- Author
- Morrison, Karl F. (Karl Frederick), 1936-, Grunthal, Henry Grunthal, Henry (1905-2001).
- Series
- Numismatic Notes and Monographs
- Publisher
- American Numismatic Society
- Place
- New York
- Date
- 1967
- Source
- Donum
- Source
- Worldcat
- Source
- Worldcat Works
- Source
- HathiTrust

Coins are historical documents; and they may reveal much about the economic and political conditions of the government which struck them. Fluctuations in the weight of monetary issues, variations in their metallic composition, and changes in inscriptions and types may substantiate what is known from literary and epigraphical sources concerning governmental commercial affairs, or they may suggest conditions not known from other evidence. The value of coins to the historian, however, is directly proportionate to the exactitude with which they can be dated; upon this depends their correlation with other evidence and their proper ordering as an independent body of evidence.

The dating of numismatic remains from the Carolingian period is difficult when it is not frankly conjectural. With the rarest exceptions, none of the Carolingian series can be dated to the year, and few can be dated even to the decade. One series—the issue which bears the legend GRATIA D–I REX circumscriptional about a monogram of the name Carolus, can be ascribed only to the sixty-year period between its institution by Charles the Bald (864) and the deposition of Charles the Simple (923). Another, the series struck in the name of Louis the Pious with the reverse type of a temple and the legend XPISTIANA RELIGIO, was inaugurated by Louis the Pious, and continued to be struck in Carolingian lands for eighty years after his death. The coin finds which prove this continuity also indicate that the latest pieces tend to be far more degenerate in style and lighter in weight than the earliest, but there is no evidence which distinguishes the pieces struck in the thirty to forty years just after Louis' death from those struck in his lifetime.

The usual methods for establishing numismatic chronology have only partial success when applied to Carolingian issues. Inscriptions are of little help, since the issues do not bear precise dates (as do the contemporaneous Islamic series), and since the titles ascribed to the issuing rulers did not vary except on the imperial accession of the particular ruler. Even then, the change from royal to imperial titles confuses rather than clarifies: it is impossible to separate the imperial issues of Charles the Bald from those of Charles the Fat. Further, coin finds, and consequently, the coins which they contain, cannot be dated precisely; first, because they cannot be placed in a particular historical context, as the circumstances which led to their being deposited can never be known, and, secondly, because they lack associated material in the deposits which would date them. Within these limitations, coin finds do prove the synchronism of some issues in circulation, but they do not indicate whether the coins representing those issues had entered circulation at the same time or on widely separated occasions. The fact that kings sometimes struck several types simultaneously clouds the question still further. Likewise, the interpretation of symbolic types does not afford an exact chronology, since the few iconographical types used in Carolingian issues are so general in meaning as to defy ascription to any specific event. Finally, because more exact dating is impossible on other grounds, metrological evidence can be applied only to the whole span of the reign of any given ruler; the evidence does not warrant attributing various issues to particular years within any reign on metrological arguments. The only exceptions to this rule are the issues of Charlemagne and of Charles the Bald, both of whom instituted monetary reforms so thorough that the coinage of each is divided into two discrete series, clearly distinguished by style.

The only evidence sufficient to date Carolingian issues, therefore, is not the internal evidence of the coins, but the external proof of documents and political history. Even this evidence is so fragmentary and, in some cases, ambiguous as to prevent exact attributions and dating. Numismatists have tended to assume, for example, that a ruler struck coins in his own name only after the death of his predecessor.1 And yet, some issues of Pippin, Carloman, and Charlemagne have the same reverse types (cat. nos. 42, 83, 228; 24, 87, 164); and some issues of Louis the Pious are of the primitive type which Charlemagne abolished about 790.2 Lothaire I seems to have struck a gold issue in 825, fifteen years before his father's death; and he is known to have struck silver denarii in Tours and in Bordeaux, cities which he governed while Co-Emperor with his father, but never after 840.3 The exact similarity of other issues of Lothaire to those of Louis the Pious in respect to titles, epigraphical style, and general design also indicate that Lothaire's mintage began very considerably before he became sole Emperor.4 The supposition, therefore, is that a ruler began to strike coins in his own name immediately upon his proclamation as king or emperor, and that Charlemagne and Carloman began minting in 755, that Louis the Pious began his royal issue in 781 and his imperial coinage in 813, that Lothaire I began his imperial series in 817, that Pippin I's first issue was in the same year, and that Charles the Bald's was in 829, when he was declared King of Alamannia, or in 839, when he was advanced as King of Aquitaine. Charles could not have minted in Lorraine until he succeeded Lothaire II as King of Lorraine in 869. Among the East Franks, Louis the German may have struck from his proclamation as King in 817, and his sons, Louis of Saxony, Carloman, and Charles the Fat, from their accession in 861. Likewise, Louis II probably began his series in 844, when he became King of the Lombards, and Louis the Stammerer may have begun his in 866, when he became King of Aquitaine.5 Pippin II and Lothaire II succeeded only at their fathers' deaths in 838 and 855, respectively.

The complexity of these circumstances thwarts virtually any effort to date coin finds or coins within a reasonable period. A deposit containing coins issued by Lothaire I and by Charles the Bald, for example, need not have been buried between 840, when Lothaire became sole ruler and Charles entered into the West Frankish kingdom on the death of Louis the Pious, and 855, when Lothaire abdicated and died. Rather, the date of deposit could be pushed back eleven years, to the time of Charles's first proclamation as King. Likewise, a find containing coins of Louis the Pious and Lothaire I could have been made at any time in the thirty-eight years between 817 when Lothaire was proclaimed Co-Emperor, and 855, instead of in the fifteen years between 840 and 855. In some instances, therefore, the tolerance of dating suggested by the dates of royal accessions and of the deaths of rulers is widened so far as to be useless in any effort to establish an exact numismatic chronology.

Official documents provide more exact dates for some critical events in Carolingian monetary history. Decrees of the Synod of Frankfurt (794) and a letter of Alcuin written two years later refer to Charlemagne's "new mintage," and thus set the date of his monetary reform a short time before 794.6 Consequently, the primitive types which bear the inscription CARo/LVS in two lines on the obverse and various crude linear aiid circumscriptional inscriptions on the reverse can be dated before ca. 790, and the more refined types which present the name and title of the King circumscriptional about a cross or monogram of the king's name on the obverse, and the name of the mint city circumscriptional about either of the same symbols on the reverse, can be dated later. Two decrees of Louis the Pious certify that he instituted a monetary reform accompanied by demonetization in 819/820,7 and the increase by Louis of the weight standards established by his father was surely a part of this measure. An edict of Lothaire I issued in 832 refers to coinage which Lothaire had newly instituted and implies gradual demonetization in favor of that mintage.8 Unfortunately, the edict does not describe the issue in question. One may hypothesize that Lothaire referred to his only major departure from the predominant types of Louis the Pious, a type which achieved great frequency not only in the issues of Lothaire, but also in the early issues of Charles the Bald and Pippin I or Pippin II of Aquitaine: namely, an obverse type consisting of the name and title of the ruler circumscriptional about a cross, and a reverse type of the name of the mint city circumscriptional about a temple. Since this design is rare in the series of Louis the Pious, and common in those of his sons,9 it must have been instituted late in Louis' reign, and it could well be the type mentioned in Lothaire's edict of 832. Finally, Charles the Bald attempted, by the Edict of Pétres (864), to establish a uniform type for all his coinage. He commanded, "ut in denariis novae nostrae monetae ex una parte nomen nostrum habeatur in gyro et in medio nostri nominis monogramma, ex altera vero parte nomen civitatis et in medio crux habeatur." 10 This edict clearly instituted the series inscribed GRATIA D–I REX which occurs almost invariably circumscriptional about the monogram of Karolus, and not, as Prou maintained, the series with the obverse inscription, CAROLVS REX FR, which occurs circumscriptional about a cross as frequently as it does about a monogram. The apparent ambiguity between the nomen of the Edict and the nomen of the GRATIA D–I REX type is to be explained in terms of ninth-century political thought. For ninth-century authors, the king had two nomina, his own (e.g., "Carolus") and the nomen regis, the royal title, which he shared with Christ.11 It was this combination of nomina which the Edict of Pétres prescribed and the GRATIA D–I REX type executed. Coin finds indicate that the demonetization which Charles ordered in 864 was effective, and that the GRATIA D–I REX type was the usual currency design from its institution until the first years of the tenth century.

There are three other fixed dates in Carolingian history. The earliest is the date of the Ilanz II find (790–796), which contains one coin from Charlemagne's second period and nearly one hundred from his first. The presence of two dirhems, the later of which was struck by Harun al-Rashid in 789/9012 sets the date of deposit; the Carolingian contents of the find, together with the documents we have cited above, prove that Charlemagne's monetary reform occurred in the early 790's. Next, documentary evidence places the striking of gold "medallions," or "solidi," by Louis the Pious and Lothaire I in 825.13 And finally, the date of the Cuerdale deposit (900–903) proves the stylistic prevalence of the GRATIA D–I REX type at the end of the ninth century.14

Documentary and numismatic evidence combined, therefore, yield eight precise dates, in addition to regnal years, toward which a chronology of Carolingian numismatics must be oriented. The historian can set Charlemagne's coinage reform ca. 790,15 and attribute his issues to the first (755–ca. 790) or second (ca. 790–814) period. A few of Charlemagne's coins which bear the imperial title can be assigned more precisely to the period ca. 801–814.16 The historian is likewise aware that Louis the Pious instituted a new series about 819, that his son, Lothaire I, struck simultaneously with him coins of types exactly parallel to his, and that Lothaire I inaugurated a new series, perhaps with the reverse type of a temple and a city name, in 832. Finally, he can divide the mintage of Charles the Bald into two periods, the first, between 829 and 864, when coins bearing various types and inscriptions were issued, and the second, between 864 and 877, when the GRATIA D–I REX type predominated.

But these fixed points in numismatic history do not lead toward further exactitude in dating, and they leave totally unclarified many critical questions of chronology and attribution. To be sure, the issues of Pippin the Short, Carloman, Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, Lothaire I, Lothaire II, Charles the Bald (in his early period), Arnulf, Louis the Child, Odo, and Lothaire IV, and some issues of Charles the Simple can be attributed to those rulers with good assurance of accuracy. There are, however, some very grave difficulties concerning even some of these issues, and there are other issues which cannot be attributed with any certainty as to ruler or year.

Two major factors gave rise to these problems: the continuation and the immobilization of types. The first term implies the use of identical types only by a succession of synonymous rulers, while the second refers to the continual striking of particular types, no matter what the names of the rulers. The continuation of types has produced great difficulty in distinguishing the issues of Louis II from those of Louis III, pieces with the CARLVS REX or CARLVS REX FR type struck by Charles the Bald from coins with the same types struck by Charles the Simple, coins in the name of Charles with the imperial title struck by Charles the Bald from those struck by Charles the Fat, and the GRATIA D–I REX issues of Charles the Bald from those of Charles the Fat and Charles the Simple. On present evidence, the issues of Charles the Fat are, however, purely matters of hypothesis; it is supposed that, as King of the East Franks, King of the West Franks, and Emperor, he must have struck coins. There is no concrete evidence to substantiate or to refute this hypothesis. As we shall indicate below, the evidence of coin finds permits a tentative division of gome of the ambiguous series between Charles the Bald and Charles the Simple; but it does not clarify the question of Charles the Fat's mintage.

The second complicating element, the immobilization of types, hinders any precise classification of the two most numerous Carolingian series. The CARLVS REX FR type of Melle continued to be struck in great quantity for at least one hundred years after Charlemagne instituted it; more than half the Carolingian content in the Cuerdale find (there were ca. 1000 Carolingian pieces in the deposit) were of this one type. But there is nothing to distinguish one issue from another. Likewise, the XPISTIANA RELIGIO series in the name of Louis the Pious, which we have already mentioned, poses the most serious problems of attribution; for although it is the most prolific of the Carolingian series, and although it held an important place in Carolingian monetary history for nearly a century, its various issues cannot, with rare exceptions, be classified according to time or place of mintage. The obverse inscription HLVDOVVICVS IMP, which occurs on pieces struck throughout the ninth century and into the tenth, is meaningless for purposes of attribution. Fortunately, the XPISTIANA RELIGIO series struck in the names of other rulers—Lothaire I, Pippin I/II, Charles the Bald, Lothaire II, Arnulf, and Louis the Child—do not present such great problems of chronology, as they can at least be assigned to the regnal years of the issuing king.

In time, even the conflation of Christiana Religio issues in the name of Louis the Pious may be separated into its components, and the history of the type and its relation to the rest of the Carolingian series made clear. This clarification will most likely be achieved through painstaking study of die-relationships and the establishment of dielinks and epigraphical similarities, especially as they appear in the closed contexts of individual coin finds. Indeed, Dr. van Gelder has already engaged in such a study of the finds unearthed in the Netherlands, and he has been able to show, by stylistic affinities, that the issue was struck in the name of Louis the Pious at Dorestadt at the same time as the prolific Dorestadt temple-types of Lothaire I were being minted.17

For the present, we may summarize what we know about the history of the Christiana Religio series. Charlemagne instituted it after his imperial coronation as the reverse type of an extraordinary series of denarii bearing his portrait on the obverse.18 Other portrait types were struck at the same time—at Dorestadt (cat. 105), Trier (cat. 116), Quentovic (cat. 121a), Rouen (cat. 142), Lyon (cat. 167), Arles (cat. 198), and with the inscription +METALLéGERMAN (cat. 313)—and they too bear the imperial title and iconographical reverse types. On some, the obverse inscriptions are identical with those on Christiana Religio pieces: thus, KAROLVS IMP AVG appears on the series of Dorestadt, Quentovic, Rouen, Lyon, and +METALLéGERMAN as well as on three of the Christiana Religio strikings (cat. 317–319,) and D N KARLVS IMP AVG REX F ET L marks the Arles series and one Christiana Religio issue (cat. 314). D N KAROLVS IMP AVD appears only in the Christiana Religio series (cat. 315, 316). This series alone bears no city name; and only on portrait obverses of Christiana Religio types do cryptic letters appear beneath the portrait bust (cat. 315 = C, cat. 316 = V, cat. 318 = M, and cat. 319 = F). Some scholars have maintained that these letters indicate specific mints—that C denotes Cologne, V, Venice, M, Milan, and F, Florence—but such suggestions do not take into account the possibility that the letters could indicate regnal years, the initial letter of a moneyer's name, or a number of things other than the name of the mint city which in any case should hardly have been designated on the obverse. We do not know where or when these pieces were struck; but their affinities with the other issues we have mentioned indicate that they were part of an unusual imperia lseries, and their differences indicate that Charlemagne intende dfor them to be attributed to no specific mint.

Strangely, Louis the Pious did not retain the Christiana Religio type in his portrait series; the next ruler who linked it with his portrait was Lothaire I, and the evidence of coin finds may indicate that he restored it to the imperial portrait series even in the lifetime of Louis the Pious. Louis retained all the other iconographical reverse types struck under his father. The ship, which Charlemagne struck on his portrait series at Dorestadt, likewise appears on Louis' portrait series at Dorestadt (cat. 330) and at Quentovic (cat. 351) as well; the dies and hammers of +METALLéGERMAN appear on Louis' Melle issue (cat. 396); and the city gate, which Charlemagne issued at Trier, Rouen, Lyon, and Arles, marks Louis' portrait series at Tours (cat. 368), Orleans (cat. 372), Sens (cat. 374, 375), Toulouse (cat. 417, 418), Arles (435-438), Pavia (cat. 445), and Treviso (cat. 452). The temple appears only on one of Louis' portrait issues, and that bears the name of Milan instead of the Christiana Religio inscription. Lothaire I, however, restored the type to his portrait series (cat. 562–69), and, abandoning all other iconographical types, he adopted the temple as the reverse type for most of his other strikings, in most cases surrounding it with the name of the mint city. Though he did not adopt the Christiana Religio type in his portrait series, Louis the Pious did issue the type in great volume, struck to a standard obverse showing a central cross surrounded by his name and the imperial title; Lothaire continued to issue coins of this design in his own name simultaneously with the Christiana Religio portrait series.

By the time of Lothaire I, the Christiana Religio/temple type had lost the special association with the likeness of the emperor which Charlemagne had given it; and, when Louis adopted the temple as his reverse type at Milan and at Dorestadt (cat. 337) and Lothaire I likewise had it struck in most of his known mint cities substituting the name of the city of issue for the original inscription, the entire character of Charlemagne's issue—its coupling with the imperial portrait and its dissociation from particular mints—had vanished. Some Christiana Religio issues of Louis the Pious even lack the temple altogether (cat. 466–468); in them, the last trace of Charlemagne's careful iconographical relationship between the Emperor, the Church (represented by the temple), and the Christiana Religio legend, was destroyed.

The symbolic character of the type had entirely changed in the decade or so after Charlemagne's death, and, for our purposes, two aspects of this change are most important: the de-imperialization of the Christiana Religio reverse, and the adoption of the temple type in normal mint issues. Because the type was adopted by Lothaire's younger brothers, Pippin I of Aquitaine and Charles the Bald, and issued in their royal series and in the series of later kings as well, and because the temple did appear in the issues of known mints, we can have some clear picture of the geographical areas where the temple type appeared, where it was predominant, and finally, by referring to coin finds, when it was most prevalent. The following list summarizes our information on the geographical distribution of the temple type, giving under the name of each ruler the mints known to have issued that type, the reference number in the catalogue, and finds in which the coins occurred.

Louis the Pious

Dorestadt, 337. Ide, Pilligerheck.

Milan, 449, 450. No find.

Lothaire I

Bordeaux, 555. No find.

Cambrai, 543–545. Zelzate, Pilligerheck.

Cologne, 532–534. Groningen.

Dorestadt, 525–530. Numerous finds (see catalogue).

Huy, 541, 542. Emmen, Ballon, Pilligerheck.

Maastricht, 535–540. Wagenbogen, Ide, Pilligerheck.

Metz, 547–549. Wagenbogen, Zelzate, Pilligerheck.

Palace, 516, 517. Wagenbogen, Zelzate, Pilligerheck.

Trier, 546. Emmen, Pilligerheck.

Verdun, 551, 552. Emmen, Groningen, Pilligerheck.

Pippin I/II

Aquitaine, 597. "Frisia," Zelzate, Hon.

599. Wagenbogen, Pilligerheck.

Dax, 614. Kimswerd-Pingjum II, Pilligerheck.

Charles the Bald Auxerre, 1085, 1086. No find.

Bourges, 1167. Chamoux-Marcilly.

Chartres, 932. Midlaren, Etréchy.

Laon, 792. Pilligerheck.

793. Zelzate.

Le Mans, 911. No find.

Meaux, 848. Kimswerd-Pingjum II.

Melle, 1059. No find.

Orléns, 945. Zelzate, Ide, Pilligerheck, Emmen, Chamoux-Marcilly.

Paris, 827. Oudwoude, Zelzate, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen, Loppersum.

Quentovic, 715. Pilligerheck.

Rheims, 813. Neuvi-au-Houlme, Kimswerd-Pingjum I (?), Fontaines, Ballon, Achlum, Zelzate, Ide, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen, Emmen, Marsum.

St. Martin, 919. No find.

920.Zelzate, Pilligerheck.

921.No find.

Sens, 980, 981. Wagenbogen.

982. Wagenbogen, Pilligerheck, Midlaren.

Louis II (Emperor)

Beneventum, 1172–1174. No find.

Lothaire II Aachen, 1184. Midlaren.

Metz, 1186. No find.

Verdun, 1187–1189. Ide, Wagenbogen.

Louis III (?)

Sens, 1261. No find.

Charles the Simple.

"Bledonis," 1425–1427. Haute-Isle.

Trier, 1157. Store Valby,

Arnulf

Mainz, 1532, 1533. No find.

Milan, 1536, (1537), No find.

Pavia, 1538. No find.

Regensburg, 1534. No find.

Louis IV, the Child

Mainz, 1546–1548. Cuerdale.

Trier, 1566. Store Valby.

Wérzburg, 1548. Cuerdale.

Lothaire of France

Bourges, 1672–1677. Chateauneuf-sur-Cher.

Soissons, 1659. No find.

The temple type continued to be struck in Italy, at Pavia and Milan, by Berengar I, Hugh and Lothaire, Berengar II, and Rudolf III; at Lyon, by Rudolf III and Conrad II, who also struck the temple type at Cologne; at Metz and Regensburg by Henry the Fowler; and at Mainz and Trier by Otto I and/or Otto II. Keary has traced the morphology of this type into the later feudal period, and the interested reader is referred to his essay for information about the later history of the type.19

From the list just given, three things relevant to the history of the Christiana Religio type may be deduced. First, the fact that, except in a few instances, successive rulers did not continue striking the temple type in their mint cities, indicates that the type was simply not standard long enough to experience continuity of that sort. It is true that both Louis the Pious and Arnulf issued it at Milan; Lothaire I, Charles the Simple, and Louis the Child, at Trier; Louis the Pious and Lothaire I at Dorestadt; Arnulf and Louis the Child at Mainz; Lothaire I and Lothaire II at Verdun; Charles the Bald and (perhaps) Louis III at Sens; Charles the Bald and Lothaire of France at Bourges; and probably Pippin I and Pippin II at "Aquitaniorum." But there is wide discontinuity in some of these sequences, and none of them is long enough to give evidence of typological continuity. The type seems to have enjoyed a brief vogue.

The second observation is that the vogue reached its height in the time of Lothaire I and Charles the Bald, that is, ca. 840–855, and that it was most pronounced in the Rhine Valley and in adjacent regions of France. Some mints in the south of France (Dax, Bourges, Auxerre) and some in the west ("Aquitaniorum," Melle, Le Mans, Orléans, Chartres, Paris, St. Martin of Tours, Bordeaux) did issue the temple type, but the greater number of mints issuing it lay in the area bounded by the Rhine and by an imaginary line drawn from Mainz to Rheims and thence to Quentovic.

The importance of these two observations for our understanding of the Christiana Religio series is underscored by the third: namely, that the period in which the temple type enjoyed its greatest vogue in these cities is the same period in which, on the evidence of coin deposits, the Christiana Religio series achieved its greatest volume of production. The two series alike tend to be absent from deposits laid down in the 830's, such as "Frisia," Cosne, and Auzeville, but they become predominant in deposits of the period 840–864, such as Ide, Pilligerheck, and Wagenbogen. Finds buried after 864, such as Courbanton II, Courbanton III, Glizy, and Cuerdale characteristically lack Christiana Religio types entirely, and contain very few, if any, coins of the temple type with a city's name.

The evidence of coin finds, therefore, shows that the history of the Christiana Religio type is in some measure also the history of the other temple type issues; once the Christiana Religio type had been de-imperialized, and the temple type had entered the normal series, (perhaps, as we have suggested above, in 832), the Christiana Religio and the normal types flourished together, in the same areas and at the same time, and together they lost their predominant position about the time of Charles the Bald's monetary reform of 864.

Under these circumstances, one could well expect to find stylistic and epigraphical similarities between coins of the series of identifiable mints and those of the Christiana Religio series, and thus identify some, and perhaps many, Christiana Religio mint cities. Indeed, most of the progress made toward identifying them has been made by this comparative method. In this way, Dr. van Gelder has shown that some temples in the Christiana Religio series are stylistically identical with temples in the Dorestadt series of Lothaire I; and we may add that the highly distinctive style of the temple with an elongated cross, and the epigraphy of the inscription XAURELIANIS, which Charles the Bald struck at Orléans (cat. 945), corresponds so closely with the style of some Christiana Religio denarii that Orléans too can unhesitatingly be identified. In another essay, we have examined still another means of identification, the mules and hybrids of the Carolingian series, which add to the list of Christiana Religio mint cities Laon and Béziers, and, from a later period, Constance.20 A final point of comparison is the appearance of distinctive markings on a relatively small number of Christiana Religio issues of Louis the Pious (cat. 480–505). Some of these correspond with markings on the coins of Lothaire I and of Charles the Bald; one dot beneath the temple (Louis, cat. 483 = Lothaire, cat. 586 = Charles, cat. 1164), a chevron beneath the temple (Louis, cat. 482 = Charles, cat. 1165), three dots, triangularly arranged beneath the temple (Louis, cat. 496 = Charles, cat. 1166), three dots horizontally arranged beneath the temple (Louis, cat. 494, 495 = Lothaire, cat. 592), and three dots, triangularly arranged beneath the temple with one dot at each side of the temple (Louis, cat. 498 = Charles, cat. 1167). In themselves, these correlations are merely interesting evidence that Louis's sons used his types (and perhaps his dies). But we are able to suggest on the basis of the same markings on other temple type issues that two of these markings indicate known mints: three dots horizontally arranged beneath the temple occur on the Huy issues of Lothaire I (cat. 541,542), and (as Prou has already observed), three dots horizontally arranged beneath the temple, with one dot at each side of the temple, occur on a Quentovic issue of Charles the Bald (cat. 715). Aside from these markings, which occur on the Christiana Religio series both of Louis the Pious and of his sons, there are other markings in Louis's Christiana Religio series paralleled in other series of his sons which may indicate the mint of Louis's issues: for example, the cross beneath the temple (cat. 474) is paralleled by the cross beneath the temple in issues of Charles the Bald at Laon (cat. 792) and at Meaux (cat. 848).

These remarks have been intended to summarize our present knowledge about the Christiana Religio series, and to suggest some lines of enquiry which future investigations may follow. If we can, with some certainty, identify Dorestadt, Orléans, Huy, Quentovic, Béziers and, perhaps, Laon and Meaux as cities where the Christiana Religio coins were struck, we have gone a little beyond our predecessors in this arduous work, and we can take hope that the complexities of this critical series will ultimately be explained.

For the present, the discussion above merely illustrates the problems of attribution which encumber the study of Carolingian numismatics. And we may for the present conclude that the difficulties of attribution produced by the continuation and immobilization of types are beyond clarification by the historical evidence reviewed above. Such precision as is possible must come from purely numismatic evidence—from coin finds, and from the coins themselves.

1 | E.g., A. Engel and R. Serrure, Traité de numismatique du moyen ége, I (Paris, 1891); A. Suhle, Die deutschen Ménzen des Mittelalters, 2nd. ed. (Berlin, 1955); H. Volckers, "Die Christiana Religio-Geprége, Ein Beitrag zur Karolingerforschung," Hamburger Beitrége zur Numismatik VI/VII (1952/3), p. 32 and passim.Gariel and Prou both refer to the primitive issue of Louis the Pious which was synchronous with Charlemagne's first series, but they do not observe that other rulers likewise struck coins as kings during the lifetime of their fathers. E. Gariel, Les monnaies royales de France sous la race carolingienne, II (Strassburg, 1884), pl. XIV, 1; M. Prou, Les monnaies carolingiennes (Paris, 1896), pp. x, xiif. |

2 | Catalogue, Louis the Pious, nos. 459, 460, 461. |

3 | Catalogue, Lothaire I, nos. 553, 555. |

4 | Compare, especially, the linear reverses which he struck in the "Palace," Dorestadt, Cologne, Metz, Tours, Pavia, Milan, Treviso, and Venice. Lothaire's XPRISTIANA RELIGIO series and the gold medallion which he struck jointly with Louis the Pious's MVNVS DIVINVM "medallion" also show a very great stylistic affinity to the coins of his father. |

5 | The coins issued in Aquitaine with the obverse inscription +CAROLVS REX EQ probably belong to Charles the Child, who preceded Louis as King of Aquitaine. They are clearly mid-ninth century in fabric and design. Furthermore, the legend is known only in this series; it does not occur in the attributable series of Charles the Bald. |

6 | The evidence is reviewed in P. Grierson, "La trouvaille monétaire d'Ilanz," Schweizer Ménzblétter, IV (1953), pp. 46–48; "Chronologia delle riforme monetarie di Carlo Magno," RIN 1954, pp. 1–15; and with revised conclusions, in "Money and Coinage under Charlegmagne," Karl der Grosse: Persédnlichkeit und Geschichte, I (Désseldorf, 1965), pp. 506 ff. Grierson's earlier view, which we have adopted, opposes the position advanced by R. Gaettens, who argues that the reform occurred about 774. His argument rests upon his new dating of the Edict of Mantua to 774, and upon the supposition that Charlemagne's demonetization order in that decree was a part of his reform. Though problematical, the dating of the Edict of Mantua can be set definitely as about 787 (F. L. Ganshof, Recherches sur les capitulaires [Paris, 1958], p. 114), and the evidence of official documents and coin finds alike indicates the later date for the reform. In a still-unpublished essay, Maureen A. Fennell (below, n. 89) has added much documentary support to Ganshof's argument, which she has also elaborated. R. Gaettens, "Ménzen Karls d. Gr. sowie der Pépste Hadrian I. und Leo III. von historischer, staatsrechtlicher und wéhrungsgeschichtlicher Bedeutung," Jahrbuch fér Numismatik und Geldgeschichte, II (1950/51), pp. 50ff. |

7 | MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, p. 285, no. 139, c. 19; p. 306, no. 150, c. 20. |

8 | MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, p. 63, no. 202, c. 2: "De monetis inquiratur, qua custodia observantur vel qua fraude vitiantur et a quibus personis hoc perpetratum sit, et noviter a nobis instituta instanter figurari precipiantur. Verumtamen usque missa sancti Iohannis denarium argenteum et non fractum, cuiuscumque monetae recipiatur." |

9 | See below, pp. 11 f. |

10 | MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, p. 315, no. 273, c. 11. See also K. F. Morrison, "'Mules' in the Carolingian Series," NC 1961, p. 230. On the so-called "type of the Edict of Pitres," see the comments of J. Lafaurie, "Deux trésors monétaires carolingiens, RN 1965, p. 266, esp. n. 1. |

11 | E.g., Synod of Aachen III (861), Mansi XV, 611: "... non sine gravi gemitu nostro Christianissimo principi ad memoriam reduximus, ut non immemor vocationis suae, quod nomine censetur opere compleat, ut rex regum Christus, qui sui nominis vicem illi contulit in terris... " |

12 | See the articles by Grierson cited above, n. 6. |

13 | See below, pp. 29 ff. |

14 | C. S. S. Lyon and B. H. I. H. Stewart, "The Northumbrian Viking Coins in the Cuerdale Hoard," in R. H. M. Dolley, ed., Anglo-Saxon Coins (London, 1961), pp. 96–121. |

15 | Cf. Grierson ("The winter of 793/4"), "Money and Coinage under Charlemagne," op. cit., pp. 507, 511. |

16 | Grierson (ibid., pp. 511ff., 524ff.) argues for 768–793/4 for the primitive issue, 793/4–806 for the new royal issue, and 806–814 for the issues with the imperial bust. Since the evidence which Mr. Grierson presents is capable of several interpretations, I have preferred to retain the dating which seems to me historically most probable. I would suggest further that Mr. Grierson's position does not exclude logically the supposition that Charlamagne's second royal series and his imperial series were issued simultaneously. |

17 | H. Enno van Gelder, "De karolingische Muntslag te Duurstede," Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde, 48 (1961), pp. 35f. |

18 | On Charlemagne's imperial series, see the excellent analysis by Grierson, ibid., pp. 518ff. |

19 | C. F. Keary, "The Morphology of Coins," NC 1886, pp. 74 f. |

20 | "'Mules' in the Carolingian Series," NC 1961, pp. 231 f. |

Since Carolingian coin finds cannot be dated precisely, their chief value in establishing a chronological sequence of mintage is as evidence of the synchronism of types in circulation; for they indicate which types were in currency on the specific occasions when the deposits were buried. They do not indicate, however, when those occasions were, or whether the various issues which they contain entered circulation at the same time or over a space of many years. Still, because of what is known from documentary evidence, finds can be dated approximately according as they consist entirely or predominately of coins from Charlemagne's first or second period, of coinage of Louis the Pious and his sons, or of the GRATIA D–I REX type. But the limits of this method of classification are narrow; for example, a find which consists largely of GRATIA D–I REX pieces can only be dated "after 864" in the absence of more restrictive evidence, and a deposit containing only issues of Louis the Pious can only be dated to the reign of Louis the Pious, or a little later, proof only that coins of that Emperor circulated in his own day.

The largely homogenous character of Carolingian finds, however, allows of two presuppositions in attributing their contents to rulers and to times. First, one may suppose that the bulk of coins in any normal find were struck within a short time—between five and fifteen years—immediately before deposit. And secondly, one may assume the likelihood that a find will not contain issues of two rulers, not in immediate sequence, from the same mints and lack entirely issues of intermediate rulers from those mints.

The application of these principles to finds from the earlier Carolingian period is not so critical as their application to the later, where attributions are most difficult. Among the early finds, Krinkberg is particularly important as it proves the circulation of an issue of Louis the Pious parallel in style to the pre-reform issue of Charlemagne side by Side with that primitive issue; as already observed, Ilanz II assists in dating Charlemagne's monetary reform. As for the other deposits of roughly the same period, there is no mistaking the coins of Pippin, Carloman, and Charlemagne in the Imphy find, or those primitive issues of Charlemagne which constituted the Bel-Air, Jessum, Vercelli, Chézy-l'Abbaye, "Jura," and Sarzana finds. Deposits from Charlemagne's second period prove that he struck the obverse type CARLVS REX FR circumscriptional about a cross or a monogram of Karolus throughout the Empire—in Agen, Arles, Béziers, Bourges, Chelles, Dorestadt, Lyon, Mainz, Melle, Milan, Pavia, Toulouse, Tours, and Treviso—and that the coins bearing the same obverse type and the reverse legend EX MEALLO NOVO circumscriptional about a Karolus monogram must also be attributed to him.21

Finds from the time of Louis the Pious and the period just after his death are valuable chiefly because of the attributions to Charles the Bald which they make possible. By virtue of the issues of Louis the Pious, Lothaire I, and Pippin I or II associated with issues of Charles in these finds, it is clear that the inscription CARLVS REX, later common on issues of Charles the Simple, occurred on the obverse of issues of Charles the Bald in Aquitaine,22 Bruges,23 Chartres,24 Meaux,25 Melle,28 Orléans,27 Paris,28 Toulouse,29 the palace,30 and on Charles's XPISTIANA RELIGIO series.31 Further, the Zelzate find indicates that the inscription KAROLVS GRATIA DI REX, which occurs on an issue of Laon, belongs to Charles,32 and Pilligerheck likewise shows that the inscription CARLVS REX FRANCO (which appears in the much later deposits of Arras and Cuerdale) must be ascribed to him. Finally, the deposits from this period prove that Charles the Bald revived the CARLVS REX FR type of his grandfather and struck it extensively—in Auxerre,33 Bourges,34 Chartres,35 Lyon,36 Melle,37 Mouzon,38 Orléans,39 Paris,40 Quentovic,41 Rheims,42 St. Denis,43 Sens,44 Toulouse,45 Tours,46 and on his XPISTIANA RELIGIO series,47 with various reverse types.

