 155.

— Sijilmāsah – 544 – dinar.

See 407.

444. Nūl Lamṭah – 542 – anonymous dinar struck by an unidentified governor.

As 153 and 436 except OF: لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

صلى الله عليه

B 1004 (pl. XV): ك b RF, plate largely illegible.

Struck in Spain in the name of the Banī-Tāshfīn.

445. Madīnat Gharnāṭah – 545 – dinar struck by the Lamtūnah Berber governor Maymūn ibn-Badr, who surrendered in 549.

As 407 except OF: الله

لا اله الا

محمد رسول الله

اللهم ارحم امرا المسلمين

بني تاشفين

V 1979 (Codera Imp.).

446. Madīnat Qurṭubah – 542 – dinar struck by the Massūfah Berber governor Yaḥyâ ibn-'Alī, known as Ibn-Ghāniyah, who died in 543. Plate I

OF as OF of 445.

OM as OM of 404.

RM as RM of 153 and 414.

RF as RF of 406.

HSA 14169: لك b RF. V 1978 (AV, 2 others). BM V 81 (pl. I): لك b RF, اللهم ارحم misread as الامم برحم.

Coins struck by the descendants of Ibn-Ghāniyah during their reign in the Balearics are excluded from this corpus, and no coins are known to have been struck by them during their North African invasions in the later Muwaḥḥid and early Ḥafṣid periods.

Muwaḥḥid Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain

by the Kūmiyah Berber rulers of

the Muwaḥḥidūn sect

in Naskhī script.

Debased gold struck by Muwaḥḥid partisans in North Africa before the downfall of the Murābiṭs in A.H. 541 (A.D. 1147), in the name of the Mahdī, Muḥammad ibn-Tūmart.

446a. (no mint) – quarter dinar: Kūfī script. Plate II

OF لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

الامام الحق

RF الله ربنا

محمد رسولنا

المهدى امامنا

ربع الدينر

HSA 14156. S: Judice II 3105 (pl. II): 4th line of OF uncertain, 4th line of RF illegible.

abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-al-Mu'min ibn-'Alī

A.H. 524–558

A.D. 1130–1163

447. Bijāyah (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 547. Plate II

OF لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

RF المهدى امام

الامة القائم

بامر الله

OS — صلى الله على محمد (left) — بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم (top)

— الطاهرين (right) — واله الطيبين (bottom)

RS — المومن بن علي — ابو محمد عبد

— الحمد لله رب العالمين — امير المومنين

ANS.

448. Madīnat (a RF) Bijāyah. (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 547.

As 447.

V 2056. P 1k. MA 663. B 1024.

449. Tadghah? (a RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

Bartholomaei 62: mint given as Bad'ah.

450. Tūnis (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 554.

As 447.

J:Gold 2. Sotheby 384: m only.

451. Sabtah (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

V 2055. P 1j. BM V 84 (pl. II). L:Inedited 10. Weyl:G 1218. S:White 2183. B 1027, 1028 (2 sp.).

452. Sabtah (b OF, a RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

S: Gotha 986 (pl. XII).

453. Sabtah (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

ANS. V 2054 (PG). P 1i. BM V 85. Weyl:G 1219 (2 sp.). S: Karabaczek 914, 918? (2 sp.?).

C: Lebrija p. 564.

454. Salā (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

P 10. B 1008 bis (pl. XVI, under no. 1008).

455. Salā (b OF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

V 2059. P 1n. BN II 711 (pl. VI). Markov:E p. 93, no. 1: m only. S: Michael I 1670. S: Gotha 985.

456. Fās (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

V 2051. P 1e. BM X p. 8, no. 84d. L: Khedivial p. 329. S: Ciscar 34 (pl. I): mint illegible in plate. S: Comte 664. B 1011–1021 (11 sp.).

457. Fās (a OF, b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

J:Gold 3. B 1010 (pl. XVI, under no. 1010 bis): description inaccurate, mint illegible in plate.

458. Fās (b OF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

HSA 13192: ء b RF. V 2048 (PG, AV). P 1b. BN II 712. MA 661. Sotheby 383: m only. S: Judice II 3106: ع(?) b RF.

459. Fās (a OF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

V 2049. P 1c. MA 662. KM II 683 (pl. IV): بفارس for فاس a RF and وسلم at end of 4th OS (both disproved by plate). Thorburn.

460. Fās (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

HSA 13191. V 2050 (AV 2 sp.). P 1d.

461. Madīnat (b RF) Fās (b OF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

P 1f.

462. Madīnat (a RF) Fās (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

Vollers 13 (pl. I): عام for فاس b RF (disproved by plate).

463. Madīnat (a RF) Marrākush (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

B 1022 (pl. XVI), 1023 (2 sp.): mint illegible in plate.

464. Miknāsah (b OF and b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

V 2053 (AV). P 1h. B 1025 (pl. XVI), 1026 (2 sp.): mint illegible in plate.

465. Miknāsah (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 540.

As 447.

V 2052 (AV). P 1g. BN II 713 (pl. VI). KM II 684. Cerdá 420: description incomplete.

S: Ciscar 35.

466. (no mint) – dinar struck presumably after A.H. 540.

As 447.