From later finds, one would expect some clarification of the confused GRATIA D–I REX series, and of the late issues in the name of the Emperor, or of the Emperors, Charles; but such clarification as the find evidence affords is circumstantial and far from satisfactory. The two principles of attribution stated above cannot, on the whole, be applied advantageously to the finds deposited prior to the Edict of Pétres; for those principles are designed merely to provide attributions of specific coins to specific rulers, a function discharged by inscriptions on the coins themselves in deposits buried from the reign of Charlemagne until about 864. Only with regard to finds from the period after 864, where continuity and immobilization of types obscure attributions, do these general principles become relevant.

By applying them, one can arbitrarily distinguish some finds from this period as being later than others. The later deposits may be assigned to the time of Charles the Simple, and the earlier to the reign of Charles the Bald or of Charles the Fat, according to three corollaries of the two principles: First, that finds consisting entirely of pieces in the name of a Charles as King and/or as Emperor, without any admixture of coins of Louis II/III, Odo, or Louis IV, belong to Charles the Bald.48 Second, that deposits containing principally coins of "Charles" with an admixture of coins of Louis II/III and/or Carloman belong to Charles the Bald or Charles the Fat. And third, that "Charles" finds which contain coins of later rulers, e.g., Berengar, Lambert and Louis the Child, were deposited in the reign of Charles the Simple. Under the first corollary, the following finds may be attributed to the time of Charles the Bald: Beaumont, Bourgneuf, Chalon-sur Saéne (1956), Evreux, Gannat, Jouaye-Mondaye, Marsum, Moulin-Gargot (all of which contain issues of an Emperor Charles), Assebrouck, Laxfield, Nourray, Vaux-de-Vire, and Yrond (all of which lack imperial issues). Under the second corollary, "Charles" issues in the following deposits may be ascribed either to Charles the Bald or to Charles the Fat: Avignon, Bligny, Bonnevaux, Courbanton II, Courbanton III, Glizy, and Issy-l'Evéque (all of which contain imperial issues of "Charles"), Arras, Compiégne, Etampes, Roches l'Evéque, Roswinkel, Saumeray, Savigné-sous-le-Lude and Troyes.49 Under the last corollary, the following finds can be dated to the reign of Charles the Simple: Odoorn (which contains an imperial issue of "Charles"), Bruére, Chateauneuf-sur-Cher, Coudre, Cuerdale, Dalen, Evreux (St-Taurin), Haute-Isle, Ilanz I, Langres, Metz, and Saumur.50 The deposit of Chalon-sur-Saéne (1893), which contained one XPISTIANA RELIGIO denarius of Louis the Pious, one denarius of the same type in the name of CARLVS REX FR, and numerous pieces (the exact number is not known) of the GRATIA D–I REX type, should probably be assigned to the reign of Charles the Bald as well. And the "Charles" pieces (imperial series) in the Assen find, which also contained issues of Louis the Pious, Lothaire I, and Louis the Child, belong either to Charles the Bald or to Charles the Fat. The deposit of Rennes, which would otherwise fall in the second class, can be dated ca. 920, since it contained early tenth-century issues of Auvergne, Italy and East Anglia.

On this classification, it is apparent that many prolific mints—Orléans, Angers, Tours, Blois, Evreux, Cambrai, Paris, Bruges, and Le Mans—issued the GRATIA D–I REX type both under Charles the Bald and under Charles the Simple. These issues are identical in type, style, fabric, and weight. And even under our first principle—that the bulk of the coins in a find may be assumed to have been struck within about fifteen years of deposit—there is an open possibility that the "Charles" pieces in the third group were struck, not by Charles the Simple, but by Charles the Fat.

One may, therefore, tentatively attribute the finds to the reigns of particular rulers, but the attribution of the coins which those deposits contained remains, on the whole, a matter of conjecture. Only the types which occur in the group under the first corollary above can be attributed with a fair degree of certainty to a particular ruler. Yet, in the last analysis, there is no absolute evidence that they were not struck by Charles the Fat or by Charles the Simple and deposited in either of their reigns. Finally, the deposits adduce no grounds for separating the series of Pippin I and Louis II from those of their sons and namesakes.51

No argument can proceed from synchronism of currency to synchronism of issue without external evidence, either documentary or numismatic; for this reason, the evidence of coin finds is inconclusive for purposes of attribution. Many issues can be attributed to specific rulers on the bases of type or weight. For these classifications (e.g., for the early issues of Charles the Bald), coin finds add useful support, by indicating that the pieces which might be ambiguously attributed were in frequent circulation together with pieces easily attributable to other rulers; but this principle is valid only when the rulers in question governed simultaneously, or almost simultaneously. Coin finds, then, furnish grounds only for the most tentative attribution where more certain evidence does not already exist; they cannot clarify absolutely the confused series of the late ninth and early tenth centuries.

21 | The finds in question are Biebrich, Bondeno, Ibersheim, Veuillin, Belvézet, and Dorestadt (1846). |

22 | Aquitaine — Finds of Muizon-lez-Malines, Etréchy. |

23 | Bruges — Find of Wagenbogen. |

24 | Chartres — Find of Pilligerheck. |

25 | Meaux — Finds of Kinswerd-Pingjum II, Pilligerheck. |

26 | Melle — Find of Brioux. |

27 | Orléans — Find of Cosne. |

28 | Paris — Find of Wagenbogen. |

29 | Toulouse — Find of Auzeville. |

30 | Palace — Finds of Compiégne, Nourray, Courbanton III, Glizy, Beaumont. |

31 | XPISTIANA RELIGIO — Find of Pilligerheck. |

32 | Aquitaine — Finds of Chamoux-Marcilly, Etréchy. |

33 | Auxerre — Finds of Cosne, Emmen, Midlaren. |

34 | Bourges — Find of Chamoux-Marcilly. |

35 | Chartres — Finds of Emmen, Etréchy, Midlaren, Pilligerheck. |

36 | Lyon — Find of Pilligerheck. |

37 | Melle — Finds of Achlum, Brioux, Chamoux-Marcilly, Melle, Rijs. |

38 | Mouzon — Find of Zelzate. |

39 | Orléans — Finds of Achlum, Chamoux-Marcilly, Etréchy, Ide, Oudwoude, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen. |

40 | Paris — Finds of Loppersum, Oudwoude, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen. |

41 | Quentovic — Finds of Pilligerheck, Zelzate. |

42 | Rheims — Finds of Achlum, Fontaines, Ide, Kimswerd-Pingjum II, Neuvi-au-Houlme, Wagenbogen, Zelzate. |

43 | St. Denis — Find of Zelzate. |

44 | Sens — Finds of Emmen, Midlaren, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen, Zelzate. |

45 | Toulouse — Finds of Auzeville, Brioux. |

46 | Tours — Find of Pilligerheck. |

47 | XPISTIANA RELIGIO — Finds of Achlum, Chamoux-Marcilly, Emmen, Fontaines, Indre, Kimswerd-Pingjum I and II, Lauzés, Muizon-lez-Malines, Oudwoude, Pilligerheck, Wagenbogen. |

48 | This corollary, however, has the inconclusive character of any argumentum ex silentio. M. Lafaurie's perceptive suggestion about distinctions between the GRATIA DEI REX issues of Charles the Bald and Charles the Simple appeared too late to be incorporated into this essay. See, now, "Deux trésors monétaires carolingiens," RN 1965, pp. 268 f. |

49 | The denarius of Charlemagne struck at Milan is an exception. |

50 | As Gariel pointed out (op. cit., vol. I, p. 153), this find has been egregiously falsified, and only the Carolingian portions can be accepted as belonging to the deposit. |

51 | It must always be understood, therefore, that systems of classification like that in the present catalogue are tentative. In addition to the classifications of Gariel and Prou, see Engel and Serrure, op. cit.; J. A. Blanchet and A. Dieudonné, Manuel de numismatique franéaise, I (Paris, 1912). R. Serrure, "Liste alphabétique des ateliers monétaires de Charles le Chauve: 840–877," Bulletin mensuel de numismatique et d'archéologie, III (1883/4), pp. 37–44. |

It might be expected that one could, by close study of coin types, place the greater part of Carolingian issues within a precise historical context, just as students of classical antiquity have been able to date exactly some issues and whole series by the portraits, allegorical scenes, or symbols stamped on the coins. But for the student of Carolingian numismatics, the interpretation of types is methodologically impracticable in dating particular coins or even in establishing when a series was begun and when it was discontinued. There are three principal reasons for this difficulty. The confusion of types used by the several Charles's and Louis's, which we have mentioned above, and its corollary, the immobilization of types, constitute the first barrier to setting ninth and tenth century issues in an historical sequence. For neither the types nor the weight of the coins nor their fabric distinguish the identical types which were struck, on the evidence of coin finds, by two or more rulers over a period of fifty to sixty years. The second reason is the essentially aniconigraphical nature of Carolingian types. Unlike classical issues, Carolingian coins do not bear allegorical representations designed to commemorate particular events. The usual types are circumscriptional inscriptions—the name and title of the ruler on the obverse and the name of the mint city on the reverse—about a cross, a monogram, or, more rarely, a temple. They are, so to speak, historically anonymous, for they belong to no precisely definable historical circumstances. The representational types which are preserved are simple designs, e.g., a ship, or a city gate, without special attributes which would relate them to particular occurrences. Clearly, they were unusual issues, since they are too few to constitute a close chronological sequence, but, and this is the third reason for our difficulty, their symbolism is too general to permit explicit dating.

Coin types, on the whole, do not provide any evidence for establishing a chronology of Carolingian mintage; dissociated from particular events, their only value is in their abstract symbolic content.

The meaning of many representational types is readily apparent. For example, the portrait busts which appear on the coins of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Lothaire I, as Emperors, the reverse type of the ship, stamped on denarii which Louis the Pious struck at Dorestadt, and that of the city gate, which appears on issues of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Charles the Bald before his imperial accession, were all patterned on Roman imperial prototypes. They betray the effort of the Frankish rulers to establish as a political myth a direct line of legitimate government running from themselves back to the Caesars.52 Similarly obvious are the meanings of the monogram and the cross, which appear interchangeably as obverse and reverse types on the issues of Charlemagne after his coin reform, and on those of Charles the Bald, Louis II/III, and Odo. The monogram of the name of the reigning king was guarantee that the coin which bore it was an official issue of the proper weight and metallic content. It attested to the authenticity of the coin, just as the same monogram on royal seals attested to the authenticity of written documents.53 The monogram was the sign of the earthly king; the cross was that of the heavenly. As the Synod of Frankfurt declared against the Byzantine iconodules, "Hoc [i.e., the cross] est nostri regis insigne, non quedam pictura, quod nostri exercitus indesinenter aspiciunt legiones. Hoc est signum nostri imperatoris, non conpaginatio colorum, quod ad proelium nostrae sequuntur cohorts." 54 It was an ensign which proclaimed the universal dominion of the Heavenly Emperor, both in Heaven and on earth, dominion over all peoples, which Christ had won by His Passion.55 The combination of these two symbols as obverse and reverse types on the same coins points up the quasi-sacred nature of coinage which is also indicated most clearly by the fact that the falsification of coinage was punishable both as perjury in the royal courts and as sacrilege in the episcopal courts.56 It also expresses the personal relationship which ninth-century political thought defined between God and the earthly king, His special representative or vicar, and between the Heavenly Kingdom and the terrestrial which was its reflection. Any characteristic functions of earthly government, including mintage, was an exercise of the king's role as the "minister of God;" and it consequently fell within the dimension of the sacred.57

Two iconographical types in the Carolingian series have aroused particularly great scholarly interest; and, as there is no general agreement concerning their symbohc meaning, a review of pertinent evidence may be in order. The earlier of these types is the XPISTIANA RELIGIO reverse, which consists of a tetrastyle temple on two steps with one cross centered at the top of the steps and another at the top of the gabled roof, and the legend XPISTIANA RELIGIO circumscriptional about the temple. The second and later type is the reverse of the extremely rare gold "medallion," or "solidus," of Louis the Pious. It consists of a cross surrounded by a wreath, the whole design being encircled by the inscription MVNVS DIVINVM.

That the XPISTIANA RELIGIO type expressed some critical aspect of Carolingian political ideology is shown by the facts that Charlemagne instituted it only after his imperial coronation, that the bulk of coins attributed to Louis the Pious are of this type, and that every Carolingian ruler who is known to have struck coins at all issued some XPISTIANA RELIGIO denarii.58 Scholars have not agreed on the symbohc meaning of the temple, however, and consequently they have not agreed on the ideological point which it expresses. Some authors have held that the temple represented particular churches. Prou, for example, maintained that it was St. Peter's in Rome, and that Charlemagne commissioned the design to commemorate the scene of his imperial coronation.59 Rivoira believed that it represented the faéade of St. Martin of Tours, but this argument is based on the analogy between the XPISTIANA RELIGIO type of Charlemagne and a piece struck by Charles the Bald at Tours which he mistakenly attributed to Charlemagne.60 And finally, E. Baldwin Smith, following the argument which Gaehde had already formulated and which he later set forth in a still-unpublished essay,61 stated the thesis that the temple depicted was the chapel of Charlemagne's palace at Aachen.62 Other scholars have advocated more abstract interpretations. Bandmann writes of the temple as symbolizing the Heavenly Jerusalem;63 Gattens has described the temple as representing the ancient Church;64 and Schramm and Fallon hold that it stands for the whole Christian Church.65 In view of this wide disagreement, Vélckers, perhaps wisely, refrained from stating any interpretation of his own.66

Any hypothesis that the temple type represents a specific church building must founder on the lack of positive evidence. There are no documents which explicitly identify the temple as St. Peter's, St. Martin's, or St. Mary's in Aachen. More important, the inscription XPISTIANA RELIGIO seems a deliberate departure from the conventional obverse which named the mint city where the particular coin was issued. If Charlemagne had intended to represent a definite church, he surely would have followed usual practice, having the name of the church or at least the name of its city inscribed about it. The XPISTIANA RELIGIO type, however, by its very lack of specificity stands apart from the familiar series attributable to particular cities; it belonged, not to one church or to one city, but to the Empire.

It is true that, in his biography of Charlemagne, Einhard connected the Emperor's zeal for the Christiana Religio with the basilica in Aachen. Einhard writes, "Religionem christianam qua ab infantia fuerat [Charlemagne] imbutus, sanctissme et cum summa pietate coluit, ac propter hoc plurimae pulchritudinis basilicam Aquisgrani exstruxit auroque et argento et luminaribus atque ex aere solido cancellis et ianuis adornavit."67 But neither Einhard nor any of his contemporaries identified the Christian religion so closely with one building that Christiana Religio became the familiar name of that building. Rather, the patristic writings which molded the thoughts and even the works of ninth-century authors consistently identify Christiana Religio with the universal Church or with the moral life which the Church enjoined. The works of Lactantius,68 St. Augustine,69 and Gregory the Great,70 to mention only three of the authorities to whom ninth-century thinkers looked for guidance, accord in holding that the Christiana Religio was the faith and discipline which united all true believers and made them the temple of God. Following them, the Synod of Aachen (836) referred to the Church as the Christian religion when it wrote that taking its example from the ancient tradition of the Fathers, Christiana religio was building churches, erecting altars which it anointed with oil, and receiving the sacrifices of the Faithful.71 In his De Rhetorica, written for the instruction of Charlemagne himself, Alcuin discusses Christiana religio at length as a religious and ethical system set apart from philosophy by the faith and by baptism, but sharing with it the cultivation of wisdom, justice, fortitude, and temperance.72

The legend, XPISTIANA RELIGIO therefore, denotes the points of faith and discipline which characterized the Church, and the temple which that legend encircles can only represent the Church, the House of God. A fragmentary letter which Pope Nicholas I sent to the Emperor Louis II toward the middle of the ninth century illustrates this symbolic relationship, recalling incidentally the example of Charlemagne, the inaugurator of the XPISTIANA RELIGIO type: "Christianae religioni nihil officit, immo proficit, si caritate magistra divino intuitu cum exteris quibusque pro retnediis et securitate Christianorum placitum inieritis, cum constet non ob aliud id fieri, nisi ut fera saevicia eorum, quae in fideles unanimiter exardescit, aliquo modo refrenetur. Nam cum Salomonem cum alienigenis ad sanctam gloriam multiplicandam et ad templum Domino facilius construendum amiciciae foedera habuisse dominica sciamus referente istoria, quid mirum si pius imperator ad gloriam Dei et ad securitatem sanctae eclesiae, quae vere divinum est templum, cum exteris gentibus placitum confirmet, maxime cum piae memoriae Karolus [i.e., Charlemagne], atavus vester, nonnisi ad remedium et solatium Christianorum, qui in diversis locis inter eos tamquam grana inter paleas tundebantur, placitum cum eorum principe noscitur procul dubio perpetrasse." 13

The XPISTIANA RELIGIO type, therefore, attests to that devotion toward the Church which Einhard attributed to Charlemagne, and it witnesses likewise to the universal dominion conventionally ascribed to the Roman Emperor, dominion to which Charlemagne had title as the successor of Augustus. But since the institution of this type cannot be dated more precisely than 800–814, the period when Charlemagne was Emperor, the coin does not appreciably add to the body of knowledge concerning political or economic developments in that period. The piece is still a critical historical document without a date.

By way of contrast, the strong probability with which the MVNVS DIVINUM "medallion" can be dated and the interpretation of its symbolic type which that dating makes possible sharply illustrates political events and ideology in the reign of Louis the Pious. In another essay, I have given reasons for associating the MVNVS DIVINVM issue with a VITA ET VICTORIA issue of Lothaire I, represented by a copy in the Berlin cabinet (cat. 593), and for thinking that both series commemorated the Synod of Paris (825).74

That the extraordinary character of the two issues, in gold and in solidi, was unprecedented in Frankish coinage, but entirely harmonious with the late Roman and Byzantine series, indicates, we think, that the coins were part of the Frankish answer to a challenge from Byzantium in 824/5.

Since these conclusions were first published, Mr. Grierson has advanced an alternative dating for the two pieces.75 Accepting the Berlin piece as evidence of a medallion of Lothaire I closely related to the Munus Divinum issue, Mr. Grierson maintains that there were, in fact, three issues: an early issue of solidi in the Munus Divinum type by Louis the Pious on the occasion of his imperial coronation in 816, and subsequent issues of (heavier) medallions by Louis, in the same type, and by Lothaire I, in the Vita et Victoria type, on Lothaire's proclamation as co-emperor in 817. His reasons for discounting the date of 825 for the two joint issues are (1) that it is "plus logique" to identify the legend Munus Divinum with the wreath than with the central cross, since there is no connection between the cross and inscriptions in ordinary Carolingian issues, (2) that, once the association between cross and legend is removed, no reason exists for connecting the issue with the events of 825, and (3) that, if this is so, the relation of the issues to the two coronations is apparent, the wreath being a symbol of the imperial office. Mr. Grierson points out that the word munus occurs in contexts other than the records of the Synod of Paris (825), and that, in such instances, it often refers to the royal or imperial office, which, he argues, was conventionally represented by a wreath. Finally, he maintains that the Munus Divinum issue of Coenwulf of Mercia was an imitation of the issue of Louis the Pious, and that, since Coenwulf died in 821, the Carolingian prototype of his coin must obviously have been minted before that year.

The judgment of this distinguished numismatist commands respect, but we would venture to suggest the plausibility of another point of view,. As to terminology, the question is not properly whether the word munus occurs in other contexts, but in what contexts and with what meaning the highly specific term munus divinum occurs. The distinction between "office" and "Divine Office," apparent as it is, is all the more important since the term Munus Divinum is never applied to the imperial office and only once to the royal office, and then under the most unusual circumstances.76 Obviously, the designer of the Munus Divinum issue had a specific concept in mind when he planned its reverse legend; and, since the exact term commonly occurs only in the liturgical sense of the Sacred Host, there is every reason to think that he wished to employ that sense, and that he made his purpose clear by setting a cross in the center of his design, surrounding it with the victor's wreath, an ancient and conventional Christian design representing the victory of Christ over death. The argument that, in usual reverse types, the inscription refers to the mint city, or to some element other than the central cross, carries little conviction, since the Munus Divinum series is unlike ordinary issues in every way, and equally since there are in fact numerous reverse types in the Carolingian series, such as the Christiana Religio-temple type and the issues depicting city gates surrounded by the name of the mint city, in which the inscription identifies the central element in the design. Finally, the late imperial coins on which the issue was patterned serve as precedent for applying the term Munus Divinum to the cross; for the terms Salus Mundi and Salus Reipublicae on those issues indisputably refer to the central crosses and not to the intervening wreaths.

Thus, there is considerable reason for identifying the legend with the cross and consequently with the business before the Synod of Paris. The evidence of Coenwulf's imitation as a check on the 825 dating is difficult to interpret, since one could maintain on the same evidence that Coenwulf's issue was the prototype and Louis's the imitation.

Mr. Grierson is entirely right in maintaining that the unique heavier Munus Divinum piece (no. 514, weight 7.04 gr.), on which the diademed head faces left, must be distinguished from the more numerous pieces (no. 515, weight about 4.30 gr.), on which it faces to the right. (The original Vita et Victoria striking seems to have been closer to the heavier Munus Divinum issue, since, on the Berlin imitation, the head faces left.) Although other heads in Carolingian portrait coins face left (e. g., nos 643a, 1069), the trait is distinctly rare. The purpose of striking some heavier pieces thus distinguished from the ordinary portrait series may have in fact not been purely ceremonial, as our terming them "medallions" implies, but whether it was to create a new denomination superior to the solidus can not be presently determined. Mr. Grierson's position that the pieces in question appeared in two issues, the lighter in 816 and the heavier in 817, must be considered a highly educated hypothesis pending its substantiation with historical evidence.

The extraordinary character of the Munus Divinum and Vita et Victoria issues seem to argue for simultaneous striking, and the burden of evidence, historical, philological, liturgical, and even circumstantial, suggests that they were minted in 825. Such consensus of evidence is, however, unique in the Carolingian series. The proper interpretation of the Munus Divinum and the Vita et Victoria types depends upon their dating. Since the lack of evidence sufficient to date the XPISTIANA RELIGIO issue of Charlemagne and the other issues mentioned above clouds our understanding of their types, their value as historical evidence is proportionately diminished. Enquiries into the symbolism of Carolingian iconographical types are themselves severely restricted by the relatively small number of such types and by their very general symbolic content; and the results of such studies are correspondingly limited by the inability to relate iconographical types to specific historical contexts.

52 | The small place iconography held in Carolingian numismatics may have been determined by the opposition of some powerful ecclesiastics to representational art. For the present purposes, Agobard of Lyon's quotation from the Venerable Bede is especially apt: "Quibus verbis aperte declarator quod illae similitudines fieri prohibentur ab hominibus, quae in venerationem deorum alienorum facere solent impii, quaeque ad colendum atque adorandum gentilitas errabunda reperit. Caeterum simpliciter haec fieri nulla, ut reor, legis divinae litter a vetat. Alioquin et Dominus tentantibus se Pharisaeis de tributo Caesari reddendo, in quo nomen et imaginem Caesaris expressam esse dicebant, nequaquam ita responderet: 'Reddite quae sunt Caesaris Caesari, et quae sunt Dei Deo'. Sed potius eorum corrigeret errorem, dicens: 'Non licet vobis in percussura auri vestri imaginem facere Caesaris, quia talem sculpturam lex divina prohibet. Esset namque locus ut ostenso sibi numismate census hoc diceret, si in eo Caesaris imago, cujus idolotriae, et non ad judicium magis regiae potentiae, esset formata.'" Agobard, Liber de Imaginibus Sanctorum, c. 21, Migne, PL. 104, 217. See J. A. Cabaniss, Agobard of Lyon (Syracuse, 1953), p. 55. Cf. Walafrid Strabo, De exordiis, c. 8 (MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, p. 483): "Et fortasse, qui imperatoris fidelium veluti in nummo contempsit imaginem, ante tribunal ipsius protervitatis suae pariter et inquietudinis poenas exsolvit. Non enim levem iniuriam seculi potentes sibi putabant inlatam, si imaginem suam vel nomen in quolibet nomismate a subiectis despici cognoverint et calcari." |

53 | On the numismatic use of the monogram, see the Edict of Pétres (864), MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, p. 315, no. 273, c. 11: "Ut in denariis novae nostrae monetae ex una parte nomen nostrum habeatur in gyro et in medio nostri nominis monogramma: ex altera vero parte nomen civitatis et in medio crux habeatur." Cf. A. Blanchet," Hypothéses sur l'origine du monogramme carolingien," Congrés International de numismatique (1953), vol. VII (Paris,1957), pp. 335–339, who suggests that the Karolus monogram derived from fifth or sixth century Byzantine prototypes. |

54 | Libri Carolini, II, 28, MGH Conc. K. A. II, Suppl., p. 89. |

55 | Cf. Hincmar of Rheims, LV Capitula, c. 15, Migne PL. 126, 328: "Nam et ipsa crucis figura dilatatum ubique Domini significat regnum et monarchiam fidei ipsius signi, é" Pseudo-Alcuin, Liber de Divinis Officiis, c. 18, Migne PL. 101, 1208: "Nam ipsa crux magnum in se mysterium continet, cujus positio talis est, ut superior pars coelos petat, inferior terrae inker eat fixa, infernorum ima contigit; latitudo autem eius partes mundi appetat.... Jacens vero crux quattuor mundi partes appetit, orientem videlicet et occidentem, aquilonem et meridiem, quia et Christus per passionem suam omnes gentes ad se trahit, et omnia sibi subjugavit juxta quod ipse sur gens a mortuis dicit: 'Data est mihi omnis potestas in coelo et in terra.' " See also Amalarius, De ecclesiasticis officiis, I, 14, Migne PL. 105, 1028 ff., Einhard, Quaestio de adoranda cruce, MGH Epp. K. A. III, p. 149; and Rhabanus Maurus, De Laudibus S. Crucis, I, fig. 1, declaratio, Migne PL. 107, 143. |

56 | Cf. Edict of Pétres (864), MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, no. 273, p. 315, c. 13: ... sicut constitutum est de falsis monetariis in libro IV. capitulorum XXXIII.capitulo, manum perdat, et ut sacrilegus ac pauperum spoliator publicae poenitentiae iudicio episcopali subiciatur." Ibid., c. 9, p. 314: Referring to the oaths of mint officials that they would discharge their offices faithfully, Charles commanded: "De quo sacramento quicunque comprobatus fuerit periuratus, et secundum legem mundanam ut periurus puniatur, sicut in capitulari decessorum ac progenitorum nostrorum continetur in fine capituli decimi ex tertio libro, et secundum legem ecclesiasticam publicae poenitentiae subigatur." |

57 | On the general principles of political thought alluded to here, see A. J. Carlyle, A History of Medieval Political Theory in the West, I (London, 1930), pp. 210 ff.; H. Fichtenau, Das karolingische Imperium (Zurich, 1949); E. H. Kantorowicz, Laudes Regiae: A Study in Liturgical Acclamations and Mediaeval Ruler Worship (Berkeley, 1946). |

58 | Cf. W. Hévernick, "Hamburg als karolingische Ménzstétte," Hamburger Beitrége zur Numismatik, I (1947/51), p. 12, n. 13: Referring to the XPISTIANA RELIGIO type of Prou 1055, Hévernick writes: "Eine Zuweisung an Kénig Ludwig den Jéngeren ist unwahrscheinlich, an Kénig Ludwig das Kind unméglich, da solche Reichsdenare auch von Kénig Karl III. und Kénig Arnulf nicht mehr vorliegen." See Catalogue, nos. 1523–1531, 1540–1543, 1570. |

59 | M. Prou, op. cit., p. xi. |

60 | G. T. Rivoira, Lombardic Architecture, II (Oxford, 1910), p. 113. |

61 | J. E. Gaehde, "The Temple on Charlemagne's Imperial Coins: A Study in Architectural Symbolism," M. A. Thesis, New York City University (October, 1954). |

62 | Architectural Symbolism of Imperial Rome and the Middle Ages (Princeton, 1956), p. 97. |

63 | G. Bandmann, Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungstréger (Berlin, 1956), p. 97. |

64 | R. Gaettens, "Ménzen Karls d. Gr.," op. cit., p. 57. |

65 | P. E. Schramm, "Die Anerkennung Karls des Grossen als Kaiser: Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte der mittelalterlichen 'Staatssymbolik," Historische Zeitschrift, 172 (1951), pp. 449 ff. H. Fallon, "Imperial Symbolism on Two Carolingian Coins," ANSMN VIII (1958), pp. 119–131. |

66 | Vélckers, op. cit., p. 14. |

67 | Vita Karoli, c. 26, MGH SS. in usum Schol., p. 30. |

68 | De Vera Sapientia et Religione, IV, 29, Migne PL. 6, 540. |

69 | De Civitate Dei, XVII, 4, Corpus Christianorum, vol. 48, p. 556. Ennarratio in Ps. CXXXI, 3. Migne PL. 37, 1717. |

70 | Homil. in Ezech. II, 10, 19. Migne PL. 76, 1069. |

71 | MGH Conc. K. A. II, p. 735, c. 23. Cf. Relatio Episcoporum (829), MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. II, p. 28, no. 196, c. 1: "Primum fundamentum christianae religionis est fides catholica, hoc est, credere in Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum, unum et verum Deum, trinum in personis et unum in substantia..." |

72 | Ed. K. von Halm, Rhetores Latini Minores (Leipzig, 1863), pp. 548 f., c. 44. |

73 | MGH Epp. K. A. IV, pp. 351 f., no. 54. Cf. Alcuin, MGH Poet. Lat., I, p. 235, no. 10, vv. 1–8: "Urbs aeterna dei, terrae sal, lumina mundi, / Bis sex signa poli, menses et ter quater anni, / Atque diei horae, lapidesque in stemmate Christi, / Vestra aperire polum poterit vel claudere lingua. / Doctores vitae, magnae et medicinae salutis, / Vos fontes vivi, paradisi et flumina sacra; / Vos decus ecclesiae, populi spes, ianua lucis; / Inclita progenies, Salomonis nobile templum." Such references to the Church as the "House of God," or the "Temple of God," are very common in Carolingian literature. |

74 | "The Gold Medallions of Louis the Pious and Lothaire I and the Synod of Paris (825)," Speculum, 36 (1961), pp. 592–599. |

75 | P. Grierson, "La date des monnaies d'or de Louis le Pieux," Le Moyen Age (1963). pp. 67–74. |

76 | See MGH Epp. III, no 35, p. 542, a, the letter of Pope Paul I to Carloman and Charlemagne. It would be difficult to suggest that this obscure letter, of Roman provenance, written sixty years before the Synod of Paris (825), gives evidence of imperial terminology in the Gaul of Louis the Pious. Indeed, the letter does not even mention the imperial office. |

Like coin finds and the interpretation of types, numismatic metrology leaves the question of attribution unresolved. If one accepts the tentative attributions suggested by find evidence and by typology, however, one can deduce from metrology much concerning the general monetary policies of the Carolingian rulers; but it must always be acknowledged that such deductions are only as secure as the attributions.

The point of departure for any study of Carolingian metrology must be the monetary reform of Charlemagne. Despite disagreement about its date, scholars agree that the monetary reform of Charlemagne was one of the major turning-points in mediaeval economic history; for the new weight standards introduced then were the basis of numismatic metrology well into the later Middle Ages, in Scandinavia as well as in the lands which the great Charles once ruled. There is, however, no scholarly agreement on the circumstances which prompted the reform or on the nature of the reform itself.

Among the probable goals which Charlemagne designed his new currency to serve may have been greater ease and elegance in reckoning, a purpose no doubt favored by the calculatores whom the King took with him from Rome to Francia in 787.77 But to appraise the significance of the critical element in the reform, the increase in the weights of all moneys, one must refer to the historical pressures which actually urged the reform and the practical goals they inspired. Unfortunately, these can perhaps never be fully known or appreciated; even the precise year of the reform is in doubt. Dopsch suggested that the effort was meant to restore confidence in official coinage, which he believed had been undermined in some way by the earlier Merovingian gold issues.78 More recently, Bolin has proposed that the full increase in the weight of the standard coin, the denarius, was not achieved in 790, but rather that it was constant throughout the ninth century, ending only in the reign of Charles the Simple. He further proposes that the changes in weight were more or less involuntary adaptations by Charlemagne and his successors to changes of the ratio of gold/silver values in the Arab world.79 But the basis for neither of these arguments is clear. That confidence in a gold currency should have been weak and easily transferred to silver is not very likely, and there is no evidence either in archaeological or in literary remains that commercial contact between the Carolingians and Islam was so steady and considerable as to produce the change Bolin describes. By the same token, one cannot at present determine whether the precursor of the Caroline pound was the Islamic silver pound, as Bolin and others have proposed,80 or an indigenous Germanic standard.

Mr. Grierson has probably come very close to the true historical cause of the reform by referring to the rupture between Charlemagne and Offa in 790.81 It is explicitly recorded that the break was so sharp that in 790 no merchants went between Mercia and Francia. Until that time, Offa and the Carolingians struck upon the same weight standard, and there is some evidence that coins of Offa and Pippin circulated together on the Continent.82 As to the precise year of the reform, the fact that Louis the Pious issued coins in the first style of his father, and that these primitive issues circulated side by side, as the Krinkberg deposit proves, shows convincingly that the new issues cannot have been instituted before 781, the year of Louis's consecration as King of Aquitaine; and the contents of the Ilanz II find also prove that the earlier types of Charlemagne were predominant in circulation just after 790. There can be no question, therefore, that the reform did not occur before 790, and the historical evidence that 790 was the actual year of the reform is most compelling.

Among the motives which must have prompted Charlemagne's reform may be listed imperial aspirations, which would naturally have promoted a standard and distinctive coinage for all the lands governed by the aspirant; but the raising of the monetary standard above the Anglo-Saxon, the adoption of aniconographical types, unlike the Anglo-Saxon, and the commercial breach with Offa, all occurring simultaneously suggest very strongly that primary among the historical goals of the reform was the establishment of the monetary integrity of the Frankish realm. In fact, no Anglo-Saxon coins—virtually no foreign coins of any kind – occur in ninth-century finds unearthed in the former bounds of the Empire.83

Since Franéois LeBlanc opened the question in the seventeenth century, some distinguished numismatists have attempted to ascertain the metrological system through which Charlemagne sought to establish that monetary integrity. Their estimates of his new monetary pound have ranged from 366.57 gr. (Blancard) to 491.179 gr. (Prou); LeBlanc, the initiator of the enquiry, proposed 367.13 gr., and Professor Naster, who has discussed the problem most recently, suggested 409.248 gr. Insufficient evidence has brought most of these estimates to the level of hypothesis, for most of them have been deduced from the weights of a few coins of quite different provenances and even of different rulers. A decade ago, Professor Naster drew attention to this faulty methodology by attempting to assess the weight of the monetary pound from the weights of pieces which occurred in the finds of Zelzate and Muizon-lez-Malines, a technique which brought his work both authority and exactitude.

The starting point for all work in Carolingian numismatic metrology must be the contemporary literary remains. The few relevant sources state explicitly and concisely that there were two denominations of measure, the denarius and the solidus, that the solidus was equivalent to twelve denarii, and that the pound consisted of two hundred-forty denarii.84 There is no mention in extant documents of the smallest denomination, the obolus, though it appears to have been commonly struck. Beyond this, the sources admit of ambiguity. One document, an edict of Pippin, commands that twenty-two solidi be struck to the pound,85 but the proportion of twelve denarii to the solidus, which other sources specify, indicates that there were only twenty solidi to the pound (240 denarii = 1 pound = 20 solidi). Moreover, this reckoning is explicitly substantiated by a decree of Charlemagne issued before his reform, while he was still striking on the monetary system of his father.86 Secondly, the sources mention the denarius as a standard of weight and of value, even though there were differences, sometimes quite appreciable ones, in the weights of individual coins from the same issue and, as we shall see, in the weight standards maintained by the Carolingian rulers. Finally, values are prescribed in terms of denarii and solidi, sometimes, as in the Polyptychon of Irminon, in terms both of denarii and of solidi, even though the solidus was not actually struck by Carolingians. (The Munus Divinum issue of Louis the Pious may be an exception.) Numismatists have not yet attempted to clarify these ambiguities, and the divergent estimates of the weight of the Carolingian pound derive in part from such fundamental obscurities as these.

The sources themselves suggest the required clarification; for, referring to solidi and denarii jointly, they indicate that the denarius, like the solidus, was an abstract standard of value, and, in fact, that there were two kinds of denarii, the denarius which served as a money of account, and that which served as a struck coin. When values and weights were expressed in terms of denarii, therefore, the assessors referred, not to the struck denarius, the weight of which was too variable to be meaningful in such a context, but to the abstract, standard denarius-weight. This point is important in determining the weight of the Caroline pound, for it indicates that one must search, not for one figure, as scholars have hitherto done, but for two: the standard pound applied in mintage and the pound upon which payments were reckoned by tally. These pounds may be termed the bullion, or mint pound, and the account pound. The fluctuations in the weight frequencies of the coinage struck by Louis the Pious and his successors indicated the variability of the account pound; but the relatively narrow scope of those fluctuations and the consistent fineness of silver content reveal the persistance of the same mint pound throughout the ninth century.

If the supposition of a mint denarius, distinct from the actual coin, solves the last two of the three ambiguities mentioned above, the supposition of a mint pound likewise clarifies the first ambiguity observed, the allegation of twenty-two solidi to the pound by one document and that of twenty solidi to the pound by other sources. In his edict, Pippin commanded that twenty-two solidi be struck from every pound of metal, and that two of these should be disposed of, one going to the moneyer and the other to "the lord." Here, Pippin was concerned to specify the allowance for the profit and the costs of mintage, and to limit these to ten per cent of the total mint production. The pound of twenty-two solidi therefore corresponds with the mint pound, and the remaining twenty solidi composed the account pound of 240 denarii.

With these fundamental distinctions and proportions in mind, it is possible to supply other data relating to Charlemagne's monetary pound. The principal evidence is the body of surviving coins, and we must now turn to a survey of these remains.

Since a preliminary statement of these conclusions was published, Dr. Suchodolski has pubhshed yet another effort to ascertain the weight of the monetary pound Charlemagne instituted about 790;87 and his essay requires an elaboration of our earlier comments. It is indeed a hopeful sign that gifted scholars in eastern Europe have increasingly turned their attention to problems concerning their western colleagues; we can only hope that western scholars will encourage such interest when it appears and even, if posssible, return the compliment. Dr. Suchodolski's essay claims merit on two counts: first, it confirms, by a new method, the conclusions suggested by Professor Naster and later, with some variation, by me about the weight of Charlemagne's pound; and, second, it publishes in the West the method Dr. Suchodolski employed, current among numismatists in Poland but hitherto neglected by western scholars in general and perhaps even unknown to most of them. Of these, the second is by far the more important. His conclusions that the standard weight of the denarius of Charlemagne's reform was about 1.70 gr. or 1.714 gr., and that the weight of the pound was, respectively, 408.00 gr. or 411.36 gr. is entirely in line with the consensus previously established. Since Dr. Suchodolski has promised a further study of the problem, we may defer fuller comment on this aspect of his work pending the appearance of his more mature conclusions.

The strength of the essay under review lies in two aspects of its methodology: the use of three frequency tables for the same body of coins and the determination by formula of a precise modal weight. By describing three charts, one on the scale of 0.05 gr. (from 1.26 gr. to 1.86 gr.) and two on the scale of 0.10 gr. (one from 1.21 gr. to 1.91 gr. and the other from 1.26 gr. to 1.86 gr., erroneously marked 1.26, 1.36, 1.46, 1.56, 1.61, 1.71, 1.81), the author has shown three times that the peak frequency of his specimen coins occurs at about 1.71 gr.—between 1.66 gr., and 1.71 gr., between 1.61 gr. and 1.71 gr., and between 1.66 gr. and 1.76 gr.—but he has also clearly suggested the possibility that, on different scales, the same body of coins may indicate a variety of peaks. For greater precision in ascertaining the modal weights, Dr. Suchodolski introduced the formula devised and first used by his compatriot, Zabinski:

where MO is the model weight; xk, the lower figure of the band showing peak frequency; mk, the number of coins tallied in that band; (mk – 1), the number of coins tallied in the band just preceeding the peak band in the progression of the scale; (mk+1), the number of coins tallied in the band immediately following the peak band; and h, the actual scale (e. g., 0.05 gr. or 0.10 gr.).

The contribution Dr. Suchodolski has made is in his emphasis on methodological precision and in his suggestion that the metrologies of different series issued by the same ruler might profitably be isolated from each other. Following his suggestion, we have dressed the following frequency charts for ninth-century series which survive in bulk large enough to be statistically instructive. Two charts, those for Charles the Simple (Gratia series) and an Emperor Charles (Imperator Augustus series), are suggestive, but not conculsive, because the number of available specimen coins is but marginally representative. In four charts (Lothaire I, Temple series; Charles the Bald, Carolus Rex and Temple series; and the issues of Louis II/III), the scale of 0.05 gr. has proven unsatisfactory because conducive to bimodalism or to a "plateau" instead of to one peak band; these difficulties did not appear on the scale of 0.10 gr. Three large series have not entered these computations because of their peculiar difficulties of attribution: the Christiana Religio series in the name of Louis the Pious, the Dorestatus-Moneta-Temple type in the name of Lothaire I, and the Gratia-Dei-Rex issue in the name of Charles, to the last of which we have devoted a separate chart.

From these charts, the lines of historical development and the mathematical flexibility of the account pound indicated in our earlier remarks become eminently apparent. The reader will have noticed that the issues of Lothaire I and the temple-type of Charles the Bald, which one has good reason to suppose were struck late in the reign of their father or in the troubled years just after his death (see above, p. 5), show a marked reduction in weight from the standard of Charlemagne, and that the coinage of Louis the Pious himself, in the portrait series, shows a reduction in weight from Charlemagne's standard. Louis the Pious had, in his issues with the linear reverse, raised somewhat his father's limit, and the decrease in weight shown in his portrait series, in the linear reverse series of Lothaire I, and in the other issues of Lothaire I and of the temple-types of Charles the Bald can only be taken as reflecting the great adversities which darkened the last years of Louis's reign. The increase in weight by Odo, and the standards previously kept by Louis II and his sons, Carloman and Louis III, must be judged in connection with the standard of about 1.71 gr., indicated by the chart of Gratia-Dei-Rex types (Table XVII), many of which were doubtless struck under Charles the Bald after his reform of 864. They indicate the revival of trade and the re-establishment of civil order which Charles the Bald did achieve despite Varangian attacks, invasions by his brother, Louis the German, and the aggrandizement of an ambitious nobility. In this context, the break in the pattern of stability intruded by the apparent reduction of the standard by the "Emperor Charles" might well be taken as evidence that Charles the Fat was the author of the series in that style, for his reign was more troubled than Charles the Bald's, and his power less firmly established in the lands where these issues were struck. Moreover, Charles the Bald was emperor for only one year, and spent most of that time in Italy; Charles the Fat held the imperial title for six years, and spent much time in the lands represented by the "coins in the name of an Emperor Charles." But these circumstances do not warrant an unqualified attribution.

At any rate, the standard of 1.60 gr., on the evidence of the issues of Lothaire I and the Temple-types of Charles the Bald, seems to have been the line which divided normal issues from "emergency" issues of reduced weight, and the tolerance of the account pound was apparently 0.15 gr. above that line and 0.15 gr. below it. As we have seen, Charlemagne's earliest coins were struck to a standard of about 1.30 gr., and it is reasonable to suppose that the lower tolerance of the pound he instituted about 790 could not have been extended much below 1.45 gr. without precipitating complete remonetization by wholly discrediting the exceptionally light issues and reviving the standard of the primitive series.

The upper limit achieved by applying the formula of reckoning modal weights (1.74 gr.) indicates the probable weight of the mint pound. Assuming that the original denominations continued to be struck under Louis the Pious and Odo, 240 denarii at 1.74 gr. each yield an account pound of 417.74 gr. Adding the weight of 2 sohdi (24 denarii) to account for costs and profits of mintage, one establishes 459.36 gr. as the mint pound. Dieudonné in his work and I in a previous essay added the weight of only 12 denarii (1 solidus) to the account pound on the supposition that, though the decree of Pippin states that twenty-two solidi were struck to the pound, it also commands that the moneyer keep one of them and give 21 to "the lord." On reflection, I judge it far more reasonable to reckon to the mint pound the number of solidi actually struck from it.

The following table shows the range of variation in the weights of the account pounds, modal weights of denarii (as deduced by the formula Dr. Suchodolski transmits), ounces, and solidi, together with the weights in silver supposedly taken for costs and profits of mintage and the corresponding percentages. Though the number of ounces in the Carolingian pound has been disputed (e.g., Prou, p, xl, wrote that it consisted of 12 ounces), the schedule of levies stated in a capitulary of 780 (see p. 35, n. 84) suggests a pound of 15 ounces. It indicates that one solidus = 3/4 ounce (or half of 11/2 ounces), and consequently that 20 solidi = 1 pound = 15 ounces. The figures in Table XVIII are based on this deduction.

ACCOUNT POUND | AVERAGE WEIGHT OF THE MODAL STEP | RULER | TYPE AND CHART | OUNCE | SOLIDUS | WEIGHT LESS THAN MINT POUND (459.36 gr.) | % LESS THAN MINT POUND |

417.74 | 1.74 | Louis the Pious | Linear B | 27.85 | 20.88 | 41.76 | 9.1% |

Odo | Gratia A | ||||||

415.00 | 1.73 | Louis the Pious | Linear A/C | 27.66 | 20.76 | 44.36 | 9.6% |

Odo | Gratia B | ||||||

408.00 | 1.71 | Odo | Gratia C | 27.20 | 20.40 | 51.00 | 11.1% |

405.60 | 1.69 | Carloman | A/C | 27.00 | 20.28 | 53.76 | 11.7% |

Louis II/III | C | ||||||

403.20 | 1.68 | Louis the Pious | Portrait A | 26.85 | 20.16 | 56.16 | 12.2% |

400.80 | 1.67 | Charlemagne | A | 26.72 | 20.04 | 58.56 | 12.7% |

Carloman | B | ||||||

Louis II/III | B | ||||||

398.40 | 1.66 | Charlemagne | B | 26.56 | 19.92 | 60.96 | 13.0% |

Odo | Misericordia A | ||||||

396.00 | 1.65 | Louis the Pious | Portrait C | 26.40 | 19.80 | 63.36 | 14.0% |

Charles the Bald | Carolus Rex B | ||||||

Odo | Misericordia B/C | ||||||

395.60 | 1.64 | Charlemagne | C | 26.37 | 19.68 | 64.76 | 14.5% |

ACCOUNT POUND | AVERAGE WEIGHT OF THE MODAL STEP | RULER | TYPE AND CHART | OUNCE | SOLIDUS | WEIGHT LESS THAN MINT POUND (459.36 gr.) | % LESS THAN MINT POUND |

Louis the Pious | Portrait B | ||||||

Charles the Bald | Carolus Rex C | ||||||

384.00 | 1.60 | Emperor Charles | Carolus Imp. C | 25.60 | 19.20 | 75.36 | 16.4% |

Carolus Imp. Avg. C | |||||||

381.60 | 1.59 | Lothaire I | Linear C | 25.44 | 19.08 | 77.76 | 16.9% |

379.20 | 1.58 | Lothaire I | Linear A | 25.28 | 18.96 | 80.16 | 17.4% |

Charles the Bald | Temple B | ||||||

Emperor Charles | Carolus Imp. B | ||||||

Carolus Imp. Avg B | |||||||

369.60 | 1.54 | Lothaire I | Linear B | 24.64 | 18.48 | 89.76 | 19.5% |

Charlesthe Bald | Temple C | ||||||

361.40 | 1.51 | Lothaire I | Temple C | 24.08 | 18.07 | 97.96 | 21.0% |

357.60 | 1.49 | Charles the Simple | Gratia C | 23.84 | 17.88 | 101.76 | 22.1% |

352.80 | 1.47 | Lothaire I | Temple B | 23.51 | 17.64 | 106.96 | 23.2% |

328.80 | 1.37 | Emperor Charles | Imp. Avg. B | 21.92 | 16.44 | 130.56 | 28.3% |

Mint Pound: 459.36 (264 denarii at 1.74 gr.)

Mint Ounce: 30.62 gr.

Mint Solidus: 20.88 gr.

In surveying these figures, or indeed any aspects of Carolingian metrology, one must remember that mediaeval methods of computation were not so accurate as are modem scales and formulas. The differences in modal weights which our frequency charts show for individual issues are not on the whole matters of great concern. Charlemagne's moneyers would quite possibly have been unaware of the fact if particular issues had varied, on the scale of difference in our charts, by 0.03 gr. per coin, or even by 3.00 gr. per pound. But the greatest variation—0.05 gr. per coin, and 12.00 gr. per pound, in the charts for the linear-reverse series of Lothaire I (a difference of 2% in the costs and profits of mintage)—is sufficient to remind the numismatist that, in analyzing Carolingian metrology, his own calculations can only approximate the proportions as they were; and the variations in the weight of the denarius during the ninth century provide a further warning against dogmatic precision by showing that the metrology of the account pound was in constant change. Only with these limitations in mind can we describe the fluctuations in the account pound from the time Charlemagne instituted his reforms until the disorders of the early tenth century threatened to overturn the Carolingian monetary system and the dynasty together, fluctuations which reflect as exactly as the words of chroniclers the variable fortunes of the later Carolingians.

One form of evidence remains to be mentioned: the extant monetary weights. Five such pieces are known. The lightest of them (35 gr.) was discovered in St. Quentin early in the twentieth century. Three others, weighing 283.65 gr., 226.01 gr., and 70.535 gr., preserved at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheiden, at Leiden, were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century in excavations at Dorestadt,88 and still another, also discovered at Dorestadt, weighing 174.42 gr., is kept in the Bibliothéque Royale (Cabinet des Medailles) in Brussels.89 That these objects were in fact monetary weights, and not "trial pieces in lead" for regular mint issues, is indicated by their similarity in form to other contemporary weights,90 especially by their similarity to the "Alfred weight," an English lead block which, like them, was stamped with monetary types.91

The interpretation of this evidence is extremely problematical, due both to the physical deterioration which the weights have suffered, and to the fluctuations in the account pound which we have described. Indeed, we must conclude with Hilligar that any correlation of these pieces within a precise metrological system is impossible.

Charlemagne's mint pound (ca. 459.36 gr.) remained constant throughout the ninth century, but as indicated, this pound of account (ca. 400.00 gr.) experienced several wide variations. In another place, we have discussed the historical evidence which we think indicates that the fluctuations in the weight of the account pound during the ninth century and at the beginning of the tenth were prompted by the immediate policies, or by the financial needs of the Frankish kings, and not by variations in the value of precious metals on the world market. In particular, there is no evidence to support the thesis that Charlemagne's monetary reform and the changes in coin weight instituted by his successors resulted from fluctuations in the gold/silver ratio in the Arab world.92

In view of the grave civil disorders and natural disasters of the ninth century, the stability maintained by the Carolingian monetary system is astounding. One would have been perfectly warranted in assuming, as some have done, that amidst such circumstances, the currency must have been devalued and debased, and that inflation must have been pronounced.33 Numismatic evidence, however, indicates quite to the contrary that the mint pound, the general weight standards, and the metallic content of coins as instituted by Charlemagne were maintained by his successors for more than a century. To be sure, there were variations within that metrological system; but the system itself remained unchanged, and coins of nearly pure silver and good weight continued to be struck during the whole period, evidence that Charlemagne had indeed established at least in coinage that unity of the Frankish people toward which he strove.

From the numismatic remains of the Carolingian era, some positive information concerning monetary history can be deduced and especially concerning numismatic metrology. Deductions from numismatic evidence alone, however, are only as certain as are the dating and attribution of that evidence; and the whole body of written and archaeological materials available for ascribing ninth and tenth century numismatic remains to particular years and rulers is so slight that, in many instances, it leads only to general—or even to hypothetical—conclusions.

Among the major achievements of the Carolingian Renaissance, should surely be numbered the monetary system instituted by Charlemagne and continued by his successors; for, together with contemporary accomplishments in law, theology, belles-lettres, and the plastic arts, it enhanced the lustre of the Frankish state. Coins are as much monuments of this cultural revival as are illuminated manuscripts, the hymns of Theodulf, the compilation of Pseudo-Isidore, or the discourses of Alcuin and Rhabanus Maurus. And yet, they are monuments only: historians "wait for light but behold obscurity."94

92 | Bolin, op. cit., pp. 250 f.; K. F. Morrison, "Numismatics and Carolingian Trade: A Critique of the Evidence," Speculum, 38 (1963), pp. 403–432. |

93 | Doehaerd, op. cit., p.18. |

94 | Isaias 59:9. |

77 | Monk of Angouléme, Vita Caroli Magni, Bouquet, V, p. 185. |

78 | A. Dopsch, Die Wirtschaftsentwicklung der Karolingerzeit, II (Weimar, 1922), p. 309. |

79 | S. Bolin, "Mohammed, Charlemagne, and Runric," Scandinavian Economic History Review, 1 (1953), pp. 14 ff. |

80 | E.g., R. Doehaerd, "Les reformes monétaires carolingiennes," Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations, 7 (1952), pp. 18 f. A. Lewis, The Northern Seas (Princeton, 1958,) pp. 226f. This thesis was already present in the mid-nineteenth century, when A. Soetbeer refuted it, "Beitrége zur Geschichte des Geld- und Ménzwesens in Deutschland, IV," Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, 4 (1866), 332. His comment is still a valid description of the find evidence: "Allein der Voraussetzung jenes Zusammenhangs steht der Umstand entgegen, dass, wéhrend, wie schon bemerkt, so héufig auch arabische Silberménzen, meistens aus spéterer Zeit, im nérdlichen Europa bei Entdeckung vergrabener Schétze aus dem zehnten bis zwélften Jahrhundert sich vorfinden, in den Léndern des frénkischen Reichs keine Summen vergrabener Dirhems, allein oder in Verbindung mit frénkischen Denaren des achten oder aus dem Anfange des neunten Jahrhunderts, gefunden worden sind; selbst unter den vielen verschiedenen zu Domburg und Wyk te Duerstede entdeckten Ménzen aus den Zeiten vor und unter Karl d. Gr. scheinen arabische Dirhems nicht vorgekommen zu sein. Diese Wahmehmung spricht entscheiden gegen die Annahme eines Einflusses des arabischen Ménzwesens auf die Ménzreform unter Karl d. Gr." |

81 | P. Grierson, "Cronologia," op. cit., pp. 75 ff. |

82 | Cf. NC 1844, p. 104, which registers "a penny of Offa without the portrait and a penny of Pepin, found at Rome," perhaps evidence of a coin deposit. Mr. R. H. M. Dolley kindly drew my attention to this entry. |

83 | There are six exceptions: two dirhems, the later struck by Harun al-Rashid in 790, which were found in the Ilanz II deposit (F. Jecklin "Der langobardisch-karolingische Ménzfund bei Ilanz," Mitteilungen der bayerischen numismatischen Gesellschaft, 25 [1906], 71 f.); the dirhem of Harun al-Rashid, which was part of the Biebrich find (A. Cahn, Versteigerungs-Katalog, no. 42 [1922], no. 512. Professors Peter Berghaus and Philip Grierson brought this entry to my attention.), two dirhems (struck between 846 and 861) in the Odoorn find (Boeles, op. cit., p. 73), and a dirhem (dated 866) supposedly from the find of Muizon-lez-Malines (H. Roosens in RBN 1950, pp. 203–208). As the Muizon-les-Malines find was dispersed and reassembled over a long space of time, the pedigree of the later dirhem attributed to it is by no means impeccable. |

84 | Cap. Saxon. (797), c. 11, MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, p. 72: "In argento duodecim denarios solidum faciant." Cap. Legi Addita (816), c. 3, MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, p. 268: "Ut omnis solutio adque conpositio, que lege Salica continetur in Francia per duodecim denariorum solidos conponatur...." Cap. Legibus Addit. (803), c. 9, MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, no. 39, p. 114: "Omnia debita, quae ad partem regis solvere debent, solidis duodecim denariorum solvant, excepto freda quae in lege Saliga scripta est; ilia eodem solido quo caeterae compositiones solvi debent componatur." This reckoning, of course, was standard long before the 790 reform. Cf. the Cap. Liftinense (743), c. 2, MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, no. 11, p. 28, and the Concilium Liftinense (743), c. 2, MGH Conc. K. A. I, no. 2, p. 7. That there were twenty solidi to the pound is not established in documents after 790, but it may be deduced from an earlier (780) capitulary. MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, no. 21, p. 52: "Et unusquisque episcopus aut abbas vel abbatissa, qui hoc facere potest, libram de argento in elemosinam donet, mediocres vero mediam libram, minores solidos quinque ... Et qui redimere voluerit, fortiores comites uncias tres, mediocres unciam et dimidiam, minores solidum unum." As Charlemagne appears to have left the reckoning proportions of the earlier system unchanged in his major reform, one may surmise that he continued to calculate twenty solidi to the pound. Two recent papers submitted to the American Numismatic Society in its Summer Seminar have treated the question of the Caroline pound with conclusions which approximate those stated in the present essay. Miss Maureen A. Fennell ("Carolingian Monetary Policy in Italy: 774–814") deduced a reform pound of 405.72 gr., consisting of fifteen ounces, and Miss Anne Fox ("The North Italian Coinage of Otto I and the Honorantiae Civitatis Papiae") maintained that the pound weighed 434.4 gr. or 435.9 gr. The manuscripts of these essays are filed at the American Numismatic Society. |

85 | In addition to the sources cited above, n. 84, see a capitulary of Pippin, MGH Cap. Reg. Fr. I, no. 13, p. 32, c. 5: "De moneta constituimus similiter ut amplius non habeat in libra pensante nisi XXII solidos, et de ipsis XXII solidis monetarius accipiat solidum I, et illos alios domino cuius sunt reddat" From this source, Prou concluded, "Pepin avait fixé la valeur de la livre é vingtdeux sols." Monnaies carolingiennes, p. xxix. And some scholars have surmised that the monetary pound under Pippin consisted of 264 denarii (e.g., H. H. Vélckers, op. cit., p. 32). The document deals with the number of solidi to be struck from a pound of silver (the mint pound) not with the number to be reckoned to a pound in business negotiations (the account pound); and one should allow about 10 per cent as the monetary charge, or the profits of mintage. Cf. a ninth century comment, wrongly attributed to Isidore of Seville, in F. Hultsch, Metrologicorum Scriptorum Reliquiae, II (Leipzig, 1866), p. 139: "Iuxta Gallos vigesima pars unciae denarius est, et duodecim denarii solidum reddunt. Ideoque iuxta nummerum denariorum tres unciae quinque solidos complent. Sic et quinque solidi in tres uncias redeunt. Nam duodecim unciae libram XX solidos continentem efficiunt. Sed veteres solidum qui nunc aureus dicitur nuncupabant." This comment, however, does not correspond mathematically with the terms of the 780 decree, according to which 5 solidi = 38/4 oz. = 1/4 lb., and 20 solidi = 15 oz. = 1 lb. |

86 | See above, n. 84. |

87 | S. Suchodolski, "Le Poids des monnaies de Charlemagne émises aprés la reforme," Dona Numismatica (Festschrift W. Hévernick), eds. P. Berghaus and G. Hatz (Hamburg, 1965), pp. 43–50. On the practice of compensating for supposed weight losses through wear, as used by Dr. Suchodolski, see the reservations in P. Grierson, "Coin Wear and the Frequency Table," Presidential Address at the Annual Meeting of the Royal Numismatic Society, NC 1963, pp. i–xvi. |

88 | L. J. F. Janssen in Oudheidkundige mededelingen (1842), pp. 49 ff., with plate; J. H. Holwerda, "Opgravingen von Dorestad," Oudheidkundige Mededeelinggen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheiden te Leiden , 11 (1930), pp. 83 f., with photograph (no weights given). With extraordinary kindness, Dr. G. van der Meer, of the Koninklijk Kabinet van Munten, The Hague, discovered the location of the Leiden weights, which were reweighed at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheiden. Their description is as follows: Inv. W. D. 780, with stamp of Christiana Religio, diameter 5–5.3 cm., weight 283.65 gr. Inv. W. D. 781, with stamp of Frankish denier with legend PARIS/II, diameter 4.7–4.9 cm., weight 226.01 gr. Inv. W. D. 782, with stamp of Louis the Pious and Christiana Religio, diameter 3.4 cm., weight 70.535 gr. In his "Die Duursteder Karolingergewichte und der Ursprung des mittelalterlichen Pfundes," Blétter fér Ménzfreunde, 62 (1927), pp. 161–167, B. Hilliger rendered the weights 284 gr., 226 gr., and 70.5 gr. but Luschin gave them as 184 gr., 183.5 gr., and 126 gr. In his initial publication, Janssen stated them as being 285 gr., 227 gr., and 177 gr. The last figure must have been an inadvertent error. |

89 | Prou, op. cit., p. xl. M. M. Thirion, of the Bibliothéque Royale de Belgique, with his usual courtesy, discovered at my request that the Brussels weight is one of those published by Janssen, op. cit. He also sent the following description of the piece, the preservation of which is so poor as to thwart photography: It measures 56 mm. in diameter and stands 7.6 mm. high, except in the center, where a piece of lead fixed to the surface raises it to 9 mm. |

90 | Cf. B. Kisch, "Weights and Scales in Medieval Scandinavia," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 14 (1959) pp. 160–168. The evidence of Italian weights inscribed Caroli Pondus is, as Prou observed, so various and contradictory that it cannot be brought to bear directly upon problems of Carolingian metrology. They do not conform to a single weight system, and the inscriptions on some of them are patently later than the Carolingian, or even than the mediaeval, period. (See Prou, Monnaies carolingiennes, pp. xxxviii ff.). Through the kindness of the Bibliotheca apostolica Vaticana, I am able to add two pieces of this genre: No. 5559: Bronze weight, diam. 38.5 mm., height 11 mm., weight 109 gr. Circular inscription: +CAROLIPODVS [sic.]. No. 5560: Bronze weight, diam. 36 mm., height 5 mm., weight 40 gr. Circular inscription: +CAROLIPONDVS. I am indebted to Father Guy Ferrari and to Dr. Michelini Tocci, of the Vatican Library, for this data. |

91 | R. H. M. Dolley, "A Piedfort Lead Trial-piece of Edward the Confessor," British Numismatic Journal, 27 (1953), pp. 176f, pl. VI, no. 1. |

Belli Coll. — Collection of Dr. Ludwig Belli, sold by S. Rosenberg,
Frankfurt a.M., Nov. 1904.

Berghaus — Peter Berghaus, "Die ostfriesischen Ménzfunde,"
Friesisches Jahrbuch (1958), pp. 9–70.

Bigot, RN 1855 — A. Bigot, "Notice sur quelques monnaies bretonnes inédites,"
RN 1855, pp. 38–45.

Blaser-Frey — Sales Catalogue of Helga
P. R. Blaser-Frey, Freiburg i.B. June 1963.

Blunt, BNJ 1948 — C. E, Blunt, "Four Italian Coins Imitating Anglo-Saxon
Types," BNJ 1948, pp. 282–285.

BMS — R. H. M. Dolley and K. F. Morrison, Sylloge of Carolingian Coins in the
British Museum (London, 1965).

Bordeaux, RBN 1893 — P. Bordeaux, "Les monnaies de Tréves pendant la période
carolingienne," RBN 1893, pp. 279–343.

Bordeaux Coll. — Bordeaux
Collection sold at Hétel Drouot, April 26, 1926.

Bourgey — Sales Catalogue of Emile Bourgey, Paris. Dec. 1964.

Bourquelot, RN 1838 — F. Bourquelot, "Monnoies de Provins," RN
1838, pp. 35–46.

Bretagne, RN 1854 — A. Bretagne, "Denier frappé é Laon par
Charles-de-Loraine, comme roi de France 987–990," RN 1854, pp. 61–66.

Cahn — Sales Catalogue of A. E. Cahn, Frankfurt a.M.

April 1899 (H. Grote Collection).

June 1903 (H. Dannenberg Collection).

April 1912 (Th. Kirsch Collection).

March 1913 (Freiherr v. B. in D. Collection).

April 1921 (Duplicates of the Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Sept. 1921 (Duplicates of the Coin Cabinet at Darmstadt).

Dec. 1922.

Oct. 1924 (F. Friedensburg Collection).

March 1926 (Bowie, Philadelphia Collection).

Oct. 1926 (Duplicates of the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg).

April 1929 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Oct. 1929 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Feb. 1931 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Sept. 1932 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Dec. 1932 (De Saulcy Collection).

Feb. 1935 (W. Pieper Collection).

Fixed Price List No. 15: May 1897.

Fixed Price List No. 20: Jan. 1906.

Fixed Price List No. 26: May 1914.

Fixed Price List No. 31: 1934.

April 1899 (H. Grote Collection).

June 1903 (H. Dannenberg Collection).

April 1912 (Th. Kirsch Collection).

March 1913 (Freiherr v. B. in D. Collection).

April 1921 (Duplicates of the Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Sept. 1921 (Duplicates of the Coin Cabinet at Darmstadt).

Dec. 1922.

Oct. 1924 (F. Friedensburg Collection).

March 1926 (Bowie, Philadelphia Collection).

Oct. 1926 (Duplicates of the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg).

April 1929 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Oct. 1929 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Feb. 1931 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Sept. 1932 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Dec. 1932 (De Saulcy Collection).

Feb. 1935 (W. Pieper Collection).

Fixed Price List No. 15: May 1897.

Fixed Price List No. 20: Jan. 1906.

Fixed Price List No. 26: May 1914.

Fixed Price List No. 31: 1934.

Cappe — Heinrich Philipp Cappe, Die Ménzen dev deutschen Kaiser und Kénige
(Dresden, 1848–1857).

Carpentin, RN 1860 — A. Carpentin, "Quelques monnaies rares ou inédites de la
bibliothéque de Marseille," RN 1860, pp. 43–56.

Cartier, RN 1837 — E. Cartier, "Monnoies de Carloman et de Charles-leGros,"
RN 1837, pp. 334–346.

— RN 1846 — "Recherches sur les monnaies au type chartrain, Appendice," RN 1846, pp.
107–130.

Chalon, RBN 1861 — R. Chalon, "Denier de Charles le Chauve, frappé é Famars,"
RBN 1861, pp. 237–241.

Ciani — Sales Catalogue of L. Ciani, Paris.

Fixed Price List No. 399: June 1934.

Fixed Price List No. 399: June 1934.

CNI — Corpus Nummorum Italicorum.

Combrouse — Guillaume Combrouse, Catalogue Raisonné des Monnaies Nationals de France
(Paris, 1839).

Cuypers, RBN 1853 — Prosper Cuypers, "Une monnaie mérovingienne frappée é
Anvers," RBN 1853, pp. 353–356.

De Barthélemy, RN 1861 — A. de Barthélemy, Monnaies des comtes de Tonnerre,"
RN 1861, pp. 366–377.

De Coster, RBN 1852 — L. de Coster, "Restitution de quelques monnaies é
Charlemagne," RBN 1852, pp. 369–403.

— RBN 1855 — "Nouvelles considérations sur des monnaies restitutées é Charlemagne," RBN 1855,
pp. 1—21.

— RBN 1857 — "Explications faisant suite aux précédentes notices sur l'attribution é Charlemagne de quelques types
monétaires," RBN 1857, pp. 30–54.

— RBN 1859 — "Considérations é, propos de quelques deniers inédits de Pepin le Bref et de Charlemagne," RBN
1859, pp. 210–238.

De Ferrari Coll. — Philippe de Ferrari la Renotiére Collection, Paris.

Deglatigny Coll. — Louis Deglatigny
Collection sold at the Hétel Drouot, Paris, Nov. 1937.

De Jonghe Coll. — Collection of J. P. T. de Jonghe, sold in Brussels,
1860.

De la Saussaye, RN 1837 — Louis de la Saussaye, "Médailles
gauloises en cuivre quise trouvent habituellement é Soings et é Giévres," RN 1837, pp. 241–250.