ANS: س b RF. HSA 535, 7899, 10627, 13167, 13172, 13189 (6 sp.). V 2047 (AH, PG 12 sp., AV 7 sp.): لقلئم for القائم in RF (misprint). P 1a (pl. I). BM V 86, 87 (2 sp.). BN II 715: س b OF and b RF, 716 (2 sp.). MA 660, 664: س b OF and b RF (2 sp.). KM II 686–688 (3 sp.). Condé p. 285 (pl. III, no. 8): slightly misread. Welzl 12238. D: Garcia 6128. Cerdá 421: description incomplete. L: Muwaḥḥids p. 154, no. 1 (pl. VI) 2 (2 sp.). Weyl:G 1217: slight errors in OM and RF. Spink (1901) 68337: س b RF, 68338, 68339, (1902) 79540, 79541 (5 sp.): mintless, not described. J:Gold 1 (2 sp.). Sotheby 383 (2 sp.). Maguelonne p. 22 (fig. 2). S: Karabaczek 916. S: Castro 421. S: Gotha 987. Ø 2109. B 1033–1045 (13 sp.): mint-marks include س,ل,بر,م b OF, RF, or both. Rivero:E (pl. IV, no. 10). Lisbon.

467. (no mint) – half dinar.

OF as OF of 447.

RF المهدى

خليفة

OS — الرحمن الحيم — بسم الله

— خاتم النبيين — صلى الله على محمد

RS as RS of 447.

V 2060 (PG, AV, 2 others). P 2 (pl. I). BM V 88 (pl. II). BN II 717. S: Karabaczek 917. S: Beyram 371. S:Grantley 2160. B 1009 (pl. XVI): description inaccurate.

468. (no mint) – half dinar.

OF as OF of 447 and 467.

RF as RF of 467.

OS — الرحمن الرحيم — بسم الله

— محمد خاتم النبيين — صلى الله على

RS as RS of 447 and 467.

V 2060 note.

Spanish mints.

469. Ishbīliyha (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

V 2057. P1 l. BM X p. 8, no. 85d: mint spelled Ishbiliyah. S: Karabaczek 915. Rivero:M 132 (pl. III).

470. Madīnat (a RF) Ishbīliyah (b RF) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

As 447.

HSA 10628?, 13190, 13193 (3 sp.?). V 2058 (PG 2 sp., AV 2 sp., 1 other). P 1m. BN II 714: لله for لله in 4th RS (misprint). Cerdá 419: Madīnat misread as Mursiyah, description incomplete. C: Tratado p. 221, no. 3 (pl. XXII). S: Judice II 3107. B 1031, 1032 (2 sp.).

471. Jayyān (location on coin not indicated) – dinar struck after A.H. 541.

Presumably as 447.

C:Çecas p. 343: m only, given as جاين (error), termed double dinar (error).

472. Madīnat (a OF) Qurṭubah (b OF) – dinar struck after A.H. 542.

As 447.

B 1029.

With heir

abū-'Abd-Allāh Muḥammad ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

A.H. 551–558

A.D. 1156–1163

473. Bijāyah – dinar.

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المهدى امام الامة

(mint)

RF القائم بامر الله

الخليفة ابو محمد

عبد المومن بن علي

امير المومنين

OS — اله واحد — والهكم

— الرحمن الرحيم — لا اله الا هو

RS — ابو عبد الله — الامير الاجل

— امير المومنين — محمد بن

V 2072 (AV). P 9d. Spink (1901) 68377, (1902) 79555 (2 sp.): m only, ascribed to 'Abd-Allāh. J:Gold 16 (2 sp.). Sotheby 389: m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad". S: Michael I 1671. B 1148 (pl. XVI): description incomplete, mint illegible in plate.

474. Madīnat Bijāyah – dinar.

As 473.

B 1147: description incomplete.

475. Ribāṭ al-Fatḥ – dinar.

As 473.

V 2071 (AV): ربط for رباط (error). P 9b (pl. I): ربط for رباط (disproved by plate).

476. Fās – dinar.

As 473.

B 1150: description incomplete.

477. Madīnat Fās – dinar. Plate II

As 473.

HSA 7898. P 9c. Spink (1901) 68376, (1902) 79554 (2 sp.): m only, ascribed to 'Abd-Allāh. J:Gold 17 (2 sp.). Sotheby 389: m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad".

478. Marrākush – dinar.

As 473.

HSA 13170. V 2070 (AV). P 9a. Cerdá 426: description incomplete. Spink (1901) 68374, 68375, (1902) 79553 (3 sp.): m only, ascribed to 'Abd-Allāh. J:Gold 18 (3 sp.). Sotheby 389 (2 sp.): m only, ascribed to "Abd-Mohammad". Rivero:M 135 (pl. III). B 1149 (pl. XVI): description incomplete, mint illegible in plate.

479. Madīnat Marrākush – dinar.

As 473.

HSA 13194. Leite 24: الاجل omitted from 1st RS (misprint?), الله وحده for اله واحد in 2nd OS (error). J:Gold 19. S: Judice II 3108 (pl. II): mint and RS illegible in plate.

480. (no mint) – dinar.

As 473.

Sacy p. 539: الاحد for الاجل in 1st RS (error). Maguelonne p. 22 (fig. l): misread.

With heir

abū-Ya'qūb Yūsuf ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

A.H. 558–558

A.D. 1163–1163

Since the coins struck while Yūsuf was heir are identical with those struck during the early part of his reign, they are listed under his own name as amīr: 481–492.

abū-Ya'qūb Yūsuf I ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min

A.H. 558–580

A.D. 1163–1184

First series: as amīr

A.H. 558–563

A.D. 1163–1168

481. Bijāyah – dinar.

As 473 except RS:

— ابو يعقوب — الامير الاجل

— امير المومنين — يوسف بن

V 2064 (AV). P 3b. BN II 724 (pl. VI). Spink (1901) 68350. Sotheby 384: m only. B 1083, 1084 (2 sp.) (pl. XVI, unnumbered). Rivero:E (pl. IV, no. 11): mint uncertain.