De Longpérier, RN 1840 — A. de Longpéier, "Recherches sur les monnoies de
Meaux, RN 1840, pp. 128–153.

— RN 1856 — "Quelques deniers de Pépin, de Carloman et de Charlemagne," RN 1856, pp.
180–189.

— RN 1857 — "Monnaies épiscopales de Strasbourg et de Constance," RN 1857. pp. 319–345.

— RN 1868 — "Vente de la collection de M. C. T. Dassy," RN 1868, pp. 485–490.

De Roucy Coll. — Collection of de Roucy sold at Hétel Drouot, Paris, Nov.
1920.

Dieudonné, RN 1915 — A. Dieudonné, "Acquisitions du Cabinet des Medailles: Monnaies
carolingiennes," RN 1915, pp. 211–242.

Dolley-Morrison, "Finds" — R. H. M. Dolley and K. F. Morrison, "Finds of Carolingian
coins from Great Britain and Ireland," BNJ 1964, pp. 75–87.

Duchalais, RN 1839 — A. Duchalais, "Attribution é Baugency d'une monnoie
carolingienne inedited," RN 1839, pp. 204–208.

Du Lac Coll. — J. Du Lac
Collection sold at Hétel Drouot, Paris, June 1910 (second part, Monnaies
Franéaises).

Engel and Lehr — A. Engel and E. Lehr, Numismatique de
l'Alsace (Paris, 1887).

Engel and Serrure — A. Engel and R. Serrure, Traité de
numismatique du moyen ége, 3 vols. (Paris, 1891–1905).

Fillon, RN 1844 — B. Fillon, "Monnaies inédites de Saint-Martin de Tours," RN
1844, pp. 271—277.

— Lettres — Lettres é Dugast Matifeux sur quelques monnaies franéaises inédites (Paris,
1853).

Florange — Sales Catalogue of Jules Florange, Paris.

Fixed Price List Sept. 1958.

Fixed Price List Sept. 1959.

Fixed Price List Sept. 1958.

Fixed Price List Sept. 1959.

Fougéres, RN 1839 — F. Fougéres, "Monnoies inédites de la seconde race," RN
1839, pp. 94–103.

Frankfurter Ménzhandl. — Sales Catalogue of Frankfurter Ménzhandlung, Frankfurt a.M.

Jan. 1957.

April 1960.

Sept. 1961.

Jan. 1957.

April 1960.

Sept. 1961.

Frére — Hubert Frére, "Monnaies frappées é Liége et é Avroy," RBN 1963, pp.
37–73.

Gaettens — Sales Catalogue of R. Gaettens, Jr., Heidelberg.

Dec. 1955.

Dec. 1955.

Gans-Grunthal — Sales Catalogue of Henry Grunthal and Numismatic Fine Arts.

June 1950 (R. Melchior Collection).

April 1951.

June 1950 (R. Melchior Collection).

April 1951.

Gariel — E. Gariel, Les monnaies Roy ales de France sous la Race Carolingienne, I–III
(Strasbourg, 1883–84).

— Annuaire — "Description de quelques monnaies se rattachant é la numismatique franéaise,"
Annuaire de la Société de numismatique (1867), pp. 137–145.

Gariel Coll. — Gariel
Collection sold at the Hétel des Commissaires-Priseurs, April 1885.

Garrett Coll. — John W. Garrett
Collection at Johns Hopkins University.

Garthe Coll. — Catalog der Ménzen- und Medaillen Sammlungen des Herrn Hugo Garthe in Kéln, sold by
J. M. Heberle, Cologne, Sept. 1884.

Glendining & Co. — Sales Catalogue of Glendining & Co., London.

March 1964 (Gold and Silver Coins of the World from the Estate of Wayte Raymond).

March 1964 (Gold and Silver Coins of the World from the Estate of Wayte Raymond).

Gnecchi — E. Gnecchi, Le monete di Milano da Carlo Magno a Vittorio Emanuele II
(Milan, 1884).

Gouaux Coll. — Collection of M. Gouaux of Alenéon, sold in 1857 at the Hétel des
Commissaires-Priseurs.

Grierson, ANSCent. Publ. — Philip Grierson, "Some Modern Forgeries of Carolingian Coins,"
ANSCent. Publ. (1958), pp. 301–315.

Grierson, Jaarboek 1951 — "The Gold Solidus of Louis the Pious and its Imitations," Jaarboek
voor Munt- en Penningkunde (1951), pp. 1–41.

Grunthal — Henry Grunthal, "Tentative Attributions of Some Hitherto Uncertain Carolingian
Coins," Dona Numismatica, ed. P. Berghaus and G. Hatz (Hamburg,
1965), pp. 51–54.

Hamburger — Sales Catalogue of L & L Hamburger, Frankfurt a.M.

June 1891 (Lorenz Kéhler Collection).

May 1901 (E. Gnecchi Collection).

Jan. 1902 (E. Gnecchi Collection).

Nov. 1912 (Duplicates of the Royal Cabinet, Berlin).

Sept. 1917 (J. Ebner Collection).

Nov. 1922 (Bedeutende Universalsammlung).

Sept. 1926 (G. in D. Collection).

Feb. 1928 (Prince Philip of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha).

Nov. 1928 (Sammlung eines schweizer Amateurs).

June 1891 (Lorenz Kéhler Collection).

May 1901 (E. Gnecchi Collection).

Jan. 1902 (E. Gnecchi Collection).

Nov. 1912 (Duplicates of the Royal Cabinet, Berlin).

Sept. 1917 (J. Ebner Collection).

Nov. 1922 (Bedeutende Universalsammlung).

Sept. 1926 (G. in D. Collection).

Feb. 1928 (Prince Philip of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha).

Nov. 1928 (Sammlung eines schweizer Amateurs).

Hévernick — Walter Hévernick, Die Ménzen von Kéln vom Beginn der Prégung bis 1304
(Cologne, 1935).

— HBN 1952/4 — "Die Anfénge der karolingischen Goldprégung in Nord-westeuropa," HBN
1952/4, pp. 55–60.

HBN — Hamburger Beitrége zur Numismatik.

Heiss — Aloiss Heiss, Description General de las Monedas Hispano-Christianas
(Madrid, 1865).

Helbing — Sales Catalogue of Otto Helbing Nachf., Munich.

March 1902 (Ménzen und Medaillen Cabinet Rainer).

May 1907 (Gustav Gube et alias).

Nov. 1909 (Ménzen und Medaillen verschiedener Lénder).

March 1911.

Oct. 1912 (Zschieche und Kéder, Leipzig).

April 1913.

Dec. 1913 (Sammlung eines ésterreichischen Kavaliers).

Dec. 1917 (A. Kahlert Collection).

Oct. 1927 (Jéger-Piloty).

Dec. 1931 (Professor Heinrich Buchenau Collection).

Oct. 1932 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Oct. 1933 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

March 1902 (Ménzen und Medaillen Cabinet Rainer).

May 1907 (Gustav Gube et alias).

Nov. 1909 (Ménzen und Medaillen verschiedener Lénder).

March 1911.

Oct. 1912 (Zschieche und Kéder, Leipzig).

April 1913.

Dec. 1913 (Sammlung eines ésterreichischen Kavaliers).

Dec. 1917 (A. Kahlert Collection).

Oct. 1927 (Jéger-Piloty).

Dec. 1931 (Professor Heinrich Buchenau Collection).

Oct. 1932 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Oct. 1933 (Férstenberg Cabinet at Donaueschingen).

Hess — Sales Catalogue of Adolph Hess Nachf., Frankfurt a.M.

June 1888 (Hirzel von Escher Collection).

May 1893 (Carl Farina, Cologne Collection).

Oct. 1901.

Oct. 1903 (Duplicates of the Royal Coin Cabinet in Berlin).

Oct. 1904 (Joseph F. Hirsch, Troppau Collection).

April 1928 (Vogel Collection).

Fixed Price List 1905.

June 1888 (Hirzel von Escher Collection).

May 1893 (Carl Farina, Cologne Collection).

Oct. 1901.

Oct. 1903 (Duplicates of the Royal Coin Cabinet in Berlin).

Oct. 1904 (Joseph F. Hirsch, Troppau Collection).

April 1928 (Vogel Collection).

Fixed Price List 1905.

Hess-Bank Leu — Sales Catalogue of Adolph Hess-Leu & Co., Lucerne-Zérich.

Oct. 1964.

Oct. 1964.

Hess, Lucerne — Sales Catalogue of Adolph Hess, Lucerne.

July 1933 (Archduke Sigismund of Austria Collection).

July 1933 (Archduke Sigismund of Austria Collection).

Hirsch — Sales Catalogue of Gerhard Hirsch, Munich.

June 1956.

Nov. 1958.

Oct. 1961.

March 1966.

June 1956.

Nov. 1958.

Oct. 1961.

March 1966.

Hucher, RN 1857 — E. Hucher, "Note sur un denier d'Eudes" RN
1857, pp. 315–318.

Kress — Sales Catalogue of Ménchner Ménzhandlung
Karl Kress.

Dec. 1956.

Oct. 1960.

Dec. 1961.

Dec. 1956.

Oct. 1960.

Dec. 1961.

Kricheldorf — Sales Catalogue of Hellmuth H. Kricheldorf, Stuttgart.

May 1956.

Nov. 1960.

June 1961.

June 1964.

July 1964.

Nov. 1966.

May 1956.

Nov. 1960.

June 1961.

June 1964.

July 1964.

Nov. 1966.

Kunz, Periodico 1870 — C. Kunz, "Museo Bottacin annesso alla civica Biblioteca e
Museo di Padova," Periodico di numismatica e sfragistica (1870), pp. 22–35.

Lafaurie, ANSCent. Publ. — Jean Lafaurie, "Trésor de monnaies carolingiennes découvert dans le
Jura," ANSCent. Publ. (1958), pp. 407—415.

Lelewel — J. Lelewel, Numismatique de moyen-ége, 2 vols. (Paris,
1835).

Lempertz — Sales Catalogue of Lempertz Kunstauktionshaus, Cologne.

March 1927 (Wilhelm Pieper, Soest Collection).

March 1927 (Wilhelm Pieper, Soest Collection).

Lockett Coll. — Coins at one time comprising the collection of R. Cyril Lockett, sold by
Glendining & Co., London, Feb. 29, 1956.

Lopez, Periodico 1869 — M. Lopez, "Aggiunte alla Zecca e moneta Parmigiana,"
Periodico di numismatica e sfragistica (1869), pp. 5–25.

Martinori Coll. — Martinori
Collection sold by P. & P. Santamaria, Rome, Nov. 1913.

Maxe-Werly, RBN 1889 — M. L. Maxe-Werly, "état actual de la numismatique
rémoise," RBN 1889, pp. 57–87.

Meert, RBN 1962 — Christian Meert, "Les monnaies carolingiennes de l'atelier de
Dinant," RBN 1962, pp. 153–172.

Meyer Coll. — Collection H. M. sold at the Hétel Drouot, Paris, May
1902.

Morrison, Speculum 1961 — K. F. Morrison, "The Gold Medallions of Louis the Pious and
Lothaire I and the Synod of Paris (525)," Speculum 1961, pp. 592–599.

Motte Coll. — Ancienne Collection Georges Motte sold by Emile Bourgey at the Hétel
Drouot, Paris, Nov. 1951.

Ménz. u. Med. — Sales Catalogue of Ménzen und Medaillen
A. G., Basel.

Dec. 1948 (Schweizer und ausléndische Ménzen).

Dec. 1949 (Schweizer und ausléndische Ménzen).

June 1951 (Ausléndische Gold - und Silberménzen).

July 1955 (Monnaies Suisses en or ..., Deniers Carolingiens).

Dec. 1957 (Schweizer Ménzen und Medaillen ..., Denare der Karolinger).

Nov. 1961 (Européische Ménzen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit).

Nov. 1963 (Monnaies Italiennes).

Nov. 1964 (Collection d'un amateur suisse).

Dec. 1948 (Schweizer und ausléndische Ménzen).

Dec. 1949 (Schweizer und ausléndische Ménzen).

June 1951 (Ausléndische Gold - und Silberménzen).

July 1955 (Monnaies Suisses en or ..., Deniers Carolingiens).

Dec. 1957 (Schweizer Ménzen und Medaillen ..., Denare der Karolinger).

Nov. 1961 (Européische Ménzen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit).

Nov. 1963 (Monnaies Italiennes).

Nov. 1964 (Collection d'un amateur suisse).

Ménzhandl. Basel — Sales Catalogue of Ménzhandlung
Basel.

Dec. 1935 (Collection de Monnaies Franéaises).

Oct. 1936 (Monnaies et Médaillles Suisses et Franéaises).

Dec. 1935 (Collection de Monnaies Franéaises).

Oct. 1936 (Monnaies et Médaillles Suisses et Franéaises).

Nascia — Sales Catalogue of R. G. Nascia, Milan.

Fixed Price List Oct. 1965.

Fixed Price List March 1966.

Fixed Price List Oct. 1965.

Fixed Price List March 1966.

Nedonchel, RBN 1863 — Cte. de Nedonchal, "Monnaies inédites de Tournai," RBN
1863, pp. 160–164.

Nébbe — E. Nébbe, "Der karolingische Ménzschatz vom Krinkberg," Festschrift zur
Hundertjahrfeier des Museums vorgeschichtlicher Altertémer in Kiel (Neuménster, 1936).

Norman Coll. — Collection of Jules Norman sold at the Hétel des Commissaires-Priseurs,
Paris, April 1910 (Monnaies Grecques, Romaines, Gauloises et
Franéaises).

Papadopoli — Nicolo Papadopoli, Le Monete di Venezia (Venice,
1893).

Peus — Sales Catalogue of Busso Peus, Frankfurt a.M.

Nov. 1954 (Rémische Ménzen ... Karolinger Ménzen).

Oct. 1955 (Deutschland, insbesondere Karolinger).

Nov. 1954 (Rémische Ménzen ... Karolinger Ménzen).

Oct. 1955 (Deutschland, insbesondere Karolinger).

Piot, RBN 1851 — C. Piot, "Notice sur cinq monnaies inédites," RBN
1851, pp. 247–257.

— RBN 1852 — "Trois monnaies carolingiennes frappées é Dinant, Maestricht et Namur," RBN 1852,
pp. 139–141.

Poey d'Avant — Faustin Poey d'Avant, Monnaies Féodales de France
(Paris, 1858).

Prou — M. Maurice Prou, Les Monnaies Carolingiennes (Paris,
1896).

Quintino, RN 1841 — J. de S. Quintino, "Notice sur les monnoies des princes de Salerne," RN
1841, pp. 45–56.

Ratto — Sales Catalogue of Mario Ratto, Milan.

March 1957.

March 1957.

Ratto — Sales Catalogue of M. Mario Ratto, Paris.

March 1936.

March 1936.

Ratto — Sales Catalogue of R. Ratto, Lugano.

Dec. 1930 (Monnaies Byzantines — Les rois Francs etc.).

Dec. 1930 (Monnaies Byzantines — Les rois Francs etc.).

RBN — Revue Belge de Numismatique.

Riechman — Sales Catalogue of A. Riechman & Co., Halle (Saale).

Nov. 1924 (Die mittelalterlichen Ménzen des Hessischen Landesmuseums in Kassel).

April 1928 (Ménzen des Mittelalters).

Dec. 1934 (Der Fund von Ludwiszcze).

Nov. 1924 (Die mittelalterlichen Ménzen des Hessischen Landesmuseums in Kassel).

April 1928 (Ménzen des Mittelalters).

Dec. 1934 (Der Fund von Ludwiszcze).

RN — Revue Numismatique.

Robert — C. Robert, Etudes Numismatiques sur une partie du Nord — Est de la France
(Metz, 1852).

Robert Coll. — Charles Robert
Collection sold at the Hétel des Commissaires-Priseurs, Paris, March 1886 (Description de
la collection de M. P. Charles Robert).

Robert, RN 1866 — "Monnaies de Tréves, de Metz et de Verdun," RN 1866, pp.
165–171.

Rosenberg — Sales Catalogue of Sally Rosenberg, Frankfurt a.M.

Nov. 1904 (Ludwig Belli's Ménzcabinet, I part).

Feb. 1906 (Ludwig Belli's Ménzcabinet, II part).

March 1914 (Geheimrat Helferich, Eisenach).

Dec. 1932 (Ménzen und Medaillen des Mittelalters).

Oct. 1933 (Sammlung Franz Heerdt).

Nov. 1904 (Ludwig Belli's Ménzcabinet, I part).

Feb. 1906 (Ludwig Belli's Ménzcabinet, II part).

March 1914 (Geheimrat Helferich, Eisenach).

Dec. 1932 (Ménzen und Medaillen des Mittelalters).

Oct. 1933 (Sammlung Franz Heerdt).

Rousseau Coll. — Rousseau Collection sold at fixed prices by Rollin et Feuardent,
Paris, 1861 (Catalogue des Monnaies Nationales de France).

Salmon, RN 1853 — P. Salmon, "Notice sur un denier inédit du roi Raoul, frappé a Chéteau-Landon,'' RN
1853, pp. 419–424.

Schlessinger — Sales Catalogue of Felix Schlessinger, Berlin.

March 1930 (Sammlung aus norddeutschem Besitz, II part: Merovinger, Karolinger etc.)

Schulman — Sales Catalogue of J. Schulman, Amsterdam.

Oct. 1913 (Catalogue d'une collection intéressante de Monnaies du Moyen ége).

Jan. 1929 (M. Othon Leonardos collection).

Jan. 1931.

June 1936.

June 1939.

Jan. 1956 (Moritz Wormser Estate, New York).

March 1959 (J. C. P. E. Menso collection).

June 1961 (J. van Kuyk collection).

April 1965 (J. van der Meer, N.Y. collection).

Oct. 1913 (Catalogue d'une collection intéressante de Monnaies du Moyen ége).

Jan. 1929 (M. Othon Leonardos collection).

Jan. 1931.

June 1936.

June 1939.

Jan. 1956 (Moritz Wormser Estate, New York).

March 1959 (J. C. P. E. Menso collection).

June 1961 (J. van Kuyk collection).

April 1965 (J. van der Meer, N.Y. collection).

Serrure — Bulletin mensuel de numismatique et d'archéologie, ed. Raymond Serrure
(Brussels, 1881–1887).

Simonis, RBN 1896 — J. Simonis, "Un denier é téte de Louis le Débonnaire frappé é
Trévise," RBN 1896, pp. 394–396.

Stephanik Coll. — Joh. W. Stephanik
Collection sold by Frederik Muller & Cie, Amsterdam, Dec. 1904.

Suchodolski — S. Suchodolski, "Le Poids des monnaies de Charlemagne émises aprés la
reforme," Dona Numismatica (Festschrift W. Hévernick), eds. P. Berghaus and G.
Hatz (Hamburg, 1965), pp. 43–50.

Théry Coll. — Louis Théry
Collection sold at the Hétel Drouot, Oct. 1963.

Tinchant — Sales Catalogue of Paul Tinchant, Brussels.

Fixed Price List Feb. 1962.

Fixed Price List Feb. 1962.

Van der Chijs — Pieter Otto van der Chijs, De Munten der Frankische- en Duitsch-Nederlandsche Vorsten, Vol.
IX (Haarlem, 1866).

Vatican Coll. — Gabinetto Numismatico Vaticano, Rome.

Vogel Coll. — Vogel Collection sold by A. Hess, Frankfurt, April
1928.

Voillemier, RBN 1851 — Voillemier, "Restitution d'un denier de Charles II (le Chauve)
é la ville de Huy," RBN 1851, pp. 99–104.

Vélckers — H. H. Vélckers, Karolingische Ménzfunde der Fréhzeit (751—800), Abhandlungen
der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Géttingen, philol.-hist. Kl. III, no. 61 (Géttingen, 1965).

Zadoks and Jitta, Jaarboek — A. N. Zadoks and J. Jitta,
"Vroeg-Karolingische munten van Dorestad," Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde (1949), pp. 96–98.

Arrangement of the Catalogue

The catalogue combines the arrangement according to rulers, which was adopted by Gariel, and that according to topography, which Prou employed; the principal classification is that of the ruler, the secondary, that of the mint city. In attributions, our rule has been to confess doubt when it persists despite earnest efforts to clarify it; for we judge that it would only provoke misunderstandings among non-specialists—and, indeed, that it would render no service to specialists—if we advanced as fact attributions which rest on hypothesis or on sheer conjecture, however learned. Cross references have been used when particular issues could have been struck by either of two rulers, or by both. When there are several types struck by the same ruler in one mint city, an attempt has been made to set the issues in chronological order, according to the data analysed in the introduction. Denarii precede oboli. Within each entry, the following order has been used: types, references to Prou, Gariel, and the British Museum Sylloge of Carolingian Coins, citations of sales catalogues, exemplars arranged according to collection (as described on pp. ix–xi), and find data.

PIPPIN THE SHORT (752–768)

Alsace

STRASSBURG

1. Obv.: R-P, with one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: CIVARCRATé Cross. Denarius.

Gariel III, 72 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 584; Meyer Coll., 66 (ex Imphy).

Berlin: 1.05 gr., 1.17 gr.; Brussels: 1.22 gr. (Plate I).

Finds: Ilanz II, 1.24 gr.; Imphy.

Lorraine

CAMBRAI

2. Obv.: +R-P, with two dots between the letters, three dots, triangularly arranged between the legs of the R, and behind the P.

Rev:. with a bar between the lines. Two dots at the left end of the bar. Denarius.

Gariel I, 19 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find. 1.20 gr.).

Berlin: 1.24 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

TRIER

3. Obv.: Δ, N, P, P, in the corners of a cross.

Rev.: PTREFER. Dot. Denarius.

Bordeaux, RBN 1893, p. 281, no. 1.

Trier: (Inv. 40.1199) 1.30 gr.

Find: Trier.

4. As foregoing, with reading Obolus.

Bordeaux Coll., 164, wt. 0.60 gr.; Cahn, April 1929, 2.

5. Obv.: Δ, N, PI, PI, in the corners of a cross.

Rev.: PTREFER (retrograde). Obolus.

Bordeaux, RBN 1893, p. 282, no. 2.

Trier: (Inv. 29.6) 0.60 gr. (Plate I).

Trier: (Inv. 40.1200) 1.11 gr.

Find: Trier.

7. Obv.: PI Δ, several bars above.

Rev.: TREFER. Dot. Denarius.

Bordeaux Coll., 163, 1.13 gr.

Find: Trier.

VERDUN

Prou 142; Gariel IV, 77 (Gariel Coll., Imphy find).

Rosenberg 1906, 1; Vogel Coll., Hess April 1928, 3672.

Paris: 1.07 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

9. with a dot in the curve of the R.

Gariel IV, 76.

The Hague: (527, var. with a cross at the left. Broken). 1.04 gr.

Francia

ST-FIRMIN (AMIENS)

Prou 227; Gariel III, 62 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 581.

Paris: 1.05 gr. (Plate I); Berlin: 1.18 gr.

ST-PIERRE (CORBIE?)

11. Obv.: with one dot between the legs of the R, one between the letters, and one beneath the curve of the P.

Prou 928; Gariel III, 70 (Gariel Coll., Imphy find).

Meyer Coll., 65 (ex Imphy); Hamburger Nov. 1912, 2; Helbing Dec. 1917, 1; Schlessinger March 1930, 1480. (The last three entries refer to the same piece).

Paris: 1.31 gr.; Berlin: 1.36 gr.(Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

ST-MARIE (LAON?)

Rev.: SCIMARA. S in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel III, 67 (RN 1844, p. 273).

13. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. One dot at each end of the bar. Denarius.

Gariel III, 71a (Voillemier Coll.).

Berlin: 1.17 gr.

Find: Imphy.

NOYEN

14. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: NO/VIMO/M⋄, with a bar between each line. Denarius.

Gariel III, 49 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 574.

Berlin: 0.98 gr. (Plate I).

RHEIMS

15. Obv.: LAbI, with a bar above the monogram, one dot after the I, and a cross beneath the monogram with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: REM, with a bar above and three dots horizontally arranged beneath. Denarius.

Gariel III, 56 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.29 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Rheims.

Neustria

CHARTRES

16. Obv.: with a bar beneath the monogram, one dot before the R, and two dots beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Man standing, full front, both arms extended, and holding a cross in each hand. As part of the pattern, the letters C, A, R, T. Denarius.

Prou 923; Gariel I, 21 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Paris: 1.10 gr.

17. Variety of foregoing. Letters on rev. are C, A, R, N. Denarius.

Gariel I, 22 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.22 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Chartres.

18. Obv.: with one dot before the R, and two beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Man standing, full front, both arms extended, and holding a cross in each hand. Dots in field. Denarius.

Prou 924; Gariel I, 24 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.), 23 (var., Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1957, 666.

Paris: 1.41 gr.; Berlin: 1.40 gr. (Plate I); ANS: 1.18 gr.

Find: Imphy.

ST-MARTIN (TOURS)

Rev.: +SCIMARTINI. Globule in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Prou 439 = Gariel III, 68.

Paris: 0.85 gr. (Plate I).

Rev.: + SCIMARTINI. Globule in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel III, 69 (letter of Barthélemy).

Find: Loire-Inférieure.

Burgundy

TROYES

21. Obv.: with one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Prou 540 = Gariel III, 73, (also Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Gariel Coll., Imphy find).

Gariel Coll., 585; Meyer Coll., 67.

Paris: 1.23 gr.; Berlin: 1.16 gr., 1.33 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

SENS

22. Obv.: ℞F.

Gariel II, 46 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find, 1.33 gr.).

Berlin: 1.35 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

23. Obv.: RP, with one dot between the letters and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: SE... NOIS. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel II, 47 (Salmon Coll.).

LYON

Prou 626; Gariel II, 36 ("publié par Fougére").

Paris: 1.20 gr. (Plate I).

Indeterminate Mints

PRESUMED "MULES"

25. Obv.: +/ΠPIPI/ horizontal axe.

Rev.: with one dot between the letters. Denarius.

Prou 980; Gariel I, 7–16 (var.); BMS I.

Gariel Coll., 566; Meyer Coll., 59, 60 (ex Imphy and Gariel); Bordeaux Coll., 160 (ex Meyer); Cahn Dec. 1932, 1197.

Paris: 1.25 gr.; Berlin: 1.34 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.29 gr., 0.95 gr.; BM: (SSB–127–1) 1.27 gr.; Brussels: 1.07 gr., 1.17 gr., 1.18 gr.; Copenhagen: (Fortegn., p. 250, n. 1) 1.30 gr., (Devegge 10) 1.22 gr.. (Plate I); (Thompson 1181) 1.44 gr.; The Hague: (531) 0.69 gr., (529) 0.90 gr., (524) 1.00 gr., (525) 1.00 gr. (all damaged); Munich: (lost, no weight recorded).

26. Obv.: +/ ΠPIPI/ horizontal axe.

Rev.: with two dots between the letters, and an indecipherable design at the right of the monogram. Denarius.

Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde, 1949, p. 97, pl. VII.

The Hague: (Inv. 1954, no. 5) 1.10 gr. (damaged).

Rev.: RTP, with three dots between the legs of the R, and one dot between the letters. Denarius.

Grierson: 1.15 gr.

28. Obv.: PIPl/:./NYS.

Rev.: with a six-pointed star at the left of the R and three dots, triangularly arranged beneath it. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 83 (LeBlanc).

29. Obv.: PĪP, with h-A between the letters and Ↄ beneath the curve of the second P.

Rev.: with two dots between the letters. Denarius.

Gariel II, 29 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.10 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

30. Obv.: +/IIPIPI/ horizontal axe.

Rev.: RTP, with four dots beneath the R, and one dot between the letters, one dot at the right of the P. Denarius.

The Hague: (533) 0.62 gr. (fragment).

31. Obv.: +/IIPIPI/ horizontal axe.

Rev.: with beneath the letters and one dot before the R. Denarius.

The Hague: (530) 1.15 gr.

ICONOGRAPHICAL REVERSES

Rev.: Indecipherable. Denarius.

The Hague: (Inv. 17486) 0.20 gr. (damaged).

33. Obv.: with three dots before the R and one dot between the letters.

Rev.: Four curved lines forming a rosette cross. Dots in field. Denarius.

Gariel II, 38 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 39 (var., Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Meyer Coll., 60 (ex Imphy and Gariel); Hamburger Nov. 1912, 4; Schulman Oct. 1913, 354; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1197.

Berlin: 1.29 gr. (Plate I); Copenhagen: (K. P. 1324) 1.33 gr.

Find: Imphy.

34. Obv.: with two dots between the letters.

Rev.: Cruciform pattern. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 78 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

A modern die of the obv. exists, cf. Grierson, ANSCent. Publ., p. 310, 1.

Berlin: 1.11 gr. (Plate I).

35. Obv.: with three dots, triangularly arranged, beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Cross with bar pendant from each end of the cross bar, and a curved bar extending downward on each side from the summit of the cross to the ends of the cross bar. A small cross at the head of the larger, and three dots at its foot. Denarius.

Prou 315; Gariel III, 50 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 575; Meyer Coll., 61.

Paris: 1.27 gr.; Berlin: 1.08 gr. (Plate I); Munich: (lost, no weight recorded).

36. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Illegible pattern about a patriarchal cross. Denarius.

Gariel III, 59 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 60 (var., Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Gariel Coll., 579; Meyer Coll., 64 (ex Imphy).

Berlin: 1.32 gr., 1.34 gr. (Plate I).

Find: Imphy.

37. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Indecipherable characters about a cross. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 79 (van der Chijs, pl. X, 19).

Berlin (Plate II).

38. Obv.: with crossed bar beneath.

Rev.: Man standing full face front, with arms outstretched, holding a cross in his right hand. In the pattern, the symbols EAC. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 80 (van der Chijs, pl. IX, 7).

39. Obv.: +/ΛPIPI/ horizontal axe.

Rev.: Man standing to right, holding in front a curved stave and to the rear, a cross. Illegible inscriptions at the left and at the right. Beneath, a dot. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 81 (van der Chijs, pl. X, 10).

The Hague: (Inv. 17485) 1.00 gr. (fragment).

40. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Six-pointed star with A in the center. Denarius.

Gariel II, 32 (Brussels).

Brussels: 0.85 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Bonn; Liège.

41. Obv.: with I in the curve of each letter, and F in monogram at the foot of the P.

Rev.: Indecipherable monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 44 (RN 1855, p. 39).

Find: Josselin.

EPIGRAPHICAL REVERSES

42. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and another beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with a semi-circle of dots around the curve of the D. Denarius.

Prou 922; Gariel I, 1 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 563; Meyer Coll., 57.

Paris: 0.65 gr.; Berlin: 1.18 gr.; Brussels: 0.68 gr.

Find: Bonn.

43. Obv.: with three dots, triangularly arranged before the R, one dot between the letters, one dot in the curve of the P, and a bar and a dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: AD⋄ monogram, with the ⋄ in the curve of the D. Three dots triangularly arranged before the A, one dot between the A and the D, and a bar beneath the monogram.

Gariel II, 33 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.32 gr.

Find: Imphy.

44. Obv.: with one dot between the letters, one dot beneath the monogram, and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: +AR, with a bar above the monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 30 (RBN 1859, pl. VII, 4, found at Dorestadt).

Rev.: AV. Denarius.

Gariel I, 5 (Fillon, Lettres à Dugast-Matifeux).

46. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

Rev.: +A-J Denarius.

Gariel II, 31 (Brussels).

47. Obv.: with two dots between the letters, and three dots triangularly arranged beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with one bar above the central line and one below it. Denarius.

(See D. M. Metcalf, "Coins of Pepin Minted at Saint-Denis?" Cunobelin, 1965, pp. 19–29, 54.)

Prou 2, 3, 4; Gariel I, 2 (Gariel Coll., Imphy find), 3 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 4 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find). BMS 2, 3. Norman Coll., 541; Lockett Coll., 317, 318; Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 1; Rosenberg March 1914, 476; Hamburger Sept. 1917, 1038; Cahn Dec. 1922, 494; 1.60 gr.; Cahn Sept. 1932, 1289; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1195; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1196; Kress Oct. 1960, 1367; Hirsch March 1966, 182.

Paris: 1.29 gr., 1.47 gr., 1.11 gr.; Berlin: 1.27 gr., 1.31 gr., 1.06 gr. (Plate II); ANS: 1.29 gr.; BM: (no number) 1.31 gr., (1908–10–8–6) 0.92 gr.; Brussels: 1.38 gr.; Grierson: 1.17 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17484) 0.90 gr.; Munich: (lost, no weight recorded); Van Rede: (B 1201) 1.20 gr.

Find: Imphy; Ilanz II: 0.73 gr., 0.83 gr., 0.87 gr., 1.02 gr., 1.18 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.28 gr.

48. Obv.: with two dots between the letters and one beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with a horizontal bar above. Denarius.

Gariel I, 20 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find, 1.22 gr.).

Berlin: 1.25 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Imphy.

48a. Obv.: RPIP, with a bar and a superimposed dot above, and beneath.

Rev.: with a bar beneath. Denarius.

49. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

Rev.: CVVSCO. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 74 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.33 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Imphy.

50. Obv.: " with one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: Monogram of CINMA (?), with a bar above. Denarius.

Prou 925 = Gariel II, 34.

Paris: 1.13 gr.; Berlin: 0.96 gr. (Plate II); The Hague: (Inv. 17578) 1.10 gr.

51. Obv.: with one dot between the legs of the R, one dot between the letters, and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Gariel III, 63 (Cabinet de France, but not in Prou).

52. Obv.: with one dot between the letters, and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with one dot within a diamond pattern between the letters, and four dots arranged in a diamond pattern beneath the monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 26 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 568.

Berlin: 0.94 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Verdun.

53. Obv.: DŌM/PIPI bars between the lines.

Rev.: ELI/MOSI/NA, with bars between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel I, 17 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find, 1.30 gr.).

Berlin: 1.35 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Imphy.

54. Obv.: R, with two dots before the R and one after it.

Rev.: ERI, retrograde, with two dots after the curve of the R, and between the legs of the R. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 82.

55. Obv.: with 1 beneath the curve of the P.

Prou 5 = Gariel II, 28.

Paris: 1.14 gr.

56. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one beneath the lower horizontal bar of the F.

Rev.: with a horizontal bar above and beneath. Denarius. Gariel I, 6 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 565.

Berlin: 1.08 gr. (Plate II).