482. Madīnat Bijāyah – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68349. J:Gold 6.

483. Madīnat Tilimsān – dinar.

As 481.

J:Gold 7. Sotheby 385: m only.

484. Tūnis – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68368, (1902) 79552 (2 sp.): m only. J:Gold 8 (2 sp.). Sotheby 385: m only.

485. Sijilmāsah – dinar.

As 481.

P 3d (p. 113). KM II 691. J:Gold 9. Sotheby 385: m only. B 1077. Mateu II 21 (pl. XVIII, no. 3).

486. Madīnat Fās – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68340–68343, (1902) 79542, 79543 (6 sp.): m only. J:Gold 10 (5 sp.). Sotheby 387: m only.

487. Marrākush – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68357–68363, (1902) 79548 (8 sp.): m only. J:Gold 11 (15 sp.). Sotheby 387 (3 sp.): m only.

488. Ḥaḍr Marrākush – dinar.

As 481.

P 3c (pl. I): حضرة for حضر (disproved by plate). Spink (1901) 68364–68367, (1902) 79549, 79550 (6 sp.): m only. J:Gold 12 (8 sp.). B 1078 (pl. XVI): ضرب for حضر b OF (error), Marrākush b RF (error?), illegible in plate.

489. Madīnat Marrākush – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68354–68356, (1902) 79546, 79547 (5 sp.). J:Gold 13 (4 sp.). B 1079–1082 (4 sp.): Marrākush repeated b RF (error?).

490. Nūl Lamṭah? – dinar.

As 481.

Spink (1901) 68351–68353 (3 sp.): mint given as image. J:Gold 14 (5 sp.): mint given as image.

491. (no mint) – dinar.

As 481.

V 2063. P 3a. BM V 89 (pl. II: O only). BN 11 726–728 (3 sp.). KM 11 692. Condé p. 284 (pl. III, no. 7): misread, name of amīr uncertain. Sacy p. 534: الاحد for الاجل in 1st RS (error). L: Khedivial p. 329. Spink (1901) 68369–68372, (1902) 79551 (5 sp.): mintless, not described. J:Gold 4 (231 sp.). Sotheby 386 (5 sp.): mintless, not described. S: Karabaczek 919: misread. Spink (1917) 57100: mintless, not described. Codrington, H.: Ceylon 1. S: Gotha 988. Ø 2113. B 1085–1099 (15 sp.).

Spanish mint.

492. Ishbīliyah – dinar.

As 481.

J:Gold 5 (9 sp.). Sotheby 384: m only.

Second series: as amīr al-mu'minīn

A.H. 563–580

A.D. 1168–1184

493. Sabtah – dinar.

As 481 except 1st RS: – امير المومنين.

S:White 2185: reference uncertain, may be as 481.

494. Marrākush – dinar.

As 493.

HSA 10629. P 4b (pl. I).

495. (no mint) – dinar.

As 493.

ANS (2 sp.). HSA 10630, 13169, I3171, 13195 (4 sp.). V 2061 (AH, AV 4 sp.). P 4a. BM V 90–96 (pl. II: 92) (7 sp.). MA 670 (3 sp.). KM II 693. Castiglioni 244 (pl. X). Fraehn:R p. 623, no. 1. Sacy p. 540. D: García 6130. D: Lorichs 4721. Cerdá 424: description inadequate. L: Muwaḥḥids p. 157, no. 3 (pl. VI). Weyl:F 6494 (4 sp.). C: Tratado p. 222, no. 5 (pl. XXII). Weyl:G 1224. Lagumina p. 101, no. 1. Markov.E p. 93, no. 2: mintless, not described. L: Khedivial p. 329. S: Karabaczek 920. S: Beyram 290. S: Ciscar 36–38 (pl. I: 36) (3 sp.). S: Castro 422. C: Lebrija p. 564. Codrington, H.: Ceylon p. 158. Rivero:M 133 (pl. III). Spink (1933) 22476. Mateu II 20 (pl. XVIII, no. 2). Thorbum.

496. (no mint) – half dinar.

OF لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

RF المهدى

خليفة

الله

OS — ابو محمد — امير المومنين

— بن علي — عبد المومن

RS — ابويعقوب — امير المومنين

— امير المومنين — يوسف

UM. V 2065 (AV). P 5 (pl. I). Cerdá 425: description inadequate. B 1100 (pl. XVI), 1101 (2 sp.). Rivero:E (pl. IV, no. 13).

Spanish mints.

497. Ishbīliyah – dinar.

As 493.

HSA 13168. V 2062. P 4c. BN II 725 (pl. VI). D: Lorichs 4720. Spink (1901) 68344–68348, (1902) 79544, 79545 (7 sp.). S:White 2184.

498. Madīnat Ishbīliyah – dinar.

As 493.

Demaeght v. VIII, p. 245 (fig.): ب preceding mint (error?).

Mazdara 'ibn-Ḥayyān

rebel at Tāzā

A.H. 559–559

A.D. 1164–1164

499. (Tāzā?) – dinar?

OF مزدرع

الغريب

RF نضره الله

قريب

Ibn-Abī-Zar (... Rawḍ al-qirṭās, ed. Tornberg, p. 137, line 21) notes coins of this Ṣanhājah Berber rebel bearing the inscription noted, but does not specify metal or style, or divide the inscription into lines or even into obverse and reverse. As no specimens have been reported in modern collections, this reconstruction is tentative.

abū-Yūsuf Ya 'qūb ibn-Yūsuf I

A.H. 580–595

A.D. 1184–1199

500. Fās – double dinar.

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

والحمد لله وحده

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المهدىامام الامة

(mint)

RF القائم بامر الله الخليفة

ابو محمد عبد المومن بن

علي امير المومنين

امير المومنين ابو يعقوب

يوسف بن امير المومنين

OS — لا اله الا هو الرحمن الرحيم — والهكم اله واحد

— وما اوفيقي الا بالله — وما بكم من نعمة فمن الله

RS — ابو يوسف يعقوب — امير المومنين

— بن امير المومنين — بن امير المومنين

V 2067. P 6b. BM V 99.

501. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 500.

ANS (electrotype). HSA 13175. V 2066 (AV). P 6a (pl. I). BM V 100, 101 (2 sp.). BN II 729. Sacy p. 530 (pl.), p. 539 (2 sp.): OS slightly misread. Grotefend p. 242 (fig.): cross soldered over RF. L: Muwaḥḥids p. 158, no. 1: يكن for بكم in 3rd OS (error). Weyl:F 6495 (2 sp.): mintless, not described. Weyl:G 1225: description incomplete. Lagumina p. 102, no. 2. L: Khedivial p. 329: description uncertain, may be 502. Holu 749: بن omitted from 3rd RS (error). Spink (1901) 68373. J:Gold 15 (2 sp.). Dieulafoy p.57 (140 sp.): description inaccurate. Sotheby 388 (2 sp.): mintless, not described. S: Beyram 291: "variant", may be 502. Spink (1917) 57101: mintless, not described. Rivero:M 134 (pl. III). B 1103–1123 (21 sp.): description incomplete. Rivero:E (pl. IV, no. 12).

502. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 500 but with بن shifted from 2nd to start of 3rd line of RF.

BM V 102 (pl. II), 103 (2 sp.). KM II 694 (pl. IV), 695 (2 sp.). L: Muwaḥḥids p. 159, no. 2, 3 (pl. VI) (2 sp.): يكن for بكم in 3rd OS (error). S:White 2186. B 1102 (pl. XVI): description incomplete.

— (no mint) – dinar.

As 502 but with weight of dinar.

L: Muwaḥḥids p. 159, no. 4, 5 (2 sp.): it seems improbable that these coins were intended as dinars.

503. (no mint) – half dinar.

OF لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

RF المهدي خليفة

الله امير المومنين

ابو محمد بن علي

OS — ابو يوسف — امير المومنين

— الاميرين — يعقوب بن

RS as RS of 496.

V 2069: 3rd and 4th OS misread. P7: 4th OS misread. Weyl:G 1226: description incomplete.

With heir

abū-'Abd-Allāh Muḥammad ibn-Ya'qūb

A.H. 587–595

A.D. 1191–1199

No gold reported.

abū-'Abd-Allāh Muḥammad ibn-Ya'qūb

A.H. 595–610

A.D. 1199–1213

Dinars 473–480, usually ascribed to this khalīfah, were struck by 'Abd-al-Mu'min with heir Muḥammad.

504. Fās (b OF) – double dinar.

OF as OF of 500.

OS — ابو عبد الله محمد — امير المومنين

— الراشدين — بن الخلفا

RS as RS of 500.

RF as RF of 502.

P 8b (pl. I): mint obscure in plate. Mateu I p. 483 (pl. XXXVI, no. 8): given as 508 (disproved by plate), mint obscure in plate.

505. Fās (b RF) – double dinar.

As 504.

B 1124 (pl. XVI), 1125 (2 sp.): description incomplete, plate partly illegible, including mint.

506. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 504.

HSA 13181. V 2073 (AV). P 8a. BN II 732: ابن الخليفة for ين الخلفا in 3rd OS (engraving error), 2nd RS largely illegible. KM II 696. Sotheby 388: mintless, not described. Rivero:A p. 24, no. 11 (pl. IX). B 1126–1146 (21 sp.). González p. 106 (fig. 29).

abū-Ya'qūb Yūsuf II ibn-Muḥammad

A.H. 610–620

A.D. 1213–1224

507. Fās (b OF) – double dinar. Plate II

OF as OF of 500 and 504.

OS — ابو يعقوب — امير الومنين

— الراشدين — يوسف بن الخلفا

RS — يعقوب بن الخليفتين — امير المومنين ابو يوسف

— محمد بن اصرا المومنين — امير المومنين ابو عبد الله

RF as RF of 502 and 504.

V 2075: ابو omitted from 3rd RS (corrected by Prieto), امير for امرا in 4th RS (error). P 10b: امير for امرا in 4th RS (error). BN II 733 (pl. VI): ابو omitted from 3rd RS, امير for امرا in 4th RS (both corrected from plate).

508. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 507.

P 10a (pl. II): امير for امرا in 4th RS (disproved by plate). Sallet p. 147 (fig. 2). KM II 698: امير for امرا (error).

509. (no mint) – dinar.

OF as OF of 473 and 493.

OS — ابو يعقوب — امير المومنين

— الراشدين — بن الخلفا

RS as RS of 493.