Rev.: IIIQ/ + - :./OIII. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 75 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Meyer Coll., 68 (ex Imphy). Hamburger Nov. 1912, 1; Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 2.

Berlin: 1.08 gr. (Plate II); The Hague: (526 var. between the legs of the obverse R) 1.10 gr.

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: IL/"/EN. Denarius.

Gariel II, 27 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find, 1.29 gr.).

Berlin: 1.31 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Imphy.

59. Obv.: with a dot between the letters.

Rev.: LV, with a dot in the V and a bar above the monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 37 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 569; Hamburger Sept. 1926, 1.

Berlin: 1.19 gr., 1.31 gr. (Plate II).

60. Obv.: with two dots between the letters.

Cahn March 1926, 1, 0.87 gr.

61. Obv.: with one dot between the letters, one dot in the curve of the P, and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with three dots triangularly arranged beneath the M. Denarius.

Gariel II, 42 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 571.

Berlin: 0.92 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Lyon.

62. Obv.: with a bar above the monogram and a cross beneath.

Rev.: MIL/⋄, with a bar above the monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 43 (Fillon, Lettres a Dugast-Matifeux).

Berlin: 1.15 gr. (Plate II).

63. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

Rev.: (?) in monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 48 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 0.71 gr. (Plate II).

64. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

Rev.: with one dot before the and one in each of its corners. A bar above the monogram. Denarius.

Gariel II, 45 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 573; Hamburger Feb. 1928, 707; Schlessinger March 1930, 1479; Frankfurter Ménzhandl. Sept. 1961, 10.

Berlin: 1.15 gr. (Plate II).

65. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

Rev.: ... OIN⋄A. In center, Denarius.

Gariel II, 35 (fragment, Imphy find).

Berlin: 0.93 gr. (Plate II).

Find: Imphy.

66. Obv.: with one dot in the curve of the R, and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: +O/MAC/CS. Denarius.

Gariel II, 40 (Brussels), 41 (var. Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.29 gr. (Plate II); Brussels: 0.91 gr.

67. Obv.: RP, before the R, between the legs of the R, a bar with a pendant semi-circle above the monogram.

Brussels: 0.84 gr.

68. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with one dot between the letters. Denarius.

Garrett Coll.: (6112) 1.18 gr.

69. Obv.: with two dots beneath the R.

Prou 184; Gariel III, 53 (Gariel Coll.), 51 (var., Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 52 (Var.).

Gariel Coll., 576; Meyer Coll., 62.; Théry Coll., 1963, 380.

Paris: 1.24 gr.; Berlin: 1.25 gr., 1.35 gr. (Plate II); Copenhagen: (T. 1182) 1.14 gr., (T. 1184) 1.19 gr., (T. 1185) 1.33 gr.

Find: Imphy; Ilanz II, 1.14 gr.

70. Obv.: with three dots before the R, one dot between the letters, and two dots beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: R, with one dot inside the curve, one dot between the legs, and a cross of four dots behind the curve. Denarius.

Prou 926; Gariel III, 55 (Gariel Coll., Imphy find).

Meyer Coll., 63; Bordeaux Coll., 162; Cahn April 1929, 1; Schulman Jan. 1931, 76.

Paris: 1.15 gr.; Berlin: 1.18 gr., 1.61 gr. (Plate II); ANS: 1.33 gr.; Blunt: 1.43 gr.; Garrett: (6111) 1.34 gr.; Vienna: 1.15 gr.

Find: Imphy.

71. Obv.: with one dot before the R, and one dot between the letters.

Rev.: RAI, with Λ between the legs of the R, and two dots above the RI. Denarius.

Gariel III, 57 (Chapper Coll.).

Gariel II, 25 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 567.

Berlin: 0.87 gr. (Plate III).

73. Obv.: with one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Prou 927; Gariel III, 58 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Gariel Coll., 578; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 3.

Paris: 1.46 gr.; Berlin: 1.25 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: with a bar above the monogram and four dots arranged in a diamond pattern beneath. Denarius.

Gariel III, 64 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.16 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

75. Obv.: RTP, with one dot before the R, between the legs of the R, one dot between the letters, and three dots, triangularly arranged beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel III, 65 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 582.

Berlin: 0.87 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Brussels.

Rev.: + SCICRV ... Cross. Denarius.

Gariel I. 21.

Théry Coll, 1963, 382; ex Ducrocq sale, Paris 1936, 47.

Find: Imphy .

76a. Obv.: with three dots vertically arranged before the R, and two dots vertically arranged between the letters.

Rev.: SCI./MAR, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel III, 66 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.19 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

77. Obv.: key design before the P, uncertain pattern after the F.

Gariel III, 61 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Gariel Coll., 580.

Berlin: 1.26 gr., 1.28 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

78. Obv.: with one dot between the letters.

The Hague: (534) 0.56 gr.

79. Obv.: with one dot between the letters and one dot beneath the curve of the P.

Rev.: with one bar above and one bar below the first line. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.18 gr.

80. Obv.: with two dots between the letters.

Rev.: +VE/S⋄N. Denarius.

Gariel I, 18 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find, 1.29 gr.).

Berlin: 1.32 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

Prou 929.

Paris: 0.95 gr. (damaged).

CARLOMAN (768–771)

Indeterminate Mints

82. Obv.: Monogram of CARM, with a bar above.

Rev.: with two dots between the letters. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 1 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: (Plate III).

Rev.: with a row of dots around the curve of the D. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 2 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 71.

Berlin: (Plate III).

84. Obv.: Monogram of CARM, with a bar above.

Rev.: ARE, with a bar above. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 3 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: (Plate III).

85. Obv.: CARo, with a bar above.

Rev.: LEVTBRA. Dot in a circlet. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 5 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Bordeaux Coll., 165; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 5 = Hamburger Feb. 1928, 708; Schlessinger March 1930, 1481; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 157; Cahn March 1913, 1. All the deniers which appeared in the trade are forgeries, cf. Grierson, ANSCent. Publ., p. 310, 2,

Berlin: 1.37 gr. (Plate III); Hannover: (Inv. 1930. 11) 1.05 gr.

Find: Imphy; Lorenzberg bei Epfach.

86. Obv.: CARLM, monogram with bar above.

Rev.: AR, with horizontal bar above. Denarius.

Prou 762 = Gariel IV, 4.

Paris: 1.27 gr.

87. Obv.: CARLM, monogram, with a bar above.

Rev.: with a bar above the V, and a dot beneath. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 6 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: (Plate III).

Find; Lyon.

88. Obv.: CAR/LOM.

Rev.: SCIANIAI. Standing figure to left, holding a curved stave in front. Dots in field. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 7 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.37 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

89. Obv.: CAR/LOM.

Rev.: SCICRUCIS. Patriarchal cross. Denarius.

Gariel IV, 8 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.37 gr. (Plate III).

Find: Imphy.

CHARLEMAGNE (768–814)

East Francia

MAINZ

90. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +MOGONTIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 205 (Brussels).

Brussels: 1.68 gr. (Plate IV); Frankfurt a.M.: 1.69 gr.

91. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +MOGONTIA. Cross on three steps. Denarius.

Prou 30, 31; cf. Gariel XIII, 207 (var., rev. inscription retrograde. Gariel Coll.). BMS 4.

Rousseau Coll., 299; Helbing Nov. 1909, 1; Cahn 1914, 2; Cahn Dec. 1922, 505, 1.40 gr.; Riechman Nov. 1924, 15; Cahn March 1926, 12; Riechman April 1928, 623; Cahn Feb. 1931, 6, 1.69 gr.

Paris: 1.62 gr., 1.67 gr.; Berlin: 1.47 gr. (var.), 1.55 gr., 1.72 gr. (var.) (Plate IV); ANS: 1.67 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–5. IGP, var. as Gariel XIII, 207) 1.40 gr.; Brussels: 1.05 gr., 1.49 gr., (Inv. 21) 1.58 gr., 1.60 gr., (Inv. 22) 1.64 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.: 1.63 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1928. 173) 1.72 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.40 gr.

92. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +MOGONTIA. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 32; Gariel XIII, 206 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 5.

Cahn Dec. 1922, 506, 1.75 gr., Cahn Oct. 1924, 6; Cahn March 1926, 11; Frankfurter Ménzhandl. Sept. 1961, 11.

Paris: 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 1.15 gr., 1.15 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.61 gr. (var.).; ANS: 1.64 gr. (Plate IV); BM: (1893–12–4–238) 1.68 gr.; Brussels: 1.32 gr., (Inv. 23) 1.61 gr.; Copenhagen: (G. P. 697) 1.42 gr.; Grierson: 1.20 gr.; The Hague: (554) 1.65 gr.; Vatican: 1.57 gr. (var.).

Find: Biebrich, 1.75 gr., 1.84 gr.; Dorestadt (1846) ?

93. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +MOGONTIA. In center, P. Denarius.

Prou 33; Gariel XIII, 208 (Gariel Coll.).

Hess Pricelist 1905, 20.

Paris: 1.71 gr.; Berlin: 1.50 gr. (Plate IV) (also, a copper forgery weighing 1.21 gr.); The Hague: (Inv. 17487) 1.50 gr.

Find: London (Middle Temple).

"SENNES"

94. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +SENNES. Cross on three steps. Denarius.

Prou 40; Gariel XII, 188.

Paris: 1.37 gr. (Plate IV).

95. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +SENNES. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 41; Gariel XII, 189 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 663; Meyer Coll., 126; Hess Oct. 1903, 1312; Hess Pricelist 1905, 23; Schulman Jan. 1931, 80.

Paris: 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 1.63 gr. (Plate IV); ANS: 1.85 gr.; Brussels: 1.48 gr.

Find: Biebrich: 1.40 gr.

Alsace

STRASSBURG

96. CARL/RF, with a bar between the lines.

Rev.: @ with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 42; Gariel X, 134 (Gariel Coll., 1.20 gr.).

Paris: 1.22 gr. (Plate IV); Berlin: 1.27 gr.

Rev.: STRATBVRC. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel X, 135 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 6.

Cahn April 1921, 55; Cahn Dec. 1922, 495, 1.10 gr.; Cahn March 1926, 5; Hess April 1928, 3560; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1212; Ménzhandl. Basel Oct. 1936, 305; Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1949, 464; Kress Oct. 1960, 1378.

Berlin: 1.28 gr., 1.29 gr. (Plate IV); BM: (57–9–6. IGP) 1.36 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.: 1.17 gr. (damaged); Munich: (lost, no weight recorded).

Find: Vercelli.

Lorraine

AACHEN

Gariel V, 3 (Cappe, pl. I, 1; Combrouse, pl. XI, 1).

DORESTADT

Rev.: Beneath, horizontal axe. Denarius.

Prou 56, nos. 57–61 var.; Gariel VI, 44–48, VII, 49–51; BMS 7.

Meyer Coll., 81; Lockett Coll., 319; Rosenberg March 1914, 478; Cahn Feb. 1931, 3, 1.30 gr.; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1201; Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1957, 671, 1.32 gr.; Schulman Mar. 1963, 430.

Paris: 1.27 gr., 0.95 gr., 1.10 gr., 1.13 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.16 gr.; Berlin: 1.07 gr., 1.08 gr., 1.18 gr., 1.31 gr., 1.41 gr. (Plate IV); ANS: 1.18 gr., 1.24 gr.; BM: (E–48–11–6–1) 1.33 gr.; Brussels: 0.90 gr., 0.95 gr., 1.08 gr., 1.11 gr., 1.12 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.16 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.34 gr., 1.57 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1186) 1.10 gr., (Fortegn. 250) 1.23 gr., (T. 1187) 1.25 gr.; Garrett: (6114) 1.23 gr.; Grierson: 1.25 gr.; The Hague: (547) 0.53 gr., (543) o.66 gr., (544) 0.78 gr., (539) 0.84 gr., (541) 0.92 gr., (543) 0.93 gr., (540) 1.05 gr., (548) 1.07 gr., (Inv. 17505) 1.20 gr., (Inv. 17646) 1.20 gr., (537) 1.40 gr. (All these exemplars are damaged); Hermitage: 1.15 gr., 1.16 gr.; Munich: 1.13 gr. A second exemplar lost; no weight recorded, Schloss Gotthorp: 0.42 gr., 0.44 gr., 0.48 gr., 0.59 gr., 0.65 gr., 0.66 gr., 0.70 gr., 0.74 gr., 0.75 gr., 0.89 gr., 0.93 gr., 0.99 gr., 1.03 gr., 1.11 gr., 1.12 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.19 gr., 1.20 gr., and fragments of eight other coins. The pieces are all severely damaged; Van Rede: (B1207) 0.96 gr., (B1205) 0.99 gr., (B1204) 1.03 gr., (B1202) 1.10 gr., (B1203) 1.24 gr., (B1206) 1.35 gr.

Find: Jelsum, 1.27 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.01 gr.; Sarzana; Krinkberg; Ilanz II, 1.19 gr.; Gelderland; Haitabu; Prero Darss; Spangereid; Lerchenborg; St. Albans; Worms; Schowen .

100. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +DORESTADO Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 62; Gariel XIII, 195 (Gariel Coll.).

Cahn Dec. 1922, 502, 1.80 gr., 503, 1.63 gr., 504, 1.70 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1926, 87, 1.80 gr.; Cahn April 1929, 4, 1.80 gr.; Cahn Feb. 1931, 4, 1.61 gr.; Ménzhandl. Basel Dec. 1935, 11; Ménzhandl. Basel Oct. 1936, 306. Paris: 1.65 gr.; ANS: 1.42 gr.; Brussels: 1.29 gr., (Inv. 20) 1.35 gr., 1.38 gr., 1.52 gr., 1.54 gr. (var., one dot in each of two diagonal corners of the obv. cross), 1.56 gr., (Inv. 19) 1.58 gr., 1.72 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1191) 1.74 gr. (Plate IV); The Hague: (553) 1.50 gr.; Hermitage: 1.66 gr., 1.63 gr.; Van Rede: (1211a) 1.40 gr., (B1211) 1.59 gr., (B1208 var., rev. inscription retrograde) 1.68 gr., (B1209) 1.72 gr., (B1210) 1.75 gr. Find: Biebrich: 1.63 gr., 1.70 gr. (var., rev. inscription retrograde), 1.80 gr.; Dorestadt (1846); Schowen .

101. Obv.: +CARLVSEXFR. Six-armed star in center.

Rev.: +DORESTADO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 192 (Brussels).

Brussels: 1.34 gr. (PLATE IV, slightly enlarged).

102. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +DORESTADO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 193 (Brussels).

Brussels: 1.42 gr., 1.49 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17506) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17507) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17508) 1.60 gr.; Oslo: 1.65 gr.

103. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +DORESTADO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 194 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.44 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.70 gr. (var.), 1.80 gr.

104. Obv.: +COVCross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +DORESTADO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 196 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.27 gr.

105. Obv.: KAROLVSIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: DORESTADO. Ship, with cross beneath. Denarius.

Gariel VI, 43 (Brussels).

Brussels: 1.48 gr. (Plate IV, slightly enlarged).

COLOGNE

106. Obv.: +CA∩LVϩRE+F∩ Cross with V in each corner.

Rev.: +CO+LONIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Hévernick, 11; Meyer Coll., 114.

Berlin: 1.64 gr. (Plate, IV).

Find: Leer.

BONN (?)

Rev.: Above, a cross and a globe; below, a horizontal axe. Denarius.

Prou 84 = Gariel V, 23.

Paris: 1.04 gr.; Berlin: 1.19 gr. (Plate IV); Hermitage: 1.22 gr.

Find: Schowen.

Rev.: BONA. Above, a horizontal axe; below, a crook. Denarius.

Gariel V, 22 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 598.

Berlin: 1.10 gr. (Plate IV); Brussels: 1.20 gr.

Find: Gelderland.

MAASTRICHT

Rev.: TRI/1ECT. Denarius.

Prou 87 = Gariel VII, 71.

Paris: 1.28 gr. (Plate V).

LIéGE

Rev.: LEO/é/DICO. Denarius.

Prou 95 = Gariel VII, 60.

Frére 1 (4 minor varieties); Garthe Coll., 3732; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1202.

Paris: 0.97 gr.; Brussels: 1.00 gr. (Garthe specimen); The Hague: (549) 1.10 gr. (Plate V); Liége: (De Saulcy specimen).

DINANT

Rev.: DEO/ИEll with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 96; Gariel VI, 41 (Gariel Coll.), 42 (Musée de Namur).

Gariel Coll., 603; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 9; Schulman Oct. 1913, 355. Paris: 0.68 gr.; Berlin: 0.91 gr., 1.30 gr. (Plate V); Brussels: 1.14 gr., 1.24 gr., 1.25 gr.; Munich: 1.05 gr.; Schloss Gottharp: fragment.

Find: Bel-Air; Krinkberg; Gelderland.

Rev.: DEO/TIIAN, with a bar between the lines and three dots arranged horizontally beneath the second line. Denarius.

Gariel VI, 40 (Brussels).

Brussels: 1.39 gr. (Plate V).

CONDé-SUR-L'ESCAUT

Rev.: COИ/DAT with a bar between the lines and a vertical at left. Denarius.

Prou 112; Gariel VI, 39 (Lausanne).

Paris: 0.83 gr. (Plate V); Brussels: 1.21 gr.

Find: Bel-Air.

TRIER

Rev.: +TRE Denarius.

Cahn March 1926, 6, 1.02 gr.

Find: Trier.

115. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +TREVERIS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 215 (Gariel Coll.), 217 (var., Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 676.

Brussels: 1.62 gr.; Berlin: (Plate V).

116. Obv.: KAROLVS... VD. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: TREVER ... City gate, with one dot beneath. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.96 gr. (Plate V).

Find: Trier.

METZ

Rev.: ME/TT -/IS. Obolus.

Gariel L, 46 (Robert, pl. XII, 5).

VERDUN

Rev.: , R, D, N, in the corners of a cross. Denarius.

Prou 143.

Paris: 0.74 gr.

119. Obv.: with a star between the lines.

Rev.: +VIRDVN. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 144 = Gariel XI, 150.

Gariel Coll., 642.

Paris: 1.07 gr. (Plate V).

Rev.: +VIRDVN. Dot in a beaded circle. Denarius.

Schloss Gotthorp: 0.56 gr. (damaged).

Find: "Jura," 0.88 gr., 1.11 gr., 1.20 gr.; Krinkberg.

121. Obv.: CARo/LVS.

Rev.: VIRDVNS. Globule in a circle. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 151 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 642.

Berlin: 0.92 gr.

Find: "Jura," 1.22 gr.

QUENTOVIC

121a. Obv.: KAROLVSIMPAVG. Bust laureate to right.

Rev.: QVENTVVVIC. Sailing boat. Denarius.

Ménz. u.Med. Nov. 1964,5,1.65 gr. (described as unpublished and unique).

Francia

TOURNAI

Rev.: TOR/ +NA+ /CO, with one bar below the first line and one bar below the second. Denarius.

Prou 203 = Gariel X, 137.

Paris: 1.09 gr. (Plate V).

ARRAS

Rev.: ADéRA/DIéS. Denarius.

Prou 214 = Gariel V, 14.

Paris: 1.10 gr. (Plate V).

AMIENS

Gariel V, 4 (Combrouse, pl. XII, 2).

The Hague: (lost, no weight recorded).

ST-FIRMIN (AMIENS)

Prou 228, 229 = Gariel IX, 117.

Meyer Coll., 95; DuLac Coll. II, 472; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1210; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 492.

Paris: 1.10 gr., 1.10 gr.; ANS: 1.29 gr. (var.); Vienna: 1.12 gr. (Plate V).

126. Obv.: CA/ROL/REX.

Prou 230 = Gariel IX, 118.

Paris: 1.18 gr. (Plate V).

LAON

Rev.: JΛV/DVII. Denarius.

Schloss Gotthorp: 0.76 gr. (damaged).

Find: Krinkberg.

Prou 268; Gariel VII, 60 (Gariel Coll.).

Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1957, 672, 1.15 gr.

Paris: 1.32 gr.; ANS: 1.15 gr. (Plate V).

Gariel VII, 61 (Gariel Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 83; Bordeaux Coll., 170 (ex Meyer); Peus Oct. 1955, 1.

Berlin: (Plate V).

130. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +LAVDVNO :. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 198 (RBN 1855, pl. I, 2).

Biebrich: 1.75 gr.

STE-MARIE (LAON)

131. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR:... LAVↃWO around a dot.

Rev.: +S-CAMARIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 267.

Paris: 1.79 gr.

132. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. LADVNO around a cross.

Rev.: +SCAMARIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 199 (DuLac Coll. II).

DuLac Coll. II, 475.

RHEIMS

Rev.: REM/CIVIT, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 291.

Paris: 0.84 gr.

Find: Ilanz II, 1.35 gr.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 292; Gariel IX, 107 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 632; Meyer Coll., 93; Riechman Dec. 1934, 32.

Paris: 1.08 gr. (Plate V); Berlin: 1.12 gr.

Find: Chézy-l'Abbaye.

Rev.: with a bar above the monogram. Denarius.

Find: "Jura," 1.00 gr.

ST-MARIE (RHEIMS)

Rev.: SCMAR'AREM℞. Cross with one dot in each of two diagonal corners. Denarius.

Prou 289 = Gariel X, 122.

Meyer Coll., 96.

Paris: 1.09 gr.

Find: Chézy-l'Abbaye.

Rev.: Cross with one dot in each corner. Denarius.

Prou 290 = Gariel X, 121 (also in Gariel Coll., 1.20 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 634.

Paris: 0.92 gr.; Berlin: (Plate V).

Rev.: SCMAR'AREMR. Cross with two dots in each of two diagonal corners. Denarius.

Prou 289.

Paris: 1.09 gr.

Find: Chézy-l'Abbaye.

Rev.: Cross with one dot in each corner. At the top of the cross, a smaller cross. Denarius.

Prou 290.

Paris: 0.92 gr.

ST. DENIS

139a. Obv.: CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: SCIDVONISII. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 212 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 468; Gariel Coll., 674; Meyer Coll., 125; Ménz. u.Med. June 1951, 369.

Berlin: 1.57 gr., 1.77 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.70 gr.

After this catalogue was in order, Vélckers published his attribution of a coin of this type to the Biebrich deposit (p. 185: XLII, 31), and it is pleasant duty to acknowledge the plausibility of his argument that Charlemagne, not Charles the Bald, was the issuer.

ROUEN

Rev.: R⋄D/OM. Denarius.

Paris: 1.20 gr.

141. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +ROTOMAGVS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 211 (RBN 1852, pl. XIII, 6).

142. Obv.: +KARONISIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +RODMAGVM. City gate. Denarius.

Gariel XXIV, 92 (Combrouse, pl. VII, 4).

Neustria

LE MANS

Rev.: CINOMANI. Cross with one dart in each of two diagonal corners.

RN 1856, p. 182, pl. V, 3.

Schloss Gotthorp: 1.10 gr.

Find: Bel-Air; Krinkberg.

TOURS

Rev.: TVRNIS. Cross in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel X, 139 (Gariel Coll.).

Riechman Nov. 1924, 16; Riechman April 1928, 622; Hamburger Nov. 1928, 822; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 494; Kress Oct. 1960, 1374.

Berlin: 1.16 gr.; ANS: 1.25 gr.; Stuttgart: (2v8466, var.) 1.09 gr.

146. Obv.: Rev.: Cross. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.13 gr.

147. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross. Rev.: +TVRONIS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 443; Gariel XIII, 214 (Gariel Coll.), XXIV, 73 (Gariel Coll.). Rousseau Coll., 326; Gariel Coll., 675, 854; Meyer Coll., 129; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1221.

Paris: 1.65 gr.; Berlin: 1.55 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.63 gr. (Plate VI); ANS: 1.61 gr.; Brussels: 1.49 gr., (Inv. 28) 1.67 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1205) 1.45 gr. (Plate VI); The Hague: (Inv. 17641) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17579) 1.60 gr.; Munich: 1.69 gr.

Find: Dorestadt (1846); Biebrich: 1.60 gr.

ST-MARTIN (TOURS)

148. Obv.: with a bar between the lines.

Rev.: in a beaded circle. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.19 gr.

149. Obv.: with a bar between the lines.

Prou 440; Gariel X, 124 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 8.

Gariel Coll., 635.

Paris: 1.33 gr.; Berlin: 1.19 gr., 1.23 gr., 1.24 gr. (Plate VI); BM: (57–9–1–9. IGP), 1.27 gr.

Find: Imphy.

150. Obv.: with a bar between the lines.

Rev.: +SCIMART1N. Circle of nine points. Denarius.

Gariel X, 123 (Sarzana find).

Cahn April 1912, 3.

Berlin: (Plate VI).

Find: Sarzana.

Rev.: +SCMARTN. Cross. Denarius.

Find: Ilanz II, 1.28 gr.

CHARTRES

Rev.: Man standing, full front, both arms extended, and holding a cross in each hand. Dots in field. Denarius.

Gariel VI, 28 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.34 gr. (Plate VI).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: CARNOTIS. In center, Denarius.

Prou 488; Gariel VI, 25 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 599; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 8; Ménzhandl. Basel Oct. 1936, 302; Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1957, 669, 1.21 gr; Kress Oct. 1960, 1369.

Paris: 1.39 gr.; Berlin: 1.15 gr.; ANS: 1.21 gr. (Plate VI); Grierson: 0.66 gr. (damaged); Munich: 1.12 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 0.84 gr.

Find: Jelsum; "Jura," 1.16 gr.; Krinkberg; Ilanz II, 1.22 gr.

Rev.: +CARNOTAS. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 489; Gariel VI, 26 (RN 1846, p. 124), XLIX, 16 (RN 1846, p. 125).

Meyer Coll., 77; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 670,1.28 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1368.

Paris: 1.05 gr. (Plate VI).

Rev.: +CARNOAS. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel VI, 27 (RN 1846, p. 124).

156. Obv.: CAR/LVS/R.

Rev.: +CARNOTIS. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XLIX, 16 (RN 1846, p. 125).

CHATEAUDUN

Prou 938 = Gariel VII, 53.

Paris: 1.31 gr.

Rev.: DV/NO, with a bar between the lines and two dots at each end of the bar. Denarius.

Munich: 1.36 gr.

159. Obv.: +CARLVSREXF. Cross.

Rev.: +DVNNOS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 197 (Voillemier Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 118; Cahn April 1899, 6; Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 12; Rosenberg 1906, 4.

Berlin: (Plate VI).

160. Obv.: +CARLVSREXF. Cross.

Rev.: +CASTELDVN. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 190 (Combrouse, pl. X, 4).

Berlin: (Plate VI).

Burgundy

TROYES

Rev.: TRI/éGé+é Denarius.

Prou 541 = Gariel VIII, 73.

Paris: 1.04 gr. (Plate VI); Brussels: 1.27 gr.

Find: Gelderland.

Prou 542; Gariel VII, 72.

Paris: 1.15 gr. (Plate VI).

LANGRES

Schloss Gotthorp: 0.98 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

LYON

Prou 627; Gariel VII, 68 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 611; Kricheldorf June 1961, 318.

Paris: 1.30 gr.; Berlin: 1.14 gr. (Plate VI).

Find: Imphy; Ilanz II, 1.32 gr.

Prou 628; Gariel VII, 69 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 612 (two pieces); Hamburger Nov. 1912, 10; Helbing Dec. 1917, 3; Schlessinger March 1930, 1483; Ratto Dec. 1930, 2383; Blaser-Frey June 1963, 1.

Paris: 1.15 gr.; Berlin: 1.28 gr. (Plate VI); ANS: 1.18 gr.; Blunt: 1.17 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1930.10) 1.20 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.21 gr., 1.23 gr., a third exemplar, unweighed.

Find: Imphy; Krinkberg.

166. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +LVGDVNVM. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 629; Gariel XIII, 200 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 668; Hamburger Sept. 1926, 2; Cahn Oct. 1926, 88, 1.65 gr.

Paris: 1.64 gr.; Berlin: 1.76 gr. (Plate VI); Copenhagen: (T. 1192) 1.38 gr.; Van Rede: (B1248) 1.27 gr.

Find: Ibersheim, 1.57 gr.; Biebrich: 1.67 gr.

167. Obv.: +KAROLVSIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +LVGDVNVM. City Gate. Denarius.

Gariel XXIV, 90 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 863.

Berlin: 1.91 gr. (Plate VI).

Find: Achlum.

BESANéON

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel V, 20 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 597.

Berlin: 1.04 gr. (Plate VI).

Brittany

RENNES

Prou 649 = Gariel IX, 110.

Paris: 1.24 gr.

Rev.: REDO/NIS, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 650; Gariel IX, 108 (Gariel Coll.), 109.

Gariel Coll., 633.

Paris: 1.22 gr.; Berlin: 1.18 gr.

Rev.: R ⋄D/OM. Denarius.

Cahn April 1912, 2.

Aquitaine

MELLE

172. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: METVLLO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 688; Gariel XIII, 209 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 673; Cahn Dec. 1922, 496, 1.50 gr.; Helbing Oct. 1927, 2381; Riechman April 1928, 624; Ménzhandl. Basel Dec. 1935, 12; Ménz u. Med. July 1955, 495; Kricheldorf May 1956, 328; Kress Oct. i960,1371. Paris: 1.67 gr.; Berlin: 1.59 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.66 gr., 1.67 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.73 gr. (Plate VI); ANS: 1.68 gr.; Brussels: (Inv. 25) 1.72 gr., 1.76 gr.; Munich: 1.62 gr., 1.51 gr.; Vienna: 1.60 gr.

Find: Bondeno (?); Bébingen; Ibersheim, 1.71 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.77 gr.; Belvézet; Steckborn; Biebrich: 1.30 gr.; Dorestadt (1846).

This type was also struck extensively under Charles the Bald, and additional entries will be found under his name.

BOURGES

173. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +B1TVRICAS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 728; Gariel XXII, 38 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 824; Rousseau Coll., 312, 313, 378; Cahn April 1912, 5; Cahn Dec. 1922, 501, 1.70 gr.; Riechman Nov. 1924, 12; Kress Dec. 1956, 459.

Paris: 1.59 gr.; Berlin: 1.57 gr. (Plate VII); ANS: 1.66 gr.; The Hague: (556) 1.65 gr., (Inv. 17594) 1.70 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.70 gr.

174. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: +BITVRICAS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 729, 730, 731, 732; Gariel XXII, 43 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 829; Cahn Dec. 1922, 500, 1.72 gr.

Paris: 1.80 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.77 gr., 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 1.67 gr., 1.68 gr. (Plate VII); Grierson: 1.63 gr., 1.69 gr.

Find: Biebrich.

175. Obv.: +CARLVS+RE. Cross.

Rev.: +BITVRICASé Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 42 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 828.

Berlin: 1.42 gr.

CLERMONT

Prou 763; Gariel VI, 29 (Gariel Coll.), 30 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 600; Meyer Coll., 78.

Paris: 1.05 gr., (763a) 1.15 gr.; Berlin: 1.26 gr.

AGEN

177. Obv.: +CARLVSEXFR. Cross.

Rev.: Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 792.

Paris: 1.36 gr. (Plate VII); Garrett: (6134) 1.73 gr.

Find: Ibersheim, 1.64 gr.

178. Obv.: +CARLVSRXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +AGINNO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 793.

Cahn April 1912, 4; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 295; Théry Coll. 1963, 383.

Paris: 1.60 gr.; ANS: 1.64 gr.; Brussels: 1.25 gr.; Grierson: 1.24 gr.

Find: Biebrich; Dorestadt (1846).

179. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +AGINNO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 794; Gariel XXII, 26 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 816; Rousseau Coll., 309; Cahn Dec. 1922, 407, 1.60 gr.; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 49; Kress Oct. 1960, 1429.

Paris: 1.50 gr.; Berlin: 1.45 gr., 1.64 gr.; ANS: 1.57 gr.; Blunt: 1.23 gr.; Brussels: 1.25 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. P. 724) 1.31 gr. (Plate VII); Grierson: 1.57 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.60 gr.

Gascony

DAX ( ?)

180. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: + CIAGVIS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 185 (Gariel).

Gariel Coll., 662; Meyer Coll., 116.

The Hague: (Inv. 17649) 1.70 gr. (var. ).

Toulousain

TOULOUSE

181. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev: +TOLVSA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 801, 802, 800 (var.)

Rousseau Coll., 323, 324, 325, 381 (TOLOAS); Cahn June 1903, 1; Cahn Dec. 1922, 498, 1.60 gr.; Cahn Dec. 1922, 499, 1.55 gr.; Kress Nov. 1966, 1480.

Paris: 1.63 gr., 1.40 gr., 1.52 gr.; ANS: 1.36 gr. (damaged); Copenhagen: (K. P. 7211) 1.49 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17619) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17620) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17621) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17622) 1.50 gr. (Plate VII); Vienna: 1.59 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.55 gr., 1.60 gr.; Schowen.

Septimania

BéZIERS

Rev.: BE, TE, RR, IS, in the arms of a cross. Denarius.

Engel and Serrure, p. 206.

Find: Mosciano San Angelo.

183. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +BEDERRIS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 36 (van der Chijs, pl. XII, 32).

Find: Bondeno.

NARBONNE

Rev.: N, R, B, ⋄, in the corners of a cross. Two curved bars extend symmetrically from each end of the cross. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 101 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 629.

Berlin: 1.12 gr. (Plate VII).

185. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +NARBONA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 835; Gariel XXIII, 62 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 321; Gariel Coll., 840; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1217, 1218; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 685, 1.14 gr.; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 297, 298. Paris: 1.19 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.74 gr.; ANS: 1.14 gr. (Plate VII); Brussels: 1.32 gr.; The Hague: (557) 1.10 gr.

Find: Schowen.

Spanish March

AMPURIAS

186. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +INPVRIAS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 27 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 817; Heiss, p. 134, pl. 87, 2.

Berlin: 1.01 gr. (Plate VII).

GIRONA

187. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 829; Gariel XXIII, 56 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 836.

Paris: 1.38 gr.; Berlin: 0.81 gr. (damaged); Hermitage: (Plate VII).

BARCELONA

188. Obv.: +CARLVSREX. Cross.

Rev.: +BARCINONA (retrograde). Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 34 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 822; Heiss, p. 57, pl. 77, 1 (var. +BVRCINONA).

Berlin: 1.10 gr., 1.35 gr.

189. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +BARCINONA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 35 (V. Ramm Coll.).

Provence

AVIGNON

Rev.: A, VI, NI, O, in the corners of a cross. Bar above. Denarius.