RF as RF of 473 and 493.

P 11. BM V 97, 98 (pl. II) (2 sp.): ascribed to Yūsuf I. L: Muwaḥḥids p. 156, no. 1, p. 157, no. 2 (2 sp.): ascribed to Yūsuf I. L: Khedivial p. 329: ascribed to Yūsuf I. Rodgers 7982.

abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-al-Wāḥid I ibn-Yūsuf I

A.H. 620–621

A.D. 1224–1224

(opposed during 621 by 'Abd-Allāh).

No coins reported

abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-Allāh ibn-Ya'qūb

A.H. 621–624

A.D. 1224–1227

(opposed during 621 by 'Abd-al-Wāḥid I and during 624 by Yaḥyâ).

510. Marrākush – dinar.

Not described.

S:White 2187. Coins ascribed to this ruler by Spink were presumably struck by 'Abd-al-Mu'min with heir Muḥammad: 473, 477, 478.

abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-Allāh ibn-Muḥammad

rebel at Baeza (Bayyāsah)

A.H. 621–626

A.D. 1224–1229

No coins reported.

abū'l-'Ulâ Idrīs I ibn-Ya'qūb

A.H. 624–629

A.D. 1227–1232

(opposed 624–629 by Yaḥyâ).

First series: before suppression of al-Mahdī's name

A.H. 624–627

A.D. 1227–1230

511. (no mint) – double dinar. Plate II

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

صلى الله على محمد واله

والحمد لله وحده

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

المهدى امام الامة

RF القائم بامر الله الخليفة

ابو محمد عبد المومن بن علي

امير المومنين ابو يعقوب

يوسف بن امير المومنين

امير المومنين ابو يوسف

يعقوب بن الخليفتين

OS — امير المومنين ابو العلى — المجاهد المامون

— بن الخليفتين اميري المومنين — ادريس بن المنصور المير المومنين

RS — محمد بن امرا المومنين — امير المومنين ابوعبد الله

— يوسف بن الخلفا الراشدين — امير المومنين ابو يعقوب

V 2076 (AV): امير for اميري in 4th OS (corrected by Prieto), امير for امرا in 2nd RS (error). P 13 (pl. II): امير for امرا (disproved by plate). BM V 106 (pl. II): امير for امرا (disproved by plate), الجاهد for المجاهد in 1st OS (error). B 1151 (pl. XVI): description incomplete, plate partly illegible.

Second series: after suppression of al-Mahdī's name

A.H. 627–629

A.D. 1230–1232

No coins reported.

abū-Zakarīyā' Yaḥyâ ibn-Muḥammad

A.H. 624–633

A.D. 1227–1236

(opposed during 624 by 'Abd-Allāh, 624–629 by Idrīs I, and 630–633 by 'Abd-al-Wāḥid II).

512. (no mint) – double dinar.

OF as OF of 500.

RF القائم بامر الله الخليفة ابو محمد

عبد المومن بن علي امير المومنين

امير المومنين ابو يعقوب يوسف

ابن الخليفة امير المومنين ابو يوسف

يعقوب بن الخليفتين

OS — ابو زكريا — امير المومنين

— الراشدين — يحيى ابن الخلفا

RS — محمد بن الخلفا — امير المومنين ابو عبد الله

— يوسف بن الخلفا — امير المومنين ابو يعقوب

P 12 (pl. II). Sawaszkiewicz p. 205: ruler only, may be this coin.

abū-Mūsâ 'Imrān ibn-Ya'qūb

rebel amīr at Sabtah

A.H. 629–630

A.D. 1232–1232

No gold reported.

abū-Muḥammad 'Abd-al-Wāḥid II ibn-Idrīs I

A.H. 630–640

A.D. 1232–1242

(opposed 630–633 by Yaḥyâ).

First series: before restoration of al-Mahdī's name

A.H. 630–631

A.D. 1232–1234

513. (no mint) – double dinar. Plate II

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

صلى الله على محمد واله

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

القران حجة الله

RF الفام بامر الله الخليفة

ابو محمد عبد المومن بن علي

امير المومنين ابو يعقوب

امير المومنين ابويوسف

ابن الخلفا الراشدين

OS — ابو محمد عبد الواحد — امير المومنين الرشيد

— ابي العلى بن امير المومنين المنصور — بن امير المومنين المامون

RS — امير المومنين — المجاهد في سبيل الله

— ابن الخلفا الراشدين — المامون ابو العلى

P 14. Figanier 158 (pl.): حجا for حجة in last line of OF.

Second series: after restoration of al-Mahdī's name

A.H. 631–640

A.D. 1234–1242

514. Azammūr (b OF) – double dinar.

As 513 except last line of OF: الممهدى امام الامة.

B 1152: mint in 4th RS (error?), 1153 (2 sp.): description inaccurate.

515. Sabtah (b OF) – double dinar struck after A.H. 635.

As 514.

P 15b. B 1154: description inaccurate.

516. (mint?) – double dinar. Plate II

As 514.

P 15c (pl. II): mint given as Mālaqah (error), plate shows image.

517. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 514.

V 2077 (Canovas). P 15a. BM V 107 (pl. II): اجاهد for المجاهد in 1st RS (error). BN II 734: المنصور omitted from 4th OS. Weyl:G 1227: description incomplete. B 1155 (pl. XVI): description inaccurate, plate largely illegible.

abū'l-Ḥasan 'Alī ibn-Idrīs I

A.H. 640–646

A.D. 1242–1248

518. Sabtah (location on coin not indicated) – double dinar struck, if mint is correctly identified, in A.H. 640 before revolt.

OF as OF 514.

RF القائم بامر الله الخليفة ابو محمد

عبد المومن بن علي امير المومنين

ابو يعقوب امير المومنين ابو يوسف

امير المومنين المجاهد في

سبيل الله المامون

OS — المعتضد بالله ابو الحسن — امير المومنين الاسعد

— ابن الخلفا الراشيد — ابن امير المومنين المامون

RS — امير المومنين الرشيد — ابو العلى بن الخلفا الراشدين

— ابن امير المومنين المامون — ابو محمد عبد الواحد

B 1157.

519. (no mint) – double dinar. Plate II

As 518.

V 2078: several errors. P 16 (pl. II). MA 672: several errors. Ø 2108: many errors, ascribed to 'Abd-al-Mu'min. B 1156 (pl. XVII): plate partly illegible.

520. (no mint) – double dinar.

OF as OF of 500.

امير المومنين المامون

OS المعتضد بالله — امير المومنين الاسعد

— ابن امير المومنين — ابو الحسن بن امير المومنين

RS ابن امير المومنين — امير المومنين الرشيد

— ابن الخلفا الراشدين — المامون ابي العلى

P 17:ابو for ابي in 3rd RS (error?).

RF as RF of 513 except last line:

521. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 520 but with بن علي shifted to the start of 3rd line of RF.

P 17 note: ابو for ابي in 3rd RS (error?).

abū-Ḥafṣ 'Umar ibn-Iṣhāq

A.H. 646–665

A.D. 1248–1266

(opposed during 665 by Idrīs II).

522. Sabtah – double dinar struck after A.H. 647.

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

صلى الله على محمد

والحمد لله وحده

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

(mint)

RF المهدى امام الامة

القائم بامر الله

الخليفة الامام

ابو محمد عبد المومن

ابن علي امير المومنين

OS — الله ابو حفص بن الامير — امير المومنين المرتضى لامر

— ابن الخلفتين — الطاهر ابي ابرهيم

RS — ابو يعقوب — امير المومنين

— ابن الخليفة — يوسف

ANS. BM V 113.

523. Sabtah – double dinar struck after A.H. 647.

As 522 plus واله at end of 2nd line of OF.

P 18b: الحمد for والحمد in 3rd line of OF (error?).

524. Sabtah – double dinar struck after A.H. 647.

As 523 except OS:

— بالله المرتضى ابو حفص — امير المومنين المومن

— ابراهيم بن الخليفتين —ابن الامير الطاهر ابي

P 19c: several slight differences (errors?). BM V 112. B 1174–1184 (11 sp.): some of these specimens may have mint Madīnat Sabtah. Seco p. 469.

525. Madīnat Sabtah – double dinar struck after A.H. 647.

As 524.

V 2081 (AV): several slight differences (errors?). P 19b: several slight differences (errors?). BM V 108–111 (pl. 11: 108) (4 sp.). BN II 735. MA 674 (3 sp.). D: García 6135 (pl. XVI, no. 5, not pl. XV): ب before mint (disproved by plate). L: Muwaḥḥids p. 162, no. 1 (pl. VI), p. 163, no. 2–3 (3 sp.). L: Khedivial p. 329. B 1165, 1173 (pl. XVII both) (2 sp.). Mateu I p. 483 (pl. XXXVI, no. 9): given As 531 (disproved by plate).

526. Sabtah – dinar struck after A.H. 647.

OF as OF of 473.

OS — ابو حفص بن — امير المومنين

— ابي ابرهيم — الامير الطاهر

RS — يعقوب يوسف — امير المومنين ابو

— امير المومنين — ابن الخليفة

RF as RF of 473.

P 20c. BM X p. 9, no. 117d.

527. Madīnat Sabtah – dinar struck after A.H. 647.

As 526.

V 2084 (AV): ابن for ابي in 4th OS (error). P 20b (pl. III). B 1185–1188 (pl. XVII: 1185) (4 sp.). González p. 109 (fig. 31).

528. Sijilmāsah – double dinar.

As 524.

V 2082 (AV): several slight differences (errors?). P 19d: several slight differences (errors?). BM V 114. MA 675 (2 sp.). Rivero:M 136 (pl. III): misread slightly. B 1159–1164 (pl. XVII: 1159) (6 sp.).

529. Sijilmāsah – dinar.

As 526.

B 1166–1172 (pl. XVII: 1166) (7 sp.): description inaccurate.

530. (mint?) – double dinar. Plate II

As 524.

P 19e (pl. III): mint given as Mālaqah (error), plate shows الحمد؛ سعله for والحمد in 3rd line of OF (disproved by plate).

531. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 523.

V 2079 (AV): الحمد for والحمد in 3rd line of OF (error). P 18a (pl. II): الحمد for والحمد (disproved by plate). BM V 116.

532. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 523 but with OS divided differently:

— لامر الله ابو حفص بن — امير المومنين المرتضى

— ابرهيم ابن الخليفتين — الامير الطاهر ابي

V 2079 note: الحمد for والحمد in 3rd line of OF (error?). P 18 note: الحمد for والحمد (error?). BM V 117.

533. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 524.