Prou 851 = Gariel V, 17.

Paris: 1.13 gr.

VIENNE

191. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +VIEN+NA. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 216 (Fillon, Lettres é Dugast-Matifeux).

Find: Biebrich (?), 1.75 gr.

192. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +AR'ELATO Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 187 (Cabinet de France, perhaps Prou 854).

193. Obv.: +CA'RLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +AR'EL'ATO. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XXII, 31 (Gariel Coll.), 33 (Gariel Coll., var.).

Gariel Coll., 821; Schulman June 1961, 159.

ANS: 1.40 gr.

194. Obv.: +CARLV'SR'EXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +A'R'EL'ATO. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 852.

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1216 (var.).

Paris: 1.53 gr.; Groningen Museum: (1610 var); The Hague: (Inv. 17625) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17627) 1.29 gr., both damaged.

195. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +ARELATO. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 855 = Gariel XII, 186; BMS 9.

Paris: 1.67 gr.; BM: (48–2–15–43) 1.27 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17626) 0.90 gr. (fragment), (552) 1.15 gr., (Inv. 17623) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17624) 1.40 gr.

Find: Leer.

196. Obv.: +CARLVSREX'FR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +AR'E'LATO. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 853 = Gariel XXII, 32.

Paris: 1.56 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr.; ANS: 1.40 gr.; Grierson: 1.53 gr. (var.).

Find: Ibersheim (var.), 1.57 gr.

197. Obv.: +CARLVSR'EXF'R'. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: AR'ELATO. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 854.

Hamburger Nov. 1912, 19; Meyer Coll., 111.

Paris: 1.49 gr.; Berlin: (Plate VII); ANS: 1.48 gr.; Grierson: 1.67 gr. (var.).

Find: Schowen.

198. Obv.: DNKARLVSIMPAVGREXFETL. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: AT'OELAR'E. City gate, degenerate. Denarius.

Gariel V, 9 (Gariel Coll., 1.70 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 593.

Berlin: 1.65 gr. (Plate VII).

MARSEILLE

Rev.: in the corners of a cross. Above the cross, a bar; three dots at its feet. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.07 gr. (Plate VII).

Rev.: M, A, SL, S, in the corners of a cross. A bar above. Denarius.

Prou 884 = Gariel VIII, 79.

Gariel Coll., 615.

Paris: 1.29 gr. (Plate VII).

Rev.: in the corners of a cross. A bar above, a dot beneath. Denarius.

Prou 885; Gariel VIII, 78 (Marseille), 76 (Marseille), 77 (Marseille, var.). Paris: 1.11 gr. (Plate VII); Berlin: 0.83 gr., 0.96 gr., 1.14 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.02 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

202. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +MASSILIA. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 201 (Marseille).

203. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +MASSILIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 202 (Fillon, Lettres é Dugast-Matifeux).

Italy

PARMA

Rev.: R F, separated by P -R/A/M. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 166 (RN 1856, pp. 188–189).

Periodico di Numismatica e Sfragistica, II (1869), pl. I, 1.

Find: Domburg.

Rev.: P, A, R, M, in the corners of a cross, centering upon a circlet. Denarius.

Periodico di Numismatica e Sfragistica, II (1869), pl. I, 2; CNI IX, p. 395, 2–4.

Rev.: P'A'R/'M'A'. Denarius.

CNI IX, p. 395, 5.

The Hague: (551) 0.92 gr.

Find: Ilanz II, 1.16 gr.

PAVIA

207. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +PAPIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 897; BMS 10.

CNI IV, pp. 466–468, 2–23; Rousseau Coll., 333; Cahn Dec. 1922, 508, 1.40 gr.; Cahn March 1926, 14, 1.70 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1926, 84, 1.80 gr., 85, 1.60 gr.; Cahn April 1929, 5, 1.78 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1929, 890, 1.40 gr.; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1525; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1949, 466; Lockett Coll., 323; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1961, 256, 1.47 gr.

Paris: 1.40 gr.; ANS: 1.43 gr., 1.70 gr. (Plate VIII); BM: (55–6–12–492. IGP) 1.71 gr.; Brussels: 1.32 gr.; Grierson: 1.54 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17629) 1.60 gr.; Munich: 1.30 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.72 gr.; Oslo: 1.63 gr.; Papadopoli: (121–124) 1.32 gr., 1.50 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.67 gr.; Stuttgart: (2V4982) 1.59 gr., (2V8501) 1.64 gr.; Vienna: 1.69 gr., 1.72 gr.; Yale: 1.70 gr.

Find: Bondeno; Ibersheim: 1.43 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.72 gr., 1.76 gr.; Biebrich, 1.40 gr.; Ilanz II, 1.58 gr.; Belvézet; Dorestadt (1846); Mainz (St. Alban); Schowen.

208. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +PéAPIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 179 (Brussels).

Berlin: 1.56 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.76 gr.; Brussels: 1.48 gr.;. The Hague: (Inv. 17651) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17630) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17631) 1.40 gr.; Stuttgart: (Π6. 1951/242) 1.49 gr.

209. Obv.: +CARL'VSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +PAPIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 898.

Paris: 1.69 gr.

210. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +PAéPIA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 899.

Paris: 1.53 gr.

MILAN

Rev.: MED/IO 4. Denarius.

Find: Ilanz II, 1.27 gr.

212. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +MEDIOI4. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 905, 906; Gariel XII, 178 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 11, 12.

Gariel Coll., 654; CNI V, p. 5f., 24–32. Rousseau Coll., 330–332; Cahn March 1926, 13, 1.65 gr.; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 674, 1.59 gr., Cahn Oct. 1929, 889, 1.62 gr.; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1295; Ménz u. Med. Dec. 1949, 465; Lockett Coll., 322; Kricheldorf Nov. i960, 296; Nascia Oct. 1949, 262; Kress Nov. 1966, 1462.

Paris: 1.61 gr., 1.67 gr.; Berlin: 1.55 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.76 gr., 1.77 gr. (Plate VIII); ANS: 1.30 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1870) 1.70 gr.; Blunt: 1.63 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–3. IGP) 1.67 gr., (1906–11–3–4061. Parkes Weber Gift) 1.61 gr.; Garrett: (6116) 1.51 gr.; Grierson: 1.72 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17636) 1.70 gr. (damaged), (555) 1.18 gr. (damaged), (Inv. 17635) 1.60 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1931.27) 1.74 gr.; Munich: 1.44 gr.; Oslo: 1.63 gr.; Papadopoli: (127) 1.48 gr., (128) 1.50 gr.; Vienna: 1.52 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.77 gr.; Yale.

Find: Bondeno; Ibersheim, 1.58 gr., 1.70 gr.; Dorestadt (1846); Roswinkel, 1.70 gr.; Burgheim.

CASTEL SEPRIO

212a. Obv.: within a beaded circle. Raised point in the center.

Rev.: SEBRIO, in the form of a cross within a beaded circle. Zérich (Schweizerische Landsmuseum): 1.20 gr.

Find: Grosso in the Mesolcina.

TREVISO

Rev.: +TARVISIVS. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 180 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI VI, p. 226 f, 1–7.

Berlin: 1.36 gr.

Find: Vercelli.

Rev.: +TA'RVISIVS. Cross in a beaded circle. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 181 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 656; Meyer Coll., 106; Lockett Coll., 324.

Vienna: 1.15 gr.; Berlin: (Plate VIII).

Find: Ilanz II, 1.27 gr.

215. Obv.: Karolus monogram, with one group of three dots in each corner.

Rev.: Ball at center. Denarius.

Prou 911.

CNI VI, p. 227, 13.

Paris: 1.23 gr.; Vienna: 1.17 gr.

216. Obv.: Karolus monogram, with one group of three dots in each corner.

Rev.: +TARVISO. Ball at center. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 183 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI VI, p. 227, 12; Gariel Coll., 658; Meyer Coll., 108; Hess June 1888, 45.

Berlin: 1.11 gr. (Plate VIII).

Find: Ilanz II, 1.31 gr., 1.32 gr.

217. Obv.: Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +TARVISO. Ball at center. Denarius.

CNI VI, p. 227, 8–10.

218. Obv.: Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +TARVIS. Ball at center. Denarius.

CNI VI, p. 227, 11.

219. Obv.: Karolus monogram, quartered by RE/X/FR/R:.

Rev.: Ball at center. Denarius.

CNI VI, p. 227, 14.

220. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +TARVIS. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 912; Gariel XII, 182 (Gariel Coll., var.); BMS 13.

CNI VI, p. 228, 15–24 (var.); Gariel Coll., 657; Meyer Coll., 107; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1961, 281.

Paris: 1.49 gr., (912a) 1.70 gr.; Berlin: 1.46 gr., 1.52 gr. (Plate VIII); ANS: 2.11 gr. (genuine?); BM: (57–9–1–4. IGP fragment) 1.24 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. P. 1716) 1.20 gr.; Garrett: (6117) 1.50 gr.; Grierson: 1.68 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.89 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17642) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17643) 1.50 gr.

Find: Bondeno; Dorestadt (1846).

LUCCA

Rev.: L, V, C, A, in the corners of an elaborate beaded cross. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 174 (Vatican Coll.), 175 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI, p. 59, 12; Blunt, BNJ 1948, pp. 282 f; Rousseau Coll., 329; Gariel Coll., 652; 653, Hamburger Jan. 1902, 1842; Martinori Coll., 1374. Berlin: 1.16 gr. (Plate VIII).

222. Obv.: CARo/LVS.

Rev.: LVCA, in one line. Denarius.

Gariel XII, 176 (Domenico Massagli Coll.).

223. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Cross.

Rev.: +'LVCA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 915, 916 (var.); Gariel XII, 177 (Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.50 gr., 1.32 gr.; Berlin: 1.76 gr. (Plate VIII).

224. Obv.: +CARLVSRE+FR. Cross.

Rev.: +P.ISA. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

CNI XII, p. 286, 2, 3. Periodico di Numismatica et Sfragistica, III (1870), pl.11,4.

FLORENCE

Gariel XII, 171 (Musée de Voltura).

CNI XII, p. 1, 1.

Indeterminate Mints

FIRST PERIOD

Rev.: with three dots before the R and one dot between the letters. Denarius.

Prou 891, 892; Gariel V, 1 (Gariel Coll.), 2 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Paris: 1.24 gr., 1.06 gr., (895a) 1.10 gr. (var.); Berlin: 1.05 gr., 1.15 gr., 1.17 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.23 gr.; ANS: 1.18 gr.; Brussels: 1.30 gr., 1.32 gr., 1.33 gr., 1.34 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. Pr. p. 140) 1.10 gr. (Plate VIII); The Hague: (535) 1.07 gr. (damaged); Munich: 1.05 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 0.87 gr., 0.99 gr., and three additional exemplars, unweighed. All these pieces are severely damaged; Stuttgart: (2v5188) 1.02 gr.; Van Rede: (B1207a) 1.30 gr.; Vienna: 1.12 gr. (var).

Find: "Jura," 1.26 gr.; Sarzana; Krinkberg; Ilanz II, 0.82 gr., 0.92 gr., 0.95 gr., 1.00 gr., 1.01 gr., 1.02 gr., 1.05 gr., 1.05 gr., 1.06 gr., 1.12 gr., 1.18 gr., 1.21 gr., 1.25 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.34 gr., 1.35 gr.; Bonn; Sneek.

Rev.: with one dot in the central corner of the M. Denarius. Gariel V, 5 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 591.

Berlin: 1.09 gr.

Gariel V, 6 (Gariel Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 73.

Berlin : 1.34 gr.

229. Obv.: CARo/LVS.

Rev.: Cross with one dot in each corner, a bar pendent from each end of the cross bar, and curved bars extending symmetrically downward from the head of the cross to the ends of the cross bar. A small cross at the head of the larger. Denarius.

Prou 316; Gariel IX, 104 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 630.

Paris: 1.03 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr. (Plate VIII).

Rev.: Four curved lines forming a cruciform rosette. Denarius.

Gariel VII, 70 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 87 (ex Imphy).

Berlin: 0.88 gr.; Brussels: 1.18 gr.

Rev.: with C before the R and E between the R and the F. Denarius.

Prou 893; Gariel XI, 164 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI V, p. 6, 34 (as Milan); Lafaurie, AN SCent. Publ., p. 411; Bordeaux Coll., 175; Nascia, Oct. 1965, 261; Ratto March 1957, 329; Nascia March 1966, 578.

Paris: 0.75 gr. (damaged); Berlin: 0.84 gr., 0.99 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.26 gr.; ANS: 0.97 gr. (Plate VIII).

Find: Bel-Air; Sarzana.

Rev.: with V between the R and the F. Denarius.

Prou 894 = Gariel XI, 168.

Paris: 1.10 gr.

Find: Vercelli.

Rev.: with five dots between the legs of the R. Denarius.

Prou 895.

Paris: 0.93 gr.; Grierson: 1.32 gr.

Rev.: with bars between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel V, 8 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 592; Meyer Coll., 74; Cahn April 1899, 1.

Berlin: 1.28 gr. (Plate VIII).

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 100; Gariel V, 15 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 595.

Paris: 0.82 gr.

Berlin: 1.41 gr. (Plate VIII).

Gariel V, 18 (Combrouse, pl. XII, 1).

Riechman Nov. 1924, 11, 1.05 gr.

Berlin: (Plate VIII).

Prou 887; Gariel V, 10 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 594 (two pieces); Cahn March 1926, 4.

Paris: 1.22 gr.; Berlin: 1.22 gr. (Plate VIII).

Rev.: A, R, D, IS, in the corners of a cross. A bar above, and one dot at the end of each lower arm. Denarius.

Prou 888 = Gariel V, 11; Prou 889; Prou 890 (var.) = Gariel V, 13; Gariel V, 12 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 13.

Meyer Coll., 75; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 487, 488; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 290 (withdrawn as forgery).

Paris: 1.22 gr., 1.08 gr., 1.13 gr.; Berlin: 1.39 gr.; Brussels: 1.07 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1183) 1.13 gr. (Plate VIII); Grierson: 1.42 gr.

Find: Imphy; Vercelli; Ilanz II, 1.22 gr., 1.28 gr.

239. Obv.: +KRL+℞F, around a circlet.

Rev.: +AR :. FIVF, around a circlet. Denarius.

Prou 6.

Paris: 1.03 gr.

Rev.: AR, SN, I, around a triangular point. Denarius.

Gariel VI, 31 (Combrouse, pl. XII, 1).

Rev.: BAB. Above, a horizontal axe; below, Denarius.

Prou 85 = Gariel V, 19.

Meyer Coll., 76.

Paris: 1.20 gr. (Plate VIII).

Rev.: PAB. Bar above, cross below. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 103 (San Quintino Coll.).

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1209; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 293.

ANS: 0.97 gr.

Rev.: B, E, R, R, ℞, in the corners of a cross. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.16 gr.

Rev.: Before the inscription, an indecipherable sign. Denarius.

Prou 930; Gariel V, 21 (Gariel Coll.).

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1200.

Paris: 1.24 gr.

Find: Vercelli; Middelstum.

Rev.: horizontal axe. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.02 gr.

Rev.: Cruciform rosette of four dots. Denarius.

Cappe, II, pl. XXI, 215, 1.15 gr.; Cahn March 1926, 7.

Prou 931; Gariel V, 24 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find.).

Paris: 1.30 gr.; Berlin: 1.34 gr. (Plate VIII).

Find: Imphy.

Prou 932; Gariel VII, 59 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Paris: 0.94 gr.; Berlin: 0.87 gr. (Plate IX).

Gariel VI, 32–37 (var.); BMS 14.

Gariel Coll., 601, 602; Meyer Coll., 79; Bordeaux Coll., 168, 0.98 gr.; Helbing Oct. 1912, 16641; Glendining Mar. 1964, 271.

Berlin: 1.18 gr., 1.30 gr. (Plate IX); BM: (55–6–14–8.E; fragment) 0.76 gr.; Brussels: 0.92 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.21 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.28 gr.; Copenhagen: 1.35 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 0.70 gr., 0.74 gr., 0.91 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed.

Find: Jelsum, 0.99 gr.; Krinkberg; Gelderland.

Prou 934 = Gariel VI, 38.

Paris: 1.18 gr.; Grierson: 1.09 gr.; The Hague: (536) 1.20 gr. (Plate IX); Hermitage: 1.19 gr.

Find: Jelsum, 0.96 gr.; Vercelli; Gelderland.

Rev.: +CAR/RA:.S. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.23 gr.

Prou 933; Gariel VII, 57 (Brussels), 58 (Gariel Coll., 1.25 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 607.

Paris: 1.03 gr. (damaged); Berlin: 1.25 gr. (Plate IX); Brussels: 1.20 gr., 1.24 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 0.93 gr.

Find: Krinkberg; Gelderland.

Schloss Gotthorp: 1.07 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 105 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 631; Meyer Coll., 92.

Berlin: 1.04 gr., 1.11 gr. (Plate IX); Schloss Gotthorp: 1.03 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: ECOLISINA. Cross, Denarius.

Gariel V, 7 (Voillemier Coll.).

Berlin: 1.30 gr. (Plate IX).

Rev.: EIΔ/. . + / -, (retrograde). Denarius.

Gariel V, 16 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 596.

Berlin: 1.14 gr.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines and two dots at each end of the line. Denarius.

Gariel VII, 54 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find), 55 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., var.).

Meyer Coll., 82.

Paris: (7a) 1.25 gr.; Berlin: 1.15 gr., 1.27 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: INSCOCIV. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 148 (RN 1846, p. 187).

Rev.: IR⋄D/ANI, semi-linear, semi-circumscriptional. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 114 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 94 (ex Imphy).

Berlin: 1.21 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: LEM, between a bar terminating in three dots and a cross between two dots. Denarius.

Prou 773 = Gariel VII, 65; Gariel VII, 64 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 610; Meyer Coll., 85; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 489, 1.30 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1380.

Paris: 1.30 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr., 1.14 gr. (Plate IX); ANS: 1.30 gr. (Kress specimen); Grierson: 0.80 gr. (damaged); The Hague: (Inv. 17598, var., both inscriptions retrograde) 1.00 gr.; Hermitage: 1.23 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.00 gr., 1.06 gr., 1.08 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: LEM, between a bar terminating in a cross and Denarius.

Prou 774 = Gariel VII, 66; Gariel VII, 67 (Fabre Coll.).

Paris: 1.31 gr.; Berlin: 1.02 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.22 gr. (Plate IX); Schloss Gotthorp: 1.08 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed.

Find: Krinkberg.

(See D. M. Metcalf, "Coins of Charlemagne Reading DMAG. C. S.," HBN 1964/65, pp. 13–20).

Prou 935, 936, 937; Gariel VIII, 80–85; BMS 15.

Cahn April 1899, 2; Cahn 1906, 1; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 11; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1203, 1204; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 390; Kress Oct. 1960, 1375; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 291.

Paris: 1.27 gr., 1.36 gr., 1.23 gr.; Berlin: 1.16 gr. (two fragments of one coin), 1.22 gr., 1.25 gr., 1.32 gr. (Plate IX); BM: (SSB–127–1 [b]) 1.30 gr.; Brussels: 1.11 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.18 gr., 1.28 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1188) 1.24 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.: 1.13 gr., 1.30 gr.; The Hague: (55) 1.10 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1913.261) 1.12 gr.; Munich: 1.24 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.16 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed; Stuttgart: (2v4982) 1.24 gr.; Vienna: 1.14 gr.

Find: Imphy; Jelsum; Erdmannhausen; Sarzana; Ilanz II, 1.02 gr.; Krinkberg; Schowen; Speyer.

Rev.: with a bar above. Denarius.

Gariel VIII, 74 (Gariel Coll., 1.50 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 613.

Berlin: 1.53 gr.

Rev.: M/AI/C/N, in the corners of a cross. At the center of the cross, a circle with a dot. Denarius.

Gariel VIII, 75 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 614.

Berlin: (Plate IX).

265. Obv.: with above, three dots in field.

Rev.: M/D/C/G, in the corners of a cross. One dot in each corner of the cross. Denarius.

Gariel VIII, 96 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.06 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Lorsch.

Rev.: , with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 98 (Hervey de Saint-Denis Coll.).

Find: Chéteau de Breaux-sous-Nappe.

Rev.: between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 119 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: 1.28 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: MEDOCVS. Cross with circlet at the intersection. Denarius Prou 681–687 (var.); Gariel VIII, 86–95 (var.); BMS 16, 17, 18.

Gariel Coll., 620; Meyer Coll., 89; Bordeaux Coll., 171; Lockett Coll., 320; Hess May 1893, 2905; Hess 1901, 1770; Schulman Jan. 1929, 501; Cahn, April 1929, 3; Cahn Oct. 1929, 888, 1.30 gr.; Cahn Sept. 1932, 1291; Cahn 1934, 2234; Ménzhandl. Basel Oct. 1936, 303, 304; Schulman June 1939, 473; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 673; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 292; Kricheldorf June 1961, 319, 320.

Paris: 1.26 gr., 1.31 gr., 1.13 gr., 1.17 gr., 1.24 gr., 1.20 gr., 1.23 gr.; Berlin: 0.66 gr., 0.90 gr., 1.17 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.29 gr., 1.24 gr.; ANS: 1.20 gr.; BM: 1.18 gr., 1.25 gr., (57–9–1–7. IGP) 1.31 gr.; Brussels: 1.04 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.26 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1190) 1.13 gr., (T. 1189) 1.18 gr., (K. Fr. p. 136) 1.28 gr., 1.29 gr. (Plate IX); Blunt: 1.23 gr.; Dickie: 1.22 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.: 1.13 gr. (damaged); Garrett: (6115) 1.11 gr.; Grierson: 1.26 gr., 1.20 gr., 0.94 gr.; Hermitage: 1.37 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.28 gr., 1.39 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed; Stuttgart: (2v8490) 1.21 gr.; Yale: 1.10 gr.

Find: Vercelli; Krinkberg.

Rev.: MOS/WO, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 99 (Voillemier Coll.).

Berlin: 1.01 gr. (Plate IX); Schloss Gotthorp.

Find: Krinkberg.

Berlin: 0.91 gr., 1.25 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.32 gr.

Rev.: NA/IIIV, with a bar between the lines. One dot at the left end of the bar. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 100.

Find: Tours.

Prou 7 = Gariel IX, 102.

Meyer Coll., 91.

Paris: 1.12 gr.; Berlin: 1.11 gr., 1.18 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Vercelli; Ilanz II, 1.14 gr., 1.24 gr., 1.33 gr.

Paris: (316a) 1.20 gr.; Schloss Gotthorp: 1.03 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: RꜸ/DIO Denarius.

Prou 939 = Gariel IX, 112.

Paris: 1.07 gr.

Find: Jelsum, 0.99 gr.

Rev.: with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Prou 550 = Gariel IX, 106.

Paris: 1.08 gr. (Plate IX).

Rev.: RŌD/LAN with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 113 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

A specimen of different style appeared in the Meyer Coll., 94; a forged reverse die exists, cf. Grierson, ANSCent. Publ., p. 311, 4.

Berlin: 1.26 gr. (Plate IX).

Find: Imphy; Ilanz II, 1.35 gr.

Rev.: C with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel VII, 56 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.60 gr.

Rev.: •IIUb/•IAO Denarius.

Schloss Gotthorp.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev,: R, E, D, S, in the corners of a cross. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 111 (Combrouse, pl. IV, 11).

Rev.: Monogram of SANT, with two dots at the right and a bar beneath. Denarius.

Prou 940 = Gariel X, 131.

Paris: 0.77 gr. (damaged).

281. Obv.: CAI/LVS.

Rev.: SCEMARI. Dot inside a circle. Denarius.

(Grunthal, p. 51. suggests an attribution to St-Marie [Laon]).

Gariel X, 130 ("J'ai placé ici la description de ce denier, dont j'ai oublié la provenance, quoique sur la planche X il soit gravé sous le né 130, par suite d'une erreur.")

Rev.: +SCE•MIR• Dot in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel X, 126 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 636.

Berlin: 1.02 gr. (Plate IX).

Schloss Gotthorp (fragment).

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: SCE/MRE, with a bar between the lines. A dot at the left end of the bar, a circle at the right. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 120 (Fabre Coll)..

Berlin: 0.99 gr.

Rev.: SCICRVCIS. Cross. Denarius.

Paris: (677a) 1.25 gr.

ANS: 1.30 gr. (Plate X).

286. Obv.: KAR/LVZ.

Rev.: SCI/MAR. Denarius.

(Grunthal, p. 51, suggests an attribution to St. Marie [Laon]).

Gariel Vol. I, p. 58 (not illustrated).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: SCA/MAR. Denarius.

Find: Ilanz II, 1.18 gr.

Rev.: SCI•MꜸR• Dot in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel X, 125.

289. Obv.: KF℞, with one bar above the monogram and one below it.

Rev.: SCIMRVCI. Cross with dots in field. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.21 gr.

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: •SCI•/•TRV/•DO Denarius.

Gariel X, 128 (Société zélandaise of Middelburg Coll.)

Gariel X, 132 (Prince Gagarin Coll.).

292. Obv.: CARo/LVS.

Rev.: SEN, with a small cross above the E. Denarius (Siena?).

Gariel X, 133 (Sarzana find).

CNI XI, p. 349, 1; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 14; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 267; Théry Coll., 1963, 390. The specimens which appeared in the trade are forgeries, cf. Grierson, ANSCent. Publ., p. 311, 3.

Berlin: 1.35 gr. (Plate X).

Find: Sarzana.

Rev.: SLVA, with a bar above, and ••X beneath. Denarius.

Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 294.

ANS: 1.60 gr. Genuine ?.

294. Obv.: with a bar between the lines.

Gariel X, 127 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Berlin: (Plate X).

Find: Imphy; Trier.

Rev.: S, R, V, C, I, unequally spaced about a patriarchal cross. Dots in field. Denarius.

Gariel IX, 116 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., Imphy find).

Kricheldorf June 1961, 321, 1.30 gr.

Berlin: (Plate X).

Find: Imphy.

Rev.: SR in the lower corners of a cross. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.30 gr.

Gariel X, 129 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll., a Becker forgery).

Berlin: (Plate X); Schloss Gotthorp: 1.22 gr.

Find: Krinkberg.

Rev.: . Cross in a circlet of dots. Denarius.

Gariel X, 138 (RBN 1863, pl. XIV, 3).

Rev.: . with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel X, 136 (Gariel Coll., 1.50 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 639.

Brussels: 1.30 gr. (Plate X, slightly enlarged); Hermitage: 1.20 gr.

Rev.: , with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 152 (Gariel Coll., 1.20 gr.).

Gariel Coll., 643.

Berlin: 1.19 gr. (Plate X).

301. Obv.: ℞OIEM. Dot in a circlet of dots.

Rev.: VIL/REC, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 149 (Ponton d'Amécourt Coll.).

Berlin: 1.28 gr. (Plate X).

302. Obv.: Karolus monogram.

Rev.: VLE/CIA, with a bar between the lines. Dots in field. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 145 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 641.

Berlin: 1.17 gr..(Plate X).

Rev.: VCE/CIA, with a bar between the lines. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 146 (Gouaux Coll.).

Rev.: V, I, C, E, in the corners of a cross. One dot in each corner of the cross. Denarius.

Gariel XI, 147 (Fillon, pl. VII, 8; ex Morin Coll.).

305. Obv.: KĀ℞ with F horizontal beneath.

Rev.: V, ⋄, M, R, in the corners of a cross. Denarius.

Prou 941 = Gariel IX, 115.

Paris: 0.99 gr.; Berlin: 1.15 gr. (Plate X).

Find: Ilanz II, 1.26 gr.

Rev.: X, L, , in the corners of a cross. At the intersection of the cross, a circle. Denarius.

Schloss Gotthorp: 1.02 gr., and one additional exemplar, unweighed.

Find: "Jura," 1.22 gr. (var.); Krinkberg.

Rev.: WA-NO-И Cross. Denarius.

Gariel VII, 62 (Lausanne).

Meyer Coll., 84.

Find: Vercelli.

Indeterminate Mints

SECOND PERIOD

308. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +ETLAN6ACPATROM. Indecipherable monogram. (Scholars have interpreted this monogram as denoting variously "Rome," "Ravenna," and "Adrianus Papa." In a note published in MN XII, Miss M. Thompson, however, advances the more convincing thesis that it actually represents "Karolus" in Greek letters, an interpretation consonant with attributions of the issue to Ravenna.)

Prou 896; Gariel XII, 184 (Brussels var.).

CNI X, p. 681, 1; Gariel Coll., 660; Meyer Coll., 109; Bordeaux Coll., 174; Cahn April 1899, 4; Cahn Dec. 1922, 509, 1.70 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1926, 83, 1.75 gr.

Paris: 1.46 gr., Beilin: 1.59 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.75 gr. (Plate X); Brussels: 1.46 gr., 1.76 gr.; Munich: 1.00 gr., 1.53 gr.; Vienna: 1.63 gr.

Find: Biebrich, 1.52 gr., 1.70 gr.; Dorestadt (1846).

309. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: +EXMETALLONOVO. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XIII, 203 (Melle).

Berlin: 1.70 gr.; Brussels: 1.34 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17647) 1.20 gr.

310. Obv.: +CALVSREXIIER. Cross.

Rev.: +EXMTALLONOVO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 942.

Paris: 1.58 gr.

311. Obv.: +CARLVSREXER⋮ Cross.

Rev.: +EXMEALONOVO. Karolus monogram. Denarius.

Prou 943; Gariel XIII, 204 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 320; Gariel Coll., 669; Meyer Coll., 121; Hess 1905, 17, 18; Hess 1912, 1, 2.

The Hague: (EX MEALLONOVO) (Plate X).

Find: Ibersheim; Tournai.

312. Obv.: +CARLVSREXFR. Karolus monogram.

Rev.: C+LLLTALoNoVo. Cross with one ball in each of two diagonal corners and one dot in a third corner. Denarius.

The Hague: (Inv. 17640) 1.30 gr.

313. Obv.: KARLVSIIIPAV. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +METALL•GERMAN. Two dies between two hammers. Denarius.

Prou 972; Gariel IX, 97 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 628.

Paris: 1.53 gr.

314. Obv.: +DNKARLVSIMPAVGREXFETL. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: XPICTIANARELIGIO. Temple, Denarius.

Prou 982 = Gariel XII, 169; 170 (Van der Chijs), XLV, 54 (var. with OISTOANA.RELIGIO. Combrouse. pl. VII, 1).

Cahn March 1928, 145, 1.60 gr.; Meyer Coll., 103; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 158; Bourgey Dec. 1964, 26, 1.69 gr.

Paris: 1.52 gr.; Berlin: 1.29 gr., 1.68 gr., 1.69 gr., 1.70 gr. (Plate X).

Find: Moksnes.

315. Obv.: DNKAROLVSIMPAVD. Bust, laureate and draped, to right. Under bust, C.

Rev.: +PICIIANAPELICIO. Temple. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.57 gr.

316. Obv.: DNKAROLVSIMPAVD. Bust, laureate and draped, to right. Under bust, V.

Rev.: +PICIIANAPELICIO. Temple. Denarius.

Berlin: 1.18 gr.

317. Obv.: KAROLVSIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: XICTIANARELIGIO. Temple. Denarius.

Prou 983 = Gariel XLV, 57, 58 (RN 1868, p. 488, pl. XIX, 21), 59 (Brussels).

Ménz. u. Med. June 1951, 368.

Paris: 1.71 gr. (Plate X); Berlin: 1.37 gr.; Brussels: 1.56 gr. (damaged).

Find: Birka.

318. Same as foregoing, but with M beneath the bust. Denarius.

Prou 981 = Gariel XLV, 56.

CNI V, p. 456, 36a, 36b.

Paris: 1.60 gr. (Plate X).

Find: Dorestadt (1846); Birka.

319. Same as foregoing, but with F beneath the bust. Denarius.

Gariel XLV, 55 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 865.

Berlin: 1.68 gr. (Plate X).

PALACE

320. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: PALA/TINAMO/NETA. Denarius.

Prou 8, 9, 10; Gariel XVII, 90 (Gariel Coll.), 91.

Rousseau Coll., 355; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 35; Cahn Oct. 1924, 9; Cahn Feb. 1931, 8; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1225, 1226; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 678, 1.81 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1400; Bourgey Dec. 1964, 34, 1.77 gr.

Paris: 1.70 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.73 gr.; Berlin: 1.79 gr.; ANS: 1.77 gr., 1.81 gr. (Plate XI); Brussels: 1.61 gr ., 1.69 gr., 1.75 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. P. 1296) 1.68 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17489) 1.60 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1925.29) 1.74 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

East Francia

MAINZ

321. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MO/GON/TIA/CVS. Denarius.

Prou 34; Gariel XVII, 77 (Gariel Coll.).

Hess 1901, 1778; Cahn Sept. 1921, 1091; Helbing Oct. 1927, 2374; Helbing Oct. 1932, 268, 449; Kricheldorf May 1956, 333.

Paris: 1.69 gr.; Berlin: 1.29 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.56 gr.; Brussels: (Inv. 38) gr., 1.64 gr., 1.68 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.; 1.65 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17488) 1.50 gr.; Munich: 1.72 gr.; Vienna: 1.80 gr. (Plate XI).

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Achlum; Dorestadt (1846)(?).

CHUR

322. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: CVRIA in one line. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 45 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 700; Meyer Coll., 143.

Find: Belvézet.

REGENSBURG

323. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: REGA/NESB/VRG. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 105 (RBN 1857, p. 44, pl. V, 11).

Find: Regensburg (1868).

Alsace

STRASSBURG

324. Obv.: HTVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +STRAZBVRC. City gate. Denarius.

Prou 43; Gariel XIX, 123 (Brussels); BMS 28.

Meyer Coll. 1902, 170; Hess Pricelist 1905, 29.

Paris: 1.81 gr., Berlin: 1.80 gr.; BM: 2.06 gr.; Brussels: 1.44 gr. (Plate XI); Vienna: 1.94 gr.; (The authenticity of the BM specimen has been questioned because of its exceptional weight, but it is included here as representing an authentic type, if it is not, indeed, a genuine issue. For a discussion of the question, see BMS, p. 3.)

Find: Dorestadt (1846).