V 2080 (AH, PG, AV 3 sp.): several slight differences (errors?). P 19a: several slight differences (errors?). BM V 115. BN II 736, 737 (2 sp.). MA 673 (II sp.). KM II 699:بو حف for ابو حفص in 2nd OS (engraving error). Tychsen, O.: Introductionis p. 49. Condé p. 285 (pl. IV, no. 1). Sacy p. 537. Soret:F 134 note. D: García 6136. D: Lorichs 4723. L: Muwaḥḥids p. 163, no. 4, 5 (2 sp.). C:Trutado p. 224, no. 4 (pl. XXII). Markov:E p. 93, no. 3: mintless, not described. Sotheby 390: mintless, not described. S: Karabaczek 921 (pl. II). S: Gotha 989. Ø 2114: engraving errors, 2115 (2 sp.). B 1189–1209 (21 sp.). Figanier 279 (pl.): OS slightly misread. Mateu I p. 483 (pl. XXXVI, no. 10). Seco p. 468 (pl. XXIII) (4 sp.).

534. (no mint) – dinar.

As 526.

V 2083 (PG, AV): ابن for ابي in 4th OS (error). P 20a. BM X p. 9, no. 117e, 117f (2 sp.). B 1210–1219 (coin illustrated under no. 1219 in pl. XVII is 536) (10 sp.). Thorburn.

535. (no mint) – dinar.

As 526 except RS:

— ابو يعقوب — امير المومنين

— امير المومنين — يوسف بن

HSA 13187. P 20 note. MA 676: الطاهرين for الطاهر in 3rd OS (error).

536. (no mint) – half dinar.

As 503 except OS:

— ابو حفص — امير المومنين

— ابي ابرهيم — بن الامير

V 2085 (PG, AV). P 21 (pl. III). BM X p. 8, no. 103k (pl. XXI): ascribed to Ya'qūb, apparently this coin with 2nd and 4th OS misread. BN II 738 (pl. VI): ابو omitted from 2nd RS (error). MA 677: OS misread. KM II 700 (pl. IV).D: García 6137–6139 (3 sp.). S: Gotha 990. B 1220, 1221 (pl. XVII, under no. 1219, 1220, 1221) (3 sp.): description incomplete, plate partly illegible.

See also medal of this ruler M1.

abū'l-'Ulâ Idrīs II ibn-Muḥammad

A.H. 665–668

A.D. 1266–1269

(opposed during 665 by 'Umar).

537. (no mint) – double dinar.

OF as OF of 523.

OS — بالله ابو العلى ابن — امير المومنين الواثق

— سيد ابي حفص بن الخليفة — سيد ابي عبد الله ابن

RS as RS of 522.

RF as RF of 522.

V 2086. BM V 118, 119 (2 sp.). L: Muwaḥḥids p. 164. no. 1 (pl. VI).

538. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 537 but with سيدنا for سيد in 3rd and 4th. OS.

V 2080 note. P 22. BM V 120 (pl. II). Sotheby 390. not described. B 1222–1225 (pl. XVII. under no. 1226 bis) (4 sp.): description incomplete. Thorburn.

539. (no mint) – half dinar.

As 503 and 536 except OS:

— الواثق — امير المومنين

— ابو العلى — المعتمد

V 2087 (PG). P 23 (pl. III). MA 678 (2 sp.). D: García 6140–6142 (3 sp.): 4th RS misread. Rivero:M 137 (pl. III). B 1226–1228 (pl. XVII: 1226) (3 sp.).

No coins are known to have been struck by the several Muwaḥḥid pretendess who arose in North Africa for decades after the downfall of the dynasty in A.H. 668 (A.D. 1269).

Hūdid Gold

struck in North Africa by the Banū-Hūd of Murcia (Mursiyah) (or by their contemporaries) in Naskhī script.

abū-'Abd-Allāh Muḥammad I ibn-Yūsuf

A.H. 625–635

A.D. 1228–1238

Anonymous gold (Muwaḥḥid style) probably struck in A.H. 630, when this ruler controlled Sabtah for three months, in the name of the 'Abbāsid khalīfah, who was not individually identified:

al-Mustanṣir-bi-Allāh, abū-Ja'far al-Manṣūr ibn-Muḥammad

A.H. 623–640

A.D. 1226–1242

540. (no mint) – double dinar. Plate III

OF بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

صلى الله على محمد واله

لا اله الا الله

محمد رسول الله

RF القائم بامر الله

الخليفة الامام

العباسي امير المومنين

ابن الخلفا الرشدين

OS — الامام —الخليفة

— امير المومنين —العباسي

RS — اله واحد —والهكم

— الرحمن الرحيم —لا اله الا هو

P 63 (pl. VII). Weyl:G 1212 and S: Katabaczek 926: described as double dinars with legends in four lines, may be specimens of this coin.

Anonymous gold (Ḥafṣid style) probably struck at Sabtah between A.H. 647 and 656 by the independent amīr abu'l-Qāsim Ibrāhīm ibn-abī'l-'Abbās, al-'Azafī, in the name of the last 'Abbāsid khalīfah, who was not individually identified:

al-Musta'ṣim-bi-Allāh, abū-Aḥmad 'Abd-Allāh ibn-al-Manṣūr

A.H. 640–656

A.D. 1242–1258

541. (no mint) – double dinar. Plate III

OF الواحد الله

محمد رسول الله

العباسي امام الامة

RF الشكر لله

والمنة لله

والحول والقوة لله

OS — صلى الله على محمد — بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

— تسليما — وعلى اله سلم

RS — امير المومنين — الخليفة

— ايدهم الله — ابن امير المومنين

P 62 (pl. VII): بالله for لله in 3rd line of RF, ايده for ايدهم in 4th RS (errors, corrected by Fasmer). D: García 6134 (pl. XVI, no 4): ascribed to Muwaḥḥid Idrīs I.