325. Withdrawn. The entry was based on Gariel, p. 185, 123. The reading is in error, cf. his pl. XIX, 123.

326. Obv.:+ HLVDOVVICVSIMP• Cross.

Rev.: STRA/TBVR/GVS, with a crook after the final S. Denarius. Prou 44, 45 (var.); Gariel XVIII, 121 (Gariel Coll.), XIX, 122 (Veuillin find).

Hess April 1928, 3561.

Paris: 1.75 gr., 1.92 gr. (Plate XI); Brussels: 1.32 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17492) 0.80 gr. (damaged).

Find: Veuillin; Hollingstedt; Schowen.

327. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP Cross.

Rev.: STRA/TBVR/CVS. Denarius.

Prou 46; Gariel XVIII, 120 (Achlum find).

Helbing Nov. 1909, 2; Hamburger Sept. 1917, 574, 575, 576; Cahn March 1926, 20, 1.80 gr.

Paris: 1.05 gr.; Berlin: 1.60 gr.; Munich: 1.35 gr., with one additional exemplar, unweighed. (Plate XI).

Find: Veuillin; Achlum.

328. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: STOT/T:.E:.N/BVRG. Denarius.

Gariel XIX, 124 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 758.

Berlin: 1.48 gr.

Lorraine

AACHEN

329. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSI. Cross.

Rev.: AQVI/SPALA. Obolus.

Gariel XVI, 53 (d'Estissac Coll.).

Berlin: 0.64 gr. (Plate XI).

Find: Bligny.

DORESTADT

330. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: DORESTATVS. Ship. Denarius.

Prou 63, 64; Gariel XVI, 59, 60 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 350; Gariel Coll., 718; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 28; Cahn March 1926, 17; Riechman April 1928, 625; Cahn Pricelist 1934, 2236a; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 160.

Paris: 1.57 gr., 1.72 gr.; Berlin: 1.36 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.76 gr., 1.99 gr. (Plate XI); Blunt: 1.72 gr.; Brussels: 1.03 gr. (damaged, rudder at right), 1.47 gr. (Inv. 35), 1.56 gr., 1.68 gr., (Inv. 34) 1.82 gr. (gilded); Copenhagen: (T. 1208) 1.20 gr. (damaged); Garrett: (6118) 1.66 gr.;. Grierson: 1.16 gr. (damaged); The Hague: (Inv. 17512) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17509) 0.92 gr. (fragment), (598) 1.61 gr.; Munich: 1.45 gr., 1.65 gr.; Van Rede: (B1212, var., rudder at right) 1.45 gr., (B1213) 1.67 gr.

Find: Dorestadt (1846); Achlum; Alstad (?); Hedeby (?).

331. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAV. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +DORESTATVS. Ship. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 61 (Brussels); BMS 29.

BM: (SSB–34–115) 1.63 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17513) 1.17.gr. (fragment); Van Rede: (B1232) 1.76 gr.

332. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each of three corners.

Rev.: DOR/ESTA/TVS. Denarius.

Prou 65; Gariel XVI, 54 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 30.

Rousseau Coll., 351; Gariel Coll., 706–716; Meyer Coll., 147; Bordeaux Coll., 216; Cahn March 1926, 18.

Paris: 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 0.97 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.72 gr., 1.74 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.77 gr., 1.77 gr., 1.80 gr., 1.84 gr., 1.85 (numerous var.) (Plate XI); ANS: 1.57 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–13. IGP. var., no dots in obverse cross) 1.73 gr.; Brussels: 1.42 gr., 1.45 gr., (Inv. 36) 1.52 gr., 1.56 gr., 1.66 gr., 1.78 gr.; Grierson: 1.76 gr. (var.); The Hague: (Inv. 17511) 0.70 gr., (Inv. 17510) 1.00 gr., 1.60 gr. (599 var., D+OR/ESTA/TVS) 1.70 gr., 1.72 gr.; Munich: 1.45 gr.; Oslo: 1.71 gr. (var.); Stuttgart: (2V7741) 1.57 gr.; Van Rede: (B1216 var., no dots in obverse cross, DOR/ES•TA/TVS 1.12 gr.; Vienna: 1.67 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Achlum; Ide; Worms; Schowen.

333. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with triangle in each corner.

Rev.: DOR/ESTA/TVS. Denarius.

Prou 66, 67; Gariel XVI, 57 (Gariel Coll., Gariel XVI, 58, mentions five varieties of obv. cross in this type: 1) with one dot in each of three corners, 2) with one dot in one corner, 3) with one dot in each of two diagonal corners, 4) with one point in each of three corners, and 5) with triangles in two horizontal corners and dots in the other two.)

Paris: 1.81 gr., 1.25 gr.; Berlin: 1.59 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. P. 1617.537 var., only one dot in one corner of obv. cross; dot between S and T in rev. inscription) 1.51 gr., (K. P. 1617. x 535) 1.75 gr., (K. P. 1617. x 536 var., one dot between the last two lines of the rev. inscription) 1.79 gr. (Plate XI); Garrett: (6119) 1.80 gr.

Find: Bonn.

334. Obv.: +LVDOVVICVSIMPI. Cross.

Rev,: DOR/+ESTA/TVS. Denarius.

Prou 68; Gariel XVI, 55.

Paris: 1.73 gr. (Plate XI).

335. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each of two diagonal corners.

Rev.: EDOR/ES'TA/TVS. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 56 (Veuillin find).

Berlin: 1.73 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

336. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMD. Cross with one point in each of two diagonal corners.

Rev.: DOR/ESTA/TVS. Denarius.

Oslo: 1.70 gr. (damaged).

337. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each of three corners.

Rev.: DORESTATVSMON. Temple. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck; Ide 1.61 gr.

COLOGNE

338. Obv.: +LVDO...S. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Gariel XV, 47 (Gariel Coll.).

Hévernick, 19; Gariel Coll., 702; Meyer Coll., 511.

Berlin: 0.59 gr. (fragment).

339. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICSIHP. Cross.

Rev.: COLO/•/NIA. Denarius.

Prou 79; Gariel XV, 46 (Gariel Coll. var. with IMP).

Hévernick, 12; Gariel Coll., 701; Meyer Coll., 144, 145; Hirsch Oct. 1961, 1779.

Paris: 1.69 gr.; Berlin: 1.70 gr., 1.82 gr. (Plate XI); Brussels: 1.50 gr. (damaged).

Find: Veuillin.

340. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSMD. Cross.

Rev.: COLO/:. + .:/NIA. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 48 (Brussels).

Hévernick, 14.

Brussels: 1.19 gr.

341. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: COLO/ + /NIA'. Denarius.

Hévernick, 13.

Berlin: 1.82 gr. (Plate XI); Brussels: 1.56 gr. (var.); The Hague: (Inv. 17547) 1.50 gr. (var.).

Find: Veuillin.

CAMBRAI

342. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: CAMA/é/RACVS. Denarius.

Prou 114, 115 (var.); Gariel XV, 43 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 31.

Cahn 1897, 2; Rosenberg 1906, 7; Rosenberg March 1914, 481; Cahn March 1926, 19; Schulman June 1936, 229; Lockett Coll., 329; Kress Oct. 1960, 1488; Schulman, April 1965, 3282.

Paris: 1.58 gr., 1.49 gr.; Berlin: 1.42 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.84 gr., 1.85 gr.; ANS: 1.74 gr. (Plate XI); BM: (SSB–127–23) 1.67 gr.; Brussels: 1.69 gr., 1.64 gr.; Grierson: 1.69 gr.; Munich: 1.57 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Dorestadt (1846) ?

343. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: CAMA/RIICVS/• Denarius.

Brussels: 1.23 gr.

TRIER

344. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: TREV/ERIS. Denarius.

Prou 126; Gariel XIX, 137.

Meyer Coll., 177; Hess May 1893, 2222; Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 25.

Paris: 1.81 gr.; Berlin: 1.20 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.84 gr. (Plate XI); Brussels: 1.52 gr., (Inv. 47) 1.72 gr., (Inv. 48 var., both inscriptions poorly cut and retrograde) 1.86 gr.; Trier: (Inv. 32.162) 1.07 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; St. Quentin.

METZ

345. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIM. Cross.

Rev.: METTIS, in one line. Denarius.

Gariel XVII, 78 (Robert, pl. XII, 7).

346. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MEDI/OMAT/RIC. Denarius.

Gariel XVII, 79 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 234.

Berlin: 1.73 gr. (Plate XI).

Find: Veuillin (MEDI/OMAT/RICI).

VERDUN

347. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: VIRID/VNVM. Denarius.

Prou 145, 146; Gariel XIX, 144 (Gariel Coll.).

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1249, 1250; Kricheldorf May 1956, 335; Kress Oct. 1960, 1409; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1964, n; Bourgey Dec. 1964, 40.

Paris: 1.79 gr., 1.74 gr.; Berlin: 1.76 gr., 1.81 gr., 1.90 gr. (Plate XII); ANS: 1.77 gr.; Brussels: 1.60 gr., (Inv. 49) 1.69 gr.; Grierson: 1.62 gr. (var. VIRID/•/VNVM; damaged); Munich: 1.72 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; "Pommerania."

348. Obv.: +IDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: VIRID/VHVM. Denarius.

Gariel XIX, 145 (Robert, pl. XII, 9).

Meyer Coll., 179, 180 (var., VIRIDVNI).

Francia

QUENTOVIC

349. Obv.: FIVDO/VVIC.

Prou 186.

Paris: 0.75 gr.; ANS: 0.62 gr. (var. ). (Plate XII).

350. Obv.: LVDO/ : /VVIC.

Rev.: +QVENTO+VVIC. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XVIII, 102 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 751.

Berlin: 0.79 gr. (Plate XII).

351. Obv.: HLVD0VVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +QVENTOVVICVS. Ship. Denarius.

Prou 187; Gariel XVIII, 104.

Cahn April 1929, 33.

Paris: 1.57 gr.; ANS: 1.60 gr. (Plate XII).

352. .Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: QVENTOVVICVS. Ship. И

Gariel XVIII, 103 (Poey d'Avant, no. 6566). Genuine?

353. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: QVENTO/•/VICVS. Denarius.

Prou 188; Gariel XVIII, 99 (Gariel Coll.).

Meyer Coll., 163, 164; Helbing March 1902, 1495; Ménzhandl. Basel Dec. 1935, 14; Helbing March 1911, 2285; Lockett Coll., 350; Kress Oct. 1960, 1471.

Paris: 1.81 gr.; Berlin: 1.51 gr., 1.78 gr.; ANS: 1.79 gr. (Plate XII); Brussels: 1.75 gr., 1.79 gr., (Inv. 44) 1.85 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17563) 1.20 gr. (damaged).

Find: Veuillin; Dorestadt (1846).

354. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: QVINTO/VICVS. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 101 (Poey d'Avant, no. 6568), 100 (Gariel Coll. var.).

Berlin: 1.39 gr.

RHEIMS

355. Obv.: LVDOV/VIC.

Rev.: +REMISCIVIS. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XVIII, 111 (Reims).

356. Obv:. +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: REMI/CIVI/TAS. Denarius.

Prou 293 == Gariel XVIII, 107, 108 (Reims).

Paris: 1.79 gr.; Berlin: 1.69 gr. (Plate XII).

Find: Veuillin.

357. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: REMIS/CIVIS. Denarius.

Prou 294, 295; Gariel XVIII, 106 (Gariel Coll.).

Hamburger Nov. 1912, 37; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1244; Hess, Lucerne July 1933, 83; Kress Oct. 1960, 1401.

Paris: 1.69 gr., 1.77 gr.; Berlin: 1.59 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.79 gr. (Plate XII); ANS: 1.58 gr.; Brussels: (Inv. 45, var. dot between lines of obv. inscription) 1.58 gr., 1.80 gr.; Copenhagen: (B. Pr. 824) 1.17 gr.; Grierson: 1.83 gr.; Vienna: 1.54 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet (?).

358. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: REIMS/CIVIS. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, no (Veuillin find); BMS 32.

BM: (1909–10–6–5–Spink) 1.86 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

359. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: RIEMS/CIVIS. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 109 (Reims).

Find: Jaeren.

Paris

360. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: PAR/ISII. Denarius.

Gariel XVII, 94 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 354; Gariel Coll., 745.

Berlin: 1.15 gr., 1.64 gr. (Plate XII); Oslo: 1.78 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

361. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: PARISII, in one line. Denarius.

Prou 317, 318, 319, 320; Gariel XVII, 92 (Gariel Coll.), 93 (Indre and Veuillin finds); BMS 33.

Rousseau Coll., 353; Cahn April 1912, 7; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1243; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 162; Lockett Coll., 331; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 679, 1.62 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1398.

Paris: 1.75 gr., 1.35 gr., 1.82 gr., 1.60 gr.; Berlin: 1.66 gr., 1.85 gr.; ANS: 1.75 gr. (Plate XII); BM: 57–9–1–19 IGP) 1.74 gr.; Copenhagen: (B. Pr. p. 180) 0.99 gr. (damaged), (T. 1214) 1.44 gr.; Garrett: (6120) 1.69 gr.; Grierson: 1.73 gr. (var. PARISI).

Find: Indre; Veuillin; Dargocice.

MEAUX

362. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC•

Rev.: +MELDISCIV. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XVI, 67 (Fillon, Lettres é Dugast-Matifeux).

Brussels: 0.70 gr.

Find: Angers (1812).

363. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MEL•DIS, in one line. Denarius.

Prou 359. Prou 360 and Gariel XVI, 66 (Gariel Coll.) vary, lacking the central reverse dot. Prou 361 (var. HELDIS, retrograde). BMS 34.

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1237, Ménzhandl. Basel Dec. 1935, 13; Kress Oct. 1960, 1392; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 301.

Paris: 1.70 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.44 gr.; Berlin: 1.77 gr. (Plate XII); ANS: 1.74 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–15. IGP) 1.54 gr.; Brussels: 1.80 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

364. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MEL/DIS. Denarius.

RN 1840, p. 131.

Find: Angers (1812) ?

ROUEN

365. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC•

Rev.: +ROTOMACVS. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XVIII, 115 (Fillon, p. 146).

366. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: ROTV/•/MAGVS. Denarius.

Prou 376, 377; Gariel XVIII, 114 (Gariel Coll.).

Schulman 1931, 97; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1245; Cahn 1934, 2238; Kricheldorf May 1956, 334; Kress Oct. 1960, 1402; Théry Coll., 36.

Paris: 1.72 gr., 1.78 gr.; Berlin: 1.72 gr., 1.73 gr. (Plate XII); ANS: 1.43 gr. (Kress specimen); Dickie: 1.84 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

Neustria

TOURS

367. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +TVRONES. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 448; Gariel XIX, 132 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 765; Meyer Coll., 175; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 304.

Paris : 0.85 gr.; ANS: 0.79 gr. (Plate XII); The Hague: (614) 0.60 gr. (damaged).

368. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: TVRONES. City gate. Denarius.

Prou 444, 445 == Gariel XIX, 133; Gariel XIX, 134, 135 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 348; Gariel Coll., 766; 767; Meyer Coll., 176; Bordeaux Coll., 207; Cahn Dec. 1922, 517; F. Ratto Dec. 1930, 2586; Théry Coll., 39. Paris: 1.70 gr., 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 1.32 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.70 gr. (Plate XII, two specimens); Brussels: (Inv. 46) 1.52 gr.

369. Same as foregoing. Ꜹ. Genuine ?

Vienna: 3.16 gr.

370. Same type as foregoing. Obolus.

Gariel XIX, 136 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 768.

Berlin: 0.84 gr. (Plate XII).

371. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: TVRO/NES• Denarius.

Prou 446, 447; Gariel XIX, 131 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 35.

Rousseau Coll., 349; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1248; Kress Oct. 1960, 1404; Kricheldorf June 1961, 326.

Paris: 1.56 gr., 1.63 gr.; Berlin: 1.77 gr.; ANS: 1.78 gr. (Plate XIII); BM: (1909–10–6–6–Spink) 1.79 gr.; Grierson: 1.58 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Angers (1812).

ORLéANS

372. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMAVG• Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +AVRELIANIS• City gate. Denarius.

Prou 507; Gariel XVII, 89 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 741; Meyer Coll., 160.

Paris: 1.49 gr.; Berlin: 1.38 gr.; ANS: 1.59 gr. (Plate XIII); Grierson: 1.71 gr. (var. HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVG).

Find: éFrisiaé (1853)?

373. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AVREL/•/IANIS. Denarius.

Gariel XVII, 88 (Veuillin find).

Find: Veuillin.

Burgundy

SENS

374. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVG. Bust,laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +SENONES. City gate. Denarius.

Prou 565.

Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 499, 1.45 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1382; Kress Dec. 1961, 657; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1964, 10; Théry Coll., 37.

Paris: 1.49 gr. (Plate XIII); ANS: 1.84 gr.

375. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAV. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +SENONES. City gate with two circles beneath. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 119 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 756.

Berlin: 1.07 gr., 1.07 gr. (Plate XIII).

376. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP• Cross.

Rev.: SENO/NES. After the terminal S, a dart pointing from right to left. Denarius.

Prou 566, 567 = Gariel XVIII, 118, 117 (Gariel Coll.).

Schulman Oct. 1913, 364; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 38; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1246; Kress Oct. 1960, 1405; Kricheldorf June 1961 325; Schulman April 1965, 3283.

Paris: 1.90 gr., 1.67 gr.; Berlin: 1.78 gr., 1.80 gr.; ANS: 1.84 gr. (Plate XIII); Brussels: 1.64 gr.; Grierson: 1.97 gr. (var.).

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Angers (1812).

377. Obv.: +HLVDOVVIC. Cross.

Rev.: SENO/NES. After the terminal S, a dart pointing from right to left. Obolus.

Prou 568.

Paris: 0.80 gr. (Plate XIII).

CHALON-SUR-SAéNE

378. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: CAVIL/ONVM. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 44 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 699; Meyer Coll., 142.

Paris: (616a) 1.30 gr.; Berlin: 1.74 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

LYON

379. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: LVGD/é/VNVM. Denarius.

Prou 630, 631; Gariel XVI, 64 (Gariel Coll.).

Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 27; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1234; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1948, 161; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1957, 676, 1.78 gr.; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1964, 8.

Paris: 1.73 gr., 1.78 gr.; Berlin: 1.75 gr., 1.80 gr. (Plate XIII); ANS: 1.78 gr.; Grierson: 1.76 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

380. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSMP. Cross.

Rev.: LVCD/•/VИVM. Denarius.

Prou 632.

Paris: 1.83 gr.

BESANçON

381. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: VESON/TIVM. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 38 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 693.

Berlin: 1.63 gr. (Plate XIII).

Brittany

RENNES

382. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSMP. Cross.

Rev.: REDO/NIS. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 112 (Fillon, pl. VII, 13).

Find: Angers (1812).

NANTES

383. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +NAMNETVN. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XVII, 84 (Fillon, p. 126).

Find: Angers (1812).

384. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSMI. Cross.

Rev.: NAMИ/•/ETVM. Denarius.

Prou 653; Gariel XVII, 83 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 738; Bordeaux Coll., 223.

Paris: 1.78 gr.; Berlin: 1.81 gr. (Plate XIII).

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

Aquitaine

385. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +AQVI+TANIA. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 655 = Gariel XIV, 2.

Paris: 0.81 gr. (Plate XIII).

386. Obv.: +HOVDOVVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: AQVI/•/TANIA. Obolus.

Prou 656; Gariel XIV, 4 (Gariel Coll., var. with +HLVDOVVICVSRE).

Gariel Coll., 678; Meyer Coll., 130.

Paris: 0.74 gr.; Vienna (Plate XIII).

387. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AQVI/TANIA. Denarius.

Gariel XIV, 19 (Gariel Coll.).

388. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSHP. Cross.

Rev.: AQVI/TAИA Obolus.

Prou 658; Gariel XIV, 19 (Gariel Coll., var. +HLVDOVVICVSIMP). Gariel Coll., 685.

Paris: 0.78 gr. (Plate XIII).

Find: Fontaines.

389. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: + /AQVI/•/TANIA/ +. Denarius. Prou 657. Cahn Dec. 1932, 1227; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 496; Lockett Coll., 328; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1957, 675 1.74 Kress Oct. 1960, 1384, 1.71 gr.; Théry Coll., 27; Kress Nov. 1966, 1463.

Paris: 1.75 gr.; ANS: 1.74 gr.; Garrett: (6121) 1.86 gr.; Munich: 1.63 gr.; Vienna: 1.81 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

390. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross. Rev.: Denarius. Gariel XIV, 18 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.71 gr., 1.81 gr. (Plate XIII).

391. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross. Rev.: Obolus. Gariel XIV, 3 (Cabinet de France). The Prou listings (nos. 675 and 676) vary.

Paris: 0.47 gr., 0.57 gr.; Berlin: 0.62 gr., 0.68 gr., and one copper forgery weighing 0.56 gr.

392. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: +AOVITANIA. Cross. Obolus.

Find: Lauzés, 0.65 gr.

MELLE

Rev.: +METIILLVH. Cross with one dot in each corner. Obolus.

Grierson: 0.57 gr.

394. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 709, 710; Gariel XIV, 5 (Gariel Coll.), 6 (Gariel Coll.).Rousseau Coll., 342 (?), 343 (var. HLVDO/VVICVS); Gariel Coll., 679, 680; Meyer Coll., 131; Motte Coll., 123; Ménzhandl. Basel Oct. 1936, 307; Kress Oct. 1960, 1395; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1964, 9.

Paris: 0.74 gr., 0.78 gr.; Berlin: 0.60 gr., 0.74 gr., 0.77 gr., 0.85 gr. (Plate XIII); Brussels: (Inv. 41) 0.77 gr.; Dickie: 0.79 gr.; Grierson: 0.72 gr.; The Hague: (603) 0.70 gr.

Find: Fontaines.

395. Obv.: LVDOIC, in one line.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 711; Gariel XIV, 7 (Gariel Coll.) Gariel Coll., 681.

Paris: 0.84 gr.; Berlin: 0.75 gr. (Plate XIII).

396. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Two monetary dies between two hammers. Denarius.

Prou 712, 713; Gariel XVI, 73, XVII, 74, 75 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 338; Cahn April 1912, 6; Cahn Dec. 1922, 516, 1.45 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1924, 8; Hamburger Feb. 1928, 709; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1241; Ménz. u. Med. June 1951, 370; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 498, 1.69 gr.; Lockett Coll., 326; Théry Coll., 32; Schulman Feb. 1966, 1183 a.

Paris: 1.64 gr., 1.66 gr.; Berlin: 1.67 gr., 1.69 gr., 1.70 gr. (Plate XIII, two specimens); ANS: 1.56 gr., 1.37 gr.; Blunt; Brussels: 1.74 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1210) 1.64 gr.; Garrett: (6122) 1.51 gr.; Grierson: 1.69 gr.; Stuttgart: (2vII6.1949/297) 1.60 gr. (damaged).

397. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Two monetary dies between two hammers. Obolus.

Prou 714; Gariel XVII, 76 (var. with +HLVDOVVICVSIM. No location). Rousseau Coll., 339, 340; Meyer Coll., 156; Cahn April 1929, 11, 0.77 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1929, 894, 0.77 gr.

Paris: 0.85 gr.; Berlin: 0.72 gr., 0.76 gr.; ANS: 0.84 gr. (Plate XIV); Blunt: 0.63 gr. (damaged and repaired); Brussels: 0.77 gr., (Inv. 42) 0.64 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17602) 0.70 gr.

398. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: META/é/LLVM. Denarius.

Prou 715, 716, 717, 718, 719; Gariel XVI, 68 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 36, 37. Rousseau Coll., 341; Cahn April 1929, 9; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1238; Cahn, Pricelist 1934, 2237; Théry Coll., 31.

Paris: 1.72 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.69 gr., 1.73 gr.; Berlin: 1.41 gr., 1.52 gr., 1.73 gr.; ANS: 1.63 gr.; Alfred R. Bellinger: 1.72 gr. (Plate XIV); Blunt: 1.56 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–16–IGP) 1.37 gr., (1908–1–11—250-Lincoln) 1.71 gr.; Brussels: 1.66 gr., 1.78 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. T. 1212) 1.54 gr., (Bollin. 1852, var., lacking rev. dot) 1.67 gr.; Grierson: 1.76 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17605) 1.50 gr.; Stuttgart: (2V4176), (2V8496 var.) 1.51 gr.; Vienna: 1.71 gr.

Find: Indre; Veuillin; Angers (1812); Mullaghboden.

399. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSII. Cross.

Rev.: WETALLVM, in one line. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 69 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.29 gr.

Find: Belvézet.

400. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 70 (Gariel Coll.).

Helbing March 1902, 1488.

ANS: 1.72 gr.; Brussels: 1.46 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.70 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17601) 1.60 gr., (600) 1.85 gr.; Van Rede: (B1232) 1.76 gr.; Yale: 1.76 gr.

401. Obv.: +HLVDOVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: +METALLVM Cross. Obolus.

Prou 721 = Gariel XIV, 8.

Paris: 0.77 gr.

402. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 722, 723; Gariel XVI, 71 (Gariel Coll., var. with +METALLVN). Cahn April 1929, 10, 0.74 gr.; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1222; Cahn 1934, 2235; Lockett Coll. Feb. 1956, 330.

Paris: 0.80 gr., 0.67 gr. (Plate XIV); Brussels: (Inv. 43) 0.69 gr., 0.70 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17606) 0.70 gr.

Find: Angers (1812) ?

403. Obv.: +HLVDOICVS. Cross.

Rev.: +METALLVM. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 724 = Gariel XIV, 9.

Paris: 0.85 gr. (Plate XIV); Berlin: 0.78 gr.

Find: Lough Lene ?

404. Obv.: +HLVDOICVS. Cross.

Rev.: +METVLVM. Cross. Obolus.

Prou 725 = Gariel XIV, 8.

Paris: 0.82 gr.

405. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: (retrograde). Cross with one dot in each corner. Obolus.

Gariel XVI, 72 (Gariel Coll.).

406. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: META/é/LLVM. Denarius.

Prou 720.

Paris: 1.62 gr.

407. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP Cross.

Rev.: +METALVVM Cross. Denarius.

Grierson: 1.49 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

BOURGES

408. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +BITVRIGES Cross. Obolus.

Prou 733; Gariel XV, 42 (Gariel Coll.). Gariel Coll., 697; Meyer Coll., 140; Bordeaux Coll., 214 (two pieces in lot).

Paris: 0.80 gr.; Berlin: 0.70 gr. (Plate XIV).

409. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: ITVRICRIG. Irregular cruciform pattern. Obolus.

Gariel XV, 41 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 696.

410. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: BITV/é/RIGES. Denarius.

Prou 734; Gariel XV, 40 (Gariel Coll.). Rousseau Coll., 336; Cahn April 1912, 9; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1231; Kricheldorf Oct. 1958, 195; Kress Oct. 1960, 1385; 1386, 1387; Kricheldorf Nov. 1960, 299; Blaser-Frey June 1963, 2; Théry Coll., 29; Kress Nov. 1966, 1464.

Paris: 1.82 gr.; ANS: 1.81 gr. (Plate XIV); Blunt: 1.78 gr.; Grierson: 1.60 gr., 1.58 gr. (damaged); Brussels: 1.66 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Indre; Angers (1812); Tiszaeszlér.

411. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Gariel XV, 41 (Gariel Coll.).

Gascony

BORDEAUX

412. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: BVRDI/GALA. Denarius.

Prou 789; Gariel XV, 39 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 694; Meyer Coll., 138.

Paris: 1.85 gr. (Plate XIV); Garrett: (6123) 1.76 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

DAX

413. Obv.: +LVDOVVICVS. Cross.

Rev.: AQV/IS. Obolus.

Gariel XVI, 52 (Musée de Marseilles).

414. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AQVIS/VVAS/CON. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 50 (Fabre Coll.).

Berlin: (Plate XIV).

415. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AQVIS/VASCON. Denarius.

Prou 796; Gariel XVI, 49 (Gariel Coll.). Rousseau Coll., 337; Gariel Coll., 704; Meyer Coll., 146; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 27; Bordeaux Coll., 211 (ex Hamburger 1912); Cahn Dec. 1932, 1232; Théry Coll., 398.

Paris: 1.58 gr. (Plate XIV).

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Indre.

416. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AQVIS/VASON. Denarius.

Prou 797; Gariel XVI, 51 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 705.

Paris: 1.49 gr. (Plate XIV).

Find: Veuillin.

Toulousain

TOULOUSE

417. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +TOLVSA. City gate with cross at center and a second cross beneath. Denarius.

Prou 803; Gariel XIX, 128 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 762; Meyer Coll., 173; Bordeaux Coll., 208; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 40; A.N.A. Convention Sale 1952, 770 (ex Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.60 gr., Berlin: 1.66 gr., 1.66 gr. (Plate XIV, two specimens); ANS: 1.54 gr. (Plate XIV); Garrett: (6124) 1.57 gr.

418. Obv.: HLVDOVVICS. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +TOLVSA. City gate with cross at center and second cross beneath. Obolus.

Prou 804 = Gariel XIX, 129; Gariel XIX, 130 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 763.

Paris: 0.70 gr.; Berlin: 0.73 gr. (Plate XIV).

419. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +TOLVSACIVI. Cross. Denarius.

Prou 805; Gariel XIX, 125 (Gariel Coll.). Rousseau Coll., 347; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 39; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1949, 467; Gans-Grunthal April 1951, 581; Kress Oct. 1960, 1403.

Paris: 1.59 gr.; Copenhagen: (K. P. 417) 1.47 gr.; Van Rede: (B1233) 1.53 gr.

Find: Auzeville.

420. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: TOLO/SACIVI/TAS. Denarius.

Prou 806.

Cahn Dec. 1932, 1247; Théy Coll., 38 (with ).

Paris: 1.75 gr.; ANS: 1.74 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

421. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMPER. Cross.

Rev.: TOLO/SACIVI/TAS. Denarius.

Gariel XIX, 126 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.64 gr., 1.76 gr.. 1.84 gr. (Plate XIV).

422. Obv.: +HLVD:OVVICVSI. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: éTéOLO/SACIVI/éTéAS. Obolus.

Gariel XIX, 127 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 761.

Berlin: 0.66 gr. (Plate XIV).

Find: Poitiers (1943) ?

423. Obv.: +HIVDOVVICVSIP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: .T.OIO/SACIVI/TASé Obolus.

Grierson.

Spanih March

AMPURIS

424.Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: INPV/RIAS. Denarius.

Prou 827, 828; Gariel XV, 33 (Gariel Coll., var. +HLVDOVVICVSINP). Gariel Coll., 690; Meyer Coll., 136; Heiss, p. 134,1; Cahn Dec. 1932,1223. Paris: 1.74 gr., 1.71 gr.; Berlin: 1.57 gr. (Plate XV); Hispanic Society of America: 1.67 gr. (Plate XV).

Asociacion Numismatica Española Oct. 1966, 189 A.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

BARCELONA

425. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP Cross.

Rev.: BAR/CNIO/NA. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 37 (Veuillin find).

Garrett: (6125) 1.68 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

426. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Prou 830.

Heiss, pl. 77, 1, 2.

Paris: 1.62 gr.; Hispanic Society of America: (17962, var., dot after the terminal A in the rev. inscription) 1.61 gr. (Plate XV).

Find: Belvézet.

427. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: BAR/CINO/NA:. Denarius.

Prou 831 = Gariel XV, 35 (?).

Gariel Coll., 692; Meyer Coll., 137; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1230; Hess, Lucerne July 1933, 79.

Paris: 1.30 gr.; Berlin: 1.58 gr.

428. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: BVR/CINO/NA. Denarius.

Prou 832 = Gariel XV, 36.

Paris: 1.67 gr.

RODA

429. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: ROD/DA. Denarius.

Prou 833 = Gariel XVIII, 113.

Paris: 1.67 gr. (Plate XV).

Septimania

NARBONNE

430. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: NAR/é/BONA. Denarius.

Prou 836; Gariel XVII, 85 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 38, 39. Rousseau Coll., 345; Schulman 1931, 93; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1242; Hess, Lucerne July 1933, 82; Kress Oct. 1960, 1396; Blaser-Frey June 1963, 3; Théry Coll., 33.

Paris: 1.65 gr.; Berlin: 1.86 gr. (Plate XV); ANS: 1.80 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–18–IGP) 1.63 gr., (1908–10–11–1251) 1.46 gr.; Brussels: 1.59 gr.; Grierson: (var., one dot in one corner of the obv. cross).

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Lauzés, 1.51 gr.

431. Obv.: +LDVCSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: NAR/BONA. Obolus.

Prou 837, 838; Gariel XVII, 87 (Gariel Coll.).

Rousseau Coll., 346; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 34; Cahn April 1929, 8, 0.82 gr.; Kress Oct. 196o, 1397.

Paris: 0.79 gr., 0.83 gr.; Berlin: 0.82 gr.; ANS: 0.72 gr. (Plate XV).

432. Obv.: +HLVDOVSNP. Cross.

Rev.: NAR/BONA. Obolus.

Prou 839 = Gariel XVII, 86.

Paris: 0.65 gr.

Provence

VIENNE

433. Obv.: +IILVDOVVICVSIIP. Cross.

Rev.: Vienna , in one line. Denarius.

Prou 842; Gariel XX, 146 (Gariel Coll., var. with +HLVDOVVICVSIIIIP). Gariel Coll., 7774; Meyer Coll., 181; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1251.

Paris: 1.75 gr.; Berlin: 1.75 gr. (Plate XV).

Find: Belvézet.

434. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: VENNA, in one line. Denarius.

Prou 843 (var. with VEHHA); Gariel XX, 147 (Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.76 gr. (Plate XV).

ARLES

435. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAV6. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +ARELATVMé City gate. Denarius.

Prou 856 = Gariel XV, 30 (?); 27 (Veuillin find), 28 (Fabre Coll., var.). Rousseau Coll., 335; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1228; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 497; Kress Oct. 1960, 1383, 1.87 gr.

Paris: 1.55 gr.; Berlin: 1.67 gr. (Plate XV); The Hague: (Inv. 17628) 1.00 gr. (damaged); Munich: 1.64 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Hon.

436. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +ARELATVM+ (retrograde). City gate. Denarius.

Prou 857 = Gariel XV, 29.

Paris: 1.44 gr.; Brussels: 1.57 gr.

437. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAC. Bust, laurelled and draped, to right.

Rev.: +ARELATVM. City gate. Denarius.

Prou 858 = Gariel XV, 31.

Paris: 1.25 gr.

438. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +ARELATVM. City gate. Obolus.

Gariel XV, 32 (Gariel Coll.). Gariel Coll., 689.

Berlin: 0.68 gr.

439. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AREL/é/ATVM. Denarius.

Prou 859; Gariel XIV, 22 (Gariel Coll.).

Hamburger Nov. 1912, 25; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1229; Schulman April 1965, 3281.

Paris: 1.78 gr.; Berlin: 1.83 gr.; ANS: 1.76 gr. (Plate XV); Copenhagen: (B. P. 1254) 1.21 gr.; Grierson: 1.68 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1930.12) 1.78 gr.; Munich: 1.57 gr., 1.60 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Indre.

440. Same as foregoing. Obolus.

Gariel XIV, 23 (Gariel Coll.), 24 (Gariel Coll., var.).

Gariel Coll., 687, 688; Helbing Dec. 1917, 5; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 26; Schlessinger March 1930, 1497.

Berlin: 0.75 gr., 0.81 gr. (Plate XV); The Hague: (602) 0.72 gr. (damaged).

441. Obv.: +NLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: AREL/é/ATVM. Obolus.

Prou 860.

Paris: 0.83 gr.

442. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: AREL/é/ATVM. Obolus.

Gariel XIV, 24 (Gariel Coll.), 25 (Fillon, pl. VII, 11, var.).

443. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICI. Cross.

Gariel XV, 26 (Brussels).

MARSEILLE

444. Obv.: XHLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MASS/é/ILIA. Denarius.

Prou 886; Gariel XVI, 65 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 40.

Rousseau Coll., 352; Cahn April 1912, 8; Cahn March 1926, 22; Cahn April 1929, 6; Cahn Oct. 1929, 892; Cahn, Pricelist 1934, 2236; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1957, 677, 1.74 gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1391; Théry Coll., 30.

Paris: 1.65 gr.; Berlin: 1.63 gr., 1.66 gr.; ANS: 1.73 gr. (Plate XV); BM: (57–9–1–14. IGP) 1.59 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1209) 1.62 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1930.314) 1.65 gr.; Oslo: 1.54 gr.; Vienna: 1.34 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

Italy

PAVIA

445. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +PAPIA. City gate. Denarius.

Prou 900, 901; Gariel XVIII, 98 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI IV, p. 469, 1, 2; Gariel Coll., 748; Meyer Coll., 188; Bordeaux Coll., 209; Ratto Dec. 1930, 2523; Théry Coll., 35.

Paris: 1.44 gr., 1.34 gr.; Berlin: 1.14 gr., 1.72 gr. (Plate XV); Munich: 1.62 gr.; Papadopoli: (136) 1.78 gr.

Find: Brioux.

446. Obv.: HLVDOVVICI. Bust to right.

Rev.: +PAPIA. City gate. Obolus.

Gariel LXI, 15 (Annuaire de la Sociééti de numismatique, 1867, p. 141). CNI IV, p. 469, 3 (as denarius); Gariel Coll., 1335.

Berlin: 1.1o gr. (Plate XVI).

447. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: PAPIA, in one line. Denarius. Prou 902, 903 (var. with PVPIV); Gariel XVII, 95 (Gariel Coll.), 96 (Gariel Coll., var. with PHPIH). BMS 41, 42.

CNI IV, p. 469f., 5–8; Cahn Dec. 1922, 518, 1.80 gr.; Cahn Oct. 1929, 1.52 gr.; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1526, 1527, 1529; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1949, 468; Ménz. u. Med. June 1951, 430; Lockett Coll., 332; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 681, 1.81 gr.; Kress Nov. 1966, 1466.

Paris: 1.71 gr., 1.70 gr.; Berlin: 1.59 gr., 1.86 gr.; ANS: 1.71 gr., 1.78 gr., 1.91 gr. (Plate XVI); BM: (57–9–1–20-IGP) 1.73 gr., (SSB–101–47) 1.77 gr.; Brussels: 1.69 gr.; Grierson: 1.73 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17633) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17632) 1.50 gr.; Munich: 1.67 gr.; Papadopoli: (138) 1.43 gr., (139) 1.80 gr., (137) 1.85 gr.; Vienna: 1.51 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

448. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: PAPIA/CIVITA. Denarius.

Gariel XVIII, 97 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI IV, p. 470, 9, 10.

Berlin: 1.84 gr. (Plate XVI).

Find: Veuillin.

MILAN

449. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVC. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +MEDIOLANVM. Temple. Denarius.

Prou 907, 908; Gariel XVII, 82 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 43.

CNI V, pp. 6f., 1–10; Gariel Coll., 737; Meyer Coll., 186; Hamburger Jan. 1902, 2493; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1297.

Paris: 1.68 gr., 1.37 gr.; Berlin: 1.66 gr., 1.67 gr. (Plate XVI);

BM: (SSB–100–36, var. MEDIOLANVN) 1.78 gr.; Papadopoli: (140) 1.58 gr.; Stuttgart: (2V8497) 1.70 gr.

450. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MEDIOLANVM. Temple. Denarius.

Gariel XVII, 81 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI V, p. 7, 11.

Berlin: 1.81 gr.

451. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: MEDIO/é/LANVM. Denarius. Prou 909; Gariel XVII, 80 (Gariel Coll., var., lacking reverse dot); BMS 44. 45.

CNI V, p. 9, 12–25; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 33; Cahn April 1929, 13; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1298, 1299, 1300; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 680, gr.; Kress Oct. 1960, 1389; R. G. Nascia Oct. 1965, 263.

Paris: 1.78 gr.; Berlin: 1.66 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.75 gr. (Plate XVI); ANS: 1.74 gr.; BM: (1908–10–11–505-Lincoln) 1.62 gr., (57–9–1–17–IGP) 1.56 gr.; Grierson: 1.71 gr.; Papadopoli: (142) 1.35 gr., (143) 1.58 gr., (141) 1.67 gr.; Stuttgart: (2V8498) 1.70 gr.; Vienna: 1.81 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

TREVISO

452. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: +TARVISIVM. City gate. Denarius.

RBN 1896, p. 395 (Now Frére Coll.); CNI VI, p. 229, 1.

RBN: 1.60 gr. (Plate XVI).

453. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: TARVI/SIVM. Denarius.

Prou 913, 914; Gariel XIX, 138 (Gariel Coll.), 139 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI VI, p. 229, nos. 2–7; Hess June 1888, 49; Rosenberg Nov. 1904, 29; Schulman 1931, 102; Ménz. u. Med. July 1955, 500.

Paris: 1.90 gr., 1.51 gr.; Berlin: 1.77 gr., 1.78 gr.; ANS: 1.65 gr. (Plate XVI); The Hague: (Inv. 17644) 1.70 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet.

LUCCA

454. Obv.: +HLVDOVéVICVSIMPé Cross.

Rev.: LVCA, in one line. Denarius.

Gariel XVI, 63 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 720.

Berlin: 1.68 gr. (Plate XVI).

Find: Belvézet.

VENICE

455. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +VENE/CIASMO/NETA. Denarius.

Gariel XIX, 143 (Gariel Coll.).

CNI VII, pl. I, 1; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 43; Santamaria Nov. 1913, 3928; Ménz. u. Med. June 1951, 448. The specimens which appeared in the trade are forgeries, cf. P. Grierson, ANSCent. Publ., pl. 19, 5.

Berlin: 1.20 gr. (Plate XVI).

Find: Veuillin.

456. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +VEN/ECIAS. Denarius. Prou 917, 918; Gariel XIX, 140 (Gariel Coll.), 141 (Veuillin find); BMS 46, 47.

CNI VII, pp. 2–6, 1–41 (var.); Rousseau Coll., 359; Cahn April 1912, 10; Cahn Dec. 1922, 519, 1.70 gr.; Cahn March 1926, 26; Cahn Oct. 1929, 896 1.30 gr.; Ménzhandl. Basel Dec. 1925, 15; Helbing Oct. 1932, 892; Helbing Oct. 1933, 1563, 1565; Ménz. u. Med. Dec. 1957, 682, 1.38 gr.; Ménz. u. Med. Nov. 1963, 541; Ménz. u. Med. Pricelist Dec. 1966, 166. Paris: 1.39 gr., 1.65 gr.; Berlin: 1.33 gr., 1.40 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.84 gr. (Plate XVI); ANS: 1.35 gr.; Blunt: 1.43 gr.; BM: (SSB–114–1) 1.63 gr., (47—11—8—1429–K) 1.37 gr.; Brussels: 1.57 gr.; Garrett: (6126) 1.45 gr.; Grierson: 1.50 gr.; The Hague: 0.80 gr. (fragment), (Inv. 17638) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17639) 1.40 gr.; Munich: 1.57 gr., 1.58 gr.; Oslo: 1.71 gr.; Stuttgart: (2V7741) 1.52 gr.; Vienna: 1.70 gr.

Find: Veuillin; Belvézet; Hermenches; Dorestadt (1846) ?; Ide; Regensburg; Boppard; Neumiinster-Grotenkamp; Aachen (1929); Schowen.

457. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: +VEN/é/ECIAS. Denarius.

Prou 919, 920; BMS 48.

Paris: 1.65 gr., 1.39 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–13–IGP, forgery) 1.40 gr., (1906– 11–3–3585–Parkes Weber Gift) 1.37 gr.

Find: Schowen.

458. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP.:. Cross.

Rev.: +VEN/ECIAS. Denarius.

Gariel XIX, 142 (Veuillin find); BMS 49.

BM: (SSB–114–1) 1.48 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

Indeterminate Mints

FIRST PERIOD

459. Obv.: hLV/DVIh, with three dots between the lines.

Rev.: AR-ĀNIS. Cross. Denarius.

Gariel XIV, 1 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 677; Hamburger Nov. 1912, 24 (broken and unsold).

Berlin: 1.20 gr., 1.23 gr.

460. Obv.: hLV/OVIh, with one bar above the monogram and a second bar beneath it.

Rev.: BET/o/C. Denarius.

Bulletin de la Société franéaise de numismatique, June 1955, p. 324.

Paris: 1.17 gr. (Plate XVI).

461. Obv.: hL•U/•DUIh•

Engel and Serrure, I, p. 232; Nébbe, no. 69.

Schloss Gotthorp: 1.02 gr. (Plate XVI).

Find: Krinkberg.

SECOND PERIOD

462. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP• Cross.

Rev.: ALDVN/HEIM. Denarius.

Gariel XV, 34 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 691; Schulman June 1961, 156; Théry Coll., 28.

Berlin: 1.78 gr.

Find: Veuillin.

463. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross.

Rev.: ALA/BOTES/HAIN. Denarius.

Gariel XIV, 20 (Brussels), 21 (Brussels).

Berlin: 1.34 1.58 gr.; Brussels: 1.45 gr., 1.78 gr.

464. Obv.: +IVDOVVISREX. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: AQVI/NAT, with a row of dots between the lines. Obolus.

Gariel, XIV, 3.

465. Obv.: HLVDOVICVSIMP. Bust to right, degenerate.

Rev.: LEDCIl/VISTA. Obolus.

Gariel XVI, 62 (Gariel Coll.).

Gariel Coll., 719.

466. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +PISTIANAREI. Cross with one dot in one corner. Obolus.

Gariel XX, 148 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 0.71 gr. (Plate XVII).

467. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +PISTIANARI. Cross with one dot in one corner. Obolus.

Gariel XX, 149 (Voillemier Coll.).

468. Obv.: LVDO/VVIC.

Rev.: +RIANAELIIO. Cross. Obolus.

Gariel XX, 150 (Combrouse, pl. XVIII, 10).

469. Obv.: HLVDOVVICVSIMPAVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple. Denarius.

Prou 984, 985, 986; Gariel XLIII, 1 (Brussels), 2 (Gariel Coll. and the stock of Hoffmann); BMS 50.

CNI V, p. 20, 47; Meyer Coll., 182; Cahn Dec. 1932, 1252; Rosenberg Dec. 1932, 2; Lockett Coll., 325.

Paris: 1.68 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.57 gr.; Berlin: 1.42 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.66 gr., 1.72 gr., 1.77 gr. (Plate XVII); BM: (SSB–127–23) 1.64 gr.; Brussels: 1.50 gr., 1.51 gr., (Inv. 51) 1.65 gr., 1.76 gr., (Inv. 50) 1.84 gr. (gilded); Grierson: 1.69 gr.; Papadopoli: (163) 1.20 gr.

Find: "Frisia (1853)."

470. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSINPAVG. Bust.

Rev.: [Presumably XPISTIANARELIGIO.] Temple. Ꜹ Genuine ? J. de S. Quintino, "Notice sur les monnaies des princes de Saleme," RN 1841, p. 56.

RN :3.44 gr.

471. Obv.: ODOVVISVIMPVG. Bust, laureate and draped, to right.

Rev.: XPISTIANAREICIO. Temple. Obolus.

Berlin: 0.64 gr. (Plate XVII).

Find: Lauzés, 0.51 gr.

472. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple. Denarius.

Prou 987–1004, 1006–1017, 1026–1032, 1034–1041; Gariel XLIII, 3, 6–8, 14; BMS 51–73.

Paris: 1.67 gr., 1.57 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.52 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.52 gr., 1.46 gr., 1.43 gr., 1.86 gr., 1.36 gr., 1.44 gr., 1.60 gr., r.72 gr., 1.78 gr., 1.57 gr., gr., 1.40 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.50 gr.,1.70 gr., 1.57 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.48 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.16 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.50 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.47 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.27 gr., 1.06 gr., 1.41 gr., 1.23 gr., 1.15 gr., 1.36 gr., 1.24 gr.; Berlin: 0.75 gr., 0.90 gr., 0.96 gr., 1.02 gr., 1.03 gr., 1.09 gr., 1.13 gr., 1.14 gr., 1.17 gr., 1.19 gr., 1.19 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.28 gr., 1.39 gr., 1.44 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.50 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.57 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.61 gr.. 1.61 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.66 gr., 1.67 gr., 1.68 gr., 1.68 gr., 1.69 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.71 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.74 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.79 gr.; ANS: 1.20 gr., 1.21 gr., 1.31 gr., 1.35 gr., 1.40 gr.,1.49 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.68 gr., 1.68 gr., 1.81 gr. (Plate XVII); Assen Museum: (M1855/1935–9–A–15)–, (M1872–6C)–, (M1887–26) —, (—) 0.99 gr., (M1872—5) 1.09 gr., (M1872—5) 1.09 gr., (M1872—199) 1.13 gr., (M1872–5) 1.16 gr., (M1872–5) 1.18 gr., (M1872–5) 1.18 gr., (M1872–5) 1.18 gr., (M1872—22) 1.19 gr., (M1872—5) 1.21 gr., (M1872—5) 1.21 gr., (M1872-5) 1.22 gr., (M1872–5) 1.22 gr., (M1872–5) 1.23 gr., (M1872–5) 1.27 gr., (M1872–18) 1.28 gr., (M1870–2f) 1.29 gr., (M1872—5) 1.29 gr., (Ide) 1.30 gr., (M1872–5) 1.20 gr., (M1872–5) 1.31 gr., (M1872–5) 1.31 gr., (M1872–5) 1.32 gr., (M1872—5d) 1.32 gr., (M1872–5) 1.32 gr., (M1870–E) 1.32 gr., (M1872–5) 1.33 gr., (Ide) 1.33 gr., (M1872–17) 1.34 gr., (M1872–5) 1.34 gr., (Ide) 1.34 gr., (M1870–2) 1.35 gr., (M1872–5) 1.35 gr., (M1872–5) 1.36 gr., (M1872–5) 1.36 gr., (M1872–5) 1.36 gr., (Ide) 1.36 gr., (M1870–F) 1.37 gr., (M1870–A) 1.38 gr., (M1870–2a) 1.39 gr., (Ide) 1.39 gr., (M1872–5f) 1.40 gr., (M1872–5) 1.40 gr., (M1872–5) 1.40 gr., (M1872–5) 1.40 gr., (M1870–D) 1.40 gr., (M1872–5) 1.41 gr., (M1872—6f) 1.41 gr., (M1872—5f) 1.42 gr., (M1872—5) 1.42 gr., (Ide) 1.42 gr., (Ide) 1.42 gr., (M1872–5) 1.43 gr., (M1872–5) 1.43 gr., (M1872–18a) 1.43 gr., (M1872—24a) 1.44 gr., (M1872–5) 1.45 gr., (M1872–5) 1.45 gr.. (M1872—7a) 1.45 gr., (M1872–5) 1.45 gr., (M1872–5) 1.46 gr., (M1872–24) 1.48 gr., (Ide) 1.48 gr., (M1872–5) 1.50 gr., (M1872–5) 1.50 gr., (M1872–5) 1.49 gr., (Ide) 1.50 gr., (M1872–5) 1.51 gr., (M1872–5) 1.51 gr., (M1872–5) gr., (M1872-5) 1.51 gr., (MI872-5) 1.51 gr., (M1872–5) 1.52 gr., (M1872–5) 1.52 gr., (M1872—5) 1.52 gr., (M1892–3C) 1.52 gr., (M1872-5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.53 gr., (M1872–5) 1.54 gr., (M1872–5) 1.55 gr., (M1872—6d) 1.55 gr., (M1872–5) 1.57 gr., (M1872–5) 1.57 gr., (M1872–5) 1.57 gr. (M1872–5) 1.57 gr., (Ide) 1.57 gr., (M1872–5) 1.58 gr., (M1872–21) 1.58 gr., (M1872–6a) 1.58 gr., (M1872–5) 1.59 gr., (M1872–5) 1.60 gr., (M1872-5) 1.60 gr., (M1872–5) 1.60 gr., (M1872—6L) 1.61 gr., (M1872—5) 1.61 gr., (M1872—5) 1.61 gr., (M1872—7) 1.61 gr., (M1872—5) 1.61 gr., (M1872—5) 1.61 gr., (M1872-6g) 1.62 gr., (M1855/1935—9–A16) 1.62 gr., (Ide) 1.62 gr., (Ide) 1.62 gr., (M1872-5) 1.63 gr., (M1872–5) 1.63 gr., (M1872–5) 1.63 gr., (M1872–5h) 1.62 gr., (M1872-5) 1.63 gr., (M1872-5) 1.63 gr., (M1872-5) 1.63 gr., (M1855/1955–9–A–14) 1.63 gr., (M1892–3C) 1.63 gr., (M1872–5) 1.64 gr., (M1872—4) 1.64 gr., (M1872—23) 1.64 gr., (M1872—5) 1.64 gr., (M1872—5) 1.65 gr., (M1872–5) 1.65 gr., (M1872–5) 1.65 gr., (Ide) 1.65 gr., (Ide) 1.65 gr., (M1872—5) 1.66 gr., (M1870–C) 1.67 gr., (M1870—2a) 1.67 gr., (M1872—5) 1.67 gr., (M1872—5) 1.67 gr., (M1870–C) 1.67 gr., (M1870–2a) 1.67 gr., (Ide) 1.67 gr., (M1872—5) 1.68 gr., (M1872—5) 1.68 gr., (M1872—5) 1.68 gr., (M1872–5) 1.68 gr., (M1872–5) 1.69 gr., (M1872–5) 1.69 gr., (M1872—2g) 1.69 gr., (M1872—2g) 1.69 gr., (M1872—5) 1.69 gr., (M1872—5) 1.69 gr., (M1872—5) 1.70 gr., (M1870–2b) 1.70 gr., (M1872—5) 1.70 gr., (M1872–5) 1.70 gr., (M1872–5) 1.71 gr., (M1872–5) 1.71 gr., (M1872–5b) 1.72 gr., (M1872–5C) 1.73 gr., (M1872-5) 1.74 gr., (M1872–5) 1.74 gr., (M1872—5) 1.74 gr., (M1872—6) 1.74 gr., (M1872—5a) 1.77 gr.; Blunt: 1.37 gr., 1.39 gr. 1.50 gr. 1.62 gr.; Bodleian; Ashmolean: (3 specimens); BM: 1.58 gr. (George III), 1.56 gr. (292–T–33), 1.70 gr. (296–T–25), 1.05 gr. (298–T–37), 1.59 gr. (299–T–38), 1.72 gr. (SSB–124–44), 1.85 (SSB–127–20), 1.39 gr. (SSB–127–20), 1.37 gr. (SSB–127–20), 1.64 gr. (40–3–14–174–Gravesend), 1.15 gr. (41–11–23–3–fragment), 1.54 gr. (47–2–15–25–E), 1.70 gr. (48–4–19–247–E), 1.32 gr. (57–9–1–10–IGP) 1.61 gr. (57–9–1–11–IGP), 0.97 gr. (57–9–1–51–IGP), 1.70 gr. (1908–10–11–506), 1.69 gr. (1908–10–11–507—Lincoln), 1.33 gr. (1909–10–667— Spink), 1.07 gr. (1909–10–6–8–Spink), 1.52 gr. (1915–5–7–331–Morgan [Evans]), 1.72 gr. (1920–9–7–1124–Hasluk Bequest); Brussels: 0.77 gr., 0.95 gr., 0.95 gr., 1.10 gr., 1.15 gr., 1.18 gr., 1.24 gr., 1.26 gr., 1.30 gr., 1.32 gr., 1.32 gr., 1.32 gr. 1.40 gr., 1.43 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.47 gr., 1.47 gr., 1.48 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.50 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.56 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.59 gr., 1-59 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.72 gr., 1.72 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.73 gr., 1.76 gr., 1.81 gr.; Copenhagen: (T. 1282) 0.84 gr., (K. P. 785) 0.91 gr., (G. P. 1392) 1.14 gr., (T. 1217) 1.24 gr., (Devegge no. 11) 1.30 gr., (T. 1219) 1.41 gr., (T. 1281) 1.47 gr., (K. P. 848) 1.50 gr., (F. P. 688) 1.51 gr., (T. 1222) 1.51 gr., (T. 1221) 1.52 gr., (T. 1218) 1.59 gr., (Devegge no. 12) 1.66 gr., (2/holm–243, F. P. 128) 1.69 gr., (K. P. 1296) 1.72 gr., (K. P. 1324) 1.94 gr.; Frankfurt a.M.: 1.39 gr.; Musée Frison: 986 (Y4680), 987 (Y4681), 988 (Y4682), 989 (Y4683), 990 (Y4684), 991 (Y4685), 992 (Y4686), 993 (Y4687), 994 (Y4688), 995 (Y4689), 996 (Y4690), 997 (Y4691), 998 (Y4692), 997 (Y6491), 998 (Y4692), 999 (Y4692), 1000 (Y4694), 1001 (Y4695), 1002 (Y4696), 1003 (Y4697), 1004 (Y4698), 1005 (Y4692), 1006 (Y4700), 1007 (Y4702), 1008 (Y4701), 1009 (Y4703), 1011 (Y4705), X012 (Y4706), 1013 (Y4707), 1014 (Y4708), 1015 (Y4709), 1016 (Y4710), 1017 (Y6035), 1018 (Y6036), 1019 (Y6037); Grierson: 1.26 gr. (damaged), 1.36 gr. (damaged), 1.41 gr., 1.45 gr., 1.48 gr., 1.56 gr., 1.56 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.67 gr., 1.82 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17670) 1.70 gr., (Inv. 17716) 0.80 gr., (563) 0.92 gr., (594) 0.94 gr., (578) 0.98 gr., (Inv. 1931:279) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17669) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17672) 1.00 gr., (Inv. 17706) 1.05 gr., (584) 1.07 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.09 gr., (580) 1.10 gr., (Inv. 17692) 1.10 gr., (565) 1.13 gr., (Inv. 17701) 1.15 gr., (Inv. 17725) 1.15 gr., (569) 1.17 gr., (Inv. 17684) 1.20 gr., (Inv. 17674) 1.20 gr., (Inv. 17709) 1.20 gr., (Inv. 17712) 1.20 gr., (595) 1.21 gr., (573) 1.21 gr., (596) 1.23 gr., (Inv. 17710) 1.25 gr., (Inv. 17711) 1.25 gr., (Inv. 17715) 1.25 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.29 gr., (560) 1.30 gr., (17666) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17677) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17694) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17708) 1.30 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.31 gr., (576) 1.32 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.33 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.35 gr., (1931: 285) 1.35 gr., (Inv. 17703) 1.35 gr., (Inv. 17707) 1.35 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.36 gr., (562) 1.38 gr., (589) 1.38 gr., (579) 1.39 gr., (572) 1.40 gr., (572) 1.40 gr., (17688) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 1931:282) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17679) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17691) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17697) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17699) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17700) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17702) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 17704) 1.40 gr., (565) 1.42 gr., (587) 1.42 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.42 gr., (586) 1.47 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.47 gr., (585) 1.48 gr., (568) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 177687) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17686) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 683) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 667) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17668) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17673) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17676) 1.50 gr., é(Inv. 17693) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17695) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17713) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17723) 1.50 gr., (Inv. 17725) 1.50 gr., (593) 1.51 gr., (Inv. 17671) 1.51 gr., (559) 1.53 gr., (571) 1.54 gr., (574) 1.54 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.57 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.57 gr., (561) 1.58 gr., (583) 1.58 gr., (566) 1.59 gr., (588) 1.59 gr., (278) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17681) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17682) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17696) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17688) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17661) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17665) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17675) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17680) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17690) 1.60 gr., (Inv. 17714) 1.60 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.61 gr., (Inv. 17717) 1.65 gr., (577) 1.67 gr., (Wagenbogen) 1.67 gr., (575) 1.69 gr., (278) 1.70 gr., (581) 1.70 gr., (Inv. 17678) 1.70 gr., (Inv. 17689) 1.70 gr., (Inv. 17726) 1.70 gr., (582) 1.94 gr., and numerous fragments; Hannover: (Inv. 1961) 1.31 gr., (KHg. Slg. Teves. 2) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 1961) 1.49 gr., (Inv. 1961) 1.54 gr., (Inv. 1961) 1.58 gr., (KHg. Slg. Teves. 2) 1.63 gr., (Inv. 1961) 1.66 gr.; Hermitage: 1.68 gr.; Munich: 1.06 gr., 1.08 gr., 1.22 gr., 1.40 gr., 1.41 gr., 1.41 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.61 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.65 gr., 1.74 gr., 1.75 gr., 1.75 gr.; Nelson: (53.114.1855); Oslo: 0.99 gr., 1.33 gr., 1.46 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.70 gr.; Trier: (Inv. 31.114) 1.44 gr.; Van Rede: (B1223) 1.17 gr., (B1231) 1.43 gr., (B1219) 1.44 gr., (B1230) 1.45 gr., (B1217) 1.47 gr., (B1229) 1.52 gr., (B1218) 1.53 gr., (B1221) 1.56 gr., (B1223) 1.57 gr., (B1222) 1.60 gr., (B1224) 1.60 gr., (B1220) 1.65 gr., (B1226) 1.65 gr., (B1225) 1.70 gr., (B1227) 1.76 gr.; Vatican: 1.30 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.70 gr., 1.79 gr.; Vienna: 1.24 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.63 gr., 1.70 gr.

Find: Belvézet, Dorestadt (1846); Hermenches; Barbentane; "Indre;" Thouars; "Frisia" (1853); Neuvi-au-Houlme; Oudwoude; Kimswerd-Pingjum I; Kimswerd-Pingjum II; Fontaines; Rijs; Ballon; Mullagh- boden; Achlum; Lauzés; Brioux; Zelzate; Cosne; Ide; Pilligerheck; Wagenbogen; Aggersborg; Iholm; Lerchenborg; Tolstrup; Birka; Gravesend; Talnotrie; Chamoux-Marcilly; Winsum (?); Aalsum; Emmen; Midlaren; Groningen; Loppersum; Muizon-lez-Malines; Bourgneuf; Roswinkel; Marsum; Evreux; Hoard of the Holy Family; Haute Isle; Assen; Epfach; Frankfurt a.M. (1857); Fulda; Haitabu (before 1924); Hohenaltheim; Hornburg; Korvey; Mayen; Ramelsloh; Speyer; Stade; Arstad; Kaupang; Spangereid; Rimforsa; Salum; Croyden; Trewhiddle; Orsova; Worms; Aachen; Schowen; Søndre Bø.

473. Same as foregoing. Obolus.

Prou 1005, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024, 1033; BMS 74, 75.

Paris: 0.71 gr., 0.76 gr., 0.78 gr., 0.72 gr., 0.79 gr., 0.92 gr., 0.72 gr.; Berlin: 0.67 gr., 0.73 gr., 0.74 gr., 0.75 gr., 0.77 gr.; BM: (57–9–1–12 IGP) 0.73 gr., (SSB–127–40) 0.50 gr.; Brussels: 0.65 gr., 0.66 gr., 0.72 gr.; Grierson: 0.76 gr.; The Hague: (601) 0.65 gr.; Hannover: (Inv. 1930.170) 0.85 gr.; Holmes: 0.74 gr.; Munich: 0.59 gr., 0.70 gr.; Vatican: 0.85 gr.; Vienna: 0.72 gr.; Yale University (Plate XVII).

Find: Barbentane; Lauzés; Schowen.

474. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one cross beneath. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.10 gr., 1.33 gr.; La Chaussée.

475. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one cross at right. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.06 gr.

476. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one cross at each side. Denarius.

Gariel XLIII, 24 (Brussels).

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.34 gr., 1.71 gr.; Mullaghboden; Dorestadt (1845/6).

477. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one cross beneath and one dot at each side. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 0.87 gr.; La Chaussée.

478. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with crescent beneath.

Denarius. Gariel XLIII, 21 (Gariel Coll.), 22 (Brussels). 23.

Berlin: 1.44 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1855–2d) 1.34 gr., (M1872–8C) 1.36 gr., (M1872–8e) 1.36 gr., (M1855–2a) 1.38 gr., (M1855–2b) 1.38 gr., (M1872–8a) 1.44 gr., (M1872-8b) 1.60 gr., (M1855–2e) 1.63 gr., (M1855/ 1935–9–BL) 1.72 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17721) 0.75 gr., (Inv. 17720) 0.95 gr., (Inv. 1931:287) 1.15 gr., (Inv. 17664) 1.29 gr., 1.50 gr., (641) 1.57 gr., 1.57 gr., 1.68 gr.

Find: Kimswerd-Pingjum I; Ide; Emmen; Wagenbogen; Zelzate, 1.53 gr.; Pilligerheck, 1.26 gr., 1.43 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.56 gr., 1.78 gr.

479. Same as foregoing, with one dot at each side of the crescent. Denarius.

Brussels: 1.47 gr.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.08 gr.

480. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with o beneath. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.23 gr.

481. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with S beneath. Denarius. Prou 1018; Gariel XLIV, 28 (Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.43 gr.; Berlin: 1.39 gr., 1.51 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1872–14) 1.80 gr.; Brussels: 1.45 gr., 1.55 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17719) 1.20 gr., 1.52 gr., 1.62 gr.; Munich: 1.46 gr.

Find: Indre; Kimswerd-Pingjum I; Emmen; Ide; Wagenbogen; Pilligerheck, 1.31 gr., 1.40 gr., 1.41 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.59 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.64 gr., 1.67 gr., 1.74 gr.

482. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with chevron beneath lowest step. Denarius. Prou 1025; Gariel XLIV, 25 (Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.62 gr.; Berlin: 1.19 gr., 1.75 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1872–16) 1.67 gr.; Blunt: 1.37 gr. (damaged); Brussels: 1.59 gr., 1.68 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 1931.283) 1.65 gr. (Plate XVII).

Find: Kimswerd-Pingjum I; Zelzate, 1.40 gr., 1.47 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.60 gr.; Pilligerheck, 1.53 gr., 1.58 gr., 1.66 gr.; Bourgneuf; Emmen.

483. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot beneath. Denarius. Assen Museum: (1872-6a) 1.13 gr., (M1870-B) 1.13 gr., (M1872-1oa) 1.38 gr., (M1872-5) 1.59 gr., (M1872-10) 1.71 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 17718) 0.85 gr., (Inv. 17722) 1.25 gr., (Inv. 17659) 1.30 gr., (Inv. 17660) 1.40 gr., (Inv. 1931:286) 1.40 gr. (Plate XVII).

Find: Kimswerd-Pingjum I; Emmen; Zelzate, 1.42 gr.; Pilligerheck, 1.33 gr., 1.36 gr., 1.39 gr., 1.48 gr., 1.48 gr., 1.49 gr., 1.51 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.54 gr., 1.57 gr., 1.60 gr., 1.61 gr.

484. Withdrawn after the numbering system was fixed.

485. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot at right. Denarius. Assen Museum: (M1870-2h) 1.54 gr.; The Hague: (564) 1.30 gr.; Van Rede: (B1229) 1.52 gr.

Find: Roswinkel; Pilligerheck, 1.41 gr.

486. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot at right of temple and one beneath. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.39 gr., 1.63 gr.

487. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each of three corners and three dots triangularly arranged in the fourth.

Rev.: +PISTIANAREICIO. Temple with one dot at right. Denarius. Gariel XLIII, 12 (Gariel Coll.); BMS 76.

Berlin: 1.35 gr.; BM: (295–T–34) 1.30 gr.; The Hague: (564) 1.30 gr.

488. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot below and one dot at left. Denarius.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.43 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.50 gr.

489. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot at each side. Denarius.

Prou 1010; Gariel XLIII, 4 (Gariel Coll.).

Paris: 1.38 gr.; Berlin: 1.63 gr., and a copper forgery weighing 1.15 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1872–12/13); Brussels: 1.69 gr.; The Hague: (Inv. 1931:288) 1.25 gr.; Vatican: 1.40 gr.

Find: Pilligerheck, 1.41 gr., 1.53 gr., 1.55 gr., 1.62 gr., 1.67 gr.

490. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each corner.

Rev.: XPISTIANARELIGIO. Temple with one dot at each side and o beneath. Denarius. Gariel XLIII, 19 (Gariel Coll.).

Berlin: 1.57 gr.; Assen Museum: (M1870B) 1.65 gr., (M1872–13) 1.10 gr., (var. the o is a dot), (M1870–20) 1.65 gr. (same var.); Brussels: 1.40 gr.

Find: Roswinkel.

491. Obv.: +HLVDOVVICVSIMP. Cross with one dot in each of three corners and three dots triangularly arranged in the fourth.

Rev.: XPISTIANAREIICIO. Temple with one dot at each side and one beneath. Denarius.

Assen Museum: (1872–20) 1.33 gr.; Brussels: 1.31 gr.; The Hague: (17722) 1.25 gr.

Fin