Ḥafṣid Gold

struck in North Africa and Spain by the Maṣmūdah Berber rulers of Tunisia and eastern Algeria, the Banū-Ḥafṣ in Naskhī or ornamented Kūfī script.

abū-Zakarīyā' Yaḥyâ I ibn-'Abd-al-Wādḥid

A.H. 627–647

A.D. 1230–1249

First series: with Muwaḥḥid name

A.H. 627–634

A.D. 1230–1236

542. Madīnat (a OF)? (b OF) – double dinar

OF الواحد الله

محمد رسول الله

المهدى خليفة الله

RF ابو محمد عبد المومن

بن على امير المومنين

الحمد لله رب العالمين

OS — صلى الله على محمد — بسم الله الرحمن الحيم

— لا اله الا هوت الرحمن الرحيم — والهكم اله واحد

RS — وما بكو من نعمة فمن الله — وما من اله الله

— وافوض امرى الى الله — وما تويفي الا بالله

B 1007 (pl. XVI): mint obscure in plate, read as Madīnat Fās (error?), ascribed to the Muwaḥḥid 'Abd-al-Mu'min.

543. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 542.

Prieto no. o (p. 112). KM II 685. B 1008 (coin illustrated under no. 1008 in pl. XVI is 454).

All ascribed to 'Abd-al-Mu'min.

544. (no mint) – half dinar with diameter of dinar. Attribution tentative.

OF لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

RF المهدى

خليفة

الله

OS — [?] — [بسم الله الرحمن [الرحيم

— [?] — [?]

RS — [?] — [بسم الله الرحمن [الرحيم

— [?] — [?]

BN II 1032, 1033 (2 sp.): segments largely illegible.

Second series: with both Muwaḥḥid and Ḥafṣid names

A.H. 634–640

A.D. 1236–1242

545. (no mint) – double dinar.

OF as OF of 542.

OS as OS of 542 except 2nd: — صلى الله على سيدنا محمد.

RS — ابو زكريا يحيى —الامير الاجل

— بن ابي حفص — بن ابي محمد

RF as RF of 542.

P 29. BN II 935: الله for هو in last OS (error).

546. (no mint) – dinar. Plate III

OF لا اله الا

الله محمد

رسول الله

RF المهدى امام

الامة القائم

بامر الله

OS — صلى الله على محمد — بسم الله الرحمن الحيم

— بن علي امير المومنين — ابو محمد عبد المومن

RS as RS of 545.

P 30 (pl. IV). BM V 159. B 1229 (pl. XVIII), 1230 (pl. XVIII: o only) (2 sp.): description incomplete, plates largely illegible.

Third series: with Ḥafṣid name only

A.H. 640–647

A.D. 1242–1249

547. Bijāyah (b OF) – double dinar.

As 545 except RF: الشكر لله

والمنة لله

والحول والقوة بالله

P 31b (pl. IV). B 1233 (pl. XVIII): mint b RF (disproved by plate).

548. Tilimsān (b OF) – double dinar struck probably in A.H. 640.

As 547.

P 31c (coin illustrated under no. 31c in pl. IV is 556). D:García 6641. Rivero:M 142 (pl. III): description inaccurate.

549. Jazā'ir (b OF) – double dinar.

As 547.

Soret:F 138: اله for لله in 1st and 2nd lines of RF (error), mint read as حرالد (?).

550. (no mint) – double dinar.

As 547.

P 31a. BN II 936 (pl. IX), 937 (2 sp.): الله for هو in 4th OS (disproved by plate). B 1231: description incomplete.

551. (no mint) – dinar.

As 546 except 3rd and 4th OS:

— وسلم اسليما — وعلى اله

ANS. P 32. BM V 158 (pl. III). BN II 938. KM II 857 (pl. V), 858 (2 sp.). Lavoix:H p. 260 (pl. CXCI, no. 1): termed quarter dinar. Chalon p. 389 (fig.): termed quarter dinar. Weyl:G 1228. S:White 2193. S: Karabaczek 867. Ziya 1764 (pl. II). S: Gotha 991. Ø 2116: incorrectly reported. F:Hafsites 1 (pl. I). B 1235 (pl. XVIII).

552. (no mint) – half dinar.

OF as OF of 544.

OS as RS of 545.

RS — وما بكم — امنت بالله

— فمن الله — من نعمة

RF as RF of 544.

P 33 (pl. IV). BN II 939 (pl. IX), 940 (2 sp.). KM II 859. Weyl:F 6498: wrong reference. Dorn II p. 65, no. 1. Spink (1933) 22477. F:Hafsites 1 note. B 1236 (pl. XVIII, o only; R belongs to an unidentified coin, illegible), 1237 (pl. XVIII): diameter of dinar (2 sp.).

— There is historical testimony that in A.H. 673 this ruler struck a few gold coins for gifts to courtiers in denominations of 2/5 and 1/5 of a dinar.

Ḥafṣid partisans in Morocco.

553. Sabtah (b OF) – double dinar struck between A.H. 643 and 647 by abū-'Alī ibn-Khalāṣ or his successor abū-Yaḥyâ ibn-Zakarīyā', called Ibn-al-Shahīd.

As 547.

P 31d. B 1234 (pl. XVIII): mint b RF (error), illegible in plate.